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Construction of your own home and garden is the most common hobby in England. «My house is my castle» English people say. There are different types of houses in the US. They are detached, semi-detached houses, cattages, castles, oats houses, bungalows, block of flat and even vans. Usually houses in England are built from stones or bricks (from the local area), which are different in colour. Most English people prefer to live in cottages.
Many years ago the Yakut people lived in balagans. Now some people have a balagan in the yard. It is made of wood and clay. There is a round table with 3 legs and chairs in the middle of balagan. There is a fire place kamelyok on the right-hand corner of the house. There are naara-beds in the balagan. There is a wooden shelf on the wall. There are chorons, kytyias and spoons. There is a wool mat on the ground. There isn't any lamp, TVset, radio, arm-chair in balagan. But it is so nice.
the English strictly keep to their meals many people just have cereal with milk and sugar or toast with jam or honey. They take fish, poultry or cold meat (beef, mutton, veal and ham), boiled or fried potatoes and all sorts of salad. They may have a mutton chop or steak and chips, followed by biscuits and a cup of coffee. Some people like a glass of light beer with lunch. Tea is very popular among the English; it may almost be called their national drink. Tea is welcome in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening. The English like it strong and fresh made.
The basic garment was the linen shirt, which was considerably longer and looser than its modern counterpart. Breeches were designed in a variety of styles and fabrics, from elaborate trunk hose to plain knee-length. Stockings were tailored of cloth or could have been the relatively new knit type. Shoes were the most common sort of footwear, but boots had become fashionable as a result of Charles I's fondness for them. A doublet, close-fitting and padded, was the usual upper garment. Capes and loose-fitting coats were the usual outer-wear for men and women. There were many styles of hats and caps which were worn inside and outdoors. The English women also had a basic undergarment much like the shirt, which was called a shift. Over this she wore her stays (corset) and petticoats. The outermost clothing was either a gown or a waistcoat (fitted jacket) and skirt. Most adult women wore a linen cap called a coif covering their hair. Their shoes and stockings, capes, coats and hats were much the same as the men's. Aprons protected the skirts from the myriad chores of the day.
Yakut national clothes are very comfortable both for hot summer and cold winter. They were mainly made of natural materials: fur, shammy, softly dressed reindeer skin, wool, silk, leather, red or black cloth. Winter clothes are made of reindeer skin, different kinds of fur and reindeer leg pelts. Men's fur coats buuktaakh son, tangalai son are trimmed with precious fur and red broadcloth. They are very colourful. There are two kinds of high boots. Winter high boots are made of reindeer leg pelts. Trimmings richly embroidered with beads decorate woman's winter high boots. In old times poor people wore high boots made of reindeer and cow skins without any decoration. They are very light and durable. Caps with ear-flaps made of fox paws were very popular with rich Yakuts. Poor people wore caps sewn from hare skin. Men's and women's fur caps decorated with "horns" were very interesting. Fur caps djabaka sewn from different precious furs with embroidered chopchuur on top look very smart.
English people are fond of all kinds of sports. They only like to speak about sports. Some kinds of sport are professional in England. Many traditional sporting contests take place in England, for example, cricket. Horse-racing is a great national sport. Among games football and cricket take the first place in public interest. Tennis is another very popular game while golf has firmly established itself in favour and there are golf-links all over the country. The numerous rivers afford excellent opportunities for swimming and rowing and the Oxford and Cambridge boat-race, in which crews from these two universities compete take place every spring on the Thames.
Yakut national jumps - a popular sport, known in Yakutia (as in many of the Turkic peoples) since ancient times. At the annual festival Ysyakh still hosts many competitions, including the national Yakut jump. The competition program at the International Games "Children of Asia" held in the form of triathlon (jumping "kylyy", "ystanga" and "kuobah"). "Kylyy" - performed eleven non-stop running jumps on one leg, landing on both feet. "Ystanga" - performed eleven alternating running jumps from one foot to a landing on both feet. "Kuobah" - performed eleven non-stop jumps simultaneously pushing two feet from the place or run with a landing on both feet. Also there are many popular sports games: mass wrestling, hapsagay, and etc.
Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are six public holidays a year in England; Christmas Day is one of their favorite holidays. It's celebrated on the 25th of December. There are some traditions connected with it. One of them is to give presents to each other. It is not only children and members of family. It's a tradition to give Christmas presents to the people you work with. Another tradition is to send Christmas cards. All these cards are bright and colorful. Most of big cities of England, especially London, are decorated with colored lights and Christmas trees. On Trafalgar Square, in the center of London, stands a big Christmas tree. It is a gift from the people of Oslo. It is over 50 feet high. Many families celebrate Christmas day in the open air near the Christmas tree in order to catch the spirit of Christmas. Children find Christmas presents in their stockings. The traditional English dinner on Christmas is turkey and pudding.
