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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Сборник самостоятельных работ по учебной дисциплине «Иностранный язык» Специальность СПО: 42.02.01 «Реклама»

Сборник самостоятельных работ по учебной дисциплине «Иностранный язык» Специальность СПО: 42.02.01 «Реклама»



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Областное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

Среднего профессионального образования

Томский индустриальный техникум






Сборник самостоятельных работ


по учебной дисциплине

«Иностранный язык»



Специальность СПО: 42.02.01 «Реклама»



Разработчик: Илюшникова Е.А.





Томск – 2015г



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


Пояснительная записка 3

Методические рекомендации для выполнения

самостоятельной работы 5

Критерии оценивания 6

Задания для внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы студентов: 7

Самостоятельная работа 1 7

Самостоятельная работа 2 10

Самостоятельная работа 3 13

Самостоятельная работа 4 16

Самостоятельная работа 5 20

Самостоятельная работа 6 23

Самостоятельная работа 7 28

Самостоятельная работа 8 31

Список используемой литературы 33

ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Внеаудиторная самостоятельная учебная деятельность - это вид учебной деятельности, которую студент совершает индивидуально или в группе без непосредственной помощи и указаний преподавателя, руководствуясь сформированными представлениями о порядке и правильности выполнения работ.

Основная цель методических указаний состоит в обеспечении студентов необходимыми сведениями, методиками и алгоритмами для успешного выполнения самостоятельной работы, в формировании устойчивых навыков и умений по разным аспектам обучения английскому языку, позволяющих самостоятельно решать учебные задачи, выполнять разнообразные задания, преодолевать наиболее трудные моменты в отдельных видах СРС.

Цели самостоятельной работы:

развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции;

формирование лексико - грамматических навыков;

развитие устной и письменной речи;

развитие и воспитание способности и готовности к самостоятельному и непрерывному изучению иностранного языка;

систематизация и закрепление полученных теоретических знаний и практических умений;

овладение новыми языковыми средствами в соответствии с отобранными темами и сферами общения: увеличение объема используемых лексических единиц.

формирование умений использовать справочную и учебную литературу

Виды самостоятельной работы:

составление монологических и диалогических высказываний;

выполнение лексико-грамматических упражнений;

внеаудиторная работа с текстом.

Самостоятельная работа может осуществляться индивидуально или группами студентов в зависимости от цели, объема, конкретной тематики самостоятельной работы, уровня сложности, уровня подготовленности обучающихся.

Контроль результатов внеаудиторной самостоятельной работы обучающихся может осуществляться в пределах времени, отведенного на обязательные учебные занятия по дисциплине, и может проходить в письменной или устной форме, с предоставлением продукта творческой деятельности.

В качестве форм и методов контроля ВСР применяются:

устный опрос;

контрольная работа;

проверка перевода иностранных текстов;

тестовый контроль.

Данный сборник для самостоятельной работы целесообразно использовать совместно с рабочей учебной программой, входящую в общий гуманитарный и социально-экономический цикл по специальности «Реклама». При работе с данным сборником у обучающихся формируются и отрабатываются следующие общие компетенции: осуществлять поиск, анализ и оценку информации, необходимой для постановки и решения профессиональных задач, профессионального и личностного развития; использовать информационно-коммуникационные технологии для совершенствования профессиональной деятельности; ориентироваться в условиях частой смены технологий в профессиональной деятельности; работать в коллективе и команде, обеспечивать ее сплочение, эффективно общаться с коллегами, руководством, потребителями. Наряду с общими компетенциями, отрабатываются профессиональные компетенции: осуществлять поиск рекламных идей, составлять и оформлять тексты рекламных объявлений, выявлять требования целевых групп потребителей на основе анализа рынка, взаимодействовать с заказчиком в ходе выполнения и сдачи рекламного проекта, осуществлять поиск оптимальных технологий для реализации рекламного продукта.

Учебное пособие по дисциплине Иностранный язык содержит 69 часов самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы, время выполнения определяется учебной программой по данной специальности.



МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ДЛЯ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ ВНЕАУДИТОРНОЙ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

Методические рекомендации по самостоятельной работе над устной речью

( монологическое и диалогическое высказывание)

Работу по подготовке устного монологического высказывания по определенной теме следует начать с изучения тематических текстов-образцов. В первую очередь необходимо выполнить фонетические, лексические и лексико-грамматические упражнения по изучаемой теме, усвоить необходимый лексический материал, прочитать и перевести тексты-образцы. Затем на основе изученных текстов нужно подготовить связное изложение, включающее наиболее важную и интересную информацию. При этом необходимо произвести обработку материала для устного изложения с учетом индивидуальных возможностей и предпочтений студента, а именно:

1) заменить трудные для запоминания и воспроизведения слова известными лексическими единицами:

All people are proud of their magnificent capital - All people are proud of their great capital;

2) сократить «протяженность» предложений:

Culture is a term used by social scientists for a people’s whole way of life.

Culture is a term used for the whole people’s way of life.

3) упростить грамматическую (синтаксическую) структуру предложений:

I felt I was being watched I felt somebody was watching me.

4) произвести смысловую (содержательную) компрессию текста: сократить объем текста до оптимального уровня (не менее 12-15 предложений).

Обработанный для устного изложения текст необходимо записать в рабочую тетрадь, прочитать несколько раз вслух, запоминая логическую последовательность освещения темы, и пересказать.



Методические рекомендации по самостоятельной работе с текстом


Правильное понимание и осмысление прочитанного текста, извлечение информации, перевод текста базируются на навыках по анализу иноязычного текста, умений извлекать содержательную информацию из форм языка. При работе с текстом на английском языке рекомендуется руководствоваться следующими общими положениями:

  1. Работу с текстом следует начать с чтения всего текста: прочитайте текст, обратите внимание на его заголовок, постарайтесь понять, о чем сообщает текст.

  2. Затем приступите к работе на уровне отдельных предложений.

  3. Переведите письменно текст, используя словарь.

КРИТЕРИИ ОЦЕНИВАНИЯ ВНЕАУДИТОРНОЙ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ОБУЧАЮЩИХСЯ

Критериями оценки результатов внеаудиторной самостоятельной деятельности обучающихся являются:

-уровень усвоения учебного материала; - умение обучающегося использовать теоретические знания при выполнении практических задач; - обоснованность и четкость изложения ответа; - оформление материала в соответствии с требованиями.

