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Сборник текстов и тестов "Казахстан"

  • Иностранные языки

Название документа Сборник текстов и тестов Казахстан.doc

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Сборник текстов и тестовых заданий

«Kazakhstan»












Составитель:

Нурмаханова Жанар Мырзабековна,

учитель английского языка,

ГУ «Школа-лицей № 20 г. Павлодара»






2016

Павлодар

Данное пособие предназначено для учащихся 8-11 классов в рамках факультативного курса «Развитие коммуникативных компетенций по английскому языку» для углубления знаний учащихся на уроках английского языка. Пособие представляет собой ряд тем по теме «Казахстан», соответствующих возрастным интересам учащихся и стимулирующих их вовлеченность в процесс изучения языка. Большое внимание уделяется заданиям на развитие коммуникативной компетенции, задания направлены на развитие языковых навыков, формирование словарного запаса.

Пособие содержит дополнительные задания (тесты).

Содержание тем способствует воспитанию личностных качеств, уважения к культуре, истории своей страны.










































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text: «Kazakhstan, general information»

Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and is the heartland/geographic center of Eurasia. With a surface area of 2,724,900 sq km, Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country in the world, comparable to India and Australia.

Kazakhstan's surface is covered by 26% desert, 44% semi-desert, 6% forest and 24% steppe terrain, in addition to a few other landscapes. The South and East have great wild and mostly untouched mountain landscapes with the Tien Shan and Altai being the most prominent. The highest peak in the country is Khan Tengri at 7,013m above sea level.

The Republic of Kazakhstan lies right in between Europe and Asia, between 45° and 87° of East longitude, 40° and 55° of North latitude. It stretches from the east of the Caspian Sea and Volga plains to the mountanious Altay and from the foothills of Tien Shan in the south and southeast to the West-Siberian lowland in the north.

The size of the territory places Kazakhstan ninth in the world, after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brasil, Australia, India and Argentina. In the east, north and northwest Kazakhstan borders with Russia (6477 kilometres). In the south it borders with the countries of Central Asia: Uzbekistan (2300 kilometres), Kyrgyzstan (980 kilometres) and Turkmenistan (380 kilometres). In the southeast it borders with China (1460 kilometres). The total extent of Kazakhstan borders is nearly 12,2 thousand kilometres, including 600 kilometres along the Caspian Sea in the west.

Kazakhstan lies in the center of the European and Asian continents, and is approximately equal distance from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. More than a quarter of the land consists of a portion of the gentle steppes that stretch from central Europe to Siberia. The rest of the republic reflects the beauty of forests, mountains, rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The natural landscape is enhanced by thousands of plant and animal varieties found from the northern forest steppes to the high southern mountains.

Kazakhstan has an extreme continental climate. It is characterized by irregular distribution of precipitation in its different regions. In separate years spring arrives from south to north over 1.5 - 2 months. When it is spring sowing in the south, the northern area is covered with snow and the blizzards blow frequently.

The land of Kazakhstan is rich in soils. The greater part of the forest-steppe zone is chernozem, which turns to dark-chestnut, light-chestnut and brown soils in the south. There are gray-soil lands in the deserts and semi-deserts, replaced by the mountain soils there. 

Crossing the territory of Kazakhstan from north to south you will see many different climate zones, with all various areas having their own flora and fauna. 

The desert of Kazakhstan is an arid area. Rare rainfalls and high temperature in summer and severe and intensely cold weather in winter characterize the climate of the area. Strong winds whip up sand storms. The air is extremely dry and the temperature in summer sharply varies even during a twenty-four hour period.

Mountains rise from the steppes in the south and southeast of Kazakhstan. Ridges of the Tien Shan mountain system stretch for 2,400km. The main ridges are Barlyk, Dzhungar Ala-Tau, Zailii Ala-Tau, Talas Ala-Tau and Ketmen. The highest point of the mountain system is Peak Khan-Tengri at 6,992m. The South Altai is in the east of Kazakhstan. The whole mountain system of Kazakhstan is rich in mineral springs. 

There are many rivers and vast reservoirs in Kazakhstan. In the west and southwest, the territory of Kazakhstan is washed by the Caspian Sea for a distance of over 2,340km. The Ural River, along with its tributaries, flows to the Caspian Sea.

East of the Caspian, in the sands, lays another huge lake. It is the Aral Sea. The main arteries of fresh water flowing into the Aral Sea are the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers. There are nearly 7 thousand natural lakes in the country. Among them is Balkhash Lake in the sands of Central Kazakhstan, Zaisan Lake in the east, Alakol Lake in the southeast, and Tengiz Lake in the center of Kazakhstan.

The largest rivers of Kazakhstan are the Irtysh, Ishim, Ural, Syrdarya, Ili, Chu, Tobol, and Nura.

Kazakhstan is famous for its incalculable mineral wealth. Scientists from developed countries consider Kazakhstan to be sixth in the world in terms of abundance of minerals, though this advantage is not being used effectively. The estimated value of the explored areas is 10 trillion US dollars.

Kazakhstan has enormous valuable natural resources. In short, 99 of the 110 elements on the Mendeleev periodic table are found in the depths of Kazakhstan. For the present time, 60 elements are bieng extracted and used. The estimation of Dr. Daniel Tine, specialist in natural resources and energy from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), shows that in 1991, during the period of disintegration of the USSR, 90% of the chromium ore, 26% of copper, 33% of lead and zinc, and 38% of tungsten remained on the territory of Kazakhstan. In the former USSR, the share of Kazakhstan in the production of barytes was 82%, phosphorites 65%, molybdenum 29%, bauxites 22%, asbestos 20%, manganese 1З%, and coal 12%.

Kazakhstan is one of the richest countries in oil, gas, titanium, magnesium, tin, uranium, gold and other non-ferrous metals production. Currently, Kazakhstan is one of the outstanding producers of tungsten, for which it takes first place in the world; second place in chromium and phosphorous ores; fourth in lead and molybdenum; and eighth in iron ore (16.6 million tons) after Brazil, Australia, Canada, USA, India, Russia and Ukraine. It is no secret that the USA, and the countries of Western Europe, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Japan and China are all interested in Kazakhstan. That is a result of the high potential of the republic in strategic raw resources, first of all, oil and gas deposits.

There are 14 prospective areas on the territory of Kazakhstan. Only 160 deposits of gas and oil, with a combined production of 2.7 million tons, are being explored now. Thus, not all deposits and basins are being exploited. In the case of their capable usage and exploitation Kazakhstan with the oil potential can be among Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Arab Emirates.

The latest pictures from space, as well as surface investigations, show that the tapped oil deposits on the banks of the Caspian Sea in Western Kazakhstan - Tengiz, Prorva, Kalamkas, and Karazhanbas are only the "outskirts" of an enormous oil deposit, the core of which lies in the northern part of the Caspian Sea, where the total quantity of production could reach 3 - 3.5 million tons of oil and 2 - 2.5 trillion cubic meters of gas.


Kazakhstan has a considerable portion of the world's total of copper, polymetallic ores, nickel, tungsten, molybdenum, and other rare metals. Currently, Kazakhstan holds one of the leading places in the world in iron ore, manganese and chromite ore reserves. 

Kazakhstan is forecasted to have nearly 300 huge deposits of gold, 173 of which have been investigated. Some of them also produce diamonds of fine quality.

Serious investments in the next few years can help Kazakhstan extract 100 tons of gold per year, but for now, only 1% of the deposits are being worked, which keeps Kazakhstan at sixth place in the world. Kazakhstan has more than 100 deposits of coal. The largest are: the Ekibastuz deposit which differs from the high capacity of the brown coal stratums, and Karaganda coal, a basin with reserves of more than 50 million tons of coke coal. During the best years, only 131 million tons of coal were extracted.

Kazakhstan is rich in chemical raw material deposits. There are rich deposits of potassium salts, borates, bromine combinations, sulphates, phosphorites and various raw materials for the varnish and paint industry. Enormous amounts of sulphur oreamong the polymetallic ores create the possibility of producing sulphuric acid and other chemical products which are very important for the economy. There are absolute possibilities for the production nearly of all kinds of synthetic oil and chemical products (especially ethylene, polypropylene, rubber), synthetic detergents and soap, food microbiological proteins, chemical fibers and threads, synthetic resin, plastic and cement.

Kazakhstan has rich resources of raw materials for the glass, china and pottery industries. The most rare natural precious stones, and various building and facing decorative materials lie in the depths and mountains of Kazakhstan. Mineral, medical, industrial and radiant water sources can be counted among the countless riches of Kazakhstan, though now they are not widely used. 


Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов, укажите их начальную форму, переведите на русский язык.

1. It is situated in the center of the Eurasian continent.

2. The landscape of Kazakhstan is diverse.

3. Astana is becoming the international, business and cultural center of the Eurasian continent.

4. In 1998 the city got a new symbolic name - Astana.

5. Kazakhstan has different climatic regions.

6. In addition Kazakhstan produces and exports agricultural products - grain, wool, meat.


Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог.

1. We’ll have arrived the country bу 5 o'clock tomorrow.

2. Kazakhstan’s economic structures are based on its vast deposits of natural resources.

3. This time on Friday I will be flying to Astana.

4. Не said that the experiment had been completed bу end of last month.

5. The present constitution was adopted on August, 30 in 1995.

6. There will be the president election in Kazakhstan this year.


Что вы знаете о регионах Казахстана? Заполните таблицу, руководствуясь картой Казахстана

Regional center

Region

Location

1. Pavlodar

Pavlodar

in the north-east of Kazakhstan

2. Petropavlovsk



3.


in the south of Kazakhstan

4. Kokshetau

Akmolinsk


5. Almaty



6.

Aktyubinsk


7. Atyrau



8.

West Kazakhstan


9. Taraz



10. Uralsk



11.


in the center of Kazakhstan

12. Kostanai



13. Kyzyl-Оrda



14.

Mangystau




Вставьте слова и выражения в нижеприведенную таблицу по темам.

cotton

Tien Shan

Irtysh

copper

Caspian Sea

phosphorus ore

tungsten


machine-building

Tarbagatay

power-engineering

chemical

Syr-Dariya

lead

Ural

wheat

salt

iron

oil

Ili

Ishim

Aral

Altay

agriculture

Bukhtarminskoye

metallurgy

Tobol



Rivers

Mountains

Industries

Seas

Mineral recourses



food






text: «Symbols of Kazakhstan»


Kazakhs are historically a nomadic people, and thus many of their cultural symbols reflect nomadic life. The horse is probably the most central part of Kazakh culture. Kazakhs love horses, ride them for transportation in villages, use them for farming, race them for fun, and eat them for celebrations. Many Kazakhs own horses and keep pictures of them in their houses or offices. Also a product of their formally nomadic live is the yurt, a Central Asian dwelling. It was transportable and utilitarian on the harsh Central Asian steppe. These small white homes are still found in some parts of Kazakhstan, but for the most part they are used in celebrations and for murals and tourist crafts.

Also central to Kazakh symbols are Muslim symbols. Kazakhs are Muslim by history, and even after seventy years of Soviet atheism, they incorporate Islamic symbols in their everyday life. The traditionally Muslim star and crescent can be widely seen, as can small Muslim caps and some traditionally Muslim robes and headscarves in villages.

Kazakhs are also proud of their mountains, rare animals such as snow leopards, eagles, and falcons and their national musical instrument, the dombra, a two-stringed instrument with a thin neck and potbelly base, it looks like a guitar.

The national flag of Kazakhstan is a piece of right-angled cloth of a sky-blue color with a picture of a golden sun with 32 rays in the center, it sits above a soaring steppe eagle. The flagstaff has a vertical line of national ornamentation. The picture of the sun, its rays, eagle and ornament are gold in color.

The coat of arms of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. The authors of the emblem are Zhandarbek Melibekov and Shota Ualikhanov. There is the name of the country in Kazakh, in the lower part of the coat of arms.

The national emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is an image of shanyrak, the upper dome- like part of a yurt, against a sky-blue background, there are mythical horses with wings. The circle shape of the emblem is the symbol of life and eternity. The shanyrak symbolizes the well-being of a family, peace and calm.

The color version of the national emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of two colors – gold and sky – blue. The golden color corresponds to the light, clear future of the Kazakh people, and the blue sky color is a symbol of the aspiration to peace, goodwill, friendship and unity with all people.

