Данный сборник лекций предназначен для студентов 4 курса металлургических специальностей:
13.02.11 «Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования»
22.02.01 «Металлургия черных металлов»
22.02.05 «Обработка металлов давлением»
15.02.01 «Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация промышленного оборудования»
В сборнике представлены три лекции по наиболее сложным темам программы 4 курса: инфинитив, причастие и герундий. В каждой лекции дан краткий грамматический материал с примерами, что позволяет оценить и проанализировать особенности употребления конструкций. Также большее количество материала представлено на английском языке, что позволяет студента применять ранее изученную лексику.
После каждой лекции идут упражнения, предназначенные для более подробного анализа и закрепления грамматики.
Infinitive Active Passive
Simple to give to be given
Perfect to have given, to have been given
Continuous to be giving
Perfect Continuous to have been giving
In a sentence Infinitive can be:
1) the subject To know him is to love him.
2) a part of a predicate I can play tennis.
3) an attribute There is nobody to help me.
4) an object Where did you learn to speak English?
5) an adverbial modifier You are clever enough to understand it.
The Continuous Infinitive is often used after the verbs: appear; happen; pretend; seem. It is also possible after: agree; arrange; decide; determine; hope; manage; plan and auxiliary verbs.
He seems to be following us.
The Perfect Infinitive is possible after: appear; hope; pretend; seem and auxiliary verbs.
He should have helped her.
Infinitive is used without `to'' after:
- auxiliary verbs We shall help you.
- modal verbs May I come in?
- the verbs expressing senses I heard her sing once.
- `let' (предоставлять), Let me do it myself.
- `make' (заставлять) He made us get up early.
- `help' He will help you do it.
- `nothing but', `can't help but' I could not help but say it.
- `why' and `why not' Why not go to the country?
Exercise 1. Use the infinitives with or without `to'.
1. I think you must . . . do this exercise without a dictionary. 2. What makes you . . . think so. 3. She came up to the door . . . open it. 4. I'm awfully glad . . . have met you. 5. Why not . . . go and see him one of these days? 6. Have you ever heard her . . . sing? 7. It is the only thing . . . do. 8. Why should you . . . go there? 9. They don't allow me . . . smoke here. 10. These are the letters . . . be typed tomorrow. 11. Are you sure he will help us . . . do it? 12. Do not make me . . . do it, I'm awfully short of time. 13. You were right when you told me not . . . leave the party. I am so glad . . . have met her. 14. You don't have . . . worry, I'll . . . do it for you.
Exercise 2. Open the brackets using the correct form of the Infinitive.
1. I'm really pleased (to see) you here. 2. Here are the instructions (to carry out). 3. I'd like (to lie) in the sun right now. 4. I asked (to inform) as soon as there was any news. 5. She didn't know what (to do). 6. When he looked at the elderly lady he remembered (to see) her the day before. 7. He is not (to trust). 8. I am sorry (to keep) you waiting. 9. I am so sorry (to miss) that evening. 10. The girl seems (to sleep).
Exercise 3. Use one of the infinitives in brackets, give two variants
where possible and explain the difference.
1. They want (to discuss/ to have discussed) this project. 2. They were (to come/ to have come) by this time already. 3. We must hurry not (to be late/ to have been late) for the party. 4. The man seemed (to study/ to be studying) me attentively. 5. The only sound (to hear/ to be heard) was the ticking of the old clock downstairs. 6. They are glad (to invite/ to have invited) you for the conference. 7. He is lucky (to be visiting/ to have visited) so many countries. 8. Children like (to tell/ to be told) fairy tales. 9. Is there anything else (to tell/ to be told) him about ? 10. I'm glad (to be given/ to have been given) this book.
Exercise 4. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying attention to the form of the Infinitive.
1. The cause of the increasing use of metals is to be found in their characteristic properties. 2. A computer software programme has been developed to conduct an effective analysis. 3. In the present study this type of alloys have been shown to have better properties. 4. The first metals to be used by primitive men were those that are found free in nature. 5. In considering the chemical properties of metals, the first point to be noted is that they vary widely in degree of chemical activity. 6. Part of the initial motivation to study this problem was to determine how many atoms are required for a tiny lump of material to attain the properties of the bulk solid. 7. To produce desired shapes, such as bars or sheets, the rolling is usually done in two or more rolling operations. 8. Ductility and malleability are qualitative forms describing the relative ability of metals to stand plastic deformation. 9. To refine the structure of the metal is one of the primary reasons for hot mechanical working of steel. 10. The two main reasons for forging steels are to reduce the block of metal to approximately the dimensions of the finished article.
Present Participle (I) - ing
Simple giving being given
Perfect having given having been given
Past Participle (II) -ed (III form of irregular verbs)
open - opened give - given
Past Participle always has a passive meaning.
1. Present Participles can be used as adjectives to describe an action which is still happening.
They watched the burning forest. Они наблюдали за горящим лесом.