Критерии оценки письменных развернутых ответов

Баллы

Критерии оценки

«5»

Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, применение лексики адекватно коммуникативной задаче, грамматические ошибки либо отсутствуют, либо не препятствуют решению коммуникативной задачи

«4»

Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, но понимание текста незначительно затруднено наличием грамматических и/или лексических ошибок.

«3»

Коммуникативная задача решена, но понимание текста затруднено наличием грубых грамматических ошибок или неадекватным употреблением лексики.

«2»

Коммуникативная задача не решена ввиду большого количества лексико-грамматических ошибок или недостаточного объема текста.


Критерии оценки устных развернутых ответов

Баллы

Коммуникативное взаимодействие

Произношение

Лексико-грамматическая правильность речи

«5»

Адекватная естественная реакция на реплики собеседника. Проявляется речевая инициатива для решения поставленных коммуникативных задач.

Речь звучит в естественном темпе, учащийся не делает грубых фонетических ошибок.

Лексика адекватна ситуации, редкие

грамматические ошибки не мешают коммуникации.

«4»

Коммуникация затруднена, речь учащегося неоправданно паузирована

В отдельных словах допускаются фонетические ошибки (например замена, английских фонем сходными русскими).

Общая интонация в

большой степени обусловлена влиянием родного языка.

Грамматические и/или

лексические ошибки заметно влияют на восприятие речи учащегося.

«3»

Коммуникация существенно затруднена, учащийся не проявляет речевой инициативы.

Речь воспринимается с трудом из-за большого количества

фонетических ошибок .Интонация обусловлена влиянием родного языка.

Учащийся делает большое кол-во грубых грамматических

и/или лексических

ошибок.


Self-educated work I (8 hours)


I. Read the following words and expressions.

technique – приём

commercial – реклама

therefore – поэтому

identify – определять

selling message – довод в пользу приобретения рекламируемого товара

copy – рекламный текст

human – человек

process – обрабатывать

however – однако

even though – даже если

psychological – психологический

appeal – призыв , довод, мотив, концепция

confident – уверенный


II. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. What can you tell about time and space limits in advertising?

2. Why does advertising often break the rules of grammar, image and

society?

3. What parts does an advertisement have?

4. What does the advertiser take into account presenting the sales message?

5. How do humans process the information (copy, drawings and paintings)?

6. Why is a photograph an efficient advertising technique?

7. What are the two basic ways of presenting a sales message?

8. How do TV commercials differ from ads in magazines or newspapers?

9. Is emotional presentation often used in effective ads?

10. What needs does the ad with emotional presentation focus on?


BASIC ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES


1. One of the first principles that you must understand in advertising is that it is limited in both time and space. Television and radio commercials are usually only 10 to 60 seconds long. Print ads are usually no larger than two pages, and usually much smaller. Therefore, an advertisement must do its job quickly. It must get the consumer's attention, identify the product, and deliver the selling message in a small time or space. In order to do this, advertising often breaks the rules of grammar, image, and even society.

2. The second basic point is that advertisements usually have two parts: copy and illustrations. Copy refers to the words in the advertisement. These words give the sales message. Illustrations are the pictures or photographs. Most ads are a combination of copy and illustration. Some advertisements have small illustrations and a lot of copy. Some are only an illustration with the name of the product.

3. The decision about how much copy and illustration to use depends on how the advertiser wants to present the sales message. Understanding how advertisers make this decision is complex. First you must understand how humans process, or work with, information because we do not process all kinds of information in the same way. We process some kinds of information intellectually. In other words, we think about the information in order to

understand it. We process other kinds of information emotionally. This means we use feelings rather than thinking to understand the information.

4. We generally process copy in ads intellectually. That is because both reading and listening are thinking processes. These thinking processes translate symbols (written words) or sounds (spoken words) into meaning. Of course, words, especially if they are spoken, can be very emotional — they can bring memories that make you laugh or cry. However, even though spoken words are often very emotional, we must first translate them. In other words, we do not see words as reality.

5. The mind also interprets drawings and paintings intellectually. Like words, drawings and paintings are not the things themselves, but an artist's idea of them. The viewer must translate the lines, colors and shapes into meaning. Illustrations can have a lot of emotion, but again they are not reality.

6. In order to understand this idea better, think of a well-know painting such as The 3rd of May 1808 in Madrid: The Executions on Principe Pio Hill by Goya. This painting upsets many people. However, think of the same scene in a photograph. Most people would find the photograph even more disturbing. That is because we process photographs emotionally. To us, they are real. Therefore, photographs do not need translation. Research supports this idea. It shows that photographs attract more readers, are more believable and remembered better than illustrations.

7. Just as there are two kinds of mental processes, there are two basic ways of presenting a sales message: intellectually and emotionally. An intellectual presentation uses ideas to get a consumer to buy a product or service. For example, computer buyers usually do not think about what the machine looks like or the effect it might have on their social life. They are looking for technical information. How fast does the computer work? How large is its memory?

8. Advertisements that present a message intellectually have a lot of copy. The copy explains the uses and benefits of the product or service. In addition, such ads are not usually seen on television because television ads are very short. It requires time and careful thinking to understand a message which contains a lot of ideas. These kinds of ads usually appear in magazines or newspapers where the consumer has unlimited time to process the information.

9. Ads with an intellectual presentation usually have few illustrations. If they have any illustrations, they will probably be drawings or paintings. In this way, both parts of the ad are processed in the same way. If they have photographs, the photographs will usually be simple, with little emotional content, usually showing only what the product looks like.

10. The second basic way to present a sales message is emotionally. In an emotional presentation, the use of the product is often not the most important sales message. Instead, the ad focuses on the buyer's social, psychological or economic needs. For example, an emotional ad may show how the product or service will make the consumers’ social life better by increasing their appeal, making them feel more confident, or making them rich. Some of the most effective ads today are ones that use an emotional presentation.

III. Translate Parts 1, 2 and 3 into Russian in the written form.


IV. Write out from the text all advertising terms. Use them in your own sentences.


V. Give the main advantages and disadvantages of

a) television commercials;

b) radio commercials;

c) print ads.


