государственное автономное учреждение
профессиональная образовательная организация
«Колледж сервиса и туризма»
Сборник текстов и упражнений по английскому языку для специальности «Сфера общественного питания»
на заседании ПЦК общих гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин
председатель ПЦК общих гуманитарных и социальных дисциплин
методическим советом ГАУ КО ПОО КСТ
заместитель директора по УР ГАУ КО ПОО КСТ
Составитель: преподаватель английского языка Папахчян М.В.
Тексты для дополнительного чтения……………………………………………………………………..………52
Which of the ingredients in the pictures are mentioned in the song.
I Love Cooking
We’ve got a lot of mushrooms
And we’ve got a lot of meat
Let’s make some
Really good to eat
I love cooking
I can fry and boil and bake
Just give me a recipe
There’s nothing I can’t make
We’ve got a lot of onions
And we’ve got a lot of rice
Let’s make dinner
It will be so nice.
Vegans are vegetarians: they don't eat fish or meat. However, most vegetarians eat eggs, cheese and other dairy products, but vegans don’t. In fact, they don't eat any food from animals - eggs and honey, for example. Why do people become vegans? Usually, they believe that it's wrong to kill animals for food or keep them for milk, eggs, and other products. They also believe that keeping animals is bad for the environment because it needs a lot of space. A small farm with animals can produce food for 20 people; but use the same land for vegetables and it can feed 240 people. Farm animals are also bad for the environment because they need a lot of water.
Fruitarians are vegans: they don't eat meat, fish or any other animal products. But there are other rules too. Fruitarians don't cook their food and they don't eat any vegetables, rice, bread or processed food. So what can they eat? Well, nuts and seeds are OK. They can eat sweet fruit, like bananas and apples, and also olives, peppers and tomatoes because these are fruit too. Some people are fruitarians because they believe it is healthy. However, most doctors believe that fruitarians do not have a balanced diet. The human body needs some vitamins which aren't in fruit or nuts.
1.Answer the questions.
1)Why don’t vegans eat eggs or honey?
2)What do vegans think about killing animals for food?
3)Which need a lot of water : vegetables or farm animals?
4)Can a fruitarian eat sandwiches? Give a reason.
5)Why do doctors think a fruitarian diet isn’t healthy?
2.Complete the compound nouns with the words below .Then check your answers in the text.
animal balanced dairy farm human processed
1. ------- products 4.-------Food
3.Complete the sentences with the compound nouns from exercise 2.
1) Meat, eggs, honey and butter are all ---------------------.
2)A ----------------- usually includes rice or pasta, fruit , vegetables and fish or meat.
3)The--------------- needs food and water to live.
4) Cows, sheep and pigs are all ----------------.
5) Butter, milk and cheese are all -------------.
6)Pizza, burgers and sausages are all types of------------
In the modern world our food comes from farms. We eat a lot of rice and wheat (in pasta, bread and ect.) because it’s easy to grow.
And from farm animals, we get meat and diary products. But some people believe that this modern diet isn’t good for the human body: they prefer “a caveman diet’’, from the days before farms.
People who follow the caveman diet don’t eat ‘modern’ things like bread, processed food, potatoes and dairy products. So what can they eat? Well, nuts, seeds and fruit are OK. A lot of vegetables are OK too. And they can eat meat and fish.
But the caveman diet isn’t just about the type of the food-it’s also about the way you eat it. Forget breakfast , lunch and dinner-you now have six small meals a day. And you eat them with your hands!
1.Read the text. What is this text about?
a) what to eat
b) what to eat and how to eat
c) what to eat, how to eat and how often to eat
2.Are the sentences True (T) or False (F)?
1)We eat a lot of wheat today because it’s good for our health. ---2)People choose the caveman diet because they don’t like meat.---
3)People on caveman diet don’t eat bread because it’s a modern food. ---
4)On the caveman diet you can eat eat fish, but not fruit. ---
5)The caveman diet tells you what to eat and how to eat. ---
6)People on caveman diet have six large meals a day. ---
Listen, read and retell.
All people in the world have breakfast, and most people eat and drink the same things for breakfast. They may eat different things for all the other meals in the day, but at breakfast time, most people have the same things to eat and drink —Tea or Coffee, Bread and Butter, Fruit.
Some people eat meat for breakfast. English people usually eat meat for breakfast
time, but England is a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for breakfast in a hot country. It is bad to eat too much meat; if you eat meat for breakfast, you eat meat three times a day; and that is bad in a hot country. It is also bad to eat meat and drink tea at the same time, for tea makes meat hard so that the stomach cannot deal with it.
