Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Реферат по английскому языку по теме: "Австралия"

Реферат по английскому языку по теме: "Австралия"

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Ministry of Education

Secondary school № 21”





The abstract on a theme:

Australia or the Australian Union



Students 11A:

Lebedeva Regina

Goryachkina Natasha

English teacher:

Guseva I.G.




Yoshkar - Ola

2008

Content

1. The purposes………………………………………………………………р.3

2. The reasons to choice the theme………………………………………… р.4

3. The visit card of Australia …………….………………………………… р.5

4. Flag………………………………………………………………………. р.6

5. Gerb……………………………………………………………….………р.7

6. Hymn …………………………………………………………………… р.8

7. Australia. The territory……………………………………………............р.9

8. Australia’s Unique History ……………………………………….............р.11

9. Geographical situate………………………………………………………р.13

10. The climate of Australia ………………………………………................р.14

11. Cites of Australia……………………………………………...…………р.15

12. The population …………………………………………….…………….р.17

13. The animals of Australia ……………………………………..…………р.18

14. Undersea world ……………………………………………………… р.19

15. Sight ……………………………………………….…………….............р.20

16. Celebrate………………………………………………….…………… р.22

17. Sport…………………………………………………………………… р.23

18. The list of the used literature…………………………………………… р.24












The purposes

To raise interests to study of the English language as a means of intercultural dialogue; to expand a linguistic and social outlook; to develop research skills on means of a design technique.

























The reasons to choice the theme

  1. To expand an outlook about Australia;

  2. To study a nature, fauna and its features;

  3. To show sights of Australia and its origin;

  4. To develop and to strengthen knowledge;

  5. To raise an interest to foreign language;

  6. To check up the forces and abilities in creation of student's work





















1. The visit card of Australia

Capital-Canberra the general (common) information

Territory -7687 thousand sq.kms.

The official name of Australia -Australia Union, form of government –constitutional monarchy.

The chief of state is the English queen, which is represented by (with) the general-governor.

The population- 18 439 000 men

Time – Outstrips Moscow on 6-8 h.

Currency – 1 dollar- to 100 cents.

Official language – English.

Australia’s national day-on 26 January marks the date

National colour-In 1984 Australia officially adopted green and gold as its national colors.















2. The flag of Australia

The state flag of Australian Union is painted a blue colour. In the upper left there is a flag of Great Britain. It is a symbol of Australian Union to British Commonwealth of Nations. A blue colour of flag it is a symbol of ocean, around all side Australia. In the middle of flag there is an image of Constellation of a Southern Cross. The six stars on the territory Papua. Pentagonal star is symbolize a District of Canberra. The flag was taken in 1950 year.



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3. The state emblem of Australia

The state emblem of Australian Union is image in the view of shield. Having kept with twice side a Kangaroo and ostrich Emy. In the growing three of evkalipt the shield is divided on the six parts which consist from emblems a everyone states. The state of South Australia is introduced by bird of sorokonyt. The west Australia is introduced by swan. The state of Victoria is introduced by constellation with empiric crown, the state of Kingsland- blue Malt cross. The Lion is symbolizing the state of Tasmania; new Wells is introduced by crossom with gold star. In the supper part of gerb there is pentagonal star, six rin which symbolize six states. As for seven rin symbolize the District of Canberra. The gerb was taken in 1912 year.

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4. The national hymn

This is hymn was take on the social opinion. In the 1917 the Australian office of statistic spended tests. Who took part more 60 thousand citizen. And on 19 April in1980 the president Australia took states about national hymn.


Australians all let us rejoice,

For we are young and free;

We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil;

Our home is gift by sea;

Our land abounds in nature’s gifts

Of beauty rich and rare;

In history’s page, let every stage

Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains

Then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

Beneath our radiant Southern Cross

We will toil with hearts and hands;

To make this Commonwealth of ours

Renowned of all the lands;

For those who’ve come across the seas

We have boundless plains to share;

With courage let us all combine

To Advance Australia Fair.

In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.









5. Australia. The territory

Australia to be divided into 6 parts:

  • New South Wales

  • State Victoria

  • State Queensland

  • Western Australia

  • South Australia

  • Northern Territory.


New South Wales

New South Wales is Australia’s leading industrial state. Most people live along the east coast, and most of them are in Sydney. Sydney is also the largest city in Australia.