VI. Compare Russian and foreign commercials you often see

over TV. (Write 5-8 sentences)


VII. What will you as a prospective advertising agent tell the

viewers who are annoyed by the aggressively increasing TV

advertising? (Write 5-8 sentences)











Self-educated work II (8 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

durable goods – товары длительного пользования

flagship brands – лидирующие марки

detergent – моющее средство

reason – причина

brand consistency – постоянство (неизменность ) марки

obstacle – препятствие

unprocessed food – непереработанные продукты

prohibit – запрещать

acceptable – приемлемый , допустимый

partial nudity – полуобнажённая фигура


II. Read the text and answer the questions.


1. What goods and brands are known across borders?

2. Are the marketing strategy and ad campaign of such goods different or the same in different countries?

3. Can you give examples of products, which have standardized marketing campaigns?

4. What advertisements are used in global marketing?

5. Do global media help to create a global market?

6. Does international travel promote global marketing?

7. Is a standardized approach suitable for marketing unprocessed food?

8. What strategies are usually used for this kind of product?

9. What variations in advertising the product may be observed in different countries?

10. How does advertising in Asia differ from that in Europe?

11. Should ads reflect local culture?

12. Do you think that foreign commercials may lead to the colonization of Russian culture?

GLOBAL MARKETING AND ADVERTISING


There are some products that can be marketed around the globe without much variation in the marketing strategy or ad campaign. These are usually durable goods that vary little between markets (e.g., machine parts) or flagship brands that are known across borders. One example of such a brand is Coca-Cola. Coke uses the same strategy from country to country and it often uses the same commercial, just translating them into different languages. Other products that have standardized marketing campaigns include Unilever detergents, Marlboro cigarettes, Perrier water, Kellogg's Frosted Flakes, Pond's skin creams, Ajax cleaners, Canada Dry mixers, Exxon oil, Levi's blue jeans, and British Airways. This trend toward

standardized marketing is growing. Reasons There are several reasons why companies are turning to global marketing. First of all, it is less expensive. It saves time and money if a company only needs to translate its advertisements in different markets. Second, a unified market is growing across country borders. This market is created in part by global media, such as Rupert Murdoch's Sky Channel, Ted Turner's TBS channel, CNN, and Music Box and MTV, which are both music video channels show the same programs everywhere. A new generation of consumers follows the same trends whether they live in Sweden or Colombia. Third, as consumers increase their international travel, companies want them to

recognize their products across country lines. As the world gets smaller, companies try to maintain brand consistency. Obstacles There are, however, obstacles to the global strategy. Some of the obstacles

relate to the products themselves. Certain products, such as unprocessed foods, are difficult to market through a standardized approach. People don't change eating habits readily. Companies usually need to use local strategies for this kind of product. Other obstacles relate to the ad campaigns. Some countries limit or altogether prohibit commercials on TV. A company that depends on a standardized TV ad may have to adapt its ad to other media in these countries. Also many countries require local participation in advertisements so that often ads must be remade locally. Countries also vary on what they consider acceptable advertising material. In the United States and Asia, partial nudity in general advertising is not acceptable; in Western Europe it is. Finally, some countries prohibit advertisements that do not reflect local culture, as they fear colonization of the local culture.

III. Use the following words and word combinations in your own sentences (or reproduce the sentences with them from the text).


Market round the globe, durable goods, flagship brands, unified market, global media, follow the trend, maintain brand consistency, prohibit commercials on TV, acceptable advertising material, colonization of the local culture.


IV. How you as a prospective ad maker can answer the following questions? (Write 3-5 sentences on each of them)


1. In what way do you think TV contributes to a global market?

2. Do you know any other recent technical developments that contribute to rapid world communication? How will these new developments affect the new global market?

3. What age group often is the target of global marketing? As this market grows older do you think it will continue to have uniform tastes? Why don't the companies try to market to the older generations?

4. Has your government tried to restrict any advertising campaigns? What do you think of such restrictions?

5. Do you think global marketing and advertising can affect local culture? If so how?

6. Do you think local culture can be expressed in advertising? If so, how?


V. What is your idea of an effective ad (commercial)? Give an example and the arguments to support your choice. (3-5 sentences)






























Self-educated work III (6 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

pin down the meaning – определить значение

vague word – слово с расплывчатым значением

excellence – высокое качество , превосходство

define – определять

selling points – характеристики товара

durability – прочность, долговечность

craftsmanship – высокое качество исполнения

dependability – надёжность

virtue – достоинство , хорошее качество

emphasize – подчёркивать

manufactured goods – промышленные товары


II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. Why is it difficult to define the word quality?

2. What does this word mean to different people?

3. Why does the meaning of this word change over the years?

4. What points were emphasized in the ad of 1897?

5. What points are emphasized now?

WHAT QUALITY MEANS


Even the dictionary finds it difficult to pin down the meaning of the word quality. It has to use other vague words like excellence. Why is quality so hard to define? Is it because it is such an abstract word and can mean so many different things? Or because its meaning depends so much on what it describes? How can you define high quality when applied to the things you buy, for example, a pop record, a pair of shoes, a meal in a restaurant? You'll probably have three different definitions of quality for the three different things. Quality is also hard to define because it can be such a subjective word – it means quite different things to different people, even when they use the word to describe the same thing. A Pink Floyd album may in your view have quality, but your friend may consider that the same album is a waste of good money. Yet another problem is that the meaning of quality changes over the years.

Things which you think have quality may not be seen in the same way by older people. Just ask your grandmother what she thinks of the Stones? For example, consider the two ads. Both advertise clothes for men. Advertisers stress the points which they think sell quality to prospective buyers. The selling points that are stressed in 1897 ad are durability, craftsmanship, dependability, tradition. What about the ideas of quality in the present-day ad? Present-day ads do not talk about tradition or craftsmanship, dependability or durability. They stress the virtues of newness, of being different, sometimes of being way out. Cheapness may be, emphasized too, the fact that almost everyone can afford the product. Does this mean that quality in manufactured goods is disappearing now that most things are mass-produced?

