Russia: geography and economy
Topical vocabulary / Словарные слова
total area общая площадь
to occupy занимать
to stretch from …to… протянуться от … до …
to be bordered by граничить с (чем-либо)
to comprise smth. включать что-либо
to vary from smth. to smth. варьировать от чего-либо до
a barren desert бесплодная пустыня
a high peaked mountain горная вершина
a deep valley глубокая долина
to be located быть расположенным
a plain равнина
a mountain chain горная цепь
to separate Europe from Asia отделять Европу от Азии
to flow into впадать (во что-либо)
the current population население на данный период
a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic республика с высокоразвитой
промышленностью и сельским
vast mineral resources богатые запасы полезных иско-
to include oil and natural gas включать нефть и природный
a non-ferrous metal цветной металл
mineral wealth запасы полезных ископаемых
be engaged in agriculture быть занятым в сельском хо-
to produce grain производить зерно
a dairy product молочный продукт
a granary житница
a constitutional republic конституционная республика
the legislative power законодательная власть
to be vested in осуществляться (чем-либо)
1.1 Прочитайте и переведите текст
The Russian Federation
In area, the Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometres. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia stretches from the Baltic Sea in the West to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from the Arctic Ocean in the North to the Black Sea and the Caucasus, the Altai, and the Sayan mountains, and the Amur and the Ussuri rivers in the South. It is bordered by Norway and Finland in the north-west, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus and the Ukraine in the West, Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west, and Kazakhstan , Mongolia, China along the southern border. The federation comprises 21 republics.
The land of Russia varies from thick forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russian Federation is located on two plains, Great Russian Plain and West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, separating Europe from Asia, the Caucasus, the Altai. Russia’s most important rivers are the Volga, Europe’s biggest river, flowing into the Caspian Sea, the main Siberian rivers (the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena), and the Amur in the Far East, flowing into the Pacific Ocean. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million. The world’s deepest lake – Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 metres, is situated in Russia, too.
The climate in Russia varies from arctic in the north to continental in the central part of the country and subtropical in the south.
The current population of Russia is about 50 million people; 82 % of the population are Russians.
Russia is a highly-industrialized-agrarian republic. Its vast mineral resources include oil and natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, gold and other non-ferrous metals. Russia has the world’s largest oil and natural gas resources. Three-quarters of the republic’s mineral wealth is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East.
Approximately 10 million people are engaged in agriculture and they produce half of the region’s grain, meat, milk, and other dairy products. The largest granaries are located in the North Caucasus and the Volga and the Amur regions.
The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10
Russia is a constitutional republic, with President as Head of State. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma
1.2 Закончите следующие предложения
1) Russia occupies …
2) The federation comprises …
3) Russia borders on …
4) There are many …
5) Our country is bordered by …
6) The main Siberian rivers are …
7) There are …
8) The climate in the central part of the country is …
9) The climate in the south is …
10) The people in the north live …
11)… thick forests and barren deserts
12)… Mongolia and China in the south
13)… Georgia and Azerbaijan in the south-west
15)… two million rivers in Russia
16)… 17 million square kilometres
17)… 21 republics
18)… the Ob, the Yenisei, the Lena
20)… under the Arctic climate
21) Russia is a country with a highly-developed …
22) There are vast mineral resources including …
23) The mineral wealth of the country is concentrated in …, including
24) The population engaged in agriculture produce …
25) The largest granaries are …
1.3 Соотнесите данные предложения с текстом. Проверьте их, если необходимо
1) Our country, the Russian Federation is the largest in the world.
2) Russia stretches from the Baltic Sea in North to the Pacific Ocean in the West, from the Arctic Ocean in the South to the Black Sea in the North.
3) Russia is not rich in mineral resources.
4) It is an agrarian republic.
5) 10 million people work in agriculture.
6) The North Caucasus, the Volga and the Amur regions are the largest granaries of Russia.
7) Russia is a constitutional monarchy, the head of the state is the Federal Assembly.
1.4 Расскажите о России
1) What territory does Russia occupy?
2) What countries does it border on?
3) What plains is it located on?
4) What are the longest mountain chains?
5) What sea does Europe’s biggest river flow into?
6) What river flows into the Pacific Ocean?
7) How deep is the world’s purest lake Baikal?
8) How does the climate in Russia vary?
9) What mineral resources does Russia possess?
10) What industries are developed in Russia?
11) What products do agricultural enterprises produce?