State Victoria

In Victoria most people live in the south. Melbourne is the capital of the state and the largest city. Sheep and wheat are the main products here. Citrous fruits, grapes, peaches and apricots are grown along the Murray River.

State Queensland

Queensland is Australia’s second largest state. Brisbane, its capital, is situated on the east coast. Queensland has long beautiful sandy beaches. Its coast is a popular place for holidaymakers


Western Australia

The state of Western Australia is dry and inhospitable expert the south-western corner of the state. Nearly all of the state’s farms, sheep stations and fruit gardens are situated there. The rest of the state is dry desert land with very few towns or lonely cattle stations.




South Australia

South Australia is the third largest state. Most of South Australia’s people, farms and industry are in the south-eastern of the state. Most of Australia is too dry for farming. Farming very much depends on irrigation or underground water.


Northern Territory

Northern Territory is the least populated and least developed part of Australia. Crocodiles still live in some of the swamps along the coast. Darwin is its capital and the only large settlement in the north. Alice Springs, generally called Alice or the Alice, is the only town in the south.


























6. Australia’s Unique History

Captain James Cook discovered Australia in 1770. He was sent to discover the huge that many people believed was south of the equator. He landed south of present day Sydney in New South Wales of England.

At this time England was having many social problems. Unemployment was high. Crime was one of the greatest problems. The government punished people by sending problems. The government punished people by sending them to prison. England’s solution to crowded prisons was to send prisoners to the far colonies. They could colonies and eventually earn their freedom. Therefore, in 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip commanded eleven ships to Australia. About 750 of the 1000 people on the ships were convicts. These first settlers were greeted by the Aborigines, the first inhabitants of Australia. There were an estimated 300,000 Aborigines living in Australia at that time.

Great Britain claimed all of Australia in 1827. In 1851 gold was discovered about 300km west of Sydney. People rushed to the gold field to find their fortunes. This attracted robber called bushrangers. Ned Kelly was a famous bushranger. He was a very clever outlaw.

In 1901 Australia became a nation within the British Empire under Queen Victoria’s rule. It was called the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia had a very limited constitution. Great Britain continued to make decisions regarding all of Australia’s foreign affairs.

In 1931 Australia gained independence from Great Britain.

The native make only insignificant percent (interest) of the population of Australia, and in the large cities – Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide they are simply lost on a background of hundreds other nationalities. Obviously, in Australia hardly have remained life, conducting a example in staff ( state) Southern Australia, are given up in the complete order of the natives, and extraneous can visit these places only under the special sanction.

However, as far as I known, in these territories the native live is quite modern, using automobiles, TV sets and guns. In mountains Grampians in 200 km from Melbourne there is a centre aborigine of culture in southeast territories of Australia the native were ruthlessly destroyed white colonist’s people in 19- beginning 20 of centuries. The native represents kangaroo in dance, throw boomerang.





























7. Geographical situated

The Commonwealth of Australia is a self- government federal state. It has got six states. It is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean. The area of this country has got 7,687,000 square kilometers. Australia is the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent. The Dutch were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In 1770 the English captain James Cook discovered the east cast of Australia. Nearly twenty million people live in Australia.

Australia is a continent, a country and an island all at the same time. It is the sixth largest country and the smallest continent in the world. Australia is located in the southern hemisphere. Australia is situated south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Australia is the world’s driest continent. Huge areas of land are so dry that they are uninhabited. There are rainforests in the north, snowfields in the south east, desert in the centre and fertile croplands in the south and south and south-west. Australia is also the flatted continent after Antarctica.
















8. The climate of Australia

Australia’s climate is dry and warm. Australia is situated in the southern hemisphere and that’s why thee is summer, when we have winter and there is winter, when we have summer. It is interesting to know that January is the hottest month in Australia.

Temperature. Melbourne enjoys four distinct seasons. Winter with cool nights; spring and autumn butted throughout the year. Water Temperatures: winter 10,5C , summer 21,5 C. January and February are the hottest month in Melbourne, with maximum temperatures reaching about 25 C.

Climate in Sydney:

Warm and temperate with sunshine most days of the year. Water temperatures: Summer 22,5 C, winter 18 C.

Since Australia is in the southern hemisphere, the seasons are the reverse of the those north of the equator. Sydney has a mild, sunny, Mediterranean climate. The wettest month is between April and June.




