III. Look through the text and find all sentences with the word “quality” in them.


IV. Look through the text and find the endings of the following sentences:

1. A Pink Floyd album may...

2. The selling points which are stressed...

3. Yet another problem is that...

4. Advertisers stress the point...

5. Things which you think have quality...

6. Cheapness may be emphasized...


V. Translate the text into Russian in the written form.


VI. Put the following sentences into the order in which they occur in the text.

1. Advertisers stress the points which they think sell quality.

2. Quality is an abstract word.

3. Most things are now mass-produced.

4. The word quality may mean different things to different people.

5. There may be three definitions of quality for three different things.


VII. Ask questions about the words underlined.

1. Quality is hard to define because it can be such a subjective word.

2. Even the dictionary finds it difficult to pin down the meaning of the word quality.

3. Things which you think have quality may not be seen in the same way by older people.

4. Both ads advertise clothes for men.

5. Your friend may consider that the same album is a waste of good money.


VIII. Suffix – ness is used to form, from adjectives and particles,

nouns denoting quality or state. Form nouns from the following words.

good – good –ness

dark — hard — bright —

black — abstract — strange —

cheap — subjective — alone —

new — together — same —

vague – close — prepared —


IX. Test your memory. What’s the English for the following words?


a) превосходство , взгляд (точка зрения), (бесполезная) трата , достоинство

( добродетель), пункт, дешевизна , товары, альбом, пластинка,

долговечность , реклама, надежность;

b) определять , считать (рассматривать), применять , подчеркивать ,

означать , позволять себе, производить , тратить , значить , выделять

( подчеркивать ), продавать , покупать;

c) будущий (предполагаемый ), смутный , субъективный , дешевый ,

массового производства , отличный , абстрактный , определенный


X. Answer the following questions in the written form.

1. Do you know a good thing when you see one?

2. What influences your opinion about various things? Is it mass media, opinions of your friends and relatives or is it your own ideas?

3. Do you and your parents have a similar idea of quality?

4. On what points defining quality do you disagree with your parents?

5. Which points would you stress if you were to buy clothes/ electric appliances/music records?

6. Can you explain what quality of life means?

7. What things are important to quality of education?

8. Do you read papers that contain advertising only? Which papers do you look through?

9. What do you think of TV advertising? What are your favourite ads on TV?

10. Many experts say that Russian viewers find western ads silly. Do you also think so? Why?


XI. State your ideas on advertising. (Write 5-10 sentences)


XII. Translate into Russian, learn by heart and comment on the following:

1. ‘Advertisements contain the only truths to be relied on in a newspaper.’ (Thomas Jefferson, 1819)

2. ‘Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, and the trouble is I don’t know which half.’ (Confessions of an advertising man)

Self-educated work IV ( 6 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

content – 1) содержание ; 2) чувство удовлетворения

discontent – недовольство , неудовлетворенность

is destined to be – суждено быть

mainstream – основное направление, главная линия

tough – трудно

viable – жизнеспособный ; зд. возможный

captivate – пленять , очаровывать , увлекать

sprawl – расползаться во все стороны

thrive – процветать , преуспевать

content provider – поставщик оперативной информации, контент провайдер, копирайтер

content company – поставляющая оперативную информацию компания,

контент компания, консалтинговая компания

long-term (short-term) – долгосрочный (краткосрочный )

high-volume site – информационный портал

online magazine – сетевой журнал

slate – ам. список кандидатов (на выборах и т.п.)

charge a subscription – проводить подписку

initial target – первоначальная цель

break even – компенсировать затраты

anticipate – предвидеть

haul – рейс

immediate profits – скорые прибыли

stake out – следить за

turf – беговая дорожка (на ипподроме ), скачки

promote brand names – продвигать фирменные знаки

conduct transaction – осуществить сделку

eliminate middlemen – обойтись без посредников

break through – осуществить прорыв

retailer – продавец, торгующий в розницу

figure out – вычислять

capture – захватить

revenue – годовой доход, денежные поступления

downloading pages – загрузочные страницы

trump – превзойти

electronic tablet – карманный компьютер

II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. Is Internet the dominant form of media now?

2. When will it be easy for publishers to make money on the Web?

3. What can help make money on the Internet?

4. How do content companies get profits?

5. Is it difficult for sites with modest audiences to do well?

6. When did Bill Gates’company start charging a subscription?

7. Is it easy or not for new print publications to break even?

8. Are immediate profits the only reasons to operate Web sites?

9. What sites are succeeding financially?

10. Can you prove that book business is important?

11. Does Internet help to reach consumers interested in computers?

12. What problem does the print media have?

13. When will the situation for the content providers improve?

14. How will digital television help Web’s content providers?

15. What makes Bill Gates think that Internet content will trump everything

else?

THE INTERNET: CONTENT OR DISCONTENT?

By Bill Gates

1. The Internet is destined to be the dominant form of media, but until it becomes mainstream several years from now it will be tough for publishers to make money on the Web. Too much information is being given away to make selling content viable; and the audience is still too small to captivate advertisers. "Content is where I expect much of the real money will be made on the Internet, just as it was in broadcasting," I declared at the beginning of 1996. "The television revolution that began half a century ago spawned a number of industries, including the manufacturing of TV sets, but the long-term winners

were those who used the medium to deliver information and entertainment." I still think that's true, but it certainly hasn't happened yet. Fortunately, I warned that it would take time.

"For the Internet to thrive, content providers must be paid for their work," I wrote "The long-term prospects are good, but I expect a lot of disappointment in the short-term as content companies struggle to make money through advertising or subscriptions. It isn't working yet, and it may not for some time."

2. CNN, USA Today, and MSNBC operate very high-volume sites, but they don't turn much of a profit yet. Eventually they will make money because rising water will float some boats.

But Internet advertising will probably have to increase by another factor before even the busiest sites make much from ads. Doing well will be even tougher for sites that have modest audiences. Some will succeed in a big way, but not soon. After offering the online magazine SLATE free on the Web for two years, my company started charging a subscription in the spring of 1998. Before long we'd reached our initial target of 20,000 paying subscribers, but that's only about a tenth the number we need to make the magazine viable. New print publications often take years to break even. Michael.,. Kinsley, the founder and editor of SLATE, and I both anticipate that profits are years away. We're in this for the long haul.

3. There are reasons to operate Web sites other than immediate profits. Companies publishing on the Web are staking out their turf. They are learning. They are using the Web to promote brand names and products. Some sites are succeeding financially already. These are sites that conduct transactions and use the power of the Internet to eliminate middlemen and drive down costs. My company's Expedia site sells a lot of airline seats and hotel stays, for example. Some Web sites have done well, at least among investors, by distributing content or guiding people to content. Yahoo and AOL are successfully building

brand names and more or less breaking even financially. This puts them in a much stronger position than pure content providers. Content has never been a particularly profitable business, except for a few leading companies and individuals. Not much money is made in books, for example. Some authors break through with their "brand" and make a lot of

money but the vast majority of authors do not.

4. The book business is tremendously important. It makes it possible for anybody to spend a few dollars for an immense amount of information. The book industry greases the world, but few authors, publishers, distributors, or retailers ever figure out how to get much out of it financially. Some Web content companies will make serious money, but most won't.

One of the relatively successful content areas so far has been the online delivery of information about the computer industry. The Internet is an ideal way to reach consumers interested in computers, so advertisers have been willing to support some of these sites.

