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Реферат по теме:Sisters-Cities: Common Problems Common Success.

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Автореферат исследовательского проекта.

Автор: Костенкова Анна Михайловна

МОУСОШ №50 г. Нижний Тагил, Свердловская обл.

Тема исследовательского проекта: Н. Тагил и Чаттануга: общие проблемы, общий успех.

Направление: Человек и общество

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Contents

Looking through the calendar you can find out that we have one or another holiday every Sunday. One of such holidays is the Day of Sisters-Cities (twin towns) which we celebrate on April 25. It was established 41 years ago by the initiative of World Federation of sisters-cities.

As world non-governmental organization it was founded in Paris in 1957. The first agreements were concluded in 1942 between Stalingrad and Coventry, the towns destroyed by the war.

Now this organization unites 3,500 towns and more than 160 countries. Our town has four sisters-cities: Heb, Chattanooga, Krivoy Rog and Brest.

The theme of our project is actual because every city and town has such problems as ecological, social, economical. They try to solve them in their own way. Their solutions may be unique. We proved it investigating the development of the relations of two sisters-cities N-Tagil and Chattanooga. United towns may have more successful results.

We’d like to describe the relation of two sisters-cities: N. Tagil and Chattanooga. We consider that the theme of our project is actual. Both towns were the dirtiest in their countries. They had a lot of problems in social, ecological and economical spheres. The ways now they solved them were interesting now and actual.

That’s why we chose the theme: Sisters-Cities: Common problems, common success.

The aim of the project is to determine common ways in solving ecological problems of sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga

For reaching the aim we put the following tasks:

  1. To study the literature on the theme.

  2. To investigate the problems in the ecology of culture, environment and man in sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

  3. To work out the project “School yard”, which would correspond the tasks of saving nature and culture.

  4. To create a video guide about cultural and historical sights of sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

Studying the literature we found and that the idea to enter into friendly relations between N. Tagil and the town from the USA was born in the process of the realization of joint Russian-American Project in the field of the protection of the environment the rational using natural resources of N. Tagil (1994-2000).

We found out that Chattanooga, the fourth largest city in the state, is located in the Southeast Tennessee near the border of Georgia at the junction of four interstate highways. The city has received national recognition for the renaissance of its beautiful downtown and redevelopment of its riverfront. The city boasts the most productive affordable housing programme in the nation and is notable for leveraging development funds through effective public/private partnerships, with significant civic involvement on the part of private foundations. Chattanooga was one of the first US cities to effectively use a citizen visioning process to set specific long-range goals to enrich the lives of residents and visitors.

We got acquainted with the history of Chattanooga and the ways which citizens chose to improve the situation the literature and learnt that in 1996 American Congress displayed the initiative to assist Russia to solve environmental problems Russian Ministry suggests N. Tagil. The coordinator of the project was Con-Marsh.

A special federal programme has been worked out. A new Russian-American project was sighed in 2000 and thanks to it the society “Clean House” appeared.

International cooperation of N. Tagil with state and public organizations was very active during the period of realization of joined Russian American project in the field of the environment. Russian-American project has become the result of work of the Commission, created by B. Eltzin and Clinton in 1993. At first the work of Russian-American cooperation concentrated on such areas as: cosmos, energy and high technologies. Then the Commission expanded its sphere of activity including the questions of health and ecology. N-Tagil was chosen as a city having serious ecological problems and situated in the dirtiest regions of Russia.

This joined work of both countries gave good results. Only few years ago N. Tagil was in a dozen of Russia’s dirtiest towns. Now it is among the 35 towns. The percentage of waste info the aim is decreasing. New common ways in solving problems have been created.

The most important thing of the work was that people of both towns were initiators of most projects.

Pupils of our school can’t stay aside of ecological problems. We do our best to improve the situation in front of our school and inside it. The result of our work is the project “School yard” which corresponds the tasks of saving nature and culture.

We presented a project of a new school yard. The school will be surrounded by bushes. The yard will be divided into 4 sections. In one section you will see a play ground for small children with a merry-go-round, benches and flower-beds. Children can play, jump and rest here. To the left of it will be a place where students will play basketball. Behind the playground will be a football field. We would like to see a good sports ground for our students with deferent sport equipments. Here we’ll train for our tourist and sport competitions.

We created a video guide about the renovated cultural and historical sights of both towns. Creating our guide we wanted to tell about the culture of N. Tagil and Chattanooga. We showed the sights which were created in Chattanooga and restored in N. Tagil during the cooperation of our towns and many other interesting places.

Russian-American projects gave a lot to sister-cities. Long and distinguished cooperation between the organization “Clean House” and the Institute of Stable Association and the administration of our town found its continuation in the project “Green future of N. Tagil”. It started in spring of 2000. The idea of this project was to show our administration and citizens a new complex approach to the ecological situation and to solve the problem of planting trees and shrubs and to improve the town. The aim was to create the so-called “green corridor”. The “green corridor” is a system of territories, situated along town ponds: new and old parks, sugars, historical sights, sports grounds and places for social programmers and places where our citizens and guests can have a rest.

The Fund of Russian – American project was created in 1996. The main aim was to support taut practical measures in solving ecological problems and to improve the state of the citizens’ health by financing the projects which won in the competition. Financial supporting was given by the USA Agency USEPA and ISL helped to organize the work.