Vocabulary

Nomadic – кочевой, номадический

rays - лучи

dwelling - жилище

soaring steppe eagle – парящий степной орел

utilitarian - практичный

flagstaff - флагшток

harsh - грубый

coat of arms - герб,

murals - фрески

to be adopted – быть принятым

muslim - мусульманский

domelike - куполообразный

to incorporate – включать в себя

background - фон

crescent - полумесяц

wing - крыло

caps – головные уборы

circle shape – овальная форма

robes - одежды

eternity - вечность

to be proud of – гордиться (чем-л.)

well-being - благополучие

headscarves - платки

peace – мир, покой

snow leopard - ирбис

calm – тишина, спокойствие

eagle - орел

to consist of –состоять из

falcon - сокол

to correspond –соответствовать

two-stringed – двух-струнный

light - светлый

potbelly – средняя часть

aspiration - стремление

right-angled cloth – прямоугольное полотно

unity – единение, единство



Прочтите текст о южной столице Казахстана и определите верными (T-true) или ложными (F-false) являются предложения после текста.

text: «Almaty»

As it is known from Chinese and Arabic old manuscripts there were some ancient settlements of the Saks in 6-3 BC on the territory of Almaty. During 8-10 centuries the settlements of Almaty served as a station on the trade way from Europe to China.

In 1854 Russia founded fortification “Zailiiskoye” in the location of Almaty, which soon got the name of Verny and since 1867 received the status of town. In 1921 Verny was renamed into Alma-Ata. Since 1929 Alma-Ata had been the capital of Kazakhstan. In 1993 the name Almaty was given back to the city as a result of gaining independence by the Republic. The territory of the city is 250 sq. km, its population is 1.3 mln. people.

As a result of great urbanization its beautiful appearance is often covered with dense smog. At the same time a lot of unique buildings, which are notable for their architectural and aesthetical worthiness, have been built in the city. The most important places of interest are the sport complex “Medeo”, alpine skiing “Chimbulak”. Almaty is the seat of the National Academy of Sciences, universities, higher educational establishments, hundreds of secondary schools. It is one of the centres of the international tourism and one of the attractive cities in the Euro-Asian continent. Situated near the Kyrgyzstan’s border at the foot of the Tian Shan ("the mountains of heaven"), a magnificent range connected with the Himalayas, Almaty is a popular destination for skiers, climbers and other mountain sports enthusiasts.

a)

T

F

The Saks were the first settlements on the present Almaty area.

b)

T

F

The original name of the city was Verny.

c)

T

F

Almaty became the capital since nineteen twenty-one.

d)

T

F

It is the center of international tourism.

e)

T

F

It borders on Kyrgyzstan.


Today’s Almaty, an early Silk Road oasis, reflects some of its trading roots. As a modern city seen as a crossroads between East and West, it bustles with trading consortiums and businesses seeking to bridge the continental gap.

What do you know about our country?

1. When was the capital of the country transferred to Astana?

a) nineteen ninety eight b) nineteen ninety seven c) nineteen ninety six

2. Name the center of East Kazakhstan.

a) Kokshetau b) Semipalatinsk c) Ust-Kamenogorsk

3. What do we celebrate on December, 16?

a) the Republic Day b) the Independence Day c) the Constitution Day

4. What is the status of the country?

a) republic b) presidential republic c) federal republic

5. Name the center of coal industry in the country

a) Ekibastuz b) Almaty c) Pavlodar

6. How many regions are there in Kazakhstan?

a) thirteen b) fourteen c) fifteen

7. When do we celebrate Republic Day?

a) on the 16th of December b) on the 25th of October c) on the 22nd of March

8. Name the great philosopher who was called in the East ‘the Second Teacher’ after Aristotle.

a) Al-Farabi b) Mahmud Kashgari c) Akhmet Jassawi

9. What countries does KZ border on? a) China b) Mongolia c) Turkey

10. Who is the author of national anthem?

a) Abai Kunanbaev b) Sultanmahmut Toraigyrov c) Shamshi Kaldayakov


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text: «Astana: the new capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan»

On December 10, 1997 the city of Akmola was declared the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Akmola was formally renamed as Astana in May 1998. On June 10 1998 the international presentation of Astana took place.

Akmolinsk was founded in 1830 as a military fortress. In 1862 it became a city because of its increasing importance as part of the trade route between Tashkent and the Urals. During the October Socialist Revolution in 1917 Akmolinsk was a revolutionary centre. The famous Kazakh writer and poet Saken Seifullin lived and worked here.

For a long time Akmolinsk was thought of as a small provincial town. It was not until the period of the Virgin Lands development that Akmolinsk became known all over the world. After the Soviet Union had helped to build Akmolinsk it was renamed Tselinograd. From 1962 to 1965 Tselinograd was the administrative center of the Tselinnyi region which consisted of 5 northern provinces.

Many different industries such as machine manufacture, construction and building materials, food and consumer goods are well established and developing further. Wheat production and cattle breeding are also well established. There are 5 institutes in the city, among them the State – Asian University named after L. Gumilev. There are 2 theatres – the Stanislavsky Russian drama theatre and the Kazakh Music theatre.

Astana is the northern center of roads, railroad and air transport. It connects central Kazakhstan with the southern and western regions, with Siberia, the Urals and the Volga. Astana is on the bank of the Ishim river and has a population of about 500, 000 people.

In 1997 and 1998 Government House, Parliament House and the Palace of Congress were reconstructed in Astana. The President’s residence and many social buildings and dwellings were (and still are being) built here, too. The Government started moving to the new capital in 1997. Astana is 1, 200 km away from Almaty. At the moment Astana is a big construction site but soon it will become one of the biggest and most beautiful cities of the 21st century.

1 Exercises

1.1 Read the following words correctly

[a:]- start, part, class, branch

[e]- centre, west, tell

[o:]- for, short, law, world, call

[ә:]- serve, first, virgin

[әе]- capital, many, had, bank

[ei]- made, gain, place, name

[ai] - like, light, textile, provide, life

[i] – city, it, print, citizen, industry

1.2 Write the transcription of the following words

start, civilization, place, centre, life, textile, city, attractive, short, now, has, new, name, industrial, become, which

1.3 Remember the following words

to be held - проводиться

to award - присуждать, награждать

UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization) – ЮНЕСКО (Организация Объединенных Наций по вопросам просвещения, науки и культуры)

fortress - крепость

virgin lands - целинные земли

to grow - расти

to gain - добиваться, получать, приобретать

decision - решение

granary - зернохранилище

cattle breeding - разведение крупно рогатого скота

to encourage - ободрять, поддерживать, поощрять

census - перепись

poultry farm - птицеводческая ферма

according to - согласно

deposit - залежь, месторождение

to maintain - поддерживать

hillock - холм

hummock - возвышенность, холм

spur - вершина, ответвление

harsh continental - резко континентальный

to include - включать в себя

to restore - реставрировать, реконструировать

1.4 Translate the following word expressions into Russian

centre of ancient civilization, to be called, the city of great construction project, to be located, to replace the capital, the central residential section, development of virgin lands, to be founded, independence, motherland, industry

2 Text “Astana”

2.1 Some facts

Akmola was made the capital of Kazakhstan on 10th of December 1997 by the president of Kazakhstan and the Parliament. Now the city has a new name - Astana. The international presentation of Astana as a new capital of Kazakhstan was held on 10th of June 1998. Nowadays the city covers more than 230 square km. In 1999 Astana was awarded with the medal and title of City of Peace by UNESCO. It is on the bank of the Ishim River, in the central part of Kazakhstan. Astana is also the centre of Akmolinsk region. According to the 1999 census the region population is over 836,200 with density of 7.5 per sq km (319,000 in Akmola)

2.2 From the history

Akmola” is translated as “white holy place”. Akmola’s history starts in 1830 when the Russian Empire founded a fortress with this name by the Karaotkel River. It was founded in the steppes of Sary-Arka - the sacred place known as a centre of ancient civilization of nomads. In 1832 Akmola has received the status of city. Till 1961 the city was called Akmolinsk and when the development of virgin lands started it was renamed into Tselinograd. It grew into a modern and beautiful city with the population of 250,000 people. Thousands of volunteers from all the USSR came to build it and live here. In 1992 the city was returned its former name – Akmola. After Kazakhstan had gained the independence a decision was made to replace the capital from Almaty.

2.3 Developing of industries

Today Astana is a city, which has become a very important industrial center. Textile, light and printing industries are highly developed in Astana. Agriculture and processing of agricultural products are the traditional regional industries. Astana is one of the Republic’s granaries (1\5 of all grain). Meat and milk cattle breeding; pig, sheep, horse - breeding, and poultry farming are also well developed. The region has deposits of gold uranium, bauxite, copper, quartz sands and other commercial minerals. The region encourages foreign investments and maintains the relations with neighboring and other countries such as Russia, Uzbekistan, Belarus, China, Turkey, Germany, and France.

2.4 Nature and climate of the region

The Akmola region lies in the north of the central part of Kazakhstan with the territory of about 96.800 square km. Its landscape includes hillock areas and low mountains, plains and river valleys. The largest rivers are the Ishim and the Nura. The largest lake is the Tenghiz in the south of the region. In the north we can find spurs of the Kokshetau elevations, in the south and south-east – Kazakh hummock of Sary Arka and plains in the north-east. The climate is a harsh continental. The average temperature ranges from -14\20ºC in January to +20\25ºC in July. There are 55 species of animals, 180 species of birds and 30 species of fish. There are 66 plant species.

2.5 Culture and Science

Astana is to become an important cultural and scientific center for Kazakhstan. There are many universities including the Gumilev Eurasian National University, Kazakh State Medical Academy or Kazakh National Musical Academy. There are many branches of different state and foreign universities and institutes, colleges, lyceums, schools here. There are also three museums, two drama theatres and branches of the Union of Writers and Artists of Kazakhstan publishing 40 newspapers and 2 literary magazines. Astana is the center of political life of Kazakhstan. Residence of president, the Parliament and the government is located here.

2.6 The city of dreams

Astana is a modern city with many-storeyed dwelling houses, provided with all modern conveniences. There are many big shops and department stores, fashionable hotels, many offices. It is the city of great construction project. The city center impresses especially. Magnificent buildings of the House of Parliament and the Government building, restored buildings attract the attention of the Astana citizens and tourists. Astana is very colorful in the evening. There are a lot of interesting monuments and sightseeing in our capital. Astana is becoming the international business and cultural center of not only Kazakhstan but of the Eurasian continent as a whole.


3 Exercises

3.1 Make up sentences in English using Russian variant


1 Астана была основана в 1830

founded, Astana, 1830, was, in

2 Когда началось освоение целинных земель город был переименован в Целинограде.

Tselinograd, renamed, into, was, virgin lands, of, the development, when, the city, started

3 Это город великих новостроек

is, the city, of, it, construction projects, great

4 Раньше город назывался Акмолинском

was, the, Akmolinsk, called, city, earlier

5 В 1997 году Акмола была объявлена специальной экономической зоной

1997, was, in economic, a, special, Akmola, zone, declared

6 Администрация страны переехала в новую столицу к 1999 году

To, administration, new, the, 1999, has, country’s, capital, by, moved

7 Астана является одним из главных республиканских зернохранилищ

Granaries, Astana, Republic’s, main, is, of the, one,


3.2 Translate the sentences using the text

1 Астана становится важным культурным и научным центром Казахстана

2 Международная презентация нашей столицы проводилась в июне 1998 года

3 Астана будет одной из самых красивых столиц мира

4 Сегодня Астана стала важным индустриальным центром

5 Ландшафт Акмолинской области разнообразен

6 Здесь есть равнины и долины, невысокие горы и холмы

7 История Акмолы начинается с 1830 года, когда была построена крепость

8 Власти региона поощряет иностранные инвестиции в индустрию края

9 В 1954 году началось освоение целинных земель

10 По экономическим, географическим и политическим причинам столица было принято решение перенести столицу.


3.3 Find in the text the sentences with Passive Voice and translate them

3.4 Answer the questions

1 What is the new capital of Kazakhstan?

2 When was it founded?

3 Where is it situated?

4 What river is Astana on?

5 When was Astana called Akmolinsk?

6 When was a decision made to replace the capital?

7 What is Astana now?

8 What industries are developed in Astana?

9 Where are the Residence of President, the Parliament and the Government located?

10 How do you think what city Astana will be like in XXI century?


3.5 Complete the sentences using the text and your own examples

1 Astana is the city of …

2 … is situated…

3 … are developed in…

4 There are many … in Astana.

5 Astana is the center of …

3.6 Read and translate the dialogue. Make up your own dialogue about Astana

- Hello!