But the computer trade press, and to some extent the rest of the print media, have a problem. As Web publications improve, subscriptions and advertisements will begin to fall in print publications. Publishers who treat a Web edition as a ">Online publications that don't have print editions aren't immune. They still have substantial cost structures because consumers expect news to be up-to-date seven days a week, 24 hours a day - even though the news is free.

5. For the biggest and best of the Web's content providers, the situation will improve a lot as the Web becomes mainstream. Digital television will help. People will start thinking about going to Web sites once they're easily available on their television sets. Sites may capture

some of the revenue going to television networks today. Computers will get easier to use. They'll turn on instantly. Dialing up an Internet service provider and downloading pages will become unnecessary once Internet connections persist 24 hours a day. New approaches will make it unnecessary for people to remember more than one password, regardless of how many sites they connect to. The Web content business will really get exciting when you're able to carry an inexpensive electronic tablet with you that connects wirelessly to the Internet. You'll be able lo look up anything: "Let's go to a movie tonight. Oh, OK. Let's

go to a restaurant." At that point, Internet content will trump everything else. Until then, it's a

waiting game.

III. Translate Parts 1, 2 and 3 into Russian in the written form.


IV. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations.


The dominant form of media, mainstream, broadcasting, deliver information and entertainment, long-term prospects, operate high-volume sites, online magazine, operate Web sites, succeed, investor, vast majority of, tremendously important, immense amount of information, to some extent, the rest of the print media, treat a Web edition as, substantial cost structures, available, television networks, instantly, dialing up, regardless of, persist,

password, connect wirelessly, look up.


V. Comment on the following statements. (Write 3-5 sentences)


1. The Internet is destined to be the dominant form of media.

2. It is easy to make money on the Web.

3. Not much money is made in books.

4. The Internet is an ideal way to reach consumers.


VI. Do you and your friends often go to Web sites? Write about

your work in the Internet. (5-8 sentences)


VII. Ask Bill Gates 5 questions on the future of the Internet (on

the Internet revolution).











Self-educated work V ( 6 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

advertising copy - рекламный текст

product trial - пробное использование товара

product adoption - восприятие товара

message content - содержание обращения

advertising message - рекламное обращение

information element - элемент информации

feature - (характерная) черта , деталь, особенность , признак, свойство

appeal - призыв , довод, мотив, концепция

ad appeal - идея рекламы, рекламная концепция

sex appeal - мотив сексуальной привлекательности

ad slogan - рекламный девиз, слоган

offering - предложение

wear - износ, изнашивание

creative people -творческие работники

premise - предпосылка , исходное условие

theme line – основная мысль, лейтмотив

consumer magazine - потребительский журнал

logo - логотип

layout - макет, план, схема

visibility - видимость , различимость, обзорность


II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. What is the central element of an advertising program?

2. What is the advertising copy?

3. What elements does every advertising message include?

4. What does common advertising appeal include?

5. What do fear appeals suggest to the consumer?

6. What do sex appeals suggest to the consumer?

7. What product categories can be found?

8. What do humorous appeals imply?

9. Is the use of humor widespread in advertising?

10. What do the "creative people" do?

11. Is it costly and time consuming?

12. How much do high-quality TV commercials typically cost?

WRITING THE COPY

1. The central element of an advertising program is the advertising copy, the messages that the target audience is intended to see (as in magazines, newspapers, and TV) or hear (as in radio and TV). This usually involves identifying the key benefits of the product that are deemed important to a prospective buyer in making trial and adoption decisions.

2. Message Content. Every advertising message is made up of both informational and persuasional elements. These two elements, in fact, are so entwined that it is sometimes difficult to tell them apart. For example, basic information contained in many ads such as the product name, benefits, features, and price are presented in a way that tries to attract attention and encourage purchase. On the other hand, even the most persuasive advertisements have to contain at least some basic information to be successful.

Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. Although the marketer can use many different types of appeals, common advertising appeals include fear appeals, sex appeals, and humorous appeals.

3. Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of the product. Life insurance companies often try to show the negative effects of premature death on the relatives of those who don't carry enough life insurance. The famous advertising slogan of "ring around the collar" shows that others will be repelled if they observe a person with a stained collar. When using fear appeals, the advertiser must be sure that the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's attention and concern but not so strong that it will lead them to "tune out" the message.

4. In contrast, sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. Sex appeals can be found in almost any product category from automobiles to toothpaste. Unfortunately, many commercials that use sex appeals are only successful at gaining the attention of the audience; they have little impact on how consumers think, feel, or act. Some advertising experts even argue that such appeals get in the way of successful communication by distracting the audience from the purpose of the ad.

5. Humorous appeals imply either directly or more subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors' offerings. As with fear and sex appeals, the use of humor is widespread in advertising and can be found in many product categories. Unfortunately for the advertiser, humor tends to wear out quickly, thus boring the consumer.

6. Creating the Actual Message. The "creative people," or copywriters, in an advertising agency have the responsibility to turn appeals and features such as quality, style, dependability, economy, and service into attention-getting, believable advertising copy. This often relies on creative use of fear, sex, humor, sound, or visual effects. A relatively new upstart among advertising agencies “Fallen. McElligott, Inc. (FM)” was designated as advertising Age magazine's Agency of the Year by using wit, irreverence, and shock in its advertising copy. Its basic premise: with the hundreds of advertising impressions most of us see every day, use creative ads - not bombardment— to get the target audience's attention.

7. FM's newspaper ad for ITT Life Insurance Corporation, promoting term over whole-life insurance policies, proclaimed, "Your whole life is a mistake." For newspaper and TV ads for the Wall Street Journal FM came up with the theme line "The daily diary of the American dream." Its magazine ad for Lee jeans situated among the many four-color ads in consumer magazines— is a snapshot picture of a second in the life of a Lee jeans wearer and is shown in striking black and white, except for the tiny Lee logo in the corner." Translating the copywriter's ideas into an actual advertisement is also a complex process. Performing quality artwork, layout, and production for the advertisements is costly and time consuming. High-quality TV commercials typically cost about $125,000 to produce a 30-second ad, a task done by about 2,000 small commercial production companies across the United States. High-visibility commercials can be even more expensive: two 15-second Rolaids

commercials involved $500.000 and 75 people over a 6-month period. About 70 "takes" are necessary, and typical, to get things "right!"


