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Сборник аутентичных текстов и лексических упражнений по деревообработке на уроках английского языка

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Департамент образования и науки Кемеровской области



Государственное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

«Мариинский многопрофильный техникум»









СБОРНИК АУТЕНТИЧНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ И ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИХ УПРАЖНЕНИЙ ПО ДЕРЕВООБРАБОТКЕ НА УРОКАХ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА


Методическая разработка
















2015


Аннотация


Методическая разработка «Сборник аутентичных текстов и лексических упражнений по деревообработке на уроках английского языка» содержит тексты, предназначенные для эффективного усвоения профессионально-направленных материалов по теме «Древесиноведение», целью которых являются развитие произносительных навыков, навыков чтения и перевода, а также являются источником расширения кругозора студентов в области данной темы с учётом языковой подготовки студентов.

Разработка включает в себя лексический словарь и ключи к упражнениям для более лёгкого и быстрого понимания прочитанного.

Данный сборник имеет педагогическую ценность, может служить пособием для преподавателей английского языка, а также студентов, обладающих разным уровнем знаний, над развитием навыков чтения.


































Содержание



  1. Topical vocabulary “Wood research” стр.4

  2. Abies alba (silver fir) стр.5

  3. Ash – tree стр.6

  4. Aspen стр.9

  5. Birches стр.11

  6. Cedrus (common name Cedar) стр.13

  7. Larch стр.14

  8. Lime-tree ( tilia) стр.16

  9. Oak стр.19

  10. Pine стр.21

  11. Control work “Wood research” стр.23


















































  1. Topical vocabulary “Wood research”

Xylology – древесиноведение

Cedar – кедр

Larch – лиственница

Pine – сосна

Silver fir – пихта

Oak – дуб

Ash-tree – ясень

Aspen – осина

Birch – берёза

Lime-tree – липа

Core – сердцевина

Timber – древесина

Cambium – камбий

Sap-wood – заболонь

Kernel – ядро

Annual rings – годичный слой

Vessels – сосуды

Breed – порода дерева

Moisture – влажность

Density – плотность

Permeability – проницаемость

Bough, twig – сучки

Sucker – отросток, боковой побег

Stem - стебель

Pollination – опыление

Cracks – трещины

Coniferous – хвойные породы

Deciduous – лиственные породы

Outlandish breeds – иноземные породы

Detail – заготовка

Vice – порок

Lumber – пиломатериал, брёвна

Saw material – пиломатериал

Carving – резьба по дереву

Tool handles –ручные инструменты

Joinery – столярное ремесло







  1. Abies alba (silver fir)

Abies alba, the silver fir or European silver fir, is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees north to Normandy, east to the Alps and the Carpathians, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and south to southern Italy and northern Serbia.

A. alba is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40–50 metres (exceptionally 60 metres ) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 metres. The largest measured tree was 68 m tall and had a trunk diameter of 3.8 metres. It occurs at altitudes of 300–1,700 metres (mainly over 500 metres ), on mountains with a rainfall of over 1,000 millimetres.

The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 1.8–3 centimetres long and 2 millimetres wide by 0.5 millimetres thick, glossy dark green above, and with two greenish-white bands. The tip of the leaf is usually slightly notched at the tip. The cones are 9–17 centimetres long and 3–4 centimetres broad, with about 150-200 scales, each scale with an exserted bract and two winged seeds; they disintegrate when mature to release the seeds. The wood is white, leading to the species name "alba".

It tends to forms woods with other firs and beeches. It is closely related to Bulgarian Fir (Abies borisiiregis) further to the southeast in the Balkan Peninsula, Spanish Fir (A. pinsapo) of Spain and Morocco and Sicilian Fir (A. nebrodensis) in Sicily, differing from these and other related Euro-Mediterranean firs in the sparser foliage, with the leaves spread either side of the shoot, leaving the shoot readily visible from above. Some botanists treat Bulgarian Fir and Sicilian Fir as varieties of Silver Fir, as A. alba var. acutifolia and A. alba var. nebrodensis respectively.

Ecology and uses

Silver Fir is an important component species in the Dinaric calcareous Silver Fir forest in the western Balkan Peninsula.

Its cone scales are used as food by the caterpillars of the tortrix moth Cydia illutana, while C. duplicana feeds on the bark around injuries or canker.

A resinous essential oil can be extracted. This pine-scented oil has soothing qualities, and is used in perfumes, bath products, and aerosol inhalants.