Russia: Political system
Topical vocabulary/ Словарные слова
to be set up by smth. быть учрежденным, основан-
ным в соответствии с чем-либо
under the Constitution в соответствии с конституцией
a presidential republic президентская республика
the federal government федеральное правительство
a branch власть (как часть правительства)
to be checked by smbd. контролироваться кем-либо
to be balanced by smbd. балансироваться, уравновешу-
to be vested in осуществляться кем-либо
the Federal Assembly Федеральное Собрание
a chamber палата
the Council of Federation Совет Федерации
to be headed by the Speaker возглавляться спикером
to initiate a legislature внести законопроект
to approve a bill принять законопроект
to be signed by smbd. быть подписанным кем-либо
to veto the bill наложить вето на законопроект
the armed forces вооруженные силы
to make a treaty заключить договор
to enforce a law проводить закон в жизнь
to appoint a minister назначить министра
to belong to smbd. принадлежать кому-либо
the Prime Minister премьер-министр
on appointment после назначения
to form the Cabinet сформировать кабинет
to be represented by smbd. быть представленным кем-либо
the Constitutional Court Конституционный суд
the Supreme Court Верховный суд
a regional court региональный суд
to be elected by popular vote быть избранным всенародным
the state symbol государственный символ
a banner знамя
a hymn гимн
a national emblem национальный герб
to originate from smth. происходить от чего-либо
the heraldic emblem of the Ruricovitches родовой герб Рюрикович
Прочитайте и переведите текст
Political system of Russia
The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power, he controls all the three branches of power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration, but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.
The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's made up of the two houses: the Federation Council and the State Duma, which make laws. The Federal Assembly is also called the Parliament, but it's not its official name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half is elected personally py the population, and the other half consists of the deputies who are appointed by their parties after voting). The members of the Federation Council are elected on a different basis. There are two representatives of each subject of the RF (89 subjects). Every law to be adapted must be approved by the State Duma, the Council of Federation and signed by the President. The President can veto laws passed by the Federal Assembly, but it can pass laws over the President's veto a two-thirds majority.
The Federal Government represents the executive branch of power. The President appoints its head, the Chainman of the Government, but the Dums must approve his appointment.
The juridical branch of power consists of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and lower Courts. The responsibility of the Constitutional Court is to analyze the new laws to make sure they correspond to the laws of the state. The Constitutional Court has its right to declare actions of the President, the Federal Assembly and the Federal Government unconstitutional. The Supreme Court is the highest instance for civil and criminal cases.
1. Закончите следующие предложения
1) Russian is …
2) The national symbols of the Russian Federation are …
3) The Russian Federation is …
4) It is headed …
5) The country government consist of …
6) The President controls only …
7) The legislative power belongs to …
8) The executive power is vested in …
9) The Federal Assembly comprises …
10) The judicial power belongs to …
1) … a constitutional republic
2) … by the President
3) … three branches legislative, executive and judicial
4) … the executive branch, the government
5) … the official language of the state
6) … a white-blue-red banner and a double-headed eagle
7) … two chambers: the Council of Federation and the State Duma
8) … the government
9) … the system of Courts
10) …the Federal Assembly
2. Ответьте, можно ли соотнести следующие предложения с текстом. Исправьте их, если необходимо
1) Three branches of the federal government are checked and balanced by Speakers.
2) All the laws are usually approved by both Chambers and signed by the President.
3) After having been signed by the President the law becomes the bill.
4) The government is headed by the Prime Minister.
5) The Prime Minister may veto the bills, initiated in either of two Chambers.
6) The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to form the Cabinet.
7) The members of the Federal Government are elected by popular vote for a six-year period.
3. Закончите следующие предложения и расскажите о государственных символах России
1) The state symbol of Russia is …
2) It has three horizontal stripes …
3) The white stripe is the symbol of …
4) The blue stripe symbolizes …
5) The red stripe is the symbol of …
6) The three-coloured banner replaced …
7) “The Patriotic Song” by M. Glinka was …
8) The present-day hymn has the melody …
9) Its new verses were written by …
10) A two-headed eagle is the most ancient symbol of Russia, it appeared in Russia since …
4. Контрольные вопросы
1) When was the Russian Federation set up?
2) What kind of state is it?
3) What does the federal government consist of?
4) What part does the President play in the government?
5) What is the legislative power vested in?
6) How many chambers does it consist of? Name them.
7) Who heads each chamber?
8) How does a bill become a law?
9) What are the functions of the President?
10) What are the executive and the judicial branches represented by?
11) What are the official symbols of Russia?