- Hi!

- Excuse me, where are you from?

- I am from Astana, and you?

- I’m from Pavlodar. Now Astana is a very beautiful city, isn’t it?

- Yes of course. I am proud of Astana. It is my native town, I was born there.

- And what places of interest are there now?

- There are a lot of beautiful monuments in our capital. The most interesting is Baiterek. It’s like Big Ben in London or the Statue of Liberty in New York. It’s on the left bank of the Ishim River.

- What an interesting name! what does it mean?

- Its name means “tree”. There is a grand sphere on the top so you can easily observe the city from the Baiterek. There is a café there and other interesting things.

- I haven’t been in our capital for quite long time and I’ve heard Astana is the city of great construction “projects”. Is it true?

- Certainly. You should visit our capital and see everything by your own eyes. It is a city of dreams!

- Thank you for your invitation I’ll come in a week.


3.7 Write 10-15 sentences about our capital and retell them


TEXT: Pavlodar

Pavlodar is a regional center situated in the north-east of Kazakhstan. Its geographical coordinates are 52 grades of northern latitude and 77 grades of eastern longitude. It is located on the high bank of the Irtish river in the place of the river crossing with the Southern Siberian railway and highways linking Kazakhstan to Russia.

This area of Kazakhstan is famous for its remarkable Bayanaul National Park, one of the most picturesque places of the country. It is set within a hundred kilometers from Ekibastuz, a city with developed industry. This National Park features four types of vegetation: forest, shrubby, steppe and meadow.

At the northwest outskirts of Pavlodar City, on the right bank of the Irtish, there is one of the world’s unique places the natural memorial called the Geese Passage. Paleontologists have discovered here bone remains of giraffe, rhinoceros, hyena-like animals that lived 7 to 10 million years ago. Pavlodar develops and grows prettier every day including the embankment of the Irtish and the Geese Passage.

Modern Pavlodar is a large industrial and cultural center of Kazakhstan, its population is about 310 thousand people. It has highly developed industry. There are some industrial enterprises in it: Aluminum, oil-refining, tractor-building plants, enterprises of power engineering, light and food processing industries.

The grandparent of Pavlodar, Koryakovsky outpost, arose on the bank of the Irtish in far 1720. In 1838 the outpost was transformed into stanitsa of the same name, and in 1861 into the city of Pavlodar.

On the whole Pavlodar is not very big, but it’s a quiet and nice place. The cultural life of the city is varied and interesting; there are several museums, cinemas, theatres, a number of clubs and libraries, all these are our city on the Irtysh. Pavlodar is also known as a city of science and students. The citizens are proud of their town. It is beautiful at any time of the year.

I. Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы на русском языке.

  1. Опишите географическое положение города.

  2. Что вы узнали о палеонтологических раскопках в окрестностях города?

  3. Какими видами промышленности известен Павлодар?

  4. Что вам стало известно из истории названия города?


II. Найдите в тексте предложение, в котором говорится о Баянаульском Национальном Парке, выпишите его и переведите на русский язык.


III. Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения.

1. The northwest outskirts of Pavlodar have a unique place called …

a) Geese Passage b) Aluminium plant c) Bayanaul National Park

2. The population of Pavlodar is … people.

a) thirty thousand b) less than three hundred c) more than three hundred thousand

  1. Pavlodar is situated on the bank of the … .

a) river b) lake c) sea


IV. Выпишите из третьего абзаца слова с окончанием «s» и определите их функции:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.


V. Выпишите из второго абзаца:

а) прилагательное в превосходной степени, напишите степени сравнения, переведите;

б) напишите сравнительную и превосходную степени следующих прилагательных, переведите: far - …; pretty - …; comfortable - …


VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов, укажите их начальную форму, переведите на русский язык.

1. All these are our city on the Irtish.

2. Pavlodar develops and grows prettier every day including the embankment of the Irtish and the Geesse Passage.

3. There are some industrial enterprises in it: Aluminum, oil-refining, tractor-building plants, enterprises of power engineering, light and food processing industries.

4. It is beautiful at any time of the year.

5. This National Park has four types of vegetation: forest, shrubby, steppe and meadow.

6. Paleontologists have discovered bone remains of animals that lived here millions of years ago.


VII. Сопоставьте информацию двух колонок.

What’s a…?

It’s a place, where you …

1. drugstore

a) have a meal

2. library

b) get stamps and mail letters

3. post office

c) buy medicine

4. restaurant

d) borrow books and read newspapers

5. supermarket

e) see movie or play

6. theater

f) buy groceries


hair-dressing saloon theatre

museum

laundry

drugstore

post office

trolleybus

concert hall

art gallery

health center

shopping center

underground

cafe

sightseeing

gym

mosque

restaurant

church

sport center

police office

tram

movie theater

cathedral

supermarket

Services

Culture

Transport

Other



Bus



VIII. Вставьте слова и выражения в нижеприведенную таблицу по темам.









TASK: Translate into English using Passive

  1. День независимости (Independence Day) в Казахстане отмечается (mark) 16 декабря.

  2. Новый гимн (anthem) Казахстана был принят (adopt) в 2005 году.

  3. Первый президент Казахстана был избран (elect) в 1991году.

  4. Казахстан разделен (divide) на 14 областей (regions).

  5. Казахстан управляется (govern) президентом.

  6. Законы (laws)и законопроекты (bills) составляются (make) Парламентом (Parliament).

  7. Правительство (Government) Казахстана возглавляется (head) премьер – министром (Prime Minister).

  8. Казахстан находится (be situated) в центральной Азии.

  9. Казахстан населен (inhabit) свыше (over)100 национальностями и этническими (ethnic) группами.

  10. В Казахстане говорят на русском и казахском языках.

  11. Государственные символы (State symbols) Казахстана были приняты (accept) в 1992 году.

  12. Казахстан омывается (wash) Каспием и Аралом.

  13. Когда празднуется (celebrate) Наурыз?

  14. Парламент Казахстана делится (divide) на Мажилис и Сенат (Senate).

  15. Каждая область в Казахстане возглавляется (head) Акимом (Akim).

  16. Страна (the country) в центре Азии называется (call) Казахстан.

  17. На западе Казахстана добывают (mine) нефть (oil), газ и медь (copper).

  18. На юге (south) Казахстана выращивают (grow) различные фрукты и овощи (vegetables).

  19. В Казахстане выращивают (breed) таких (such) домашних животных (domestic animals), как (as) крупный рогатый скот (cattle), овец, свиней, лошадей, верблюдов и домашнюю птицу (poultry).

  20. 15 ноября 1993 года была введена (introduce) национальная валюта (currency) тенге.

  21. Столица Казахстана была перенесена (transfer) из Алматы в Астану в 1998 году.



  22. Астана была основана (found) в 1830 году.


What do you know about cities of Kazakhstan?


1. When was Pavlodar founded?

a) 1720 b) 1820 c) 1861

2. What is the largest city of Kazakhstan?

a) Karaganda b) Astana c) Almaty

3. Name the Kazakhstani caviar capital.

a) Balhash b) Aktau c) Atyrau

4. It is the nuclear zone.

a) Semey b) Jambyl c) Taraz

5. What is the fishing center of the country?

a) Kostanai b) Pavlodar c) Balhash

6. Name the center of power engineering.

a) Actobe b) Ekibastuz c) Aksu

7. It is the ”City of apples”.

a) Shymkent b) Almaty c) Astana

8. The word Irtysh means...

a) running away b) digging the round c) jumping over

9. Name the jewel of the Caspian Sea.

a) Uralck b) Atyrau c) Kostanai

10. It is the space center of the country.

a) Astana b) Taldy-Korgan c) Baykonur



TEXT: Geography and nature of Kazakhstan


The territory of Kazakhstan stretches 3000 km. from West to East and 1000 km. from North to South. In the West and North Kazakhstan borders on Russian Federation, in the South – Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Kirgiziya, in the East – on China. The total length of state borders is over 15000 km. it is the ninth biggest country in the world with the territory 2,7 million square km.

The relief of the country varies very much. If you look at Kazakhstan from the space, you will see high ice-covered mountains, hills and highlands. Vast plains and lowlands stretch like green lines. The country spreads from Western-Siberian plain in the north to the Tian Shan Mountains in the south and from the Lower Volga in the west to the Altai in the east.

There is Precaspian lowland and the Mangistau peninsula in the west. The southern parts of the Urals and the Mugodzhar lie in the north-west. To the north-east of the Mugodzhar we can find the vast Turgai plateau, turning into the Turan Lowland with the Kyzylkum desert in the south.

The central part of the country is the Kazakh low hills (Saryarka), with not very big mountains. The southern chains of the Altai Mountains are in the east and southeast. The south is covered with the Betpakdala and Moiynkum deserts.

There are quite a lot of rivers and lakes in Kazakhstan. The main rivers are the Irtysh, the Ural, the Chu, and the Syrdarya. The main lakes are Balkhash, partly Aral and the Caspian Sea. There are few rivers in the deserts, mostly they can be found in the north and in the mountainous regions. All in all there is a great number of rivers in Kazakhstan but only 228 of them are more than 100 km. long. There are also very many lakes, but most of them are situated in the flood-lands and deltas of the rivers. Only 21 lakes have area more than 100 sq. km. besides mentioned above lakes there is Lake Zaisan, Tengiz, Kushmurun and others.

Climate. The country is situated far from the oceans. The climate is sharply continental and zone like due to vast territory. In the north winters are cold and long. As a result of arctic air frosts can reach 40-45 C below zero. There is a little snow but there can be severe snowstorms.

The average winter temperature in the north is about -20 C. In the central parts winters are not so cold, but in the south they are mild and warm.

Summer is dry: in south it is hot. In the mountains it is short. The summer temperature in the north is about +20 C; in the central parts it is +30 C. In the south it can reach +45 C.

It usually rains in the steppes in summer and in the deserts in spring. There is a lot of precipitation in the mountains. It is very windy in all parts of Kazakhstan.

Fauna. The wildlife of Kazakhstan is varied too. There are about 155 species of mammal. Most of them are rodents: gophers and hamsters in the steppes, sanderlings in the deserts, water rats near the water. Field vole, jerboa, hare can be found everywhere. There are a lot of hoofed animals: saiga, dzheiran in the deserts, maral, musk deer in the lowlands. In the mountains wild boar, roe can be met. There are predators in Kazakhstan: wolf, fox, and weasel. In the forests of Altai and Tian Shan brown bear, snow leopard, squirrel dwell.

There are 480 species of birds in Kazakhstan. Many of them are water-fowl: grey goose, wild duck. Lake Tengiz is famous for its flamingo; bittern and heron are in the reeds. Cormorant, pelican, crane are also here. Eagles search for their prey in the steppes, larks and little bustards fly.

One can find great variety of vegetation in Kazakhstan. The country can be divided into 3 zones: steppes, semi-desert and desert. The steppes of the North Kazakhstan are characterized by feather grass. In the north there are birch and pine forests, especially on the sands near the Irtysh river and the Tobol river. The semi-deserts are characterized by different types of wormwood, the deserts – by grass, subshrub and saxaul. The lakes are usually surrounded by reed. At the foothills bushes grow (dogrose, honeysuckle, barberry). In the mountains of Zailisky Alatau we can find wild apple tree and hawthorn. In the centre there are coniferous forests.


Vocabulary

Length – длина, highlands – возвышенности, plains – равнины, lowlands – низменности, Lower Volga - Низовья Волги, Precaspian – Прикаспийская, peninsula – полуостров, plateau – плато, All in all - всего ... насчитывается, flood-lands and deltas - в поймах и дельтах, sharply – резко, precipitation – осадки, mammals – млекопитающие, rodents – грызуны, gophers – суслики, sander lings – песчанки, Field vole – полевки, jerboa –

Тушканчики, hoofed – копытные, musk deer – кабарга, boar – кабан, roe – косуля, predators – хищники, weasel – ласка, dwell – обитают, water-fowl – водоплавающие, bittern – выпь,

Heron – цапля, reeds – тростники, search – высматривают, prey – добыча, larks – жаворонки, bustards – стрепеты, commorant – баклан, semi-desert – полупустынная, desert -

Пустынная, feather grass - разнотравно-злаковая (ковыль, типчак), wormwood – полынь, subshrub – полукустарники, surrounded – попадается, foothills - предгорные районы, honeysuckle – жимолость, barberry – барбарис, hawthorn – боярышник, coniferous – хвойные.





