Silver Fir is the species first used as a Christmas tree, but has been largely replaced by Nordmann Fir , Norway Spruce (which is much cheaper to grow), and other species. The wood is moderately soft and white, used for general construction and paper manufacture.


New words:

Flattened – плоский, ровный

Glossy – блестящий, глянцевый

bands - ленты

tip - верхушка

to notch - прорезать

an exserted bract – выделяющийся прицветник

sparse – редкий, разбросанный

calcareous - известковый

canker – рак растений, некроз плодовых деревьев

soothing - успокаивающий

inhalants - ингаляторы

Spruce - канадская ель

Moderately - умеренно


Exercises:

  1. Make up words.

  1. v, r, e, e, e, e, n, r, g

  2. s, c, t, n, e, e, t, e, r, i, m

  3. g, o, l, e, a, f, i

  4. r, s, c, a, r, e, t, l, a, i, l, p

  5. n, n, t, t, c, c, s, o, o, u, r, i


  1. Find 5 adjectives in the text, make up degrees of comparison.


F.e.: large – larger – the largest


  1. Make up your own sentences with these words:


  1. Native

  2. Growing

  3. Leaves

  4. Related to

  5. Species



  1. Ash - tree

Fraxinus is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The tree's common English name, ash, goes back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. The leaves are opposite, and mostly innately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as keys or helicopter seeds, are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants; if grown as an ornamental and both sexes are present, ashes can cause a considerable litter problem with their seeds. Rowans or Mountain Ashes have leaves and buds superficially similar to those of true ashes but they are unrelated and belong to the genus Sorbus in the rose family.

Ecology

Ash is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths).

Threats

The emerald ash borer (Agrilus) is a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia via solid wood packing material in the late 1980s to early 1990s. It has killed tens of millions of trees in 15 states in the United States and adjacent Ontario in Canada. It threatens some 7 billion ash trees in North America.

The European ash, Fraxinus excelsior, has been affected by the fungus Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus, causing ash dieback in a large number of trees since the mid-1990s, particularly in eastern and northern Europe. The disease has infected about 90% of Denmark's ash trees.

Uses

Ash is a hardwood and is hard, dense (within 20% of 670 kg/m³ for Fraxinus americana, and higher at 710 kg/m³ for Fraxinus excelsior), tough and very strong but elastic, extensively used for making bows, tool handles, baseball bats.

It is also often used as material for electric guitar bodies and, less commonly, for acoustic guitar bodies, known for its bright, cutting tone and sustaining quality. Some Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters are made of ash, as an alternative to the darker sounding alder. They are also used for making drum shells. Interior joinery is another common user of both European Ash and White Ash. Ash veneers are extensively used in office furniture. Ash is not used extensively outdoors due to the heartwood having a low durability to ground contact, meaning it will typically perish within five years.

Woodworkers generally like the timber for its great finishing qualities. It also has good machining qualities, and is quite easy to use with nails, screws and glue. Ash was commonly used for the structural members of the bodies of cars made by carriage builders. Early cars had frames which were intended to flex as part of the suspension system in order to simplify construction. The Morgan Motor Company of Great Britain still manufacture sports cars with frames made from ash. It was also widely used by early aviation pioneers for the aircraft.

It makes excellent firewood and barbecue or smoking wood. The two most economically important species for wood production are White Ash in eastern North America, and European Ash in Europe. The Green Ash is widely planted as a street tree in the United States.

The leaves of ash are appreciated by cows, goats and rabbits. Cut off in the autumn the branches can be a valuable winter supply for domestic animals.


New words:

innately – от природы

dioecious - двудомный

rowan - рябина

superficially – поверхностно, внешне

unrelated - несвязно

larvae - личинка

emerald - изумрудный

borer – сверлильщик (червь)

beetle – колорадский жук

solid - прочный

adjacent – примыкающий, соседний

infect – заражать, инфицировать

excelsior - превосходный

bows - смычок, лук

tool handles –ручные инструменты

joinery – столярное ремесло

perish - портить, погибать


Exercises:

  1. Match the sound with the word:


1. [ i ]

2. [ s ]

3. [ ju: ]

4. [ ǣ ]

5. [ ʌ ]

6. [ z ]

7. [ ʤ ]

8. [ g ]

9. [ i: ]

10. [ u: ]

a. tool

b. ash

c. beetle

d. similar

e. use

f. genus

g. grow

h. simplify

i. production

j. manufacture














  1. Translate the sentences from Russian into English:


  1. Они также используются для изготовления корпуса барабана.