9. Cites of Australia

Canberra

The capital of the country is Canberra. The city became the capital in 1927. Federal government works in Canberra in the government buildings. It is interesting to know that there are no industrial plants in Canberra. The population in Canberra is about 3000,000 people. Canberra is the home of Australia’s embassies from around the world. The centerpiece of the city is the new Parliament House which was opened in 1988. This is where Australia’s government meets. Canberra is also the “natural capital” and is within easy reach of some of Australia’s most spectacular countryside.

The air here is fresh and crisp. No wonder the people of Canberra love to spend their time outdoors!




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Sydney

Here we are Sydney, the largest and oldest city in Australia. Sydney is home to nearly four million people. Sydney’s population is mainly English in background, but more than a quarter of its esidents were born overseas! The main countries of origin are the UK and Ireland, New Zealand, Europe, former Eastern Bloc countries, Lebanon and South East Asia. Although English is the main language spoken, one in than English. Italian, Greek, Arabic/ Lebanese, Chinese and Spanish are the foreign language most commonly spoken. Tourists from all over the world are attracted by mate, and its impressive galleries, museums, architecture and parks.






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10. The population

Australia has a population of about 18 million people. 70 per cent of the population lives in its 10 largest cities. Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is not the biggest city. Sydney and Melbourne are much bigger. Australia is a multicultural society. People from about 2000 nations live there. The Aborigines, the Australian there. The Aborigines, the Australian naives, represent about 1.5 per cent of the population.


Характеристика религий в Австралии:


  • 53% христиане

  • 7% Индусы

  • 7% Буддисты

  • 28% Приверженцы другой религии

  • 2% мусульмане

  • 3% Иудаисты























11. The animals of Australia

Despite the variety and richness of its other animals, Australia’s strange, beautiful mammals are probably the continent’s most important ‘ambassadors’. From the unlikely egg-laying platypus and echidna to the marsupial koalas, possums and kangaroos, the continent’s mammals are symbols of the country. Australia boasts almost 50 different kinds of kangaroo and wallaby, ranging from tiny rat kangaroos to the great red, which can be over 2,5m. high and can weigh as much as 85kg. Some kangaroos are plant eaters, but certain other marsupials are carnivorous.

Australia’s best-known animals are the kangaroo, the koala and the dingo. There are 50 species of kangaroo. Some stand as tall as a man and some are as small as a cat. They can often be seen in many of the forests and parks. The koala is the best loved of all Australian animals. The koala lives on leaves alone. About 400 species of birds in Australia are found nowhere else in the world. There are 55 species of parrots in Australia. They are very colorful. The emu is the most inserting bird in Australia. It is big and cannot fly. The kangaroo and emu can be seen on Australia’s coat of arms. The kookaburra is another interesting Australia bird. It cannot sing, but laughs like a human!






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12. Underwater world

Opposite Other intriguing and colourful inhabitants of this unique underwater wonderland are the reef’s corals. There is an incredible variety growing along the Great Barrier Reef – 350 species, ranging in colour from bluish – grey to yellow to red. They can be divided into two broad categories: true reef corals are the ‘hard’ or ‘stony’ type that actually builds the reef – these include well-known formations such as ‘brain’ corals, with patterns that resemble the markings of a human brain, and ‘staghorns’ that protrude like the antlers of a deer.

Although this beautiful underwater world is best appreciated by scuba diving across its depth and mingling with the marine life, snorkeling also has its merits. Visitors who wish to stay dry are catered for, with glass bottomed boats, semi-submersible craft and underwater observatories providing a glimpse of this incredible submarine fairyland.

It looks really spectacular from the air, but the true magic of the Great Barrier Reef lies underneath the water’s surface. This remarkable submarine world is an extraordinary environment of vibrant movement and color, featuring around 1500 fish species, as well as sharks, turtles, manta rays and a variety of marine mammals.





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13. Sights

The Sydney Opera Theatre   — an outstanding architectural structure, world centre, where will be carried out премьерные displays in   various areas executorships of art. Having opened in   1973   to year, the Opera Theatre has risen in   one number with   by buildings having world meaning.


The national park Cacadu, located in   tropics on   north of Australia in   252   km to the east Darvina, is known for all world as treasure of culture and   of ecology.


12 Apostles

From coast of staff Victoria is possible to see 12   of rocks of the Apostles, as if worth on   the guard in   scenery of breakages and   of open ocean. These rocks were formed in   result тысячелетней of work of ocean. To   to our time was kept only 8   from   12   of the initial Apostles.