It may be used at English lessons showing the beauty and culture of our towns.

Working on the project we used the materials from scientific literature and the information from web-sites, devoted to the ecological and social problems of N. Tagil and Chattanooga.


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Contents




























Introduction


Looking through the calendar we found out that we have one or another holiday every Sunday. One of such holidays is Day of Sisters-Cities (twin towns) which we celebrate on April 25. It was established 41 years ago by the initiative of World Federation of sisters-cities.

As world non-governmental organization it was founded in Paris in 1957. The first agreements were concluded in 1942 between Stalingrad and Coventry, the towns destroyed by the war.

Now this organization unites 3,500 towns and more then 160 countries. Our town has four sisters-cities: Heb, Chattanooga, Krivoy Rog and Brest.

We consider that our project is actual because every city and town has problems in ecological, social, economical spheres. They try to solve them in their own way. Their solutions may be unique. We proved it investigating the development of the relations of two sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga. United towns may have more successful results. The most interesting system of human and economical connections has been formed.

The cities exchanged delegations, hold joint conferences and meeting on different problems, exchanged children delegations.

We can name many different forms which were worked out.

Tagil is a very friendly town and can’t live without sister-cities. We want to be useful to each other and out cultural, connections and morality wealth will help our spiritual rebirth.


The theme of our work is Sisters-Cities: Common Problems Common Success.


The aim is to determine common ways in solving ecological problems in sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.


The tasks are:

  1. To study the literature on the theme.

  2. To study the problems in the ecology of culture, environment and man in sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

  3. To work out the project “School yard”, which would correspond the tasks of saving nature and culture.

  4. To create a video guide about cultural and historical sights of sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.


The object – the system of cooperation of sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga in solving ecological problems.


The subject – the process of solving of ecological problems (the ecology of the environment, man and culture) in sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.


Hypothesis – if people of different countries solve common problems together they will have more successful results.


We studied the following problems:

  1. The ecology of the environment.

  2. The ecology of a man.

  3. The ecology of culture.


We used the following methods:

  1. The analysis of the ecological situation in N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

  2. Observation.

  3. Comparing analysis of the development of ecological situation in N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

  4. The creation of the project of a new school yard and video quite about cultural and historical sights of N. Tagil and Chattanooga.







1. Common problems of sisters-cities


Investigating the problems we found out that the idea to enter into friendly relations between N. Tagil and the town from the United States was born in the process of the realization of joint Russian-American Project in the field of the protection of the environment and the rational using of natural resources of N. Tagil (1994 – 2000). Americans suggested the town Chattanooga from Tennessee. This town in the 1960-s was like ours. It was industrialized and had a lot of problems connected with the pollution of the environment, people’s health. By the beginning of 1980, ecological problems had been successfully solved. Chattanooga turned from one of the dirtiest towns of the USA into a model town which realized the programme of stable development successfully. [1]

Making comparing analysis we revealed that now 31% of the economy of the town consists of service sphere, 21% belongs to the trade and less than 23% takes industry.

The administration and people of Chattanooga were ready to share their experience of solving ecological and economical problems with our people and in December 1995 they sent a letter to the Mayor of N. Tagil with the suggestion of cooperation. The administration of our town in their turn wanted to use this experience and to change the direction of the development of our town, make the future of our people ecologically clean and healthy, to develop friendship between inhabitants of our towns.

In 1996 the town administration signed official treaty of friendship and cooperation. In June the delegation from N. Tagil visited Chattanooga. Since that time the delegations from our town have visited Chattanooga twice: in September 1996 and in September 2000. The delegations consisted of representatives from industrial plants, teachers, scientists and ecologists. [2]

Friendly relations have been established between Readers’ Association of the state Tennessee and the Central Children Library, between the pupils of ‘School of the 21st century’ studying the Russian language and school number 5.

Our delegation stayed with American families to learn the usual life of inhabitants, to tell them about the life in Russia and our town. As a result, they became pen friends.

The Association of sisters-cities is responsible for the relations between our towns in Chattanooga. In Tagil it is the department of foreign economic affairs of Administration of our town and public organization “Clean House». Chattanooga is situated in the south-eastern part of the USA. More than 400,000 people live there. There are chemical and timber industrial plants there. It is very much like N. Tagil. [2]

In 1996 American Congress displayed the initiative to assist Russia to solve environmental problems. Russian Ministry suggested N. Tagil. A lot of industrial enterprises are concentrated here. Their wastes pollute the environment and tell on people’s health. We can say that N. Tagil is the town of great ecological situation.

According to the project of cooperation there were a number of trends such as to strengthen organizations which fight for protection of nature, to attract public attention, ecological education.

The coordinator of the project was Can Marsh. [2]

In 2000 a new Russian-American project “Green Future of N. Tagil was signed. It was created by the initiative of Tagil administration and the society “Clean House”. This idea was supported by the institute of Stable Associations.

Within this project a conception of creating “green corridor” was worked out in N. Tagil to protect the environment and people’s health. “Green corridor” must present the system of natural zones joint with each other including new parks, squares, historical and natural sights, places for mass meeting, measures, sport activities. [4]

The question about the creation of “green corridor” was discussed at the ecological conference devoted to the results of ecological work in N. Tagil in 2000. Teachers, engineers, ecologists, administration of N. Tagil took part in it.