The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, Bread and Butter, Fruit. That is the usual breakfast of most people in the world.
True or False
1.Some people in the world have breakfast.
2. Most people eat and drink the same things for breakfast.
3. Some people eat fish for breakfast.
4. is bad to eat meat for breakfast in a hot country.
5. It is good to eat meat and drink tea at the same time.
How Tea Was First Drunk in Britain
By the time tea was first introduced into this county (1660), coffee had already been drunk for several years. J By 1750 tea had become the most popular beverage for a lot of types and classes of people — even though a pound of cost a skilled worker perhaps a third of his weekly wage!
Early tea cups had no handles, because they were originally imported from China. Chinese cups didn’t (and still don'-[ have handles.
As tea drinking grew in popularity, it led to a demand more and more tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth of the English pottery and porcelain industry, which not long after became world famous for its products.
Answer the questions.
1.When was tea first introduced in this country?
2 What had already drunk by 1660?
3.How much did it cost by 1750?
4.Did early tea cups have handles?
5.Where were they originally imported from?
English Sandwiches and English Tea
A lot of people in England eat sandwiches for their lunch. There are a lot of sandwich shops in London. You can buy all sorts of sandwiches in these shops. You can get meat sandwiches, or salad sandwiches, or meat-and-salad sandwiches. And you can get cheese, egg or fish sandwiches. You can even buy fruit sandwiches. Each sandwich has two thin slices of bread. You put butter and meat between the two slices. Lots of foreigners don’t like English sandwiches. They like the kind of sandwich we call a roll. Some foreigners don’t like English tea, either. English tea is very strong. We make it in a teapot ['ti:pɒt] (чайник). The English drink a lot of tea.
Complete the sentences.
A lot of people in England eat …………for their lunch.
There are a lot of sandwich ………..in London.
You can buy all ………….of sandwiches in these shops.
You can even buy ………… sandwiches.
Each sandwich has two thin ………of bread.
The British have a sweet tooth. That means they like eating sweet things like puddings and pies, jams, biscuits and buns, cakes and rolls.
For the British, any time is eat-a-sweet time: tea-break at work, break at school, watching TV at home, on a car journey ['d33:m], in the cinema or theatre. During holidays like Christmas and Easter, and on special days like Mother’s Day and Valentine’s Day they eat even more sweet things.
Answer the following questions:
What do the words “the British have a sweet tooth” mean?
What kinds of sweet things do you know of?
What sweet things do you like?
When do the British eat cakes, biscuits etc?
Are sweet things good for children’s health? Why?
Eating the British way
Which of the following sentences are true about British food? Decide in pairs. Read and check.
The British eat a traditional English breakfast every morning.
Most British people have a sandwich for lunch.
Chinese food is very popular in Britain.
Read and match the headings to the paragraphs.
British meals Tasty treats A traditional meal
What's your idea of British food? If the answer is bacon and eggs or fish and chips, then you might be in for a surprise.
Most people in the UK rush to work in the morning. This means they don't have time to make the traditional English breakfast of eggs, bacon and sausages. They may have one at weekends though. During the week, they choose a breakfast of cereal or toast with tea, coffee or fruit juice. Lunch is a simple meal. Many children at school and adults at work bring a 'packed lunch from home. This is a sandwich, a packet of crisps, a piece of fruit and a drink. Dinner is a meal for the whole family. Spaghetti bolognaise and shepherd's pie are favourites. Many British order takeaways as well! Indian, Chinese food and pizzas are all very popular.
On Sundays, the British get together for a traditional Sunday roast. This is roast beef or lamb with potatoes, vegetables and gravy.
But ... is there anything for dessert? Homemade puddings like bread and butter pudding, apple pie and trifle are all delicious British desserts. Without them no meal is complete!
Find irregular verbs in the text and give their past form.
Eating Habits in Britain
1.Eating habits in Britain have undergone a change, haven't they?
2. Why do some of people count the number of calories they eat?
3. What is the traditional British breakfast?
4. What do the British have for the main meal of the day?
5. What are Britons famous for?
Do you eat ‘Slow Food’?
The Slow Food movement was founded the day that an Italian journalist, Carlo Petrini, saw that McDonald’s had opened a restaurant in Piazza di Spagna, the beautiful square in Rome. He thought it was tragic that many people today live too quickly to sit down for a proper meal and only eat mass-produced fast food. He decided that he had to try to do something about it and so he started the Slow Food movement. Although he didn’t succeed in banning McDonald’s from Piazza di Spagna, Slow Food has become a global organization and now has more than 80,000 members in 100 countries.