III. Give English equivalents. Make up sentences with them.

лицо или организация, имеющая товар и желающая его

продать

потребитель

покупатель, закупщик

рекламодатель

пользователь, потребитель

конкурент, соперник

IV. Give Russian equivalents. Make up sentences with them.

Copy, message, target audience, benefit, buyer, message content, product

name, features, attract, appeal, consumer, marketer, slogan, user, impact,

competitor, advertiser, copywriter, layout.


V. Translate Parts 1 and 2 into Russian in the written form.











Self-educated work VI (16 hours)


I. Read the following words and expressions.

Television

medium - 1) среда; 2) канал коммуникации или средство передачи

информации от отправителя к получателю

communicate - 1) общаться; 2) передавать информацию

print advertisement - печатная реклама

prime-time program - программы, передаваемые во время массового

просмотра передач (с 7 до 10 часов вечера)

wasted coverage - бесполезный охват

network - 1) сеть вещательных станций, объединенных в единый комплекс;

2) несколько различных средств массовой информации, продаваемых

рекламодателю для размещения рекламы как единого блока

coverage - 1) охват; 2) зона действия; 3) репортаж, освещение событий (в

печати , по радио )

Radio

market segment - сегмент рынка

peak radio listening time - пиковое время

Magazines

special interest publication - специальное издание

ad page - рекламная полоса , страница рекламы

audience profile - профиль аудитории (демографическая характеристика

аудитории, на которую рассчитано рекламное объявление)

media buyer - специалист по закупке места или времени в средствах

рекламы, закупщик средств рекламы

pop-up ad - «подпрыгивающее» объявление , объявление , поднимающееся

со страницы (с вырезанными из фона или наклеенными на фон

элементами, которые поднимаются при раскрытии разворота издания)

Newspaper

distributor - дистрибьютор, агент по продаже; оптовый торговец

advertising costs - расходы на рекламу, рекламные издержки

cooperative advertising program - совместная рекламная программа (обычно

производителя и сферы торговли )

Direct mail

audience selectivity - избирательность аудитории

direct mail - реклама по почте

mailing list - рассылочный список, адресный список, список адресатов

junk-mail - почтовая макулатура (материалы прямой почтовой рекламы, не

представляющие с точки зрения получателя никакой ценности)


II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. What advertising medium reaches extremely large audience and uses picture, print, sound and motion for effect?

2. What advertising medium has high possibility of low cost but is criticized as a traffic hazard?

3. What advertising medium can use sound, humor, intimacy effectively but has short exposure time and perishable message?

4. What advertising medium can convey complex information but competes for attention with other magazine features?

5. What advertising medium can't control ad position on page but has quick consumer response?

6. What advertising medium is best for targeting specific audiences and very feeble but often seen as "junk mail"?

DIFFERENT MEDIA ALTERNATIVES


1. Television. Television is a valuable medium because it communicates with both sight and sound. Print advertisements could never give you the sense of the Mazda RX-7 sports car cornering at the speed of sound. In addition, network television is the only medium that can reach 95 percent of the homes in the United States. Television's major disadvantage is cost: the cost of a prime-time 30-second network spot is now as much as $400000. Because of these high charges, there has been a growing trend toward reducing the length of the standard commercial from 30 seconds to 15 seconds. This practice, referred to as splitting 30's, reduces costs but severely restricts the amount of information that can be

conveyed. These 15-second ads now represent a third of all network commercials. Another problem with television is the likelihood of wasted coverage — having people outside the market for the product see the advertisement. In recent years the cost and wasted coverage problems of TV have been reduced through the introduction of cable TV, whose advertising time is often less expensive than the prime time on major networks. This often allows

far greater control over who sees the advertisement.

2. Radio. There are seven times as many radio stations as television stations in the United States. The major advantage of radio is it's a segmented medium. There is the Farm Radio Network, the Physician's Network, all-talk shows, and punk rock stations, all listened to by different market segments. The average college student is a surprisingly heavy radio listener and spends more time during the day listening to radio than watching television — 1 hour 56 minutes versus 1 hour 20 minute. So advertisers with college students as their target market must consider radio. The disadvantage of radio is that it has limited use for products that must be seen. Another problem is the ease with which consumers can tune out a commercial by switching stations. Radio is a medium that competes for people's

attention as they do other activities such as driving, working, or relaxing. Peak radio listening time is during the drive times (6 to 10 am and 4 to 7 pm).

3. Magazines. One of the fastest-growing media in the United States is magazines. The marketing advantage of this medium is the great number of special interest publications that appeal to defined segments. Runners read Running, sailors buy Sail, gardeners peruse Organic Gardening, and craftspeople subscribe to Woodworking. Over 200 publications cater to the computer industry, and high-tech companies filled about one-fourth of the ad

pages in Fortune, Forbes, Business Week, and Dun's. Each magazine's readers

often represent a unique profile. So a manufacturer of ski equipment that places an ad in Rolling Stone may be reaching the desired target audience. In addition to the distinct audience profiles of magazines, good color production is an advantage. Rolling Stone has had a perception problem: many prospective advertisers in the magazine saw it as a magazine read only by 1960's-era hippies. To alter this misperception, it developed a series of "Perception-Reality" ads targeted at its prospective advertisers and ran them in magazines such as Advertising Age, which media buyers read. The advertising succeeded in increasing the number of pages of advertising sold in Rolling Stone. The cost of national magazines is a disadvantage compared with radio, but many national publications publish regional and even metro editions, which reduce the absolute cost and wasted coverage. Time publishes well over 100 different editions, ranging from a special edition for college students to a version for the area around Austin, Texas. In addition to cost, a limitation to magazines is their infrequency. At best, magazines are printed on a weekly basis, with many specialized publications appearing only monthly or less often. High technology is arriving in magazine ads. Cardboard pop-up ads have been used by Dodge trucks and Disney World. Toyota introduced its 1988 Corolla with a pair of 3-D glasses inserted in Time, People, and Cosmopolitan magazines. Revlon offered actual samples of eye shadow in fashion magazines, land if you read Architectural Digest, you could even smell a Rolls Royce leather interior using a special scent strip. What's on the horizon? Probably a music-land-blinking-light IBM PC magazine ad made possible by a computer micro-chip— an

ad that has already run in France.

3. Newspapers. Newspapers are an important local medium with excellent reach and potential. Because of the daily publication of most papers, they allow advertisements directed to immediate consumer actions such as "sale today only." Usually local retailers use newspapers as almost their sole medium. Newspapers are rarely saved by the purchaser, so companies are generally limited to ads that call for an immediate customer response. But customers can clip and save ads they want. Companies also cannot depend on newspapers for color reproduction as good as that in most magazines. National companies rarely use this medium except in conjunction with local distributors of their products. In these instances both parties often share the advertising costs using a cooperative advertising program.