We think that thanks to this cooperation we improved the analysis of factors affecting people’s health. New methods of the collecting of the information of sources of the air pollution were created. [3]

In 2003 a group of our citizens joined by the idea to protect the environment from pollution visited the town Chattanooga in the USA. That journey was part of the project called the Opened World. It was organized by the US Congress and world organization of sisters-cities.

The delegates wanted to see how environmental problems were being solved in the USA. They were tired of smoke and dirty town. Now Chattanooga had become one of the cleanest cities in the USA. [2]

1.1 From the history of Chattanooga

We clarified that the name “Chattanooga” came from the Greek Indian word for “rock coming to a point”. This refers to Lookout Mountain which begins in Chattanooga and stretches 88 miles through Alabama and Georgia.

The city itself started out with two different names: Ross’s Landing and Lookout City. [4]

Ross’s Landing was established in 1816 by John Ross, Chief of Cherokee Indians. The area consisted of a ferry, warehouse and landing. With the organization of Hamilton County in 1819, Ross’s landing served not only the Cherokee trade but also as a convenient business center for the county. In 1838, the city officially took the name of Chattanooga. That same year, Cherokee parties left Ross’s landing for the West on what became known as the Trail of Tears. [10]

In addition to its important geographic location with the mountains and the river, Chattanooga was also a vital railroad center, with tracks leading from Atlanta to Nashville, from Memphis to Charleston, and from Knoxville to Virginia. With the rail center so strategically placed at the “Gateway to the Deep South”, Chattanooga’s nickname during the war, troops were able to not only transport supplies but also reinforcements. In addition, if the Union won here they would have an easy access to the Confederates’ “home turf”. Confederates retreat to Chickamauga, Georgia. Here, the bloodiest two-day battle of the entire Civil War was fought, with a staggering 37,000 casualties. The Confederates were first to regroup after the devastating Battle of Chickamauga, and they proceeded to lay siege for three months to the Union forces held up in Chattanooga. [11]

General Ulysses S. Grant was sent in after the Union’s defeat at Chickamauga to regain control of the Campaign. Under Grant’s leadership and with the help of Generals Thomas, Hooker and Sherman, the Union was able to win the following fire battles in the Campaign for Chattanooga.

Upon the Union’s victory at the final battle in the Campaign for Chattanooga, the Battle of Missionary Ridge, the gateway was opened allowing for Sherman’s famous march to Atlanta the following year. Shortly thereafter the war ended. [11]

In 1890, veterans from both the Union and the Confederacy came back to the Scenic City. They placed tablets and erected monuments in what became the nation’s first national military park. The Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park is still the largest of its kind in the nation with districts at the Chickamauga Battlefield, Point Park and Lookout Mountain Battlefield Missionary Ridge, Orchard Knob and Point. The Chattanooga National Cemetery was created in 1863, after the battles in the Campaign for Chattanooga, due to the enormous number of casualties at the Battle of Chickamauga. By 1865, more than 12,000 Union soldiers had been buried, about 5,000 unknown. The cemetery was officially designated as the first national cemetery in seven of Andrew’s Raiders, the first Medal of Honor recipients who were honored for their famous mission known as the “Great Locomotive Chase”.

The oldest surviving truss bridge of its size in the South was built in 1891. The Walnut Street Bridge became the first multiuse structure to span the Tennessee River, and for almost three decades it served as the only way to cross the river.

The Walnut Street Bridge served as a busy thoroughfare to the citizens of Chattanooga for many decades. Almost 100 years after its construction, the bridge was closed on the advice of engineers who feared its collapse. Committed citizens spoke out against its destruction, and the funds were then committed to preserve this historical landmark by turning it into a “walking bridge”. Today, the Walnut Street Bridge connects downtown Chattanooga to the north shore’s Coolidge Park and Frazier Avenue. [13]


1.2 The present of Chattanooga


We found out that Chattanooga, the fourth largest city in the state, is located in Southeast Tennessee near the border of Georgia at the junction of four interstate highways. The city has received national recognition for the renaissance of its beautiful downtown and redevelopment of its riverfront. The city boasts the most productive affordable housing program in the nation and is notable for leveraging development funds through effective public/private partnerships, with significant civic involvement on the part of private foundations. Chattanooga was one of the first US cities to effectively use a citizen visioning process to set specific long-range goals to enrich the lives of residents and visitors. [12]

The Chattanooga Convention and Trade Center is solidly booked by groups who return to the city year after year for a good time and a great facility that has recently has been expanded.

Public centers and private citizens worked together to build the 20,000 seat May Finley

Stadium completed in 1998. The city and county have developed an extensive greenway system which includes 5 miles of constructed river walk beginning downtown and meandering through the historic art district and several parks. The city supports a downtown shuttle fleet of zero-emission electric buses – manufactured here in Chattanooga – for commuters and visitors wishing to park-and-ride.

Attractions such as the Tennessee Aquarium, Lookout Mountain, Civil War battlefield sites, the African American Museum, and the Appalachian Trail bring thousands of people to the area, as to events like the River bend Festival, Bessie Smith Strut, Fall Color Cruise, the Creative Discovery Museum for Children, and the Southern Writers Conference. Chattanooga is the home of NCAA Division TAA national football championships and hosts the national softball championships every year.