На русский язык переводится причастием, деепричастием, определительным или обстоятельственным придаточным предложением.
2. Past Participles can be used as adjectives to describe the result of an action that has happened.
Тhe completed work was given to the teacher. Завершенная работа была передана преподавателю.
Обычно переводится причастием прошедшего времени или страдательным причастием.
3. Participles are often used in participle clauses to describe two actions that happen
a) at the same time: She sat by the fire reading a book.
He went to the party very well dressed.
b) one after another: Opening the bag she took out a purse.
Caught by the boy, the bird tried to fly away.
c) two actions that happen one because of another:
Not knowing what to do I just waited.
4. The subject of a participle need not be the same as the subject of the following verb, but in this case the participle must follow its noun/pronoun. This construction is not connected with the subject of a sentence and has the function of an adverbial modifier:
The day being fine, we decided to go swimming.
Так как день был прекрасным, мы решили искупаться.
Pure iron ranks ninth among the metals in degree of malleability, gold being the most malleable metal known.
По степени ковкости железо занимает девятое место среди металлов, причем золото является самым ковким из известных металлов.
Эти обороты называются независимыми причастными оборотами и переводятся на русский язык придаточными предложениями времени, причины, уступительными, условными с соответствующими союзами. Иногда могут переводиться самостоятельными предложениями с сочинительными союзами причем, а, и и т.д. При этом всегда необходимо помнить о контексте и общем смысле высказывания.
Exercise 1. Use simple or perfect forms of Present Participle.
1. She was sitting in the arm-chair, (to look) through a newspaper. 2. (To get) a letter from an unknown lady, I decided to invite her for a lunch. 3. (To enter) the room he suddenly saw that there were several unknown people in it. 4. Mother stood (to wave) her hand until we drove away. 5. Every day I see them (to pass) the house. 6. Romeo (to believe) that Julia was dead, decided to kill himself. 7. (To be) there twice, she decided to spend her vacation somewhere else. 8. She entered the hall (to accompany) by her mother. 9. (To warn) she decided not to take the risk and stayed at home. 10. Sam ,(to feel) that the interview was over, stood up.
Exercise 2. Use the present or past participle.
1. They watched the (to burn) forest helplessly. 2. The (to complete) letter was in front of him, but he was (to hesitate) to post it. 3. (To have) a shower, she got dressed. 4. He went to visit his aunt (to dress) as a real gentleman. 5. She gave me a drink (to make) of five different fruits. 6. (To advise) to give up work for a while, he undertook a trip to Europe. 7. During the flight I was (to read) a book. 8. He was (to dress) in a blue cotton shirt and a pair of grey trousers, (to spot) with vegetable oil.
Exercise 3. In the following pairs of sentences, the same verb is missing
twice, once used as a present participle and once as a past
participle. Insert the verbs in their correct forms.
1. I fell on ice, . . . my arm. Three people, . . . in an accident, were taken to hospital. (to hurt)
2. The film, . . . by Stephen Spielberg, is expected to be a great hit. They . . . beautiful silverware in Sheffield. (to make)
3. I looked at her, . . . her youth and beauty. This actress, though . . . by everybody, is very shy and modest. (to admire)
4. He walked down the road, . . . a song. This song is usually . . . by him at the beginning of a concert. (to sing)
5. Books . . . out of the library must be returned within 10 days. . . . a book from the shelf she didn't notice that it missed several pages. (to take).
Exercise 4. Participle clauses can express the following ideas:
at the same time; because; after; if; with the result that
Which of the above ideas do the following participle clauses express?
1. Kissing her mother goodbye, she went off to the station. 2. Knowing how much I liked this book, she presented me with it. 3. Awakened early, he had enough time to pack. 4. Having read the book, I went to bed. 5. Having read the book, I knew all about the subject. 6. He left the house saying he would be back by dinner. 7. Taken in three times a day, this medicine will help you in a week. 8. Having spent all our money in the restaurant, we went home.
Exercice 5. Translate into Russian, paying attention to the use of the participles.
1. Alloy is a material consisting of two or more elements. 2. A series of alloys known as aluminium bronzes posess high strength. 3. If worked beyond certain limits, the metal will become very brittle. 4. Depending upon the kind of metal and the final shape desired, one or more rolling operations may be possible. 5. The speed-range depends on the kind of speed-change mechanism used. 6. Engineers of the company designed a press line, believed to be the first of its kind in Britain. 7. Machines and machine products have made possible a standard of living unsurpassed in history. 8. Owing to these methods it has become possible to obtain new mechanical properties of the alloy. 9. The tin strengthens and hardens copper, making it hard and resistant to wear. 10. Iron oxide is the major problem when forging steel. 11. When broken, the material has a black, silken fracture. 12. A piece of steel heated to a bright cherry red and suddenly chilled becomes extremely hard. 13. Manganese, phosphorus, sulphur and silicon are the elements separately and distinctly acting on physical properties of steel. 14. Having found out how to separate the mixture into its components, we understood that we could finish our experiment successfully. 15. Iron and sulphur being ground together, a greenish-black powder is obtained. 16. The atoms in diamond being closer to each other than in graphite, this substance is very hard.