  2. Болезнь поразила около 90 процентов пород деревьев рябины в Дании.

  3. Листья рябины могут быть использованы в качестве корма для домашнего скота.

  4. Плотники любят древесину рябины за её отличное качество.

  5. Зелёная рябина широко используется для декорирования улиц в Соединённых Штатах.


  1. Translate the sentences from English into Russian:


  1. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen.

  2. It makes excellent firewood and barbecue or smoking wood.

  3. Ash was commonly used for the structural members of the bodies of cars made by carriage builders.

  4. It also has good machining qualities, and is quite easy to use with nails, screws and glue.

  5. Ash is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths).




  1. Aspen

Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus, of the poplar genus. The aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high altitudes in the mountains. They are all medium-sized deciduous trees reaching 15–30 m (49–98 ft) tall.

All of the aspens typically grow in large colonies, derived from a single seedling, and spread by means of root suckers; new stems in the colony may appear at up to 30–40 m (98–131 ft) from the parent tree. Each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground. For this reason, it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of "Pando", is estimated to be 80,000 years old, making it possibly the oldest living colony of aspens. Some aspen colonies become very large with time, spreading about 1 m (3.3 ft) per year, eventually covering many hectares. They are able to survive forest fires, because the roots are below the heat of the fire, with new sprouts growing after the fire burns out.

Aspens do not thrive in the shade, and it is difficult for seedlings to grow in an already mature aspen stand. Fire indirectly benefits aspen trees, since it allows the saplings to flourish in open sunlight in the burned landscape. Lately, aspens have an increased popularity in forestry, mostly because of their fast growth rate and ability to regenerate from sprouts, making the reforestation after harvesting much cheaper, since no planting or sowing is required.

In contrast with many trees, aspen bark is base-rich, meaning aspens are important hosts for bryophytes and act as food plants for the larvae of butterfly (Lepidoptera) species.

Young aspen bark is an important seasonal forage for the European hare and other animals in early spring. Aspen is also a tree of choice of the European beaver.

Uses

Aspen wood is white and soft, but fairly strong, and has low flammability. It has a number of uses, notably for making matches and paper where its low flammability makes it safer to use than most other woods. Shredded aspen wood is used for packing and stuffing, sometimes called excelsior (wood wool). It is also a popular animal bedding, since it lacks the phenols associated with pine and juniper, which are thought to cause respiratory system ailments in some animals. Heat-treated aspen is a popular material for the interiors of a sauna. While standing trees sometimes tend to rot from the heart outward, the dry timber weathers very well, becoming silvery-grey and resistant to rotting and warping, and has traditionally been used for rural construction in the northwestern regions of Russia.

Aspens and other members of the Populus genus contain salicylates, compounds related to aspirin. Leaves and leaf buds of aspens have been used to treat burns, irritations, aches, and swollen joints. Bitter tisanes from bark and leaves have been used to treat mild urinary tract inflammations.

Aspen has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health.


New words:

Derive – получать, извлекать

Seedling – рассада, саженец, сеянец

Sucker – отросток, боковой побег

Stem - стебель

To thrive, to flourish – разрастаться, пышно расти

saplings– молодое деревце

bryophytes – мох

beaver - бобр

flammability - огнеопасность

Shredded- разрезанный

Rural – сельский, деревенский

Ache - боль

Swollen – непомерно высокий, вздутый

Tisane – питательный отвар

Urinary – мочевой


Exercises:

  1. Match the words to make word combinations.

1. large

2. rural

3. flower

4. respiratory

5. burned

6. high

7. larvae of

8. medium-sized

9. making the

10. root

a. system

b. butterfly

c. colonies

d. reforestation

e. suckers

f. altitudes

g. trees

h. construction

i. remedies

j. landscape


  1. Translate these words:

by means of, irritations, matches and paper, ancient woodlands, effect on health, root system, covering many hectares, indirectly benefits, ability to regenerate, larvae of butterfly, saplings to flourish, contain salicylates.





  1. Birches

Birch is a broadleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. The common name "birch" is derived from an old Germanic root, birka, with the Proto-Indo-European root, "white, bright; to shine." The Proto-Germanic rune berkanan is named after the birch. The generic name Betula is from Latin.