People who love the out-of-doors use Chattanooga as a base for hang-gliding, bass fishing, mountain climbing and caving expeditions; the Verdant Smoky Mountains and Tennessee River Watershed support the greatest variety of flora of any area in the United States.

The local economy includes a diversified mix of manufacturing and service industries, four colleges, and several preparatory schools known throughout the South.

Sustainability” is a key concept for industry and government working together for enlightened development.

With its scenic beauty, stable population and economy, civic vitality and cross-sector partnerships, fiscal integrity, and strategic location, Chattanooga enters the 21st century as one of the most progressive and livable mid-size cities in the US. In this decade the city has won 3 national awards for outstanding “livability”, and 9 Gunter Blue Ribbon Awards for excellence in housing and consolidated planning. [10]

American city Chattanooga drew international attention by its achievement in the protection of the environment of the city. The main role belongs to the partnership of citizens.

They wanted to see their city nice and clean with beautiful parks, squares, gardens, new houses, restaurants, hotels. The city proved that it is possible to turn dust-heaps on the riverbank into elegant and new public places. Now people from all over the world come to admire the achievements in the field of protection of the environment.

Chattanooga had the dirtiest air in the country. People had to light the roads during the daytime, had to change shirts in the middle of the day. You couldn’t see Lookout Mountain in the distance of one fourth of a mile. The city had the reputation of a disgusting place with dirty air, water and no plans for the future. People were ashamed of it. Citizens began to take measures to change the ecological situation. Social groups, local administration, doctors, engineers united. New standards of air quality were established; new methods of monitoring were inculcated. [8]

Large industrial plants began to clear their wastes. In a few years Chattanooga again attracts attention of the country in the field of protection of the air.

But in the south city there were many problems between the 1970-s and 1980s. Heavy industrial plants were closed leaving dirty squares.

Citizens went to the countryside and they decided to create new workplaces, wealth people must change Chattanooga.

We learnt that in the 1980-s, a process of involving citizens in the business of changing the city began. People began to discuss problems themselves and took right decisions. People became “brain center”. The administration appreciated their ideas highly, their ideas became projects of the Tennessee Aquarium, Tennessee River walk route, the Walnut Street Bridge, Lookout Mountain Flight Park. Many people took part in the realization of these ideas. For the last 30 years every American city has such problems and was looking for the solution. The degree of attention to the question of the protection of the environment distinguishes Chattanooga’s citizens from others. They understand that the key role of changing the city belongs to the environment and are working out new plans of its future development. [10]

1.3 The sights of Chattanooga


The Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park is the oldest and largest of its kind in the country. More than a thousand years ago, the first inhabitants of this region marveled at its beauty. Their descendants spied the palisades of Lookout Mountain and named the area Indian language meaning "rock coming to a point".

Hunter Museum of American Art. The museum houses one of the finest collec­tions of American art in the southeast, including works by Andrew Wyatt, Mary Cassatt and Andy Warhol.

Bluff View Art River Gallery. River Gallery houses an eclectic collection of fine art and sculpture by regional, national and international artists.

The Chattanooga Theatre Centre, home to one of the old­est continuously active community theatres in the country, pro­duces a full season of theatre favorites, musicals and cutting edge works in its two theatres.

Ruby Falls is one of Chattanooga's favorite attractions, thrilling visitors for more than 70 years with its thundering 145-foot natural waterfall and caverns deep inside Lookout Mountain.

Raccoon Mountain Pumped Stroage Project. Enjoy viewing the scenic Tennessee River gorge, then descend 1000 ft underground to see a 490-ft powerhouse. Year-round wildlife viewing for deer, wild turkeys, red-tail hawks, owls, osprey, wood-chucks, and raccoons.

Amusement Park. Dare to ride the breathtaking Cannon Ball roller coaster, tour the park on the C.P. Huntington train or make a splash on the pad-dleboats, or the Pipeline Plunge! Over 30 rides plus games, arcade, gift shops, picnic areas, catering service and more.

The Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum recalls the era of the iron horse with roundtrip excursion available aboard a restored passenger train.

Mole Hill Pottery. The area's finest gallery featuring local, regional, and national artisans. Unusual treasures in pottery, jewelry, woodworking and other handcrafted items.

Lookout Mountain's Point Park - Commemoration of the famous "Battle Above the Clouds," the park offers visitors a spectacular panoramic view of Chattanooga and the Tennessee Valley. Park fea­tures include the Ochs Observatory, Garrity's Battery, Umbrella Rock, and the "Battle of Lookout Mountain" mural in the Visitors Center.

A trip to Chattanooga wouldn't be complete without a visit to Yee's Crab House Seafood Restaurant. You can find all your seafood favorites like clam strips, crawfish, shrimp, Blue Crab, mussels, catfish, grouper, and clam chowder.

Discover the Lost Sea, a unique natural wonder which is listed as "America's Largest Underground Lake" in the Guinness Book of World Records. . Lost Sea has been designat­ed a Registered Natural Landmark by the U.S. Dept. of Interior.