The Gerund has exactly the same form as the present participle:
running; speaking; etc.
The perfect Gerund - having run; having spoken
The passive Gerund - being written; having been written
It can be used:
as subject of a sentence
Developing a new method has taken much time.
Разработка нового метода потребовала много времени.
2) after prepositions:
He is thinking of going abroad this year.
Он думает о том, чтобы поехать за границу в этом году.
She is fond of skating. Она любит кататься на коньках.
3) after certain verbs: admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, keep (continue), mind (object), miss, postpone, prevent, remember (recollect), resist, stop, suggest, understand.
Forgive my interrupting you. I can't prevent his (him) going there.
Извините, что я прерываю вас. Я не могу помешать ему идти туда.
He disliked working late. Do you mind my (me) taking this book?
Он не любит работать допоздна. Вы не возражаете, если я возьму эту
4) The perfect gerund is used when we are referring to a past action:
He denied having been there. Он отрицал, что был там.
5) A number of verbs and prepositions can be followed by posessive adjective/pronoun / noun object + gerund
I insist on his writing a letter immediately. I heard about your brother's going abroad.
Я настаиваю на том, чтобы он немедленно написал письмо. Я слышал, что ваш брат едет за границу.
In less formal English we may not use the possessive case with the gerund:
Forgive me ringing you up so early. I don't remember my brother waking up
Извини, что звоню тебе так рано. Я не помню, чтобы мой брат
так рано вставал.
Gerund переводится на русский язык существительным, деепричастием, инфинитивом или целым предложением.
Exercise 1. Use the correct form of the Gerund.
1. I don't fancy (to go) out this evening. 2. Are you going to give up (to smoke)? 3. He denied (to be) there before. 4. I can't imagine Pat (to ride) a bike. 5. She kept on (to interrupt) me while I was speaking. 6. I don't enjoy (to write) letters. 7. I never thought of (to invite) to their party. 8. He denied ever (to see) those people before. 9. By (to pass) Acts, Parliament can even alter the Constitution. 10. Why do you keep on (to look) at me in this way? 11. Could you please stop (to make) so much noise? 12. When everybody sat down, Harris began (to sing). 13. The boy was afraid of (to leave) alone. 14. I insist on (to listen to) attentively.
Exercise 2. Translate the following dialogues and use the patterns
in the dialogues of your own.
Pat - Do you mind my sitting in your favourite chair?
Liz - Not at all.
Pat - It's so comfortable that I can never resist the temptation of sitting
in it. Those modern things are terribly uncomfortable.
Liz - But they look very nice.
Pat - Oh, yes. I always enjoy looking at them, but I try to avoid sitting
Liz - I know, many people object to their being rather hard.
Paul - Do you think Henry will come to the party tonight?
Bill - I doubt it. He isn't very sociable. He doesn't like meeting strangers
and he hates dancing. He prefers reading. In fact, he prefers books to people.
Paul - But his wife loves dancing and simply adores meeting people.
Bill - That's true. That's why Henry doesn't like her going out alone.
Exercise 3. Use Gerund or Infinitive in the following sentences.
1. I don't mind (to play) cards with you. 2. I would love (to come) to see you tomorrow. 3. I like (to play) tennis. 4. I'd like (to play) tennis today. 5. I very much enjoy (to listen) to folk songs. 6. Please, remember (to post) this letter. 7. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember (to leave) it on the table. 8. Tom helped his mother (to get) the dinner ready. 9. You are free (to go) anywhere you like. 10. I don't mind (to wait). It's better (to be) too early than too late. 11. Before (to deal) with the changes in the smelting procedure, it will be proper (to consider) the way of application of powdered coal as a fuel. 12. The history of culture tells us about the ancients (to make) some chance discoveries. 13. Phosphorous and sulphur are elements (to eliminate) from the molten metal. 14. I did not know of his (to complete) the experiment successfully.
Exercise 4. Translate into Russian, paying attention to gerunds.
1. He didn't enjoy living in London. 2. They are thinking about taking part in this conference. 3. Checking detail is not one of my strong points. 4. I'm afraid she is not used to working so hard. 5. He doesn't regret leaving his well-paid job. 6. She stopped playing the piano, stood up and went out of the room. 7. He had always been interested in playing with engines and motors. 8. I like working with my hands. 9. Translating foreign languages is difficult. 10. They prefer living in the country to living in the town. 11. This coat is rather dirty. It needs cleaning. 12. She left without saying good-bye to anybody. 13. She is not looking forward to doing the exam. 14. We went to a restaurant instead of eating out. 15. Various methods and machines can be used for producing this material. 16. On heating to a higher temperature the carbon diffuses into the still solid iron, thereby increasing its carbon content.
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