‘We believe,’ says Fiona Richmond of Slow Food UK, ‘that people should take time to enjoy food.’
Slow Food also encourages people to eat local and regional food, to use local shops and markets, to eat out in small family restaurants, and to cook with traditional recipes. Says Richmond, ‘There is nothing more satisfying than relaxing around a lively table in the company of family and friends. The pleasure of eating quality food should be celebrated.’
Read Do you eat ‘Slow Food’? and find out the answers to these questions.
1 Who started the Slow Food movement? Why?
2 What did he think was wrong with today’s world?
3 What are the aims of the Slow Food movement?
4 How big is the Slow Food movement now?
Things go better with Coca-Cola.
Do you drink Coca-Cola? Do you think these facts about Coca-Cola are true or false ?
1.6 billion gallons are sold every day.
Coca-Cola is drunk in every country in the world.
It was invented in the USA.
It is nearly 100 years old.
Coca-Cola is enjoyed all over the world.
1.6 billion gallons are sold every year, in over one hundred and sixty countries. The drink was invented by Dr John Pemberton in Atlanta as a health drink on 8 May 1886, but it was given the name Coca-Cola by his partner, Frank Robinson, because it was originally made from the coca (cocaine) plant. In the first year, only nine drinks a day were sold.
The business was bought by a man called Asa Candler in 1888, and the first factory was opened in Dallas, Texas, in 1895. Coca-Cola is still made there. Billions of bottles and cans have been produced since 1895, but the recipe is still kept secret!
Diet Coke has been made since 1982, and over the years many clever advertisements have been used to sell the product. It is certain that Coca-Cola will be drunk far into the twenty-first century.
The History of Hamburgers.
The hamburger is the most eaten food in the whole world. The first hamburgers were made and sold in Connecticut in 1895 by an American Chef called Louis Lassen. Louis called them hamburgers because he was given the recipe by sailors from Hamburg in Germany. Hamburgers became a favourite in America in the early part of the 20th century. Their popularity grew even more after the Second World War, when they were bought in large quantities by teenagers who preferred fast food to family meals. In 1948 two brothers, Dick and MacDonald opened a drive-in hamburger restaurant in San Bernardino, California. Since then over 25000 McDonald’s restaurants have been opened worldwide and now 35 million McDonald’s hamburgers are eaten every day in 115 countries from India to the Arctic Circle.
Match the question words and answers.
When? In Connecticut
Where? In 1895
Who? In 1948
Why? Because recipe came from Hamburg
How many? 25.000
People think that chewing gum is a modern American invention.But it isn’t quite true. For thousand of years people have chewed gum resin made from a juice collected from trees.
Mexican Indians have chewed chicle, the gum resin from the sapodilla tree.
An American inventor , Thomas Adams, bought a large amount of chicle to make something to chew from it. In 1871 he made and sold the first gumballs. People liked them very much.
The chewing gum ,as we know it today, was made by William Wrigley in the 1890s.He made gums into flat sticks and added special flavours.Nowadays, Wrigley’s Spearmint gums and Juicy Fruit gums are the most popular chewing gums all over the world.
Chewing gum was brought to Europe by American soldiers. They were given chewing gum each day because it kept people from getting thirsty.
Answer the questions.
1.What do peole think about chewing gum?
2.Who bought a large amount of chicle to make something to chew from it?
3.When did he make and sell the first gumballs?
4.Who brought chewing gum to Europe?
5.Why were American soldiers given chewing gum?
OUR FOOD IS AWFUL AND WE CAN’T PRODUCE OUR OWN WINE
Some countries - dare we say it, France, for example - look down their noses at British food and deride us for our lack of taste. Admittedly, the proliferation in Britain of eating places of overseas origin - French, Italian, Indian, Thai, Chinese, Mexican, to name but a few - does rather suggest that we feel our own food is lacking something: after all, in Italy, you only really see Italian restaurants.
We admit that fish and chips and “baggers and mash” aren’t exactly the height of culinary sophistication, and the less and about Glasgow’s deep fried Mars Bars, the better. But what about our fabulous cakes and Afternoon Teas? Our hearty steamed puddings? Cornish pasties? And our huge variety of delicious sausages and cheeses? A good strong Cheddar is every bit as good as a French cheese, and the French may claim that they have a different cheese for every day of the year, but according to the English Cheese Board, we have over 700 different varieties. And we don’t care what anyone says, we love our Sunday roasts and they're the feast of kings.