Birch species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of temperate climates. The simple leaves are alternate, singly or doubly serrate, feather-veined, petiolate and stipulate. They often appear in pairs, but these pairs are really borne on spur-like, two-leaved. The fruit is a small, although the wings may be obscure in some species. They differ from the alders in that the female catkins are not woody and disintegrate at maturity, falling apart to release the seeds, unlike the woody, cone-like female alder catkins.

The bark of all birches is characteristically marked with long, horizontal lenticels, and often separates into thin, papery plates, especially upon the paper birch. It is resistant to decay, due to the resinous oil it contains. Its decided color gives the common names gray, white, black, silver and yellow birch to different species.

The buds form early and are full grown by midsummer, all are lateral, no terminal bud is formed; the branch is prolonged by the upper lateral bud. The wood of all the species is close-grained with satiny texture, and capable of taking a fine polish; its fuel value is fair.

Uses

Due to the hardness of Birch, it is better to shape it with power tools, as it is quite difficult to work it with hand tools. Birch wood is fine-grained and pale in colour, often with an attractive satin-like sheen. Ripple figuring may occur, increasing the value of the timber for veneer and furniture-making.

Birch plywood is made from laminations of birch veneer. It is light but strong, and has many other good properties. Birch plywood is used to make longboards (skateboard), giving it a strong yet flexible ride. It is also used for making model aircraft.

Extracts of birch are used for flavoring or leather oil, and in cosmetics such as soap or shampoo and also for medicinal purposes. Birch is used as firewood due to its high calorific value per unit weight and unit volume. Birch sap is a traditional drink in Northern Europe, Russia, and Northern China. Birch oil is used in the manufacture of Russia leather, a water-resistant leather.

Birches have spiritual importance in several religions, both modern and historical. In Celtic cultures, the birch symbolizes growth, renewal, stability, initiation and adaptability. The birch is highly adaptive and able to sustain harsh conditions with casual indifference.

National Tree of Finland and Russia.



New words:

Broadleaved - широколиственный

Alder - ольха

Hazel - орешник

Hornbeam - граб

Alternate - чередоваться

Serrate - зубчатый

feather-veined – с прожилками

petiolate - черешковый

stipulate - прилистниковый

spur-like - шпорообразный

borne – ограниченный

obscure - скрывать

catkin - серёжка

maturity - зрелость

lenticels - двояковыпуклый

decay –распад, гниение

lateral – боковой, горизонтальный

to prolonge - продлевать

satiny - шелковистый

sheen - блеск

Ripple - волнистость

Plywood - фанера

Calorific - тепловой

Sap - сок

Renewal - обновление

to sustain - подкреплять

harsh - суровый


Find 10 nouns, 10 verbs and 10 adjectives in the text, fill in the chart:


nouns

verbs

adjectives

Tree…

Includes…

Deciduous…






  1. Cedrus (common name Cedar)

Cedrus (Cedar) is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. They are native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean region, occurring at altitudes of 1,500–3,200 m in the Himalayas and 1,000–2,200 m in the Mediterranean.

Cedrus is a tree up to 30–40 m (occasionally 60 m) tall with spicy-resinous scented wood, thick ridged or square-cracked bark, and broad, level branches. The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves. The leaves are evergreen and needle-like, 8–60 mm long, arranged in an open spiral phyllotaxis on long shoots, and in dense spiral clusters of 15–45 together on short shoots; they vary from bright grass-green to dark green to strongly glaucous pale blue-green, depending on the thickness of the white wax layer which protects the leaves from desiccation. The seed cones are barrel-shaped, 6–12 cm long and 3–8 cm broad, green maturing grey-brown, and, as in Abies, disintegrate at maturity to release the winged seeds. The seeds are 10–15 mm long, with a 20–30 mm wing; as in Abies, the seeds have 2–3 resin blisters, containing an unpleasant-tasting resin, thought to be a defense against squirrel predation. Cone maturation takes one year, with pollination in autumn and the seeds maturing the same time a year later. The pollen cones are slender ovoid, 3–8 cm long, produced in late summer and shedding pollen in autumn.


Uses

Cedar wood is not only scented, but also has an attractive colour and grain. Cedars are very popular ornamental trees, widely used in horticulture in temperate climates where winter temperatures do not fall below about −25 °C.

Cedar wood and cedar oil are known to be a natural repellent to moths, hence cedar is a popular lining for modern-day cedar chests and closets in which woolens are stored. Cedar is also commonly used to make shoe trees as it can absorb moisture and deodorize.