The English people think that the Grand National horse race is the most exciting horse race in the world. It takes place near Liverpool every year. Amateur riders as well as professional jockeys can participate. It is a very famous event. And every woman wears beautiful hat.
Halloween is a day on which many children dress up in unusual costumes. In fact, this holiday has a Celtic origin. The day was originally called All Halloween's Eve, because it happens on October 31, the eve of all Saint's Day. The name was later shortened to Halloween. The main Halloween activity for children is trick-or-treating. Children dress in costumes and masks and go from door to door saying «trick or treat». The neighbours give children such treats as candy, fruit and pennies so that children do not play tricks on them. Fortunetelling is an important part of Halloween. For example, a coin, a ring, and a thimble were baked into a cake. The main attribute of Halloween is a pumpkin.
Yakuts celebrate the New Year at the Yhyаkh festival. It is the symbol of welcome summer and the awakening of nature. Its traditions include women and children decorating trees and tethering posts with "salama" (nine bunches of horse hair hung on horse-hair ropes). The oldest man, wearing white, opens the holiday. He is accompanied by seven virgin girls and nine virgin boys and starts the ritual by sprinkling kymys on the ground, feeding the fire. He prays to the Ai-ii spirits for the well-being of the people who depend on them and asks the spirits to bless all the people. Afterwards, people sing and dance Ohuakhai , play national games, eat national dishes, drink kymys.
The Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is one of the richest regions of the world due to the differences of nature resources explored. The Yakutia’s diamond deposits, discovered in 1954, are the biggest ones not only in Russia but in the whole world. In Yakutia, near the city of peace, is the biggest by total diamond mine in the world - kimberlite pipe "Mir" (Peaceful city came after the opening of the tube, and was named in her honor). The quarry has a depth of 525 meters and a diameter of 1.2 kilometers. Education kimberlite occurs during a volcanic eruption, when through the crust gases from underground digging out. The shape resembles a tube or a glass funnel. Volcanic explosion comes out of the bowels of the earth kimberlite - the rock, sometimes containing diamonds. The breed is named after the town of Kimberley in South Africa, which in 1871 was found a diamond weighing 85 carats (16.7 grams), which caused a diamond rush. June 13, 1955 geologists look for in Yakutia kimberlite pipe, saw high larch, whose roots are exposed landslide. Fox dug a deep hole under it. By the characteristic blue color scattered fox earth geologists realized that this kimberlite. In Moscow, was immediately sent coded radio message: "smoked a pipe of peace, good tobacco." Shortly after 2800 km. off-road to the place of discovery of kimberlite pipes were pulled convoys. Around the diamond deposits increased working village Peaceful, now it is a city with a population of 36,000 people.
Many of national dishes are made of meat of foals. The inner suet is called khaha. The boiled meat of foals is called oegos. The Yakut people also like khaan. This is the sausage made of reindeer's and foal's blood. The tong is made of raw frozen foal's meat. Тong byar is a delicious dish too. This is a raw liven There are many different kinds of meat. But the most popular and delicious is so called stroganina made of raw fresh and frozen fish. The most delicious dishes are while salmon, chir, omul and silver salmon. The Yakut people bake their national unleavened scones and meat-pies sandaly. From milk they make such drinks as sorat and kymys. The national dishes are varied and if you taste these dishes, we think you'll like them. the Sakha food is not as meagre as it seems at first sight. It is plain but fresh, tasty and filling. The records of people who lived in Yakutia in the last century show that dairy produce was the staple food, followed by vegetables. Meat was mostly consumed in winter, when the body needs a lot of protein during the cold period, and was simply boiled, without any spices or flavouring. Foul meat was preferred to beef because of its taste and its health-giving properties. In summer, during the celebration of Yhyakh, guests were treated to kumis, fermented mare's milk. In summer, during the celebration of Yhyakh, guests were treated to kumis, fermented mare's milk. This was believed to be the drink of warriors which, it was said, got rid of stress, provided energy and gave general relief and health. Nowadays, kumis is used in medicine to treat pneumonia and other lung diseases.
In Yakutia in the Verkhoyansk area are mystical sacred mountains Kisil, translated from Yakutsk - the "stone people". They are located in the watershed of the northern rivers of Yakutia - Yana and Adycha. Area of the mountains here is 120 square kilometers, they are formed by magmatic rocks in height of 30-35 meters, the most bizarre forms. Northern Shambhala - so called because it is a place of special power. It is an ancient, sacred place, many of the mysteries that science has yet to uncover. Kishi in Yakut means "person", and indeed the rock from a distance resemble huge human figures. According to local legend, the mountains for centuries lived Kisil upper deities - Aiyy. Those who believe in the great forces of nature and want to cure various ailments, climb the sacred mountain necessarily accompanied by guides and shamans. There are many mysterious and mystical phenomena, strange transformation in the body and soul of man. According to the Yakut shamans Kisil mountains are the shortest link between the "upper world" - the universe and the "middle world" - the Earth. The man who lost the natural harmony with nature, must climb the mountain of the gods in order to regain it.