Our wine industry is a bit of a joke compared to that of many countries, and that’s why we import so much. After all, what grape would grow in our horrid rainy climate? Well, quite a few actually. It may surprise you to learn that we have a number of vineyards and we even produce our own sparkling wine - the British answer to Champagne. Not that anyone in the UK ever really drinks it, but we feel that that's beside the point.
Match the pairs
Sugar cane was grown in India thousands of years ago. In Roman times it was known in Europe as a great luxury, and it was rare and expensive for many centuries after that. In 1493 Columbus took a sugar plant with him to the West Indies, where it grew so well that huge plantations were started by Europeans and worked on by slaves. The slaves were shipped across the Atlantic from Africa, packed sometimes one on top of the other in chains, on a journey that took six weeks. Many died.The empty ships then carried the sugar back to Europe. So much money was made that sugar was known as ‘white gold’.
Sugar is used to sweeten food and make sweets and chocolate. It is addictive but unnecessary. By the 16th century the English were the greatest sugar-eaters in history. Elizabeth I lost all her teeth because she ate so much of it.
Answer the questions.
1.Where was sugar cane grown?
2.When did Colombus bring it to the West Indies?
3.How were the slaves shipped across the Atlantic from Africa?
4.What was known as “white gold”?
5.Why did Elizabeth I lose all her teeth?
For thousands of years tobacco was used by the American Indians with no ill-effect. In the 16th century it was brought to Europe. This early tobacco was mixed with soil and rather dirty. It was chewed or smoked in pipes only by men - women thought it smelly and disgusting.
It was first grown commercially in America in the 17th century on slave plantations. In the 18th century new technology refined tobacco and the first cigarettes were produced. By the 1880s huge factories were producing cigarettes which were clean and easy to smoke. Chain-smoking and inhaling became possible and by the middle of the 20th century tobacco addicts, both men and women, were dying of lung cancer in great numbers.
Nowadays cigarette smoking is banned in many places, especially in the USA. But until 1820 tobacco was America’s main export, and still today their tobacco industry makes over $4.2 billion a year.
Answer the questions.
1.When was tobacco first brought to Europe?
2.What was it mixed with?
3.Did the women use it?
4.When was it first grown?
5.How much does tobacco industry make a year?
Cotton has been grown for over five thousand years in places as far apart as Mexico, China, Egypt, and India. It was first planted in America in 1607. Before 1800 cotton was a great luxury, more expensive than silk, because so many workers were needed to pick it. However, a huge increase in the number of slaves in the American South resulted in much greater cotton production and a fall in the price. This, and the new technology of the industrial revolution, made cotton the cheapest fabric in history. By 1820 cotton was making more money for the USA than tobacco, and more money worldwide than sugar.
The American Civil War of 1861-1865 was fought because the Southern States wanted to form a separate country, so that they could continue to keep slaves on their cotton plantations. Slavery was banned in the Northern States in 1808.
500,000 soldiers were killed in the war.
Answer the questions.
1.How long has cotton been grown?
2.When was it first planted?
3.Why was cotton more expensive than silk?
4.When was slavery banned?
5.How many soldiers were killed in the war?
Food around the world
For 99% of human history, people took their food from the world around them. They ate all that they could find, and then moved on. Then about 10,000 years ago, or for 1% of human history, people learned to farm the land and control their environment.
The kind of food we eat depends on which part of the world we live in, or which part of our country we live in. For example, in the south of China they eat rice, but in the north they eat noodles, in Scandinavia, they eat a lot of herrings, and the Portuguese love sardines. But in central Europe, away from the sea, people don't eat so much fish, they eat more meat and sausages. In Germany and Poland there are hundreds of different kinds of sausages.
In North America, Australia, and Europe there are two or more courses to every meal and people eat with knives and forks.
In China there is only one course, all the food is together on the table, and they eat with chopsticks.
In parts of India and the Middle East people use their fingers and bread to pick up the food.
Nowadays it is possible to transport food easily from one part of the world to the other. We can eat what we like, when we like, at any time of the year. Our bananas come from the Caribbean or Africa; our rice comes from India or the USA; our strawberries come from Chile or Spain. Food is very big business. But people in poor countries are still hungry, and people in rich countries eat too much.