The jewel of Chattanooga's revitalized downtown and river­front is the Tennessee Aquarium, which showcases thousands of aquatic creatures from the river systems of the world

Radisson Read House Hotel & Suites. The historic Read House is truly the Grand Dame of hotels in Chat­tanooga. Thirteen floors of museum quality art serve as a tribute to the Civil War with regional battles and cam­paigns depicted. This National Historic Register hotel is located on the free downtown shuttle route and is min­utes from area attractions. [13]







2. From the history of Nizhniy Tagil


Nizhniy Tagil lies on the eastern side of the Ural Mountains surrounded by wooded hills and low mountains in the valley of the river Tagil. The larger part of its area is more or less flat with shallow ravines and sloping river banks. D.N.Mamin-Sibiriak called the city “the beloved Urals’ child spread at the foot of its mountains close right to its stone heart”. Nizhniy Tagil’s environs are beautiful and picturesque.

The origin of its name has three versions. According to one of them, it consists of 2 ancient words “more” and “river”. To the next version, it comes from the ancient words “mountain” and “country”. As far as the last version is concerned, it means “mountainous land”.

Nizhniy Tagil has been included into the register of “historical towns of Russia” for the reasons of its almost three-century history as well as of being one of the oldest mining centers of both home and world metallurgy. [5]

In 1720, according to Peter the Great’s ukase the parallel erection of two Demidovs’ works – copper-smelting and cast iron-smelting – commenced. Vyisky works’ setting was held on October 23, 1722. That year is considered as the date of Nizhniy Tagil’s foundation.

Nizhniy Tagil is situated on the east slope of the Ural Mountains, at 20-25 km distance from the conventional Europe-Asia border and 200 km above the sea level.

There are hardly any great waterways in the district. The main river Tagil with its numerous tributaries flows into the river Tura integrated into the Ob-Irtysh river basin. [5]

On many rivers of the district water reservoirs – ponds – have been arranged, many of them being erected simultaneously with the works’ building in the 18th century. The Tagil pond is extended at 16 km distance.

The district has a continental climate.

The district is rich in minerals. The unique deposits of magnetite in mountain Vysokaya was found in 1696 and has been exploited since 1721. The today’s largest iron ore deposit of the Tagil’s district is Kachkanar.

In the 19th century, in the Nizhniy Tagil mining district as well as all over the Urals the abundant gold and platinum fields were found. In 1844 in the course of the examination of the platinum fields professor K.Klaus discovered a new chemical element – ruthenium.

Together with platinum the favorite Ural semi-precious stone – golden-green garnet-dermatoid – was mined. [5]

Since the 17th century, the state expeditions together with local miners extracted some other Ural gems – amethyst, topaz, heliodor, aquamarine and some others – in the deposits of the famous Murzinka fields of gems.

However, the Ural green stone – malachite – has merited the greatest world-wide fame. Mountain Vysokaya was a significant malachite source as well. [5]

Together with the peculiarities of the natural landscape the mining industrial complex had become the leading urban composing factor which determined the direction of the streets and main thoroughfares of Tagil, the general organization of its architectural-spatial environment, the character of the volumetric planning and compositional decorative interrelations that in the total had created the unique and at the same time typical of the Ural flavor of Nizhniy Tagil as a “works-town”. Nizhniy Tagil is a large industrial center with a population of about 400,000 people and a very bad ecological situation.

The development of mining, metallurgical, chemical and machine-building industries influenced the ecological situation of the town.

Industrial and building industries pollute soil and plant layers. Chemical and industrial wastes pollute the air and water. A large number of dust heaps can be seen in the streets of the town. Not long ago the town was the dirtiest town in the country.

The air above the town is hardly good for breathing; we can’t call the water suitable for drinking. There are some other problems which tell on people’s health, e.g. the problem of noise and radiation.

The huge amounts of wastes are made by such enterprises as the Nizhniy Tagil Steel and Iron Plant, the Mining Integrated Plant and the Chemical Plant.


2.1 Measures that improved the ecological situation


Studying the literature we came across that a special federal programme has been worked out for our town. A laboratory to observe the pollution of the air was created within this programme.

In another Federal programme “Ecological and natural resources of Russia till 2010” Nizhniy Tagil is written separately.

A few years ago Tagil was listed in a dozen of Russia’s dirtiest towns. In 2003, it is among 35 dirtiest towns.

The percentage of wastes into the air is decreasing. The concentration of them is normal in Nizhniy Tagil. The index of pollution of the air was decreasing from 1999 to 2002. [9]

The administration of the town takes care of people and children with ecological diseases.

Thanks to the reconstruction of the plants their influence on people’s health is decreasing.

There is a special complex of special constructions to clear the water in our town. A special laboratory controls the process. New methods of cleaning the water have been conformed.

In 2002, two hundred dump heaps were liquidated; 45,000 trees and bushes were planted in 2003.

In 2000, by the initiative of the Institution of the Stable Association and the public organization “Clean House” a conception of “green corridor” was worked out. On September 20, 2001, a municipal programme “Complex improvement of the town from 2001 to 2005 and main directions of this improvement up to 2010”. [9]

Green corridor” is an improvement of the quality of the air and water in the town.

To plant trees, bushes and flowers is the cheapest way of the environment enhancement.

The realization of this project is not only in reconstructing the old parks but also in creating new ones, such as the northern embankment of the town pond, the square around the Cherepanovs Monument, the musical fountain, the square in Goroshnikov Street and many others.