Final test on Kazakhstan

Variant 1

1. Kazakh language … spoken in Kazakhstan.

a) am b) will c) has been d) was been e)has had

2. Kazakhstan is rich … a lot of mineral resources.

a) in b) with c) about d) for e) on

3. State Emblems of Kazakhstan … since 1992.

a) are existing b) were exist c) to exist d) have existed e)were existing

4. The … of our country is sharply continental.

a) population b) capital c) climate d) location e) landscape

5. The present constitution was … on August, 30 in 1995.

a) adopted b) bordered c) washed d) developed e) celebrated

6. The national … of Kazakhstan is tenge.

a) symbol b) object c) sign d) bank e)currency

7. The Parliament of Kazakhstan is divided into Majilis and … .

a) the House of Representatives b) the House of Lords c) Senate d) Maslikhat e) akimat

8. Kazakhstan is a large country. Its … is about 2.7 mln. square km.

a) population b) area c) landscape d) borders e) length

9. Kazakhstan borders … five countries.

a) of b) on c) at d) with e)in

10. President of Kazakhstan is elected for … years.

a) 4 b) 6 c) 8 d) 7 e) 10

11. Astana …the capital of Kazakhstan when I visited it.

a) had already become b) becoming c) was become d) would become e) becomes

12. From the … Kazakhstan is washed by the Caspian and Aral seas.

a) east b) north c) south d) north – east e) west

13. Many industrial products are … in Kazakhstan.

a) manufactured b) grown c) eaten d) situated e) written.

14. The largest rivers of Kazakhstan are:

a) the Irtysh and the Syrdarya b) the Tool and the Ob c) the Irtysh and the Ili d) the Aral and the Amudarya e) the Aral and the Caspian

15. Cattle breeding industry … for many years in Kazakhstan.

a) was develop b) developing c) has been developed d) is been developed e) to develop

16. Kazakhstan … one of the 50 leading countries of the world by 2030.

a) will have been b) will have c) have been d) has had e) will been

17. ... is the leader of Asar party.

a) A. Peruashev b) I. Tasmagambetov c) D.Nazarbayeva d) N. Nazarbayev e) K. Tokayev

18.Kazakhstan is situated in … .

a) East Asia b) North of Europe c) Central Asia d) South of Asia e) West of europe

19 Kazakhstan / language / what / the / is / of / state

a)5317246 b)1725364 c) 4617253 d) 3146275 e) 3547261

20 Naurys / when / celebrated / is?

a) 3124 b) 1234 c) 2413 d) 3142 e) 2134








Variant 2

1.Independence day … marked on December, 16 since 1990.

a) am b) will have been c) had been d) has been e) have been

2. Kazakhstan is rich … oil.

a) of b) on c) at d) with e) of

3. Kazakhstan … its new anthem since 2005.

a) would b) has had c) is having d) was had e) have

4. Nine-tenth of the country is … .

a) plain b) rivers c) steppe d) lakes e) mountains.

5. President Nazarbayev was … in 1991.

a) adopted b) governed c) marked d) written e) elected

6. The national … of Kazakhstan is eagle.

a) currency b) symbol c) object d) bank e) sign

7. The Parliament is divided into … .

a) Senate and the House of Lords b) Majilis and Maslikhat c) Akimat and Majilis d) Senate and Maslikhat e) Senate and Majilis.

8. Kazakhstan is a large country. The total … of its borders is more than 15000 km.

a) population b) area c) landscape d) borders e) length

9. Kazakhstan consists … 14 provinces.

a) of b) on c) at d) with e)in

10. President of Kazakhstan has been elected … times.

a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5

11. Nazarbayev … since 1991.

a) govern b) governed c) has governed d) had govern e) government

12. From the … Kazakhstan borders on Russia.

a) east b) north c) south d) north – east e) west

13. Parliament … the laws and bills.

a) inaugurates b) elects c) makes d) governs e) divides

14.The largest lake in Kazakhstan is … .

a) the Caspian b) Baikal c) Zhasybay d) Baltic e) the Tobol

15.Parliament of Kazakhstan … many laws to protect the environment.

a) has accepted b) accept c) will accepted d) have accepted e) is accepted

16.Electrolize processing factory … by 2009

a) constructed b) construct c) constructs d) has been constructed e) had been constructed

17. The Head of the government is … .

a) N. Nazarbayev b) K Tokayev c) I. Tasmagambetov d) D. Akhmetov e) K. Masimov

18. Kazakhstan is situated in … .

a) East Asia b) North of Europe c) Central Asia d) South of Asia e) West of Europe

19. of / language / intercultural / the / Russian / is / communication.

a) 3214567 b) 7362514 c) 4561237 d) 6431257 e) 5642137

20. the / celebrated / December / Independence / on / 16th / of / day/ is /

a) 976431258 b) 139742658 c) 321456987 d) 489251673 e ) 635241987











Training test. Variant 1

1. Kazakh language … spoken in Kazakhstan.

a) am b) will c) were d) is e) are

  1. Kazakhstan is rich … a lot of mineral resources.

a) of b) on c) at d) with e) in

3. State Emblems were accepted … June in 1992.

a) in b) at c) on d) with e) of

4. The … of our country is sharply continental.

a) population b) capital c) climate d) location e) landscape

5. Pavlodar … founded in 1720.

a) was b) are c) am d) will be e) has

6. Excuse me! Can I help you?

a) No, they don't have. b) No, I'm not. c) Yes, how can I get to the station.

d) Yes, at 5 o'clock. e)Yes, there are

7. I was asked about the accident.

a) Я был свидетелем происшедшего. б) Я спросил о происшедшем

c) Я рассказал о происшедшем. d) Меня спросили о происшедшем.

e) Мне рассказали о происшедшем.

  1. The national … of Kazakhstan is tenge.

a) currency b) symbol c) object d) bank e) sign

  1. Many industrial products are … in Kazakhstan.

a) manufactured b) grown c) eaten d) situated e) written

  1. Kazakhstan is a large country. Its … is about 2.7 mln square kilometers.

a) population b) area c) landscape d) borders e) length

11. The present constitution … on August, 30 in 1995.

a) was adopted b) is adopted c) am adopted d) will be adopted e) has adopted

12. … you bring me the menu, please.

a) must b) would c) have d) should e) may

13. Pavlodar is rich … mineral resources.

a) in b) of c) with d) on e) from

14. There are some … in Pavlodar, like Aluminum, Oil processing, etc.

a) orchards b) plants c) institutes d) sightseeing e) streets

15. She said, "I saw him yesterday".

a) She said 1 saw him yesterday. b) She said she saw him yesterday.

c) She said that she had seen him the day before.

d) She said that she seen him the day before. e) She said she saw him the next day.

16. He asked us "Where do you live?"

a) He asked us if we live. b) He asked us where do we live.

c) He asked whether we live. d) He asked us where we live.

e) He asked us where we lived.

17. B прямой речи - yesterday. B косвенной - .

a) yesterday b) the day before c) the next day

d) before e) that day

18. He … the street now.

a) is crossing b) crossing c) is crossed

d) to be crossing e) are crossing

19. He разговаривайте! Я слушаю лекцию!

a) I listened to the lecture. b) I hearing the lecture. c) I'm listening to the lecture.

d) I was listening to the lecture. e) I'm listen to the lecture.

20. … is a person who serves a menu in a cafe or a restaurant.

a) pilot b) shop-assistant c) policeman d) fireman e) waiter

21. How can I get to Pavlodar University?

a) take bus 27 and get off at Tolstoy stop. b) I'm fine and you?

c) Take my order, please. d) Don't worry.

e) Put me through with the director, please.

22. What's your hometown like?

a) I'm all right b) It's fine c) they are nice d) we have it e) must

23. … you take my order, please?

a) may b) should c) have d) would e) must

24. The capital of Kazakhstan … to Astana in 1998.

a) was transferred b) is transferred c) will be transferred

d) transferred e) have been transferred

25. What … you like to order? I’d like a cabbage soup, please

a) would b) have c) were d) does e) was

Training test. Variant 2

1. Pavlodar … in the north of Kazakhstan.

a) is situated b) to be situated c) are situated d) is situating e) is situate

2. Pavlodar … founded in 1720. a) was b) are c) am d) will be e) has

3. благоприятный a) favourable b) favour c) favourite d) unfavourite e) favor

4. He says to me "I'm very busy".

a) He tells me that he is very busy. b) He told that he is busy.

c) He says me that he is very busy. d) He tell me that he is very busy.

e) He tell he was very busy.

5. … is a person who sells goods or food in a shop.

a) waitress b) fireman c) policeman d) shop-assistant e) clerk

6. В прямой речи - tomorrow. B косвенной -

a) then b) tomorrow c) the day before d) the next day e) next

7. She … around the square.

a) walking b) walking c) is walking d) to be walking e) is walked

8. I think, he … now.

a) is sleeping b) sleep c) slept d) was sleeping e) sleeps

9. The … in Pavlodar is less than in Almaty. It's about 300,000 people.

a) area b) population c) schools d) plants and factories e) streets

10. They asked me, "Do you live in Pavlodar?"

a) They asked me do you live in Pavlodar. c) They asked me you live in Pavlodar.

b) They asked me if I live in Pavlodar. d) They asked me that I lived in Pavlodar.

e)They asked me if I lived in Pavlodar.

11. Kazakhstan borders … five countries. a) of b) on c) at d) with e) in

12. President … elected for four years. a) is b) are c) am d) will be e) has

13. From the west Kazakhstan … washed by the Caspian and Aral seas.

a) has b) are c) am d) were e) is

14. capital 1/ of 2/ is 3 / the 4 / what 5 / Kazakhstan 6?

a) 531246 b) 125364 c) 461523 d) 534126 e) 526134

15. Kazakhstan is situated … the north of Central Asia.

a) in b) at c) on d) with e) of

16. основной a) basis b) base c) basic d) basically e) basement

17. Kazakhstan … a highly developed country.

a) is b) are c) was d) will be e) has

18. Full sovereignty and independence in Kazakhstan … gained on December,16 in 1991.

a) has b) are c) were d) will be e) is

19. бесполезный

a) useful b) use c) user d) useless e) usage

20. Nauryz 1 / when 2 / celebrated 3 / is 4 ?

a) 3124 b) 1234 c) 2413 d) 3142 e) 2134

21. Today metallurgical and chemical industries … in Kazakhstan.

a) are developed b) is developed c) was developed d) be developed

e) been developed

  1. Kazakhstan is situated almost … the center … the Eurasian continent.

a) on, in b) in, of c) of, in d) in, at e) at, in

23. He said: “ I have written the letter.”

a) He said that he had written the letter. b) He said that he have written the letter.

c) He said that he wrote the letter. d) He said if he had written the letter.

e) He said that he has written the letter.

24. Where … I find a drugstore? You … go straight on and then turn righ

a) can, should b) should, should c) can, can d) ought to, have to

e) have to, ought to

25. You look very bad! You … have a rest.

a)can to b) has to c) ought d) might to e) should

Training test. Variant 3

1. First, Pavlodar … Koryakovka

a) is named b) to be named c) are named d) is name e) was named

2. Pavlodar is situated … the bank of the river Irtish.

a) in b) on c) to d ) with e) from

3. Nine- tenth of the territory of Kazakhstan is … .

a) plain b) rivers c) steppe d) lakes e) mountains

4. The national … of Kazakhstan is eagle

a) currency b) symbol c) object d) bank e) sign

5. How can I get to Pavlodar University ?

a) Take bus 27 and get off at Tolstoy stop. b) I am fine and you?

c) Take my order, please. d) Don’t worry e) Put me through with the director, please.

6. What is your hometown like?

a) I am all right b) Oh, It is great. c) They are nice d) We have it

е) I like it very much

7. … you … for a place to have a snack? No, I … … for a drugstore

a) are, looking ; am looking b) do, look, looks c) did look, looked,

d ) will look, will look e)have looked; had looked.

8. He asked us “Where do you live?”

a) He asked us if we live b) He asked us where do we live

c) He asked us where we lived d) He asked us where we live.

c) He asked us where did we live.