READING AND SPEAKING
Read the text. Write the correct question heading for each paragraph.
WHERE DOES OUR FOOD COME FROM?
WHAT DO WE EAT?
HOW DO WE EAT?
Answer the questions.
When did human history start?
Was it about years ago or was it about 1 million years ago?
Do they eat much rice in the south of China?
Why do the Scandinavians and the Portuguese eat a lot of fish?
Why don’t the Germans eat much fish?
Which countries have many kinds of sausages?
How many courses are there in China?
How do people eat in the Middle East?
Why can we eat strawberries at any time of the year?
In search of English food
by Verona Paul and Jason Winner
How come it is so difficult to find English food in England? In Greece you eat Greek food, in France French food, in Italy Italian food, but in England, in any High Street in the land, it is easier to find Indian and Chinese restaurants than English ones. In London you can eat Thai, Portuguese, Turkish, Lebanese, Japanese, Russian, Polish, Swiss, Swedish, Spanish, and Italian – but where are the English restaurants?
It is not only in restaurants that foreign dishes are replacing traditional British food. In every supermarket, sales of pasta, pizza and poppadoms are booming. Why has this happened? What is wrong with the cooks of Britain that they prefer cooking pasta to potatoes? Why do the British choose lasagne instead of shepherd’s pie? Why do they now like cooking in wine and oil? But perhaps it is a good thing. After all, this is the end of the 20th century and we can get the ingredients from all over the world in just a few hours. Anyway, wasn’t English food always disgusting and tasteless? Wasn’t it always boiled to death and swimming in fat? The answer to these questions is a resounding “No” ,but to understand this, we have to go back to before World War II.
The British have in fact always imported food from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major influence on British cooking. English kitchen, like the English language , absorbed ingredients from all over the world –chickens, rabbits, apples, and tea. All of these and more were successfully incorporated into British dishes. Another important influence on British cooking was of course the weather. The good old British rain gives us rich soil and green grass, and means that we are able to produce some of the finest varieties of meat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces or complicated recipes to disguise their taste.
However, World War II changed everything. Wartime women had to forget 600 years of British cooking, learn to do without foreign imports, and ration their use of home-grown food.
The Ministry of Food published cheap, boring recipes. The joke of the war was a dish called Woolton Pie (named after the Minister for Food!). This consisted of a mixture of boiled vegetables covered in white sauce with mashed potato on the top. Britain never managed to recover from the wartime attitude to food. We were left with a loss of confidence in our cooking skills and after years of Ministry recipes we began to believe that British food was boring, and we searched the world for sophisticated, new dishes which gave hope of a better future. The British people became tourists at their own dining tables and in the restaurants of their land! This is a tragedy! Surely food is as much a part of our culture as our landscape, our language, and our literature. Nowadays, cooking British food is, like ' speaking a dead language. It is almost as bizarre as having a conversation in Anglo-Saxon English!
However, there is still one small ray of hope. British pubs are often the best places to eat well and cheaply in Britain, and they also increasingly try to serve tasty British food. Can we recommend to you our two favourite places to eat in Britain? The Shepherd’s Inn in Melmerby, Cumbria, and the Dolphin Inn in Kingston, Devon. Their steak and mushroom pie, Lancashire hotpot, and bread and butter pudding are three of the gastronomic wonders of the world!
1.Do you know any typical meals from the following countries?
France Turkey Italy England
India Spain Mexico
Switzerland America Greece
What do you think influences a country’s food? What influences the food in your country?
2 Read these quotations about English food. Do all the people have the same opinion about English food?
‘It takes some skill to spoil a breakfast— even the English can’t do it!’
J К Galbraith, economist
‘On the Continent people have good food; in England people have good table manners.’
George Mikes, writer and humorist
‘If the English can survive their food, they can survive anything!’
George Bernard Shaw, writer
‘Even today, well-brought up English girls are taught to boil all vegetables for at least a month and a half, just in case one of the dinner guests comes without his teeth!’
Calvin Trillin, American writer
‘English cooking? You just put things into boiling water and then take them out again after a long while!’
An anonymous French chef
Read the text quickly.
Match a paragraph 1-5 with a summary below.
-A- Historical and climatic influences on British cooking
-B- There’s everything except an English restaurant.
-C-The legacy of World War II
-D-Where there is hope for the future
-E-The British love affair with international cooking
Read the article more carefully. Choose the best answer, a, b or c.
The writers believe that British cooking ...
has always been very bad.
was good until World War II.
is good because it is so international.