2.2 The sights of Nizhniy Tagil


Nizhniy Tagil plan-museum. In the XVIII century the N. Tagil plant was one of the largest and the most technologically advanced in the Urals, Russia and Europe. This status had been preserved during the XIX century. After starting the Novotagilsky steelmaking giant it was used for trials with iron making processes and manufacturing the high quality cast iron. During the WWII it manufactured ferrochromium and ferromanganese, stainless steel coils for aircraft. In 1957 it was included into N. Tagil Iron and Steel Integrated Works. In October 1987 it was decommissioned. There was the last salute to the legendary plant which had employed several generations of Tagil citizens. A farewell hooter rolled over the city. The symbolic plant’s keys were given to a new host, the Middle Urals Mining and Metal working industrial park of N. Tagil.

Alexandrovskaya street. From the Front Works Square to the East led the chief street of the township – Alexandrovskaya. It had many names in the course of Nizhniy Tagil history. First it was poetically called Nagornaya and Jagodnaya Street. Then it was titled Alexandrovskaya after the visit of Prince Alexander Nikolaevich to N. Tagil in 1837. In 1928 such a name of the street reminding of one of the Romanovs dynasty became impossible and the street was renamed to Lenin street “in honor of the world proletariat leader”. Alexandrovskaya street belonged to the main, most prestigious part of the city, the business and trade center of N. Tagil. The houses and stores of merchants and industry managers were situated there. The buildings traditionally combined commercial and economic, administrative and residential functions. In Soviet times there were many administrative buildings in the street. [5]

The Building of the History Museum of Local Studies, the former “laboratory ell” of the Head Works Office Building, was built together with the main house in 1833 by one of Moscow or St. Petersburg architects. The building is very simple, the effect of its look is achieved by festive window decorations. Before the Revolution there was a laboratory, Demidov’s works’ archives and public library founded by A.N. Karamzin in the building. In 1840 at the direction of N.N. Demidov “the Museum of Natural History and Antiques” was opened. It was one of the oldest provincial museum in Russia, the predecessor of the modern Museum for Local History Studies.

At the foot of the hill on the former Cathedral Square beautifully are placed two solid buildings under high double pitch roofs “in Dutch manner”. There are Verkhniye proviantskiye sklady. The buildings are remarkable for their simple clear-cut shapes and proportion. They were constructed for practical needs as “bread stores” or warehouses to keep food supply and metal. Today they belong to the Mining and Metallurgy Museum-Reserve of the Middle Urals. The Verkhniye serve as the museum depository and the Lower ones will be soon turned into the Nature and Environment Museum.

The flat, verdurous and “decorated” with rocks Lisya Gora is a traditional place for public feasts and merrymaking. A famous Tagil artist I.F. Khudoyarov in his scenic canvas “Merrymaking on Lisya Gora” depicted the panorama of N. Tagil of the early nineteenth century from Lisya Gora. A tower on Lisya Mountain was built in 1818 and has become an invariable symbol of N. Tagil for ages. Placed on the highest point of the city’s relief the tower served as a watch and look-out construction but at the same time could not but had its own aesthetic properties. The fire warning was made by special signals – a red lantern and alarm bell rang.

The so-called “Gospodskii Dom” (the Manor) was built with non-provincial splendor in 1830s. In the middle of the nineteenth century the Manor had become the property of the Demidovs family and was used as “a guest house for celebrated visitors”, later as an official lodging for works managers of high positions. The planning is characteristic for classical town manors and included a house, a coach house with cellarage, stone stables and a garden spreading down to the Tagil river bank. The residential part of the house in its middle part is particular for protruding with columns of Corinthian order, ornamental details and has the look solemn and chic. Today we have here the Museum of Native Life and Trades. [5]

The D.N. Mamin-Sibiryak Drama Theater of N. Tagil has become the major decoration of the plaza. This magnificent building has made a radical impact on the plaza’s “image” and it is rightly considered one of the city’s most significant buildings. The National Drama Theater was opened in N. Tagil on May 8, 1946. In 1955 there was erected a new theatrical building deigned by Leningrad architect A. Tarasenko. It is one of the city’s most significant architectural structures resembling an ancient fane. N. Tagil will go down in history as the ‘motherland’ of the Russia’s first steam engine. Community has deeply commemorated its creators – Ye. A. and M. Ye. Cherepanovs known as the “versatile machine engineers”. As far back as in WWII there appeared an idea of a monument to these serf inventors. In November 1956 the 8-m bronze monument on a high red granite pedestal made by sculptor A. S. Kondratyev and architect A. V. Sotnikov, was placed in the center of the Theatrical Square.

The Park named after the writer A. P. Bondin is located on the bank of Tagil Lake and has a long history. In the early nineteenth century quite close to the Heard Office of the Works the “Gospodskii sad” (the Hosts Garden) was founded. Later the Hosts Garden turned into a public one and has become one of the dancing ground and joyful merry-go-rounds, flying right over the surface of the lake. The territory of Bondin Park is included into the industry and landscape “Demidov – Park”. The plan foresees creating the dendrology Greenway connected with other green areas of the city. [5]

N. Tagil Iron and Steel Works (NTMK) is one of Russia’s largest steelmaking complexes and the World’s largest processor of inborn vanadium alloyed titan ferrous ores. It dates back to 1931 when first builders, the workers of the former Demidov’s plant, came up the site to Fedorina Gora (Fedorina Mount) and began to clean up the site to deploy the future gigantic works. During the WWII Tagil steelmakers would do their best for the Victory, they manufactured high quality iron, armor steel, jet-propelled projectiles for the famous Katyushas. Today OAO “NTMK” manufactures over 5 million tons of rolled products for fail road, industrial construction, machine building and metal mining.