Uluru

This miracle in 450 km from Алис-Спрингс in of Central Australia is located. His sizes: 3,6 km - length, 2км-width, height   - 348 м, in a diameter 9,4km. Uluru changes the colour at various illumination, it is especial appreciably on rise and on sunset.

The Sydney Bridge, сооруженный in   1932   to year, gently named as a Hanger. It became a symbol of Australia for all worlds. The bridge was under construction at once from   of two coast. His length 1149   of meters, it weighs 52   800   of ton, in   it six millions заклепок, and   that it completely to recolor, it is required 272   000   of liters of a paint.


Luna Park just over the Harbor Bridge beside Milson’s Point, was once Australia’s most popular fun park.




Art Gallery of New South Wales

Exhibitions at the Art Gallery of New South Wales attract thousands every year. The Art Gallery of New South Wales is a large public art museum near the centre of Sydney. It has a collection of paintings, sculptures, drawings, photographs and artists’ prints.


The Macquarie Lighthouse

The Macquarie Lighthouse on Old South Head Road, the first lighthouse in Australia, is now fully automatic



Natural parks and entertainments

Kuranda– touristy village

Butterfly Sanctuary- reserve and museum of butterflies, which is in Kuranda.

National Park Daintree– Natural Park – reserve

Tjapukai – park of culture of the natives.










14. Celebrate

Celebratory and non – working days:

January 1 – New Year

January 26 – Day of Australia

March 6 - Day of work. It is marked in new Southern Wales

March 13 – Day of work. Staff (state) Victoria

March 20 – Day Canberra. Territory of federal capital

April – passionate Friday, Easter Monday

April 25 – Day of army

May1- May Day. Northern territory

May 1- day of work, Kingsland

June 5 – Day of the basis. Western Australia

June 12 – Birthday the queen. Everywhere, expert for Western Australia

October 2 – Day of work, everywhere, except for Victoria, Kingsland and Tasmania

December 25 – Christmas

December 26 – Day of declaration, Southern Australia

December 26 – Day of the declaration, Southern Australia













15. Sport

Extreme entertainments in Australia: In Australia there are infinite opportunities for extreme entertainments. The following list – example of some of them:

White water Rafting – the allow on плотах on the fast and dangerous moum\ntain rivers is widely submitted by the most various variants with all levels of complexity from 1 up to5.

Ocean Rafting – driving on large inflatable плотах at ocean.

Bungee – there is a large variety of kinds bungee – traditional jump downwards on верёвка, flight upwards sitting or in a horizontal rule (situation) and jumps( downwards by head and on the country, from below upwards) .

Canyoning –travel on canyons including elements скалолазания, including, overcoming водопадов, and also allow on the Mountain Rivers and descent (release) in пещеры.

Mouting biking –travel on mountain bicycles or on impassability.

Paragliding – flights with the help of special narrow parachute sliding in air flows (on one or with the instructor).

Abseiling – descent –release ) from rocks on cables.

Fly by wire – an opportunity to feel by the pilot of the high-speed plane. You put on glasses, glove, fasen belts and are sent in flight. The plane is reliable fixed on steel трос, therefore it( he ) will get of out of control. A direction and speed of flight you supervise.

Air Ballooning – rise on air sphere.




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The list of the used literature.

  • Happy English 3, T. klementieva, J. Shannon.

  • Australia – A continent revealed.

  • Sydney- city of sails

  • Opportunities, form 11 class

Internet - resource

http://travel.rin.ru

http://turizm.ru

http://battour.ru

http://toprunet.com

http://australia-week.ru

http://arhive.travel.ru/australia/cities




Краткое описание документа:

Считается, что северные берега Австралии первым увидел голландский мореплаватель Виллем Янсон в начале 17 века. Однако есть сведения, что его все же опередили португальские моряки. В 1770г. Английский мореплаватель  Джеймс Кук открыл восточный берег Австралии. Кук объявил, что открытие принадлежит Великобритании, и назвал её Новый Южный Уэльс.  К 18 веку Великобритания потеряла свои колонии в Северной Америке, и ей потребовались новые земли. К тому уже английские тюрьмы были переполнены осуждёнными, которые некуда было ссылать… . На далекий материк первый корабль со ссыльными ушел из Англии в мае 1787 году. Первое каторжное поселение назвали Сиднеем. Режим там был очень жестокий. За малейший проступок следовало наказание плетьми, за серьезные проступки и неподчинение властям – казнь через повешение.

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