They say that the British ...
a eat only traditional British food in their homes,
b don’t like cooking with foreign ingredients,
с buy lots of foreign ingredients.
They say that the British weather ...
a enables the British to produce good quality food,
b often ruins fruit and vegetables,
с is not such an important influence on British food as foreign trade.
They say that World War II had a great influence on British cooking because ...
a traditional British cooking was rediscovered and some good cheap recipes were produced,
b people had limitless supplies of home-grown food,
с people started to believe that British food was boring, so after the war they wanted to cook more interesting and international dishes.
They say that ...
a British tourists try lots of new dishes when they are abroad.
b nowadays it is very unusual for British people to cook British food,
с literature and language are more culturally important than food.
The writers’ final conclusion about British cooking is that ...
a there is no hope.
b you will only be able to get British food in expensive restaurants.
( с you will be able to get more good traditional British dishes, especially in pub
1 Do you agree that food is as much a part of a country’s culture as its landscape, language, and literature?
2 Which are your favourite places to eat in your country? Why?
Work in pairs. Study the text and find the following.
1 One example of like used as a verb and two examples of like used as a preposition.
2 Two examples of the pattern, adjective + infinitive.
It’s impossible to learn English.
3 Examples of verbs that are followed by an -ing form.
I love learning English.
4 Examples of verbs that are followed by an infinitive with to.
I want to learn Italian.
Places to eat in the UK
Most people in the UK work in offices. They don't have time to make their own lunch. This is why sandwich bars are so popular. In a sandwich bar you can buy sandwiches, pastries, cakes, soft drinks, juice and coffee. Then you may choose to eat your lunch there, or take it back to work.
British people go to restaurants on occasions like birthdays and anniversaries, or on business meetings. People like to visit all sorts of restaurants. Indian, Chinese, Italian and Mexican cuisine are all very popular. British food is very tasty as well. The dishes usually include fresh meat or fish with vegetables.
Fish & chips shops
Fish and chips are England's traditional takeaway food. These shops serve fried fish covered in batter with fried potatoes. People like to add salt and vinegar, peas, tomato ketchup or curry sauce. There are thousands of fish and chip shops all over Britain. Locals and tourists all love to visit them.
Pie & Mash shops
Pie and mash is one of Britain's most traditional dishes! It is exactly what it says: meat pies with mashed potato in herb sauce. The first pie and mash shop dates back two hundred years. Today, pie and mash shops are very simple and cheap places to eat.
Read the text again and match the places A-D to the statements 1-5.
Both the British & tourists enjoy eating there.
Business people have dinners there.
They are busy mostly at lunchtime.
You can eat food from many different countries there.
You can find them all around Britain.
Read again and list all the names of desserts, drinks, meat, dairy products and vegetables. Which words are similar in your language?
What place would you choose to eat out at when in
the UK? Why?
Read the article. Which food type contains the following:
Eat well, feel great, look great!
We all want to be healthy. What foods can help us with that?
Bread and grains
A balanced diet is based or bread and grains (foods like rice and cereal). These foods give you fibre, iron and vitamin B. At least 40% of what you eat every day should be types of food ir this category.
Fruit and vegetables
You should eat plenty of vegetables and fruit every day to make sure you get enough potassium and vitamins A, С and E.
Types of food in this category, like milk and cheese, have a lot of calcium and vitamin D. These two elements protect your bones. You should consume milk, cheese or yoghurt every day.
Meat, fish and beans
This category also includes eggs and nuts. These types of food give you iron, magnesium and protein. White meat, such as chicken, is better for you than fatty, red meat.
Fats and oils
A little oil every day (about five or six spoonfuls) is useful against heart disease.
Eat wisely. If you eat a balanced diet, you will feel great, look great, and always be healthy!
Food of the Tsars
What is caviar? Why is it called "food of the Tsars"?
Read the text. Does it answer your questions?
Read the text again and answer the questions.
Where does caviar come from?
Why didn't the Russians like it originally?
When did caviar become a delicacy?
When do people eat caviar nowadays?
Use the words below to make sentences about caviar. Tell your partner.
Catherine the Great
Caviar is one of the most famous foods in history it´s the salted eggs of sturgeon, a fish which lives in the Black and Caspian Seas. Russia, more than any other country, is known for its high quality caviar.