New words:

spicy-resinous – ароматно-смолистый

scent - запах

ridged – остроконечный, хребтообразный

glaucous – тусклый, покрытый налётом

desiccation - высушивание

resin blisters – смолистые пузыри

predation – нападки, грабительство

pollination - опыление

to mature - созревать

pollen cones – опылённые шишки

slender – небольшой

ovoid – яйцевидный

wing - сучок

to shed - сбрасывать

grain – строение, структура

horticulture – садоводство, огородничество

moths – моль, мотылёк

chest – ящик, сундук

closet – стенной шкаф


Exercises

  1. Give the title to the text.


  1. Tell the main idea of the text.




  1. Give English equivalents for:

Хвойный лес, средиземноморский район, вечнозелёные листья, травянисто-зелёный, неприятный на вкус, поглощать влагу и дезодорировать, декоративное дерево, широко используется, защититься от, занимает возвышенности.


  1. Make up 5 questions to the text (general, special, alternative, tag, to the subject)


  1. Retell the text.



  1. Larch

Larches are conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. Growing from 20 to 45 m tall,  they are native to much of the cooler temperate northern hemisphere, on lowlands in the north and high on mountains further south. Larch are among the dominant plants in the immense boreal forests of  Russia and Canada.

Although a conifer, the larch is a deciduous tree and loses its leaves in the autumn. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots typically 10–50 centimetres longand bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1–2 mm long with only a single bud. The leaves are needle-like, 2–5 centimeters long, slender (under 1 cm wide). They are borne singly, spirally arranged on the long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20–50 needles on the short shoots. The needles turn yellow and fall in the late autumn, leaving the trees leafless through the winter.

Larch cones are erect, small, 1–9 cm long, green or purple, ripening brown 5–8 months after pollination; in about half the species the bract scales are long and visible, and in the others, short and hidden between the seed scales. Those native to northern regions have small cones (1–3 cm) with short bracts, with more southerly species tending to have longer cones (3–9 cm), often with exserted bracts, with the longest cones and bracts produced by the southernmost species, in the Himalaya.

Uses

Larch is a wood valued for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities; top quality knot-free timber is in great demand for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings and interior panelling. The timber is resistant to rot when in contact with the ground, and is suitable for use as posts and in fencing. The hybrid Dunkeld Larch is widely grown as a timber crop in northern Europe, valued for its fast growth and disease resistance.

Larch has also been used in herbal medicine.

In central Europe larch is viewed as one of the best wood materials for the building of residences. Planted on borders with birch, both tree species is sometimes used today as a Polish forestry unit measuring approximately 4 × 1 × 1 m.

Larches are often used in bonsai culture, where their knobby bark, small needles, fresh spring foliage and especially autumn colour are appreciated. European Larch, Japanese Larch and Tamarack Larch are the species most commonly trained as bonsai.


New words:

Larch – лиственница, древесина лиственницы

immense boreal forests – необъятные северные леса

genus – род, сорт, вид

shoot – росток, побег

cone – шишка

erect – вертикальный, прямой

pollination – опыление

panelling – панельная обшивка

to rot – гнить, разлагаться

cremation – кремация

knobby bark –шишковатая кора

needle - иголка

foliage – листва

durable – прочный

tough – жёсткий, упругий


Exercises

  1. Fill in the blanks:


  1. The larch is a deciduous tree and loses ___________.

  2. ___________ when in contact with the ground.

  3. ___________ are the species most commonly ___________.

  4. Larch is one of the best wood materials for __________.

  5. Larches are native to _________.


  1. Match:


  1. deciduous tree

Короткий прицветник

  1. hemisphere

Внешняя облицовка

  1. several buds

Густые кисти

  1. exterior cladding

Лиственное дерево

  1. suitable for

Полушарие

  1. is one of the best

Несколько почек

  1. short bracts

Один из самых лучших

  1. dense clusters

Подходит к


  1. Say “True” or “False”:


  1. Larches are conifers in the genus Tamarack.

  2. The needles turn yellow and fall in the late spring, leaving the trees leafless through the winter.

  3. The timber is resistant to rot when in contact with the ground.

  4. In about half the species the bract scales are long and visible.

  5. Larch cones are erect, small, 2-5 centimeters long.

  6. Larch are among the dominant plants in the forests of Northern Ireland.

  7. In central Europe larch is viewed as one of the best wood materials.

  8. European Larch, Japanese Larch and Tamarack Larch are the species most commonly trained as bonsai.

  9. Top quality knot-free timber is in great demand for building yachts and other small boats.

  10. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into shot shoots.