URALVAGONZAVOD (Uralsky railcar building plant) is a unique machine building facility possessing powerful technological and intellectual potential being of the Russia’s largest science and engineering complexes. Over its 65-year history URALVAGONZAVOD (UVZ) has pioneered the development and manufacturing of high quality machines of the World’s class. UVZ has been awarded six Orders of Glory in Labor and Warfare. UVZ manufactures about 100 product types. The giant of industry was constructed within an extremely short period: it took just a bit over five years to deploy a powerful record-breaking facility on the low lands of deep taiga forests. UVZ is an entire town with streets and special in-plant transport. To the WWII the UVZ had produced about 35,5 thousand high-capacity cars. After the war had begun the UVZ engineered and started a mass conveyor-type production of combat tank T-34 for a sensationally short while. [5]


















3. The beginning of the international cooperation


International cooperation of N. Tagil with state and public organizations was very active during the period of realization of joined Russian American project in the field of the environment.

Russian-American project has become the result of work of the Commission, created by B. Eltzin and Clinton in 1993. At first the work of Russian-American cooperation concentrated on such areas as: cosmos, energy and high technologies. Then the Commission expanded its sphere of activity including the questions of health and ecology. [6]

N-Tagil was chosen as a city having serious ecological problems and situated in the dirtiest regions of Russia.

The presentation of ecological measures of Russian-American project was help in May 24 1994. Memorandum was signed between the administration of the town and environmental American Agency. The office of the project was created; it was registered as “Clear House”. [7]

The project included all spheres of human activities: from education, to ecology.

It was for the first time that students, members of public organizations, citizens took part in the working out of town ecological policy. Later it becomes every day practice to draw the public to solve ecological tasks together with the town administration.

Different specialists’ exchanges helped people to increase their professional level, broaden their minds and gave a lot of new splendid ideas.

Considerable money resources spent on certain ecological measures helped to improve the ecological situation in the town.

During the period from 1994 of 2000 our town received 103 delegations with consisted of teachers, scientists, doctors and others. [8]

N-Tagil became sister-cities with Chattanooga, which had the same ecological problems.

The project came to an end but its results are installed in a new international project “ROLL”. 11 Tagil projects out of 18 Ural projects were financed.

Together with IUS 2 new projects were put into life.

The cooperation with IUS helps to work out very useful projects, connected with the environment, using the experience of one side and the willing to live better of the other side. [7]

3.1 The project “Green future of N. Tagil”

(1999-2000 y.)


Long and distinguished cooperation between the organization “Clean House” and the Institute of Stable Association and the administration of our town found its continuation in the project “Green future of N. Tagil”. It started in spring of 2000. The idea of this project was to show our administration and citizens a new complex approach to the ecological situation and to solve the problem of planting trees and shrubs and to improve the town. The aim was to create the so-called “green corridor”. The “green corridor” is a system of territories, situated along town ponds: new and old parks, sugars, historical sights, sports grounds and places for social programmers and places where our citizens and guests can have a rest. [9]

For these corridors old, neglected industrial areas were used. It helped to restore these areas, increased the number of green trees and plants that was to improve the environment.

The main tasks of the project became:

  1. Working out and popularization of the conception of the creating of the “green corridors” in N. Tagil.

  2. Involving population in practical activity and taking care of parks, squires.

  3. Continuation of the relations between sisters-cites N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

American friends invited our specialists to show how they solved such problems in the town which had the same problems years ago. The second delegation consisted of teachers; members of public organizations. They got acquainted with the activity of the same organizations in Chattanooga. [3]

In the result it was cleared out that just public organizations and volunteers initiated the ideas of “green corridors” and revived the neglecting parks, squares. They became volunteers and took care of them. They tried to solve many problems with local government, businessmen, and draw children to this work.

3.2 The Fund of Russian – American project


The Fund of Russian – American project was created in 1996. The main aim was to support taut practical measures in solving ecological problems and to improve the state of the citizens’ health by financing the projects which won in the competition.

Financial supporting was given by the USA Agency USEPA and ISL helped to organize the work.

Coordination committee of the project controlled the action of the Fund. The administrative functions to manage the Fund were given to the members of SES “Clean House”.

In 1996 and 1998 two competitions of ecological projects were held. The most interesting and effective once were given to the competition.

The Coordination committee chose 12 which were the most interesting and effective. To realize those projects the Fund gave grants the sum of it was about 500 thousand dollars. [6]

In spite of the difficulties connected with the economical situation in our country the most part of them was successfully fulfilled. The results of the most effective are used in other Russian regions.

One of the most important was the project of biological enculturation of Cheremshansk shlamkeeping.

This territory was very dirty. There was no grass, trees, birds in its area. Now the grass, birds, different plants can be seen on the most part of it. The guests from England, German, Finland, Poland, and Italy – the members of annual seminar of International society of mine professors in Yekaterinburg were greatly surprised by this fact. They haven’t seen anything like that. The experience of our town was used in Novokuznetzk, Revda, and Nevynsk. [3]















Conclusion


In the conclusion we’d like to say that our sister-cities are very much alike. We proved that their history and problems have much in common:

  1. Chattanooga and N. Tagil are industrial towns.

  2. They were the dirtiest towns in their countries.

  3. The chemical and industrial wastes can’t but reflect on people’s health. People of both towns couldn’t live in those conditions.