The Russians didn’t eat it because they didn’t like it´s taste until Catherine the Great served it at a dinner in 1778. From then on, it was the favourite food of various Russian Tsars and they often call it ‘food of theTsars’.They were the main consumers of caviar and fishermen sent them the best of their produce. Each year Nicholas II (1868-1918) received around 11 tons of caviar from his fishermen.
Nowadays, although quite expensive, people all over the world serve it at holiday feasts andspecial occasions.
Check these words
salted eggs, sturgeon, high quality, main consumers, ton, produce, although, holiday feast, special occasion
Good manners are always good manners. That’s what Miranda Ingram, who is English, thought until she married Alexander, who is Russian.
When I first met Alexander and he said to in Russian, ‘Nalei mnye chai – pour me some tea', I got angry and answered, ‘Pour it yourself'. Translated into English, without a ‘Could you...?' and a ‘please’, it sounded really rude to me. But in Russian it was fine – you don’t have to add any polite words.
However, when I took Alexander home to meet my parents in the UK, I had to give him an intensive course in pleases and thank you (which he thought were completely unnecessary), and to teach him to say sorry even if someone else stepped on his toe, and to smile, smile, smile.
Another thing that Alexander just couldn't understand was why people said things like,
‘Would you mind passing me the salt, please?’
He said, 'It's only the salt, for goodness sake! What do you say in English if you want a real favour?
He also watched in amazement when, at a dinner party in England, we swallowed some really disgusting food and I said, 'Mmm... delicious'. In Russia, people are much more direct. The first time Alexander's mother came to our house for dinner in Moscow, she told me that my soup needed more flavouring. Afterwards when we argued about it my husband said, 'Do you prefer your dinner guests to lie?'
Alexander complained that in England he felt 'like the village idiot' because in Russia if you smile all the time people think that you are mad. In fact, this is exactly what my husband's friends thought of me the first time I went to Russia because I smiled at everyone, and translated every ‘please' and 'thank you' from English into Russian!
At home we now have an agreement.
If we're speaking Russian, he can say 'Pour me some tea', and just make a noise like a grunt when I give it to him. But when we're speaking English, he has to add a 'please', a 'thank you' and a smile.
Read the article again and mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the wrong sentences.
Miranda got angry because her husband asked her to make the tea.
Miranda had to teach him to say sorry when something wasn’t his fault.
Her husband thinks English people are too polite.
Alexander wasn’t surprised when people said they ’ :ked the food at the dinner party.
The food was delicious.
Miranda didn’t mind when her mother-in-law criticized her cooking.
Alexander thought his mother was right.
In Russia it isn’t normal to smile all the time when you speak to someone.
His Russian friends thought Miranda was very friendly because she smiled a lot.
Alexander never says thank you for his tea when he and Miranda are speaking in Russia.
Pelmeni is a popular main course dish in Russian cuisine that comes from Siberia. It is similar to the Italian dish ravioli because it is a little parcel of meat, but instead of a pasta parcel it is made with dough.
Its name means ‘ear’ (pel) and 'bread' (nan), but no one knows how the native Siberians came up with the dish or when they started to cook it. Some people believe that, originally, the dish was brought from China to Siberia by the Mongols because it includes black pepper which is not found in Russia. Whatever is true, the Siberians found that pelmeni can be kept frozen for a long time without losing any flavour and so it was the perfect way to make their meat last through the long Siberian winter. The local people would freeze the pelmeni outdoors and cook them as, and when, they needed them. They were the perfect food for hunters because they could be sure that they wouldn’t go off.
To cook them, you simply boil them in salted water for a few minutes. They are usually served with sour cream and vinegar. In different parts of the country, pelmeni is made with any kind of meat including beef, pork, lamb and evenfish. In some places they are filled with mushrooms, onions, turnips or sauerkraut instead of meat and sometimes they are served in a light soup. In Siberia they are only made with pork and the water is drained before they are served.
Over the years, a number of similar dishes have appeared in the cuisine of neighbouring countries. For example, in Ukraine there is a dish called varenyky which has a thickerdough and is pre-cooked. Also, in Poland there is a dish called pierogi which is very, similar to pelmeni but it often has a sweet filling.
Today, pelmeni is available in the frozen food section of the supermarket and is very popular with students.
Read the rubric, then read the text quickly. What is the text about.
You are going to read a text about a dish.
Read the text and mark the sentences (1-6) ,
T (true) or F (false).
Do the reading task.