  1. Lime-tree ( tilia)

The genus is generally called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime, or basswood in North America.

Latin tilia is cognate to Greek “ ptelea”, "elm tree", tiliai, "black poplar", ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European word with a meaning of "broad" (feminine); perhaps "broad-leaved" or similar.

Tilia species are mostly large, deciduous trees, reaching typically 20 to 40 metres (66 to 130 ft) tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres (2 to 8 in) across. As with elms, the exact number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise readily, both in the wild and in cultivation. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and female parts, pollinated by insects.

Uses

The linden is recommended as an ornamental tree when a mass of foliage or a deep shade is desired. The tree produces fragrant and nectar-producing flowers, the medicinal herb lime blossom. They are very important honey plants for beekeepers, producing a very pale but richly flavoured monofloral honey. The flowers are also used for tisanes and tinctures; this kind of use is particularly popular in Europe and also used in North American herbal medicine practices.

Wood

The timber of linden trees is soft and easily worked; it has very little grain and a density of 560 kg per cubic metre. During the Viking era, it was often used for constructing shields. It is a popular wood for model building and intricate carving. The wood is used in marionette, puppet making and carving. Having a fine light grain and being comparatively light in weight it has been used for centuries for this purpose despite modern alternatives being available it is still one of the main materials used today.

Ease of working and good acoustic properties also make it popular for electric guitar and bass bodies and wind instruments such as recorders. In the past, it was typically used for less-expensive models. In the percussion industry, Tilia is sometimes used as a material for drum shells, both to enhance their sound and their aesthetics.

Lime wood is known in the aquarium industry for its use as an air diffuser inside protein skimmers.

It is also the wood of choice for window blinds and shutters. Real wood blinds are often made from this lightweight but strong and stable wood, which is well suited to natural and stained finishes.

Bark

It is known in the trade as basswood, particularly in North America. This name originates from the inner fibrous bark of the tree, known as bast. A strong fibre is obtained from this by peeling off the bark and soaking it in water for a month, after which the inner fibres can be easily separated.

Herbalism


Most medicinal research has focused on Tilia cordata , although other species are also used medicinally and somewhat interchangeably. The dried flowers are mildly sweet and sticky, and the fruit is somewhat sweet and mucilaginous. Limeflower tea has a pleasing taste, due to the aromatic volatile oil found in the flowers. The flowers, leaves, wood, and charcoal (obtained from the wood) are used for medicinal purposes. Active ingredients in the Tilia flowers include flavonoids (which act as antioxidants) and volatile oils. The plant also contains tannins that can act as an astringent.

Linden flowers are used in herbalism for colds, cough, fever, infections, inflammation, high blood pressure, headache , and as a diuretic, antispasmodic, and sedative.

Usually, the double-flowered species are used to make perfumes. The leaf buds and young leaves are also edible raw.


New words:

oblique-cordate – косо- сердцевидный

elm – вяз, ильм

fragrant – ароматный, благоухающий

beekeeper - пчеловод

intricate carving – сложная резьба по дереву

puppet – кукла, марионетка

skimmer - водорез

blinds and shutters – жалюзи и ставни

basswood – американская липа

bast – лыко, луб, лубяное волокно

interchangeably - равнозначно

mucilage – клейкое вещество

volatile oils – летучие (легко испаряющиеся) масла

astringent - вяжущий

herbalism – знахарство


Exercises:

  1. Do the crossword puzzle.



1


11







2










3







4






5









6














7













8





9











10







  1. The linden is recommended as an ornamental tree when a mass of _____ or a deep shade is desired.

  2. Lime wood is known in the _____ industry for its use as an air diffuser inside protein skimmers.

  3. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and _____ parts, pollinated by insects.

  4. The _____ produces fragrant and nectar-producing flowers, the medicinal herb lime blossom.

  5. Lime wood is known in the aquarium industry for its use as an air _____ inside protein skimmers.

  6. This kind of use is _____ popular in Europe and also used in North American herbal medicine practices.

  7. This name _____ from the inner fibrous bark of the tree, known as bast.

  8. The leaf buds and young leaves are also edible _____.

  9. In the _____ industry, Tilia is sometimes used as a material for drum shells, both to enhance their sound and their aesthetics.