One of our tasks was to investigate ecological situation of our cities. The government and the administration of our towns have found the most interesting system of human and economical connections in this sphere.

We consider that new common ways in solving these problems have been created. We exchanged delegations, hold joint conferences and meetings on different problems, exchange children delegations.

Many different forms of joint work have been worked out.

Tagil is a very friendly town and can’t live without sisters-cities. We can be useful to each other and our connections, cultural and morality wealth will help our spiritual rebirth.

The tasks which were put by the government and administration of our towns were fulfilled:

  1. The conception of the creating of the “green corridors” was popularized.

  2. The population of both towns was involved in practical activity.

  3. New parks, squares, sports grounds, places for social programmes were created.

  4. The territory along town ponds was restored and has become beautiful, green and now it is a pleasure to have a rest there.

And what’s more interesting that just public organization became an initiator of most projects and ideas.

The experience of our towns was used in other towns of Russia. It’s a pity that this work has no continuation. But we have great results of joint work and we hope that this work wouldn’t stop. We want to see our town nice, clean, and modern, with lots of beautiful parks, squares. Chattanooga helped us to look at the problems of our town as at our own problems. People understood that they can change the situation and they are changing it.

On the whole we can say that the tasks which we have put are fulfilled:

  1. We studied the literature on the theme.

  2. We studied the problems in the ecology of culture, environment and man in sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

  3. We worked out the project “School yard”, which would correspond the tasks of saving nature and culture.

  4. We created a video guide about cultural and historical sights of sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga.

We proved that our hypothesis is right. If people of different countries solve common problems together they will have more successful results.



























Practical part


Studying the literature on the subject we came to conclusion, that a great work has been carried out in the area of ecology of environment, culture and in social sphere by the administration of two cities and their citizens.

Wonderful ecological projects have been realized. Many squares, parks, streets, museums, houses have been reconstructed. Lenin street (former Alexandrovskaya), Karl Marks street (former Shamina) and many other streets have been changed by this time. We admire the sight of a new embankment of the town pond, and a wonderful sight of Lisya Gora.

We see many new green plants in our street, squares, parks, which make our town more attractive and nice. They let our citizens to relax and have a good time walking there. Many old buildings, museums, Children’s houses of creativity have been reconstructed.

In autumn and spring people take part in cleaning their streets, yards, parks and squares.

Pupils of our school can’t stay aside. We take part in planting bushes, flowers and in cleaning the yard around our school and the Veterans’ square, make new flower-beds. All children, teachers and even parents take part in this work. We plant trees, flowers not only around our school, but we try to make green corridors in our school. Flowers clean the air, they help to make good mood for us and teachers, our school becomes more beautiful and we enjoy spending our time there.

But we would like to have a very comfortable sport ground behind our school, where we’d be able not only to play sport but to rest and relax.

Literature


1. Елагина Е. Побратим.//Тагильский рабочий. – 2004. – 25 октября.

2. Елагина Е. Побратим Чаттануга преображает нас.//Тагильский рабочий. – 2004. – 17 августа.

3 Диденко Н. Дружба через океан.//Тагильский рабочий. – 2003. – 21 ноября.

4. Диденко Н. С кем дружит Н-Тагил?//Областная газета. – 2002.

5. Ильина Е. Нижний Тагил на перекрестках веков//Нижний Тагил, 2002.

6. Мардж П. Ваши цветы и сорняки похожи на наши.//Горный край. – 2004. – 17 ноября.

7. Седова Н. Деревце сотрудничества зеленеет!//Тагильский рабочий. – 1996. – 27 июня.

8. Седова Н. Чистой воды станет больше!//Тагильский рабочий. – 1998. – 29 мая.

9. Чеборирокова С.Н. Экологическое чудо для Н-Тагила.//Тагильский рабочий. – 2003. – 28 августа.

10. www.utc.edu

11. www.ntagil.ru

12. www.mojgorod.ru


















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Looking through the calendar we found out that we have one or another holiday every Sunday. One of such holidays is Day of Sisters-Cities (twin towns) which we celebrate on April 25. It was established 41 years ago by the initiative of World Federation of sisters-cities.

Now this organization unites 3,500 towns and more then 160 countries. Our town has four sisters-cities: Heb, Chattanooga, Krivoy Rog and Brest.

We consider that our project is actual because every city and town has problems in ecological, social, economical spheres. They try to solve them in their own way. Their solutions may be unique. We proved it investigating the development of the relations of two sisters-cities N. Tagil and Chattanooga. United towns may have more successful results. The most interesting system of human and economical connections has been formed.

The cities exchanged delegations, hold joint conferences and meeting on different problems, exchanged children delegations.

We can name many different forms which were worked out.

Tagil is a very friendly town and can’t live without sister-cities. We want to be useful to each other and out cultural, connections and morality wealth will help our spiritual rebirth.

 The theme of our work is Sisters-Cities: Common Problems Common Success.

 

 As world non-governmental organization it was founded in Paris in 1957. The first agreements were concluded in 1942 between Stalingrad and Coventry, the towns destroyed by the war.

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