4. Direct Mail. Direct mail allows the greatest degree of audience selectivity. Direct mail-companies can provide advertisers with mailing list of their market, such as students who live within 2 miles off the store, product managers in Texas, or people who own mobile homes. Direct mail has an advantage in providing complete product information, compared with that provided in 30-second or 50-second television or radio spots. One disadvantage of direct mail is that rising postal costs are making it more expensive. The major limitation is that people view direct mail as junk, and the challenge is to get them to open a letter.

Billboards. A very effective medium for reminder advertising is outdoor billboards. These signs often result in good reach and frequency when reinforcing a message originally communicated in other media. The visibility of this medium is good supplemental reinforcement for well-known products, and it is a relatively low-cost, flexible alternative. A company can buy space just in the desired geographical market. A disadvantage to billboards is that no opportunity exists for lengthy advertising copy, and thus it is restricted to well-known products. Also, a good billboard site depends on traffic patterns and sight lines. In many areas environmental laws have limited the use of this medium. Transit. If you attend a metropolitan campus, chances are you might have seen some transit advertising. This medium includes messages on the interior and exterior of buses, subway cars, and taxis. As use of mass transit grows, transit advertising may become increasingly important. Selectivity is available to advertisers, who can buy space by neighborhood or bus route. To some extent, once inside the bus, the riders are captured readers. One disadvantage to this medium is that the heavy travel times, when the audiences are the largest, are not conducive to reading advertising copy. People are standing shoulder to shoulder on the subway, hoping not to miss their stop, and little attention is paid to the advertising. Also, the demographic profile of the transit user is heavily weighted to middle-class and lower middle-class people with average incomes and educational profiles.

5. Other Media. A variety of other media exist, ranging from the hot air balloons mentioned earlier to skywriting and theater advertising— where ads are shown in the screen before the movies are shown. Although you might expect to see advertisements before the movie in your local theater, do you expect to see them in the movie itself? Called product placement, the brand-name products used in a movie may be there because their manufacturer paid for the privilege. For example, Domino's Pizza paid $25,000 for its pizza to sit on the kitchen table between Tom Selleck and Ted Danson in the movie Three Men and a Baby. Ads

are even starting to appear on the protective boxes covering rental VCR movies and at the start of the movies themselves— and would you believe?— on toilet stall doors!

III. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and expressions.

Major advantage, cost, high charges, a growing trend, reduce the length,

refer to, severely restrict the amount of information, likelihood of, heavy radio

listener, disadvantage, tune out, appeal to, desired target audience, alter

misperception, succeed in, range from... to..., infrequency, sole medium,

purchaser, an immediate customer response, audience, selectivity, challenge,

reminder advertising, reinforce a message visibility, supplemental

reinforcement, flexible alternative, campus, avaible, to some extent, captured

readers, are not conductive to, to miss the stop, although, hinges on several

factors, product attributes, necessitate, product appeal, exclude, confront

competitors, appropriate.


IV. Translate Parts 1 and 2 into Russian in the written form.


V. Read the text again and summarize the advantages and

disadvantages of the important advertising media:


Medium advantages disadvantages

TV

Radio

Magazines

Newspapers

Direct Mail

Billboard (outdoor)

VI. What is your idea of 1) an attention-getting, believable advertising copy;

2) high-quality TV commercial. (Write 5-8 sentences using the information you got while reading the text)











Self-educated work VII (7 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

bygone – прошлый , пережитый , вышедший из моды

bygone days – былые времена

advertising – реклама

depend on – зависеть

doubt – сомнение

merchant – купец

wares – изделия, товары

existence – существование

immemorial – незапамятный , давний

oral skills – навыки устной речи

medium – средство , способ

crier – торговец-зазывала

hawker – разъездной торговец

Phoenician – финикиец

refined over the centuries – усовершенствованное с веками

carry down – предавать , оставлять потомкам

roam – бродить, скитаться, странствовать

make pleas – делать предложения, рекламировать

dairy – производство молочных продуктов, молочный магазин

decline in importance – становиться менее значительным

relic – след, остаток, пережиток

craft – ремесло

forerunner – предшественник

brand name – торговая марка

II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. When did the advertising begin?

2. How did the earliest advertising take place?

3. What did a goat signify?

4. What can be found on some ancient walls?

5. What were early advertisements about?

6. How old is the first written advertisement?

7. Where was it found? What was it about?

8. Why did the advertising decline in importance?

9. What was the early English advertising?

10. What did Johann Gutenberg invent in 1438?

11. Who invented paper and when?

12. Who introduced it to Europe?

13. Why is William Caxton famous?

ADVERTISING IN BYGONE DAYS

1. Ancient advertising. Just when advertising began depends on how one wishes to define the term. In this History of Advertising, published in 1875, Henry Sampson says of the beginning of advertising: … There is little doubt that the desire among tradesmen and merchants to make good their wares has had an existence almost as long as the customs of buying and selling, and it is but natural to suppose that advertisements in some

shape or form have existed not only time immemorial, but almost for all time. Because oral skills developed before reading and writing did, it is only natural that the earliest advertising medium was the spoken word. There is evidence that criers and hawkers were shouting their wares as far back as the days of the early Greeks, Romans, and Phoenicians. This primitive advertising, refined over the centuries, has carried down to the present day. Although hawkers do not often roam the streets with their cries, they have entered the

home to make their pleas on radio and television.

2. Before long, competition and the need for identification necessitated signs. Signs used for identifying shops, with such appropriate illustrations as a goat (for a diary) or a mule driving a mill (for a baker), were unearthed in the ruins of Pompeii. (At the door of a schoolmaster there was a sign depicting a boy receiving a whipping!) There is also evidence of announcements painted on walls during this period. These included notices for theatrical performances, sports and gladiatorial exhibitions, advertisements of houses for rent, and appeals to tourists to visit local taverns. Perhaps the first written advertisement,

however, was this three-thousand-year-old one inscribed on papyrus and found

by an archaeologist in the ruins of Thebes: The man-slave, Shem, having run away from his good master, Hapu the Weaver, all good citizens of Thebes are enjoyed to help return him. He is Hittite, 5.2 tall, of ruddy complexion and brown eyes. For news of his whereabouts, half a gold coin is offered. And for his return to the shop of Hapu the Weaver, where the best cloth is woven to your desires, a whole gold coin is offered. There is no doubt that advertising flourished in this period, but with the fall of the Roman Empire and the onset of the Dark Ages, advertising temporarily declined in importance to Western civilization.