9. You look very bad! You … visit a doctor.

a) can b) has to c) ought d) might to e) should

10. Kazakhstan 1/ language 2/ what 3 / the 4 / is 5/ of 6/ state 7 ?

a)5317246 b)1725364 c)4617523 d) 3146275 e) 3547261

11 When my mother came home , I … reading.

a) is b) were c) was d) to be e) are

12. в прямой речи – today. В косвенной речи- …

a) yesterday b) the day before yesterday c) the next day d) before e) that day

13. .... you take my order, please?

a) may b) should c) have d)would e) must

14. Pavlodar is situated in the ... of Kazakhstan.

a) south- east b) west c) east d) center e) north- east

15.Kazakhstan ... by president.

a)was governed b) is governed c) am governed d) be governed e)has governed

16. Kazakhstan ... 2000 km. from the Volga to Mongolia.

a) comprises b) stretches c) takes area d) is e) has

17. Central Kazakhstan is famous for … .

a) hard coal deposits b) oil c) chemical industry d) construction industry

e) non-ferrous industry

18. Most ... the territory of Kazakhstan is occupied ... lowlands

a) of , by b) of, with c) at, for d) in, of e) at, with

19. Several outstanding monuments of the ancient times (сохранились) through the years in the form of mausoleums and bural mounds.

a) have survived b)has survived c) survive d) survives e)has been survived

20.Ann asked, “Can I borrow your pen, please,Robert?

a)Ann asked Robert if she could borrow his pen

b)Ann asked Robert if she can borrow his pen

c) Ann asked Robert could she borrow his pen

d) Ann asked can she borrow his pen

e) Ann asked Robert that she could borrow his pen

21. The Independence day in Kazakhstan … marked on December ,16

a) am b) will c) were d) is e) are

22. Kazakhstan is rich … oil. a) of b) on c) at d) with e) in

23. There are some … in Pavlodar, like Aluminum, Oil processing, etc.

a) orchards b) plants c) institutes d) sightseeing e) streets

24. основной a) basis b) base c) basic d) basically e) basement

25. He said “ I saw my friend yesterday” .

a) He said that he had seen his friend the day before yesterday.

b) He said that he saw his friend yesterday.

c) He said that he has seen his friend today

d) He said that he have seen his friend before.

e) He said if he had seen his friend.

Training test. Variant 4

  1. I don’t understand this sentence. What . . . ?

a) does mean this word b) does this word mean c) means this word

d) this word means e) this word does mean

  1. Tom . . . his hand when he was cooking the dinner.

a) burnt b) was burning c) were burning d) burns e) is burning

  1. We are good friends. We . . . each other for a long time.

a) know b) knew c) have known d) has known e) have been knowing

  1. Sally . . . here for two months.

a) works b) is working c) worked d) have been working

e) has been working

  1. We are late. The film . . . by the time we get to the cinema.

a) will start b) will be started c) start d) starting e) will have been started

  1. How . . . ?” – “Nobody knows”

a) happened the accident b) did happen the accident c) did the accident happened d) the accident happened e) was the accident happened

  1. The police officer stopped us and asked where . . . .

a) were we going b) are we going c) we are going d) we going

e) we were going

  1. I don’t like stories . . . have unhappy ending.

a) that b) who c) what d) ____ e) it

  1. I heard that Kate . . . a new position with this company.

a) has accepted b) have accepted c) is accepting d) will accept e) have accepted

  1. Is it still rainig? No, it . . . already .

a) was stopped b) has stopped c) is stopped d) have stopped

e) has been stopped

  1. Steve . . . English since he was five years old.

  1. learns b) learned c) has been learning d) is learning e) has learned

  1. I suddenly remembered that I . . . my purse.

a) have forgotten b) forget c) had forgotten d) forgot e) was forgotten

  1. Are you getting . . . at the next stop?

a) in b) out c) off d) by e) for

  1. A film about Pavlodar . . . in room 5 now.

a) is being shown b) is shown c) had been shown d) is showing e) was shown

  1. We must go now. Would you mind asking the waiter for . . . ?

a) account b) bill c) charge d) price e) cost

  1. If you use pictures and slides your report will be much . . . .

a) interesting b) more interesting c) most interesting d) the most interesting

e) the least interesting

  1. I don’t take . . . with my coffee, I prefer it black.

a) sugar b) milk c) tea d) bread e) water

  1. The meeting is . . . held on the first of Monday of the month. It never changes.

a) sometimes b) always c) often d) usually e) never

  1. There are four lakes in this place, . . . ?

a) is it b) aren’t they c) are there d) aren’t there e) isn’t it

  1. Our new mosque is a fine example of modern . . . .

a) painting b) music c) handwork d) architecture e) drawing

  1. I am going to a film this evening”. He said he . . . to a film that evening.

a) is going b) was going c) will be watching d) will go e) did go

  1. Will you spend your vacation in Bayanaul?”

a) I asked if she spends her vacation in Bayanaul.

b) I asked she spent her vacation in Bayanaul.

c) I asked if she would spend her vacation in Bayanaul.

d) I asked that she would spend her vacation in Bayanaul.

e) I asked if she spent her in Bayanaul.

  1. Don’t cross the street under the red light”.

The police officer told children . . . the street under the red light .

a) don’t cross b) not to cross c) didn’t cross d) no cross e) won’t cross

  1. Why did your team lose the game?”

The reporter asked the coach why his team . . . the game.

a) lose b) did lose c) had lost d) was lost e) losing

  1. Wheat, barley, oats and maize are the main types of . . . grown in Kazakstan.

a) crops b) livestock c) farms d) pasture e) agriculture

Training test. Variant 5

    1. Last week Justin said ‘I’ll do it tomorrow’. He said he would do it . . . .

a) the next day b) the previous day c) tomorrow d) yesterday

e) the day before yesterday

    1. I don’t know why Nancy didn’t go to the meeting. She . . . definitely going.

a) be b) was c) is d) would e) will

    1. The librarian asked us . . . so much noise.

a) don’t make b) not make c) not making d) not to make e) didn’t make

    1. He has been living . . . ten years.

a) ago b) since c) for d) during e) by

    1. The train . . . when we arrived at the station.

a) has left b) left c) is leaving d) had left e) was left

    1. I have not looked throught the documents . . . .

a) just b) ever c) already d) yet e) still

    1. This time tomorrow I . . .an exam on History of Kazakstan.

a) will take b) will be taking c) would take d) took e) is taking

    1. He . . . for three hours when I met him.

a) is walking b) has walked c) has been walking d) had been walking e) will walk

    1. My house . . . at the moment.

a) is being repaired b) is repaired c) repaired d) was repaired e) is repairing

    1. Don’t write on this page’. He told me . . . write on it .

a) not b) don’t c) not to d) to not e) didn’t

    1. The thief . . . by the time Mr and Mrs Smith returned from holiday.

a) was arrested b) is arrested c) had arrested d) arrested e) had been arrested

    1. Do you like art? There is a nice art . . . near here.

a) cafe b) library c) gallery d) department store e) cinema

    1. I need to buy a dictionary. Is there a good . . . around here?

a) theatre b) museum c) cinema d) library e) bookstore

    1. Prices are very high in New York City. Everything is pretty . . . there.

a) cheap b) expensive c) huge d) beautiful e) crowded

    1. Some parts of the city are fairly dangerous. They are not very . . . late at night.

a) safe b) noisy c) quiet d) crowded e) clean

    1. In a restaurant, customers usually leave . . . for the waiter or waitress.

a) menu b) order c) service d) tips e) checks

    1. Where . . . these photographs . . .? In London?

a) is taking b) did take c) were taken d) are taken e) was taken

    1. Tim is away at the moment. He is . . . holiday. a) on b) at c) in d) for e) by

    2. How did you get there? . . . the bus?’ – ‘No, . . . car’.

a) on / on b) __ / __ c) by / on d) in / in e) by / by

    1. We went . . . the theatre last night. We had seats . . . front row.

a) to / in b) in / to c) at / at d) __ / __ e) in / in

    1. How . . . now? Better than before?

a) you are feeling b) are you feeling c) do you feel d) did you feel

e) were you feeling

    1. We . . . by a loud noise during the night. a) woke up b) are woken up c) were woken up d) were waking up e) are waking up

    2. How long . . . English?’ – ‘ For six months’ a) do you learn b) are you learning c) you are learning d) have been learning e) have you learned

    3. Thank you for giving me the guide book. It was full . . . useful information.

a) of b) in c) on d) by e) for

    1. Brian has been doing the same job . . .five years. a) since b) for c) in d) from e)__

















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TEXTS FOR ADDITIONAL READING


        1. Kazakh national cuisine

Hospitality has always been a main character trait of Kazakh people. Even if you have just a minute to pop in to a Kazakh house, an owner will still ask you to sit down and offer a fragrant tea with sweets. Respectful attitude to the guests contributed to the fact that traditional Kazakh feast took a shape of a ceremony, noninferior, in its philosophical and allegorical content, to world famous Chinese tea ceremony.

Hospitable owner would offer his guest a seat at a place of honor. Traditionally, meal is served at a low round table, called dastarkhan. First and foremost, in order to quench thirst of the guest a hostess would treat him with a bowl of yogurt drink. This can be "kumys" - a drink based on fermented mare's milk - or shubat the main ingredient of which is camel milk. Then, table will be filled with baursaks - balls of dough, pre-fried in boiling oil (Asian analogue of donuts), samsa - triangular pastries with meat,kausyrma - a kind of thin pastries or fried doughs filled with meat and onions, raisins,kurt (small, salted cheese balls) and, of course, tea. Here, to be objective, we should say that tea never grew on the territory of Kazakhstan, it was introduced to the Steppe of Kazakhstan from the outside, but despite this, tea quickly gained popularity among the local population. And today, in fact, it is one of the main drinks in Kazakh society.

Ahello_html_mae21699.jpgfter a long-drawn tea ceremony, assortment of dishes on the festive table will be complemented by meat dishes: kazishuzhukzhalzhayakartakabyrga. The above dishes are traditionally prepared from horse meat or lamb. The main dish of Kazakh cuisine, with which owners welcome their guests is besbarmak. Name of this dish is translated from Kazakh as “five fingers” because of a manner to eat the dish by hand. Besbarmak's main ingredients are: meat (lamb or horse meat), pasta (it is cut into small squares), as well as herbs (dill , parsley, cilantro, etc.).

The procedure of cutting meat cooked for besbarmak is a separate special ritual. Typically, this mission is laid on the owner or a highly respected guest. According to traditions, each part of meat has its own meaning and is served in a special way. Thus, meat from the pelvic bone and tibia is given to senior honored guests. Son or daughter-law gets pruning from a sternum. Cervical vertebra is usually served for unmarried girls. Sheep's head is cooked in a special way and is served separately. The right to cut this element of besbarmak is usually given to a guest of the highest rank.

According to the European classification, all these dishes belong to a group of second dishes and snacks. As for traditional Kazakh first course, sorpa – rich broth completed by seasoned vegetables, spices and herbs - occupies a special place. Sorpa, unlike other first courses, is for drinking, so it is served in bowls. 
Tea ceremony completes the meal.

 Interesting facts about Kazakh cuisine:

- Main ingredients in traditional Kazakh cuisine are meat, flour and milk products, though nowadays many other ingredients are common in the cuisine.

- Kazakhs are believed to be among the top countries in tea consumption, almost every meal is followed by tea in Kazakh families.

- Kazakh cuisine is usually not spicy.

- There are many high calorie dishes in the traditional Kazakh cuisine.

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        1. Music

Of the hoary antiquity to the present day came Kazakh folk legend about the supernatural, the supernatural origin of music, singing. She says that soaring high in the sky, the divine song, flying over the great Kazakh steppe nomads, sank very low, so people hear it, by nature endowed with great musical gift and abilities. And the saying: "God has placed in the heart of each particle Kazakh kyuya since his birth." It is no accident, perhaps, the people came, "outsider" who witnessed the life and lifestyle of the Kazakhs in the 18-19 centuries, not without surprise and admiration the very striking ability of people to create, rapid musical and poetic improvisation, broad involvement in the sphere music making the whole population - from infants to elders deep. 