  10. Linden flowers are used in herbalism for colds, cough, _____, infections, etc.

  11. What is it?


  1. Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus. The genus is native to the northern hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cold latitudes to tropical Asia and the Americas.

Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with a lobed ">serrated leaves or entire leaves with a smooth ">flowers are catkins, produced in spring. The fruit is a nut called an acorn; each acorn contains one seed (rarely two or three) and takes 6–18 months to mature, depending on species. The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not actually a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus.

Uses

Oak wood has a density of about 0.75 g/cm3, great strength and hardness, and is very resistant to insect and fungal attack because of its high tannin content. It also has very appealing grain markings. Oak wood, from Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, was used in Europe for the construction of ships, especially naval men of war, until the 19th century, and was the principal timber used in the construction of European timber-framed buildings. Today oak wood is still commonly used for furniture making and flooring, timber frame buildings, and for veneer production. Barrels in which red wines, sherry, and spirits such as brandy, Scotch whisky and Bourbon whiskey are aged are made from European and American oak. The use of oak in wine can add many different dimensions to wine based on the type and style of the oak. Oak barrels, which may be charred before use, contribute to the colour, taste, and aroma of the contents, imparting a desirable oaky vanillin flavour to these drinks. The great dilemma for wine producers is to choose between French and American oak woods. French oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) give the wine greater refinement and are chosen for the best wines since they increase the price compared to those aged in American oak wood. American oak contributes greater texture and resistance to ageing, but produces more violent wine bouquets. Oak wood chips are used for smoking fish, meat, cheeses  and other foods.

Japanese oak is used in the making of professional drums from manufacturer Yamaha Drums. The higher density of oak gives the drum a brighter and louder tone compared to traditional drum materials such as maple and birch.

The bark of the Cork oak is used to produce wine stoppers (corks). This species grows in the Mediterranean Sea region, with Portugal, Spain, Algeria and Morocco producing most of the world's supply. Of the North American oaks, the Northern red oak is the most prized of the red oak group for lumber, all of which is marketed as red oak regardless of the species of origin. It is not good for outdoor use due to its open capillaries. One can blow air through an end grain piece 10 inches long to make bubbles come out in a glass of water. These openings give fungus easy access when the finish deteriorates. The standard for the lumber of the white oak group – all of which is marketed as white oak – is the White Oak. White Oak is often used to make wine barrels. The wood of the deciduous Pedunculate Oak and Sessile Oak accounts for most of the European oak production, but evergreen species, such as Holm oak and Cork oak also produce valuable timber.

The bark of the White Oak is dried and used in medical preparations. Oak bark is also rich in tannin, and is used by tanners for tanning leather. Acorns are used for making flour or roasted for acorn coffee.

Oak galls were used for centuries as the main ingredient in manuscript ink, harvested at a specific time of year. In Korea, oak bark is used to make shingles for traditional roof construction.

New words:

a lobed ">a smooth ">acorn - жёлудь

to mature – спелеть, созревать

disperse – рассеивать, разбрасывать

tannin - танин

tanner – дубильщик

tanning - тонирование

veneer – однослойная фанера

barrel - бочка

dimension - свойство

to char - обжигать

refinement - изысканность

cork – кора пробкового дуба

lumber – пиломатериал, брёвна

fungus – древесная губка, плесень

deteriorate – портиться, разрушаться

gall – чернильный орешек

shingle – кровельная дранка, гонт

Answer the questions:

  1. What species does the genus - oak include?

  2. How many species of an oak exist?

  3. What is called an acorn?

  4. Where can the oak wood be used?

  5. What kind of oak is used in the making of professional drums?

  6. Were Oak galls  used for centuries as the main ingredient in manuscript ink?

  7. In what country oak bark is used to make shingles for traditional roof construction?

  8. In what places does the Cork oak grow?

  9. American oak doesn’t contribute greater texture and resistance to ageing, does it?

  10. Do acorns  use for making flour or roast for acorn coffee?


  1. Pine

Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus /ˈpiːnuːs/, in the family Pinaceae. They are the only genus in the subfamily Pinoideae. Although some authorities claim that there are 115 species of pine, different authorities generally agree that there are between 105 and 125 species.

Pines are native to a majority of the Northern Hemisphere and have been introduced throughout most temperate and subtropical regions of the world where they are grown as timber and cultivated as ornamental plants in parks and gardens.

Pines are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees (or rarely shrubs) growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall. The smallest are Siberian dwarf pine, and the tallest is a 268.35-foot (81.79-meter) tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's National Forest.