Pride of Yakutia and its main waterway - the Lena River, which stands on the banks of Yakutsk, the fourth in the world in length and the world's second-largest delta. The Lena River - the fourth in the world and second in length to the width of the Delta. Flows into the Laptev Sea. In some places the river is so wide that the naked eye can not see the opposite bereg.V summer tourists invariably attract river cruises on luxury ships. The longest two weeks of the route lies the Arctic Ocean. And the most popular route of the weekend - a trip to the National Park "Lena Pillars".
National Park "Lena Pillars" Lena Pillars - a unique painstaking work of nature. Majestic cliffs stretch for 40 kilometers along the right bank of the Lena River. Lena Pillars are stretching for miles set vertically elongated rocks intricately towering along the coast of the Lena, a deep valley. Besides the well-known stone "pillars", the park has such remarkable objects as flowing sands tukulany with some cold northern areas of sandy desert, ancient man in the mouth of the creek Diring Yuryakh, the excavations were unearthed stone tools (Diringskaya Culture ). There are unique permafrost ecosystem. In the area of the park discovered the fossilized remains of an ancient fauna: Mammoth (Mammulhus primigenius Blum), bison (Bison priscus Boj), woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiguibatis Blum) and others. Lena Pillars include criteria for Natural World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Mammoth Museum in Yakutsk. Owning a unique paleontological exhibits turned the museum into a scientific and cultural center, which is part of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the International Council of Museums. It should be noted that in ancient times the territory of Yakutia mammoths lived, the remains of which are preserved the permafrost. Visitors mammoth museum in Yakutsk can learn more about these animals in the past, and to see the remains of a small mammoth dummies "Dima", discovered in 1977 in the upper reaches of the Kolyma River.
Olonkho is a common name for numerous Yakut heroic legends. The part of the text represents a rhymed prose in which short prose insertions occur. Olonkho appeared in ancient times and is considered to be the earliest epic relics of Turk-Mongolian peoples. The Olonkho content reflects the period of decay of the tribal system. Myths and god‘s images closely associated with general mythological ideas of ancient Yakuts are given much attention in Olonkho. The olonkho is performed by olonkhohuts – olonkhosingers. In the past people could listen to them all night long. Olonkhohuts were singers, legend-tellers and improvisers.
The Ohuokhai dance appeared long ago when the Sakha people lived in the South and were typical cattle-breeders, so-called sun worshippers. It is a native dance that combines three forms of art: dancing, singing and poetry. The Sakha word "yungkyu" (Yңкүү, dance) comes from the verb "ungk" (Yң, to worship). The Ohuokhai is a simultaneous round dance and song. Dancers form a circle and dance, arm in arm, hand in hand, with the left foor put forward, while making rhythmical, graceful movements with their bodies, legs, feet and arms. A lead singer improvises the lyrics and the other dancers repeat them. This Ohuokhai leader has a special talent not only for singing but also, what is more important, for poetic improvisation. There song leaders compete at the national Yhyakh festival for the best poetic expression, best song and biggest circle. Poetic improvisation of the Ohuokhai represents one of the richest and oldest genres of Sakha folklore. The melody of the Ohuokhai is put to many types of music, from marching tunes to operas. Kylyhakh is the special singing technique of vocal cord vibration. This technique gives a unique national Sakha colouring highly appreciated by experts in "throat singing". The Ohuokhai plays an important role in the developmen of the musical and choreographic arts. A famous folk singer, poet and composer, Sergey Zverev from the Suntarsky region added many new elements in the expressiveness of the movements.
The weather in England is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change into a fine afternoon. That is why it is natural for the English to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather". This statement is often made by the English to describe the meteorological conditions of their country. The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon, or when it rains all day long. The weather is the favorite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be "How are you?" And after the reply "Very well, thank you; how are you?" the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroad the English often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting. The best time of the year in England is spring (of course, it rains in spring, too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp, and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the fire. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people, who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer, to France or somewhere on the Continent. The most unpleasant aspects of the weather in England are fog and smog.