The children had fun playing on clay wind instruments - saz syrnae, tastauke, uskirike that "at hand" the master or the child acquired the strange shapes of animals, birds, fish, horses, multihead, brightly painted and covered with shiny glaze. In response to children's songs and musical games, mother's lullaby and songs of teaching adult men (osiet deer) kids learned about the world around us and become full members of their socio-cultural community. 
Further independent life gave new artistic knowledge and experience through participation in youth games and entertainment with the mandatory participation of music - kayym-aytysah, tartysah, dialogical singing songs Kara domestic deer. The repertoire of "young age" enriched by the love lyrics and a variety of songs and rituals multi Kazakh wedding with mournful parting laments brides and cheerful youth fire-zharami, signaling a battle shock - dabyla, dauylpaza or shyndauyla to hunt the beast, or during the military campaign. In this regard, the "maturity", which carries poise and experience, was designed for the accomplishment of big government and public affairs, to protect the interests of intergeneric kind of song and poetry competitions - aytysah and the administration of folk ritual celebrations and ceremonies as - Zharshy - an organizer and performer of the ritual. And "old age" and "wisdom" accompanied by music and poetry mentoring young people, singing songs, philosophical reflections on the meaning of life and irrevocably bygone youth, about the sweet and so quickly time has passed you when your age - only twenty-five (zhiyrma demon). This was the age-old musical life-cycle of a Kazakh nomad, constantly reproduced from year to year, from generation to generation, ensuring the full functioning of various folk musical traditions and gave rise to well-known lines of the great Abay:

"... The doors opened to the world of song for you. 
The song accompanies the land of ashes, groaning. 
Song - the eternal companion of the joys of earth 
So hearken to her sensitive and Prices, loving! "

All the spiritual heritage of the nation developed until the early twentieth century in the form of unwritten and transmitted "from mouth to mouth" from father to son, from a teacher - a student from the past - in the future. Nomadic and semi-nomadic type of economy predetermined characteristic folk instruments and musical traditions, and their "built into" the life and the life of the Kazakh society and is inseparable from other forms of artistic creation - the verbal and poetic. 

At the early stage of development of the music was completely subordinated to utility service needs of an ancient nomadic society and was accompanied by a major religious and personal ceremony. Difficulties during the formation of the Kazakh ethnic group major epics-zhyr, performed zhyrau (native epic traditions), and were originally connected with the administration of military rituals of magic and the cult of ancestors. In the folk memory survived more than a hundred tales, each of them - thousands of lines of poetry, performed to the accompaniment kyl-Kobyzev - bow musical instrument with two strings of horsehair or pinch tool - dombra. As one of the most beloved genres of folk arts, heroic and lyrical everyday epics "Koblandy", "Alpamys", "Er Targyn", "Kambar", "Kiz Zhibek", "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan-Sulu," Enlik and Köbök "and many others for bringing this to the descendants of the legendary, mythological formerealnye dokazahskoy historical events and actual Kazakh history. 

Hatched later archaic samples of instrumental music people - Cui - also served at the stage of its emergence magical function. The origin of the two traditions - the epic and instrumental linked in the popular mind and tradition with the name of a legendary saint - Korkyt - the first bard and shaman, "his father kyuev" and creator of a musical instrument - kyl-Kobyzev. However Kobyzev, structure and names of the parts which embodied the characteristic of shamanic concepts of 3-tiered model of the universe (upper, middle and lower worlds), Cork's great legacy left to posterity - kobyzovye Cui - "peel", "Zhelmaya" (The name of the sacred camel " ), "Targ tana" ( "spotted calf"), "Elimay" ( "O, my homeland"), "Ushardyn uluy" ( "Howl Ushar"), etc. Some of them had the onomatopoeic nature and transmit voice wildlife part - is a philosophical meditation on the meaning of existence, life and death. But in all the works easily perceptible to the ear kyuya passing from one to another and repetitive musical motives - though come to life in the sounds Kobyzev words of the ancient prayers, commands, spells, addressed to God, spirits, supernatural forces. 

In ancient times goes and the history of Dabrowa and sybyzgovoy instrumental traditions. Evidence of ancient origin Dabrowa music became archaeological discovery: the excavations at the ancient city of Khorezm were found terracotta figurines musicians playing plucked dvuhstrunkah. Scientists note that Horezmian dvuhstrunki, come about at least two thousand years ago, are typological similarity with the Kazakh dombra and was one of the common tools of the early nomads who lived on the territory of Kazakhstan. 

The most archaic examples of Dabrowa and sybyzgovoy music include Cui-legend with the names of birds and animals - "Akku" ( "The Swan"), "Kaz" (Gus), "Nar" ( "Camel"), Cui of lame and unfortunate creatures hunting - "Aksak kiz" ( "lame girl"), "Aksak wild ass" ( "lame wild ass"), Cui, laments about the drowning child and the baby animals - "Jorge ayu" ( "Bear-pacer"), "Zarlau" ( "Lament"), "Zhetym kiz" ( "Orphan Girl"), etc. All of them are preserved remnants of ancient forms of religion, cults and representations of the totem of the people and still carry the living history silently gone millennia. 

Only by 19 century Kazakh music is released from the chains shackling of religion and ritual, and begins to develop as self-sufficient artistic creativity. This period was a truly spiritual renaissance of the nation, who gave the flowering major musical traditions of the people - the instrumental, song, akynskoy. On the vast territory of Kazakhstan formed various local professional musicians and performing schools, with each region offers a kind of "specialization" in the development of specific traditions. Thus, the territory of western Kazakhstan has been a central area in the development of Dabrowa kyuya tokpe and Sarah arch area (Central Kazakhstan) - the epicenter of the vocational tracks, the south-western region (Karmakchinsky district) to keep and develop the rich tradition of epic skazitelstva and Zhetysu - traditions aytysa - adversarial Art akyns-improvisers. Names Kurmangazy Dauletkereya, Tattimbeta Kazangap, Dina, Biržai, Achan, Zhayau Musa, Estaya, Ibraya, sledges, Madi, Mukhit, Abaya, Kenena Azerbaev went down in history not only Kazakh, but also the world's musical culture. Their work, distinguished by a bright personality style, characteristic of imagery and terms of music and expressive means of pride, classics of Kazakh musical culture. By creating high art and an introduction to ordinary people "divine mystery" - the music, they enjoy life with great love and respect in the society and have always been at the center of attention and attraction. The best of the best people are appropriating the high rank - Salov and sulfur. Creative activity of professional musicians in the 19 th century, as a rule, not confined to performing or composing a sphere, but includes all variety of artistic forms - poetic improvisation, elocution, polished vocal technique, masterful possession of a musical instrument, the elements of theater and circus activities, which in many of the Kazakh steppe brought together artists from medieval musicians in Western Europe - jugglers, troubadours, trouveres, Meister and minnizingerami. 

In the 20 century Kazakh musical culture is enriched by new forms and genres of music-making. For a small scale in the history of the length of time polyphony and the whole genre repertoire of classical European music - opera, symphony, ballet, instrumental concertos, a cantata, oratorio, ensemble, orchestral and choral performance, professional musicians has created a new school, based on the writing style of creativity . Based on the organic synthesis of national and European forms of content in 30-40-s of the 20 century the classics of Kazakh opera - "Kiz Zhibek" E. Brusilovsky, "Abai A. Zhubanov L. Hamidi," Birzhan and Sara M. Tulebaev. Their dramatic and musical foundation became the inexhaustible riches of Kazakh folklore and oral professional music. Staging opera became an arena where before the eyes of a modern audience turns old wedding and incendiary aytys akyns between the 19 th century Birzhanom and Sarah, where you can hear the full song hero's inner passions of the people's liberation revolt 19 th century poet and kuishi Makhambet and sad funereal and memorial song-cry zhoktau. 
In the 60's and 70's. in the country reaches a peak, one of the most difficult genres of European instrumental music - a symphony in which the songs are as close in shape to lassicheskim - Symphony G. Zhubanova, K. Kuzhamyarova and AET has arisen a new genre synthesis - Symphony kyui. Big love from the national audience got the orchestral and choral interpretation of Kazakh monodicheskoy music. Especially won wide popularity of folklore-ethnographic Orchestra Otrar saz ", which consisted of old, gone from the practice of everyday existence Kazakh musical instruments, restored scientist and folklorist B. Sarybaev. In the orchestral sound Cui capture listeners gigantic power embodied Herculean images rapidity horse racing-bayga, captivating sound pictures boundless steppes and jubilation mass popular festivities. Unique face the team that created the leader and conductor, composer and dombrist N. Tlendiev. 

At the present stage of development in Kazakhstan formed a branched structure of musical culture. Here everyone can find something that he liked. Along with performance and composer creation in European styles in the country continue to develop traditional forms of music making, operates the world a massive rock music and pop music, jazz) and the religious music of the world of concessions, folklore and oral traditions of peoples living in Kazakhstan - the Uighurs, Koreans, Germans, Dungan , Russian, Tatar. In the Republic performing collectives of various artistic profile - State Symphony Orchestra, the Kazakh folk instruments.

Kurmangazy, choir, folk dance ensemble, State Quartet, pop ensembles, brass and jazz bands. Kazakhstan - home to many outstanding performers of classical music worldwide - E. Serkebaeva, B. Tulegenova, G. Esimova, A. Dnishev, G. Kadyrbekov, J. Aubakirova, A Musakhodzhaeva and the cradle of stars uzykalnoy Kazakh diaspora abroad - M. Bisengalieva, E. Kurmangaliev sisters Nakipbekovyh. Today in the republic is actively operating specialized children's music school named. K. Baiseitova and A. Zhubanov, Almaty State Conservatory. Kurmangazy, National Academy of Music in Astana, the State Opera and Ballet. Abay Kazakh State Philharmonic. Djambula Kazakhconcert, Institute of Literature and Art. M. Auezov and other musical and educational, scientific and cultural institutions. Every year, our sovereign republic gathers talented youth at the festival "Days of New Music", "Zhiger", "Altyn Alma", International contest "Voice of Asia", and folk musicians - at the International festival of traditional music. Day after day, year after year, as before, the music sounds, and combines different eras and generations, linking past, present and future.

        1. Kazakh traditions

Kazakhs have always revered and highly valued their national customs and traditions. It is almost impossible to describe all the traditions followed by Kazakh people in one article, thus a brief introduction to Kazakh beliefs and customs is given below.

The main tradition of Kazakhs, which eventually transformed into a feature of national character, is hospitality. In the Kazakh society, there is an unofficial law voiced in ancient times, which says “Meet a guest as the God's messenger”.
Hospitality is considered a sacred duty in the Kazakh society. At all times, the steppe inhabitants did their best to please their guest. Therefore, each traveller knew that he or she would be welcomed anywhere in the Kazakh land.

Respect for the elderly is another positive feature of Kazakhs. Traditionally, a child from early childhood is taught to be moderate and honest when dealing with older, wiser and life experienced people.
However, the above mentioned national identities that served as a basis for the occurrence of generalized rules and principles of public relations (tradition), fortunately, are confined not only to representatives of the Kazakh people. Therefore, we offer to your attention a list of basic and authentic customs, which are widespread in the Kazakh society.

A. Traditions and customs associated with the guest reception

Travellers in Kazakhstan are most likely to be encountered with the traditions, associated with guest reception. Here are some examples of them:

Konakasy - a custom associated with treating of a guest. As mentioned above, Kazakh people since ancient times have been famous for their hospitality. Kazakhs always reserve the tastiest food for guests. Guests are divided into three types: "arnayy konak" is a specially invited guest, "kudayy konak" - a random stranger (uninvited), "kydyrma konak" - an unexpected guest. All these guests, despite of their type are offered a rich table – Konakasy.

Konakkade - a tradition under which a host has a right to ask a guest to sing a song or play a musical instrument (of course, as long as a guest is known for his or her talent), thus ensuring some fun and joy during the feast.

Erulik - if new settlers came to a village erulik was arranged in their honour, i.e. a small celebration that allowed newcomers to quickly adapt to the new location. Also, the custom erulik includes assistance in settling of the newcomers, when neighbours provide them with firewood, drinking water, etc. for the time being.

Toy dastarkhan - a special form of celebration, organized for holiday or during it. Sports competitions, music, singing competitions (aitys) and horse riding competitions are organised in addition to the gatherings during Toy dastarkhan. Very often, dishes of Kazakh national cuisine are served during such occasions.

B. Traditions and customs associated with gift giving

Guests are very often have to receive or give presents; in addition, there are often times, when gifts should be given in some special occasions according to the traditions. Some examples are given below:

Suyіnshі - a custom according to which a traveller or any other person who brought home a good message (news) receives a valuable gift from the owners in gratitude. Sometimes before telling good news a person says ‘Suyunshi’ or ‘what would you give me for a Suyinshi?’, thus implying that he or she has something great to tell.