The bark of most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaking bark. The branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls", actually a very tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. The spiral growth of branches, needles, and cone scales are arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; they are covered in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward at first, then later turn green and spread outward. Pines are long-lived, typically reaching ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more.

Uses

This section needs additional citations for verification. Pines are among the most commercially important tree species valued for their timber and wood pulp throughout the world. In temperate and tropical regions, they are fast-growing softwoods that will grow in relatively dense stands, their acidic decaying needles inhibiting the sprouting of competing hardwoods. Commercial pines are grown in plantations for timber that is denser, more resinous, and therefore more durable than spruce. Pine wood is widely used in high-value carpentry items such as furniture, window frames, panelling, floors and roofing, and the resin of some species is an important source of turpentine.

Many pine species make attractive ornamental plantings for parks and larger gardens with a variety of dwarf cultivars being suitable for smaller spaces. Pines are also commercially grown and harvested for Christmas trees. Pine cones, the largest and most durable of all conifer cones, are craft favorites. Pine boughs, appreciated especially in wintertime for their pleasant smell and greenery, are popularly cut for decorations.

Some species have large seeds, called pine nuts, that are harvested and sold for cooking and baking. The soft, moist, white inner bark (cambium) found clinging to the woody outer bark is edible and very high in vitamins A and C.

Pine has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health.


New words:

Dwarf – карликовое растение

Ponderosa – громоздкий, увесистый

Scaly - чешуйчатый

Flaking - хлопьеобразный

Whorl – кольцо листьев

Pulp – мякоть плода

Sprouting – отросток, побег

Turpentine – скипидар, живица

Bough - сук

Cling – цепляться, прилипать


Exercises:

  1. Mark the suffixes and prefixes in the words. Define the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.)

Generally, majority, introduced, resinous, reaching, smallest, whitish, verification, commercial, durable, attractive, larger, remedies.


  1. Underline the main parts of speech in the sentences. Translate them.

  1. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly.

  2. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles".

  3. Many pine species make attractive ornamental plantings for parks and larger gardens.

  4. Pine cones, the largest and most durable of all conifer cones, are craft favorites.

  5. This section needs additional citations for verification.


  1. Group the words with the different meaning.

Agree, large, found, unreliable, black, durable, lost, white, high-value, disagree, low-value, small

  1. Control work “Wood research”

  1. Choose the right variant.

  1. _______ is a broadleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula in the family Betulaceae.

  1. cedar c. birch

  2. pine d. larch

  1. _______ is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of which about 600 species exist.

  1. oak c. birch

  2. cedar d. lime

  1. _______ is a conifer in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae.

  1. lime c. pine

  2. cedar d. larch

  1. _______ is a genus of coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae.

  1. oak c. larch

  2. cedar d. birch

  1. _______ is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family.

  1. oak c. pine

  2. silver fir d. ash

  1. _______ is a tree native to the mountains of Europe.

  1. oak c. pine

  2. silver fir d. ash

  1. Translate the sentences.

  1. Extracts of birch are used for flavoring or leather oil, and in cosmetics such as soap or shampoo and also for medicinal purposes.

  2. The higher density of oak gives the drum a brighter and louder tone compared to traditional drum materials such as maple and birch.

  3. Cedar wood and cedar oil are known to be a natural repellent to moths.

  4. The emerald ash borer is a wood-boring beetle accidentally introduced to North America from eastern Asia via solid wood packing material in the late 1980s to early 1990s.

  5. Silver fir is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 40-50 meters tall and with a trunk diameter of up 1.5 meters.



  1. Write the English equivalents for:

Верхушка, запах, опыление, жёлудь, род, плесень, шишка, садоводство, канадская ель, листва.



  1. Open the brackets. Put the verb in the correct form.

  1. Larch is a wood (value) for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities.

  1. values c. have valued

  2. valued d. valuing

  1. Oak (arrange) spirally leaves, with a lobed ; line-height: 115%">arranges c. have arranged

  2. arranged d. arranging

  1. Cedar woods (to be) native to the mountains of the western Himalayas.

  1. to be c. are

  2. is d. am

  1. It (contain) 45-65 species of usually medium to large trees.

  1. contains c. have contained

  2. contained d. containing

  1. The buds from early (grow) full by midsummer.

  1. grows c. is grown

  2. grew d. are grown

  1. Do the magic box. Find 10 words.



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