3. Early English advertising. Perhaps the oldest relic of advertising among English-speaking people is family names referring to the various specialized crafts. The earliest of these designations was Smith. Names like Miller, Weaver, Wright, Tailor and Carpenter were the earliest means of product identification – the forerunner of the brand name so essential to modern advertising.

4. Beginning of printed advertisements. One of the most significant events in the development of advertising was the invention of a system of casting movable type by the German, Johann Gutenberg, in 1438. Paper had been invented more than a thousand years earlier by the Chinese and was introduced to Europe by the Turks in the twelfth century. Now all the necessary components were available for mass printing. At the same time, literacy was increasing. William Caxton, an early English printer, made advertising history in 1478 when he printed a handbill now regarded as the first known printed

English advertisement. It advertised a book he had printed, the Salisburi Pye, rules for the clergy at Easter. The advertisement read: If it please ony man spirituel or temporel to bye ony pyes of two and thre comemoracios of Salisburi use enpryntid after the forme of this present letter whiche ben wel and truly correct, late hym come to Westmonester in to the

almonestrye at the reed pale and he shal have them good chepe.

Supplico stet cedula The Latin phrase at the end translates, “Let this notice stand.”

III. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and expressions.

Handbill, was introduced to Europe by the Turks, was available for mass printing, literacy, specialized crafts, clergy, the forerunner of the brand name, system of casting movable type, regard, Dark Ages, temporarily, means of identification, whereabouts, brand name, whipping, complexion, essential.

IV. Translate Parts 1 and 3 into Russian in the written form.


V. What up-to-date media are used in advertising today? Are

there still any media that came down from the bygone

days? Give your own opinion in five-seven sentences.


VI. What advertising media are used by ad makers in your city

(town, village)? Do you think the ads reach the target

audiences? (Write 5-8 sentences)








Self-educated work VIII ( 12 hours)

I. Read the following words and expressions.

major types – основные типы

objective – цель

vehicle – средство передачи

qualitative selectivity – качественная избирательность

segment – доля , составная часть от целого

ad – реклама

consumer – потребители

discriminate – различать , отмечать различия, выбирать

brand – качество , сорт

promotional strategy – стимулирующая стратегия, стратегия роста

entrenched habits – укоренившиеся привычки

be aware of – осознавать

purchase – покупка

switch – переключать (мысли и т. д .) в другое русло , изменять ( ся)

circumstances – обстоятельства


II. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. What are the major types of advertising media?

2. What do the vehicles of advertising depend on?

3. Explain the meaning of qualitative and geographical selectivity.

4. Why do advertisers want to use the knowledge of leaning theory?

5. Why is it so difficult to get consumers to switch brands?

6. What is the importance of discrimination? Can you give any example of your own of this?

7. When is entrenchment an advantage?

SELECT THE ADVERTISING MEDIA

1. Advertisers must select media through which to send their messages. The major types of advertising media are: 1) print, 2) broadcast, 3) direct, 4) location. Furthermore, the advertiser also has to decide which particular vehicles within each medium to use. For example, if the selected medium is magazines, which vehicle(s) (Time, TV Guide, etc.) should be selected? These decisions must take advertising objectives, information to be communicated, and funds available for advertising into consideration.

2. The more alike members of a vehicle’s audience are in one or more characteristics that are important to the advertiser, the greater the qualitative selectivity. Thus, a dress manufacturer that wants to advertise to larger-sized women should consider BBW (formerly Big Beautiful Women) magazine to be more qualitatively selective than Cosmopolitan. The greater the vehicle ability to reach people in selected areas, the greater its geographical selectivity. Southern Living offers more geographical selectivity than Better Homes and

Gardens. But using highly selective vehicles can be dangerous if the marketer has not defined the target market clearly. The ads could miss (not reach) important market segments.

3. More frequently, advertisers want to use the knowledge of learning theory that shows that consumers can learn to discriminate between brands. Therefore, the promotional strategy may be based on positioning the brand so that consumers will differentiate it from the competition.

4. In many instances, learning becomes so entrenched that a habit develops and the consumer buys the same brand without even being aware of the learning experience that originally led to the purchase. Under such circumstances, it is extremely difficult for advertising to get consumers to switch brands. To counter strongly entrenched buying habits, significant innovation and a heavy level of promotion are usually needed.

III. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and expressions.

Learning experience, entrenched habits, switch brands, heavy level of

promotion, without being aware of, get somebody to do something, discriminate

between brands, more frequently, differentiate from the competition, in many

instances, available.


IV. Translate the text into Russian in the written form.


V. Tell about the importance of “generalization” in

advertising? Can you think of any other examples of

campaign copying? (Write 5-10 sentences)













Список использованной литературы

1. Brody E. Communication Tomorrow: New Audiences, New Technologies

/ Brody E. – N.Y., 1990. – 354 p.

2. English L. Business Across Culture: Effective Communication Strategies

/ English L., Zynn S. – Longman, 1995. – 182 p.

3. Hafer W. Advertising Writing: Putting Creative Strategy to Work / Hafer

W. – N.Y., 1989. – 338 p.

4. O'Guinn Th. Advertising / O'Guinn Th., Allen Ch., Semenic R. –

Cincinnati, 1999. – 694 p.

5. Ogilvy D. Ogilvy on Advertising / Ogilvy D. – N.Y., 1985. – 224 p.

6. St. Gohn M. Advertising and Promotion Industry / St. Gohn M. –

Trowbridge, 1997. – 117 p.

7. Stuart H. Human Communications / Stuart H. – Oxford, 1993. – 180 p.

8. Иванова К. А. Англо - русский словарь по рекламе и паблик рилейшнз

/ Иванова К.А. – СПб ., 1998. – 705 с.

9. Полевая М .Ю . Английский язык / Полевая М .Ю ., Телень Э.Ф . – М .,

2001. – 105 с.

10. Луканина, С.А. In the Media World. Английский язык в рекламе, PR, журналистике: Учебное пособие / С.А. Луканина. - М.: КДУ, 2012. - 172 c.

11. Малюга, Е.Н. Английский язык профессионального общения (Реклама): Учебник / Е.Н. Малюга. - М.: Флинта, Наука, 2013. - 336 c.




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