At mingizip shapan zhabu" is a high honour. According to the tradition, a respected visitor, who may be a poet (akin), a hero, warrior (batir) or other very respected man receives a gift from local residents: a horse and a splendid shapan (robe of camel's hair with a cotton lining) in recognition of their merit.

Baygazy - a tradition of giving a gift to a person, who acquired a new valuable thing.
 
C. Traditions and customs associated with mutual aid

Helping each other has always been highly valued by Kazakhs and is very important in a Kazakh community. Therefore, there are a number of traditions, which are associated with mutual aid. Some of them are listed below:

Asar - a family, which has to perform an urgent and sometimes a hard work, has a right to ask relatives, friends and neighbours for assistance. At the end of the work, a rich table is laid as a gratitude for those, who helped.

Zhylu - a tradition associated with the provision of material, moral and financial assistance to people affected by natural disasters (fire, flood, etc.). All supporters, not only relatives are entitled to help the victims. Many things can be given as donations - livestock, building materials, clothing, money, etc.

Belkoterer - a tradition to treat the elderly. Delicious and most importantly - soft foods such as kazy, zhent, cottage cheese are cooked for the elderly. Typically, this responsibility rests on children or close relatives, the less likely neighbours. Belkoterer tradition is an example of caring for the elderly.
 

 D. Traditions and customs associated with birth and upbringing of the child

Traditions, connected with the birth of children and their upbringing, apparently play a very important role in many cultures. Just a brief description of such rituals and traditions followed by Kazakh families, is given below. All of these rituals are usually followed by celebrations.

Shіldehana - a celebration that is associated with childbirth.

Besіkke salu, besik toy - a holiday, hosted when the newborn is put to a cradle - besik. As a rule, it is organized on the 3rd-5th day after dropout of umbilical cord of the kid.

Kyrkynan shygaru – a ritual performed on the fortieth day after birth that includes bathing baby in 40 tablespoons of water, and the first haircut and nail cut and other rituals. 

Tusau kesu - a day when the baby took his first steps the oldest and most respected people is invited to perform a ceremony of Tusau keser. Then he or she should cut the special ropes, beset baby's legs, in order to ensure that in future the kid could walk nicely and run fast.

Sundetke otyrgyzu is a rite of circumcision. The ceremony is held when a boy is 5-7 years old. A big festival to which all the relatives and friends are invited is organized after this. On the occasion of Sundetke otyrgyzu guests usually make generous gifts to the hero of the occasion and his parents.
 
E. Traditions and customs related to marriage

One of unique Kazakh traditions related to marriages is that the marriage between relatives up to the seventh generation is prohibited. Such taboo helps to prevent blood mixing and, consequently, benefit to the health of future offspring.
Traditionally, sequence of the ceremonies and rituals related to a marriage is the following.
Any wedding ceremony in the Kazakh society is anticipated by 
kudalyk (matchmaking). Before the wedding, matchmakers come to bride's house. Their task is to agree with the closest relatives of a girl on her marriage. During courtship, father of the bride receives gifts from the guests that serve as a deposit.
If negotiations are successful, the father, in turn, presents a coat to the main matchmaker. This custom is called “
Shege Sapa”. Preparation of "kuyruk bauyr" - a delicious dish from the liver and broad tail fat also testifies to the successful completion of courtship.
The next stage of the ceremony is sendoff of the bride 
Kyz uzatu. In the evening before the Kyz uzatu matchmakers come to the bride's house again. Number of visitors should not be even (5-7). Early in the morning, the bride with matchmakers is sent to the groom's house. 
Solemn ceremony of meeting the bride in the groom’s house is called 
kelіn tusіru. The main element of kelіn tүsіru is a traditional performance of a song of instructions and wishes - Betashar
In ancient times when the Kazakhs practiced a nomadic lifestyle, dwelling (yurt) of newlyweds was located behind the house of groom’s parents. According to the tradition, the first threshold of the yurt was to be crossed by the bride, and be sure to do it with the right foot. Also during the wedding ceremony, the couple must drink together a bowl of water with dissolved sugar and salt. This ritual is considered as a guarantor of a happy family life.
 
F. The most ancient traditions of Kazakh people

Ashamayga mingizu is a ritual whereby a 6-7-years-old boy was supposed to be given a horse and whip. Such a ritual is a kind of "initiation", having proclaimed that the child is a jigit. On this day, elders blessed the young rider and parents organized a small celebration in honour of their son.

Bastangy is an ancient analog of contemporary youth parties. Traditionally, these celebrations are conducted immediately after departure of adults. During Bastangy, guests express only one wish that the travel of the adults would be accompanied by luck.






        1. National Kazakh Wear

For centuries, Kazakh national clothes were simple and rational. It was characterized by common forms for all segments of the population, but with a certain social and age regulations. Elegance and beautiful elements to dresses were given by fur trim, embroidery, jewelry. Traditional materials for the clothes were leather, fur, thin felt, cloth, which was produced by the local population. Clothes sewn from imported materials - silk, brocade, velvet, were a kind of measure of wealthiness of their owners. Cotton was also widely used. 

Khello_html_33acd15f.jpgazakhs have always valued animal skins and furs as sewing material. Coats, or so called Tons, were sewed from animal skins, and fur coats, such as Shash were sewed from furred animals, which were perfectly suitable for weather conditions in Kazakh Steppes. Outerwear was prepared from skins and furs of wild and domestic animals, according to the names of which, clothes were called: Zhanat tone - a coat of raccoon fur, Kara tulki ton - of a black fox fur, Kamshat boryk - a beaver hat, Bota ton - a coat from camel skin, Zhargak tone - from a foal skin, etc. Many kinds of clothing were made from felt. Predominantly white coat was used for its production, and thin fur from sheep's neck was considered particularly valuable. 
National clothes of Kazakh women

A Kazakh woman traditionally wore a dress with a waistcoat. Generally, outerwear of women was similar to that of men: similar jackets, waistcoats, gowns, wide leather belts, it differed from men's only in colours and some decoration details.

Headwear of Kazakh women, similar to many other nationalities, was also a kind of indicator of their marital status. Headwear of married women differed in different tribal groups, but girls' headwear was comparatively similar throughout the territory of Kazakhstan. Girls used to wear hats of two types: skull cap (Takiya) and a warm hat (Borik), decorated with otter, fox or beaver fur. A tuft of owl feather was often sewed to the top of takiya for decoration purposes, which also played a role of a talisman. Gimp, tassels, gold embroidery and even silver coins were also used for decoration.

Kazakh women's national bridal headwear Saukele, which is a high (70 cm) conical hat, is of particular importance (see pic. on the left). The most expensive of them were evaluated in a hundred selected horses. Saukele was a mandatory part of girl’s dowry, and was prepared long before the girls reached the age of marriage, together with a wedding gown, which was often made of expensive fabric, usually red coloured. Bride was supposed to wear a saukele during the wedding ceremony, then it was worn on holidays for some time after the marriage. 

Saukele is decorated by metal fishnet tops, tiara (sometimes made of gold with inlays of semiprecious stones or strings of pearls, corals, etc.), temple pendants and chin decorations. Saukele cone is covered with cloth, which was sewed by metal badges of different configurations, into bezels of which precious and semiprecious stones are inserted. A broad ribbon of expensive fabric, decorated with fringes of gold thread, was also attached to the back of saukele, which went down to cover a part of the back of a girl. Compulsory supplement to saukele is a long suspension, called zhaktau, which is attached to it from both sides, reaching the waist of a girl.
The most skilled craftsmen participated in saukele manufacturing: cutters, embroiderers, jewellers, who applied the moulding, embossing, stamping, etc. during the process of manufacturing. It took a year or even more to prepare one such saukele.

Whello_html_m7eb2069b.jpgith the birth of the first child a woman put a headwear of a married woman on (see pic. on the right), which was worn until her old ages. The details of this vary a little depending on the age of woman and region she came from. This headwear consisted of two parts: the bottom - kimeshek worn on the head, and the top - in the form of a turban, wound over the bottom part of the headwear. Both parts were made from white fabric. These types of headwear are worn by older women even today.










National clothes of Kazakh men

Kazakh men used to wear different skullcaps (takiya), summer and winter hats. Summer hat - kalpak was sewed from thin felt, mostly white, and had a specific ancient cut. Borik and tymak were worn in winter. Tymak is a warm winter hat with earflaps and neck flaps made from fox, which is popular among Kazakh men even nowadays.Bashlyk is another national headwear, made of camel cloth, which was supposed to be worn on top of other hats, to protect from dust, sun, rain and snow.

Men's clothing consisted of the following components: Double under vest (zheyde), lower pants - made of light fabric and the upper - of cloth, suede, sheepskin or thick cotton fabric. From the early ages, when the Kazakhs used to go horseback riding, trousers were a necessary and important part of their clothing.
The main type of outer clothing was 
shapan, a kind of robe.

In old times men's and women's footwear were also similar, though girls’ boots were often decorated with embroidery and appliqué work. Footwear differed according to seasons. For example, winter boots were tall, broad-shafted, worn over the felt stockings. Also there were differences between footwear of older and younger people. Young people often wore boots with high heels (up to 6 - 8 cm), older people – with low heels. Another common type of footwear among Kazakhs was light boots without heels, tight fitting on legs, called ichigi or masi. Leather kebis was worn over them, which was supposed to be put off at the entrance to the house.

Decorations


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A great variety of different decorations - great applications, patches were used on clothing, headwear, footwear. Carnelian, coral, pearl, pearl, coloured glass were used to decorate gold, silver, copper, bronze jewellery of women. Earrings, flat and wrought bracelets and rings were extremely beautiful. Rings depending on their traditional forms have specific names, such as a Bird's beak ring. Belts - a compulsory element of both male and female clothing - were decorated especially: it was ornamented with embroidery; silver badges were sewn on it. Types of jewellery usually depended on age, social and marital status of those who wore them. Some of them were typical for certain territorial groups.

People's clothing is constantly being targeted by fashion designers, designers. Contemporary clothing, created using national motives, is always original and unique.


Kazakhstan’s holidays

Kazakhstan is a large multinational country which is rich with its both old traditions and new ones acquired for the period of Independence. The Republic of Kazakhstan observes international holidays such as New Year, 8 March but it also has holidays specific only for this country such as Unity Day, Capital Day etc. 

All the holidays of Kazakhstan may be divided into national, state and professional ones. The national holidays are the holidays in honor of the events having a special historical importance for the development of Kazakhstan. Celebration of the national holidays is accompanied with holding of official events. Such holiday is considered Independence Day of Kazakhstan. 

The state holidays are the holidays devoted to the events having social and political importance, they also include traditional Kazakh holidays. This category of the holidays includes New Year8 MarchNauryzUnity DayCapital  DayConstitution Day etc. 

In addition to these holidays Kazakhstan has another type of holidays – professional ones celebrated by some categories of citizens: 
• Fatherland Defender’s Day – 7 May 
• Political Repression Victims Memory Day -31 May 
• The Republic of Kazakhstan National Symbols’ Day – 4 June 
• Police Day – 23 June 
• Health Professionals’ Day (third Sunday of June) 
• Press, Television and Radio Day (last Sunday of June) 
• Diplomatic Service Day - 2 July 
• Tax Service Day – 6 July 
• Metal-Maker’s Day (third Sunday of July) 
• Transport and Communication Workers’ Day (first Sunday of August) 
• Builders’ Day – (second Sunday of August) 
• Sports Day (third Sunday of August) 
• Miner’ Day (last Sunday of August) 
• Knowledge Day – 1 September

The holidays of national and state nature are days off for the whole Kazakhstan population. These days Kazakhstan holds open-air merrymaking and official events. Various festive events and festive concerts with participation of both Kazakh and foreign stars are arranged for the country’s population.

Nauryz Celebration in Kazakhstan

One of the most ancient holidays in the East, with its origin dating back to the Zoroastrian religion, Nauryz is reputed by the Kazakh and is one of the most long-awaited and joyful events. This holiday appeared in the I millennium B.C.

Nauryz is a holiday of renewal and spring. It is also called as eastern New Year. According to the Oriental calendar Nauryz falls on 21 March - vernal point day, which was considered as the first day of spring before adoption of the Soviet calendar.