Climate in Yakutia is harsh and continental. Spring and autumn are so short, we can safely say that there are two seasons - winter and summer. In winter, temperatures can drop to minus 60 degrees, in the summer to reach +40 degrees. From severe frost cracks ground and burst metal machine parts. Winter in Yakutia is long and cold, but dry, has no wind, but has clear sunny days. Sometimes within a few weeks it does not see any clouds, no clouds. With no wind and frost is not terrible: even at minus 50 degrees children go to school. In northern Yakutia winter is severe. During the last two months there are polar nights. Winds here either, but the frequent fogs that hang over the villages and roads. Mists formed from contact smoke rising from the chimneys, and the exhaust of cars with cold air. But on a clear day the sky is decorated with Northern Lights. Summer in Yakutia is short, but sunny, warm, sometimes hot - plus 30-38 degrees. Precipitation is small, frequent droughts.
The Stonehenge stone circles are in England. People transported the first stones to this place about 5000 years ago. We don't know a lot about Stonehenge. Who built it? How did they build it? Why did they build it? It's a mystery. People built Stonehenge with bluestones and sarsen stones. There were about 80 bluestones. They came from mountains 250 kilometers away. They are very heavy – some weigh about 4 metric tons. The sarsen stones are even bigger and heavier. About 4000 years ago, people transported them from 30 kilometers away. How did people use Stonehenge? Maybe they used it as a cemetery or a place for studying the sun and the stars. Maybe it was also a temple. It's still a special place for some people today. Every year, on June 21st, lots of people go to Stonehenge to celebrate the longest day of the year.
Tower Bridge — a masterpiece of engineering skill. Tower Bridge was built at the end of the 19th century to match the medieval style of the fortress. This bridge is opened to let big ocean ships move up the Thames from the ocean. The territory between the Tower and the bridge is called the Pool for that reason. The Tower has been many things: a palace, a fortress, a prison, a place of execution, a Zoo. Today, it is best known as a historical museum. About 150 people and six ravens live here. Kings sometimes get strange presents. About 700 years ago King Henry III got 3 leopards, 1 elephant and a polar bear. He kept them in the Tower. The elephant died after two years but the polar bear was happy as it went swimming and fishing in the Thames with a strong rope round its neck. That was the start of the London Zoo. In 1835 all animals left the Tower and were sent to the Zoo in Regent's Park. Only the ravens stayed on. There are always at least 6 ravens at the Tower. The first ones probably built their nests here because they liked the old stone houses and walls. There is a story that they bring good luck to Britain, if they stay at the Tower. That's why they get "paid" meat and biscuits every day. But their wings are cut so that they can't fly away. They are not very friendly.
The big clock on the tower of the Palace of Westminster in London is often called Big Ben. But Big Ben is really the bell of the clock. It is the biggest clock bell in Britain. It weighs 13.5 tons. The clock tower is 318 feet high. You have to go up 374 steps to reach the top. So the clock looks small from the pavement below the tower. But its face is 23 feet wide. It would only just fit into some classrooms. The minute-hand is 14 feet long. Its weight is equal to that of two bags of coal. The hour-hand is 9 feet long. The clock bell is called Big Ben after Sir Benjamin Hall. He had the job to see that the bell was put up. Sir Benjamin was a big man. One day he said in Parliament, "Shall we call the bell St. Stephen's?" St. Stephen's is the name of the tower. But someone said for a joke, "Why not call it Big Ben?" Now the bell is known all over the world by that name.
Madam Tussaud's is the most popular and talked about wax museum in the world. There are wax models of the famous and infamous, both living and dead, from every walk of life. Elvis Presley, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Marilyn Monro, Michael Jackson, Alfred Hitchcock, Charlie Chaplin, the British Royal family, Bill Clinton, Jack the Ripper ... There is no other place where you can see all the celebrities at once, even if they are only wax figures. So if you want to rub shoulders with kings and queens or the latest pop stars, or probably with notorious criminals, this is the place to go. The museum is situated in Marylebone Road, not far from the street which is famous as the home of the first great detective in fiction, Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes. There's usually a long queue in front of the museum. No wonder! Many tourists would consider their trip to London worthless if they didn't visit the famous Madam Tussaud's. The wax figures are standing and sitting, and sometimes even moving and talking. They are extremely realistic and when they look at you, their eyes sparkling, you often feel uncomfortable in their company. New models are being produced all the time while the old ones are quietly removed from display. Over the years hundreds of celebrities have made their way to Madame Tussaud's studio. Most people agree to be portrayed, but some refuse. Mother Teresa was one of the few who declined, saying her work was important, not her person.
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Red double-decker buses are used for mass transit in London. The red double-decker buses in London have become a national symbol of England and British Isles. The majority of buses in London are double-deckers. These early buses were called ‘Omnibuses‘ and ran in France and England. Traditional double-deckers are red in color, although modern types are featured in a variety of styles. Double-decker buses were meant to provide convenience while carrying the biggest number of passengers possible to a designated destination.
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