This holiday represents not only spring renewal but also friendship, love and fertility. According to popular belief the people were getting rid of winter hardships, were pleased with well-being and preservation of their animal stock – the main wealth of the nomads. By that holiday people cleaned their houses putting everything at its place, reconciled and ceased all fights and wars. Merrymaking, joy and peace are prevailing on that day.

The Kazakh celebrate Nauryz in the same manner as other oriental peoples but they have their own individualities. The main dish of the holiday is nauryz-koje or nauryzdyk which consists of seven ingredients symbolizing vital elements. The number 7 is a fortunate number for the Kazakh that is why many festive ceremonies are connected with it.

As a rule, Nauryz began with a competition – a game between a girl and djigit, which represented a symbolic struggle between winter and spring. Different kinds of games and competitions were organized during the three days of the holiday where adults and the youth, children and women took an active part.

During celebration of Nauryz, the Kazakh visit their friends and relatives, you can often watch people saying “Koktem Tudy” – Congratulation on Spring Day! Absolutely unknown people are greeting you wishing well-being. Contest of folk singers – akyns who glorify Nauryz in their songs are also held during the holiday celebration in Kazakhstan.

New Year celebration in Kazakhstan

One of the most  favorite holidays for the Kazakh people is considered New Year. This holiday was celebrated in the territory of Kazakhstan beginning from mid-XIX century when Russian migrants settled there.

Celebration of New Year traditionally begins from the night of 31 December. Cities and villages host open-air merrymaking, and the coming-in of New Year is celebrated with salute. One can meet Father Frost and Snow Maiden in the streets. The Kazakh call Father Frost as Ayaz Ata which is literally translated as “Father Frost”.

Father Frost is a fairy personage of Slavonic folklore. He impersonates winter frosts in Slavonic mythology. The Father Frost’s prototype was St. Nikolai (Santa Claus) and also more ancient minor divinities Zimnik and Korochun.

Father Frost comes in New Year and presents children with gifts brought in a bag behind his back. He is often represented in a dark-blue, silver or red fir coat embroidered with ornaments wearing a cap (not a hood) on his head with a long white beard and a stick in his hand. He moves by a three-horsed sledge or goes on foot.

One of the main attributes of New Year worldwide is a festive New Year tree. In many countries it is decorated for Christmas day and called a Christmas tree. The Kazakh also observe this tradition that is why there is a lovely New Year tree in every house.

Another New Year tradition is a festive tableful. To celebrate New Year, close friends and relatives gather at table to watch in. First they “see off” Old Year remembering everything that was good in it and at 00 hours 00 minutes the chime starts striking counting the last seconds of Old Year. With occurrence of 1 January everybody congratulates each other and drinks champagne which is considered a traditional drink for New Year. The Kazakh like holidays very much and that is why their tableful may last almost till morning.

On the New Year eve the head of state traditionally addresses to the people of Kazakhstan with congratulation. When clock is chiming everybody congratulates each other on New Year wishing new successes and victories in the coming year. 1 and 2 January are festive and non-work days in Kazakhstan.

The Day of Victory over fascist Germany in World War II of 1941-45 is one of the holidays, most respected in the world. This holiday is a day off in many countries and in particular in Kazakhstan.

Victory Day is celebrated on 9 May because it was the day when the act of unconditional German surrender was signed at 01:00 Moscow time. This holiday was celebrated for the first time in 1945 when Moscow organized the Victory Parade in the Red Square. From this moment every year solemn military parades and marches are held on 9 May in all cities and states of post-Soviet countries.

This day military units and schools are marching along the cities’ streets to military memorials or monuments to perished soldiers to lay flowers on the tombs of war heroes. This tradition reached our days.

People of Kazakhstan pay a great attention to this holiday since this date symbolizes the protection of the Motherland and people from enemies. Furthermore a lot of Kazakh people died defending their Motherland.

The Republic of Kazakhstan celebrates Victory Day two days – on 9 and 10 May. During the whole month charity events are held. On 9 May all the educational and cultural institutions of Kazakhstan hold numerous festive events dedicated to the memory of the war heroes. The country’s government organizes meetings and talks with war veterans for the new generation to remember their history. Furthermore the government renders regular assistance to all veterans of the World War II and hold festive events for them.

Capital Day Celebration in Kazakhstan

One of the architectural gem of Kazakhstan is its capital Astana city. On 6 July 1994 Supreme Council of Kazakhstan passed a resolution to move the Kazakh capital from Alma-Ata to Akmola (Tselinograd). On 6 May 1998 by the Kazakh President order Akmola city was re-named to Astana and on 10 June 1998 Astana was presented to the world community as a new capital of Kazakhstan. Capital Day in Astana is celebrated from the moment when the city acquired the status of a capital in 1998. Initially this holiday was observed at city level on 10 June.

From the moment when the city acquired the status of a capital its massive construction resulted in making Astana one of the most beautiful modern cities in Central Asia. Beginning form 1996 the population in Astana rose from 270, 000 to 700,000. In several years the population will pass 1 million people. Massive construction is still underway in the city. Among the most famous modern architectural masterpieces are the building of the Ministry of Transport and Communication, towers of Kazakhstan Temir Joly and Northern Lights, business city, Astana tower, International Airport building.

Not only Kazakh architects but also attracted foreign specialists took part in the construction of the city. The development of the city’s architectural plan took into account the main idea of a new Eurasian look city. In the opinion of the Kazakhstan people modern Astana is a city which contains the elements both of the East and West.

Among the architects who participated in the construction of the city are such world’s celebrities as Kise Kurokawa and Norman Foster. Thus a well-known British architect is an author of one of the most unique buildings in Astana – The Peace and Consent Palace.

On 18 July 2008 the Kazakhstan Parliament passed the law project «On Amendments to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On Holidays in the Republic of Kazakhstan” which provides for adoption of a new state holiday “Capital City Day – 6 July”. This attention to Astana was caused by the fact that Astana is a symbol of the achievements of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the years of its independence. In 1999 by UNESCO decision Astana got the title of “City of Peace”. Furthermore the city is a free economic zone which fact contributes much to the economic development of the city.

Constitution Day celebration in Kazakhstan

Constitution Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the official holidays celebrated in Kazakhstan on 30 August. It was 30 August 1995 when the Kazakh people approved the new Constitution draft at the national referendum. This was one of the decisive moments on the way of building an independent state in Kazakhstan.

Kazakhstan obtained its independence in 1991 but it was only in 1995 when the Basic Law of the Republic was finally approved. This holiday is one of the most important state holidays since it reflects the Kazakh people’s will, their aspiration to approve the country as a democratic secular, constitutional and social state (Art.1 of the Constitution of Kazakhstan).

The Basic Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan was amended and modified twice: in 1998 and 2007. In 2007 the Constitution fixed a new form of a state system – presidential parliamentary.

By tradition on Constitution Day festivities, concerts and different exhibitions are held in all regions and cities of the Republic. You can watch parades and games in the rural and mountain regions. The main festivity and official events are held in the country’s capital Astana. You can visit concert stages, where Kazakh and foreign artists give performances. Solemn events are held in many parks and in the evening you can enjoy watching beautiful fireworks.

8 March - International Women’s Day

8th March is an international women’s day in many countries of the world. Kazakhstan is not an exception in it. This day is a holiday and day off in Kazakhstan. Many organizations hold festive events devoted to women. Historically this day was celebrated as the Day of working women’s solidarity in the struggle for the equality of rights and emancipation. In spite of the fact that this movement for emancipation originated in the West, nowadays this holiday has no such considerable importance there as it has in the post-Soviet countries. According to the United Nations Resolution the western countries celebrate this day as International Day of Struggle for Women’s Rights and International Peace.

The holiday history begins at the end of the XIX century when women in the West began struggling for their rights and freedom. On 8 March 1908 a meeting with logos on women’s equality was organized in New York. That day over 15,000 women were marching along the city demanding a reduced working day and payment conditions equal to those of men. One of the main conditions laid by women was giving them the right to vote.

But 8 March was not announced as an official holiday at once. On 19 March 1911 International Women’s Day was celebrated in Germany, Austria, Denmark and Switzerland. From 1910 to 1920 this holiday was also celebrated in different days of March. After that the world popularity of the holiday in these countries declined except for the USSR. In 1966 this day was finally approve as a holiday and day off in the territory of the USSR.

Nowadays 8 March is observed in all post-Soviet countries including Kazakhstan. But at the modern stage this holiday does not imply any political context. It became a day of all women when love, beauty and kindness are extolled.

Day of Unity  in Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is a multinational country, home for 150 nations and nationalities. To unite all these nationalities the country’s government hold different events one of which is the celebration of Day of Unity. The official day of this holiday is 1 May. This day was celebrated as a holiday of workers’ solidarity in the Soviet time. Today this is a holiday of unity of all peoples who live in the territory of Kazakhstan. This bright spring holiday is held in every city of Kazakhstan with parades and processions along the central streets of the cities and also with entertaining events.

Participation of different cultural centers which familiarize the people of Kazakhstan with the traditions of other nationalities is of great importance. Merry dances, sports competitions - all these make the event one of the brightest and most favorable holidays for the people of Kazakhstan.

Not only cultural centers but also company staffs, university students and representatives of different social organizations take part in the holiday. The main parade is usually organized along the central avenue of the capital – Bukhar Zhirau. The number of the people participating in parade sometimes reaches 25,000 people.

Probably the brightest moment of the holiday is an ethno-cultural exhibition. Different national dwellings of the representatives of all nations who live in Kazakhstan are installed in front of the Central Park of the city. These are peculiar mini-museums where you can see national clothes, traditional tableware, jewelry, but what is more important you can taste dishes of different national cuisine there. 

In addition, this day the museums and libraries of Kazakhstan organize exhibitions dedicated to the holiday and peoples who live in Kazakhstan. This holiday does not only familiarize with traditions and culture of the nationalities that live in the country’s territory but also it aims to consolidate people of all nations, living in Kazakhstan.

















































Литература


1. Косович П.В. Some facts about Kazakhstan. – Астана; СПб.,

2002. – 136 с.

2. Сейдимбек А.С. Казахский язык. Универсальный справочник для старшеклассников и студентов. – Алматы, 2003. – 134 с.

3. Интернет ресурсы.














































Contents

ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

2

тЕКСТ «кАЗАХСТАН: оБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ»

3-6

тЕКСТ «сИМВОЛЫ кАЗАХСТАНА»

6-7

тЕКСТ «аЛМАТЫ»

7

чТО ТЫ ЗНАЕШЬ О НАШЕЙ СТРАНЕ?

8

тЕКСТ «аСТАНА»

8-12

тЕКСТ «ПАВЛОДАР»

12-14

зАДАНИЯ НА ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ pASSIVE.

чТО ТЫ ЗНАЕШЬ О ГОРОДАХ КАЗАХСТАНА?

14-15

тЕКСТ «гЕОГРАФИЯ И ПРИРОДА кАЗАХСТАНА»

15-16

иТОГОВЫЙ ТЕСТ. вАРИАНТ 1

17

иТОГОВЫЙ ТЕСТ. вАРИАНТ 2

18

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТЕСТ. ВАРИАНТ 1

19

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТЕСТ. ВАРИАНТ 2

20

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТЕСТ. ВАРИАНТ 3

21

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТЕСТ. ВАРИАНТ 4

22

ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫЙ ТЕСТ. ВАРИАНТ 5

23-24

кЛЮЧИ К ТРЕНИРОВОЧНЫМ ТЕСТАМ

25

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ

«кАЗАХСКАЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ КУХНЯ».

26

«КАЗАХСКАЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ МУЗЫКА»

27-29

«КАЗАХСКИЕ ТРАДИЦИИ»

29-31

«КАЗАХСКАЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ ОДЕЖДА»

32-34

«ПРАЗДНИКИ КАЗАХСТАНА»

34-38



43


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Данное пособие предназначено для учащихся 8-11 классов в рамках факультативного курса «Развитие коммуникативных компетенций по английскому языку» для углубления знаний учащихся на уроках английского языка. Пособие представляет собой ряд текстов и тестов по теме «Казахстан», соответствующих возрастным интересам учащихся и стимулирующих их вовлеченность в процесс изучения языка. Большое внимание уделяется заданиям на развитие коммуникативной компетенции, задания направлены на развитие языковых навыков, формирование словарного запаса. Содержание тем способствует воспитанию личностных качеств, уважения к культуре, истории своей страны.
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