Pelmeni is the same as ravioli. ____________________
Some people believe it is a Mongolian dish. ____________________
Pelmeni can last a long time if people freeze it. ____________________
It’s easy to cook pelmeni ____________________
Only beef is used in pelmeni. ____________________
Nowadays, you can find pelmeni in supermarkets. ____________________
Read the text and mark the sentences (1-6) T (true) or f (false).
Just like food is different from county to county so are table manners. Before you travel to another country there are a few things you should know about mealtimes around the world.
At a table in England, it’s rude to lick your fingers or your knife. You need to be careful when eating soup. Don’t slurp or make noise while eating it. It is also impolite to start eating before your host has served everyone at the table. Try not to put your arms on the table and, finally, don’t take food from your neighbour’s plate.
In France it is important to always say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ to people serving at the table. When eating bread, break off a piece with your fingers rather than use a knife. When you are at a restaurant and haven’t finished your food make sure you don’t leave your fork and knife on your plate as this is a signal for the waiter to take your plate.
For most meals in Saudi Arabia people sit on the floor or at a low table with cushions. Remember to cross your legs when you sit. Eat only with your right hand because most Saudi Arabians think the left hand is not clean. It is polite to try all of the food that the host serves. Saudi Arabians usually don’t say much when they eat as they really want to enjoy the food. Finally, it is okay to burp after a meal, as it tells the host that you liked the food.
English people wait for their host to finish
serving before they start their meal.
In England, it is acceptable to eat from
someone else's dish.
French people use knives to cut their
In France, waiters take your plate when
they see your fork and knife on it.
People in Saudi Arabia sit on a chair to
have a meal.
The Saudi Arabians talk a lot during
Read the leaflets and say which of J them describe:
a profession and skills required in general
a course that can be a part of a longer
a course that deals with practical skills only
the shortest programme
the connection between school subjects and
a programme supervised by experienced
specialists working in the industry
a programme suitable for beginners and
The Russian Culinary Arts Institute.
The Russian Culinary Arts Institute offers intensive training programmes for those aspiring to become a professional chef.The culinary programmes bring together all the critical elements of mastering the principles, theory and techniques of traditional Russian cuisine and combining the contemporary influences of international cuisine.
The courses are conducted over 10-week blocks. At the end of each block, students receive certificates recognised by local and international companies.
Red foods. Red foods get you moving. They give you that extra boost when you really need it the most. What's more, eating foods in this group will protect you from many serious illnesses and can keep older people active for longer. So, have you got a big game tonight? Is it your turn to do the gardening? Then go ahead and treat yourself to one or even two of your favourite red foods.
Orange foods Orange foods are brain food. They help you keep your mind on things and really improve your powers of concentration. On the physical side, foods like mangoes, oranges and peaches have lots of vitamin С This is important because that's the vitamin that helps your body fight off infections. As everyone knows, carrots are also fantastic for your eyesight. After all, you've never seen a rabbit wearing glasses, have you?
Yellow foods Yellow foods are nature's way of helping us to stay happy. They make you more optimistic. Imagine that you're feeling a bit down in the dumps. Eat a banana and you'll feel a bit better. Eat a couple of slices of pineapple and you'll feel a smile coming on and by the time you finish your tall glass of lemonade, you'll be grinning from ear to ear! What could be easier? Enjoying yellow foods is better for you, emotionally, than hearing the best jokes in the world.
Green foods Broccoli, lettuce and cucumbers are all green foods. These foods are great when you want to relax, calm yourself down or keep your emotions under control. Green foods are good for you because they contain vitamins and minerals that keep your teeth and bones strong and healthy, so next time your mum tells you to eat all your peas don't complain, just do it. Remember, mums always know what's best for you, no matter how old you are!
Blue foods You've had a hard day and now you just want to flop in front of the TV for a bit before you go to bed. When your tummy starts rumbling you go in search of a quick snack - but what should you eat? The best thing at this time of the day is something blue. Blue foods are soothing, both emotionally and physically, and prepare you for a good night's rest. Say goodnight with a delicious bowl of blueberries or a handful of tasty raisins.
Purple foods Shakespeare, Da Vinci and Picasso must have all been fans of purple foods. This is because fruits and vegetables like figs, prunes and beetroot make people more creative. If that isn't a good enough reason to eat them, then think about this ... purple foods can keep you looking young! Imagine being eighty years old, but looking as if you're forty and just about to finish writing your second best-selling novel. Bring on the purple foods!
Methods of cooking.
Cooking is a heat treatment of food to make it edible. Many products can’t be eaten raw. Meat, fish, vegetables are usually cooked. Some fruit aren’t cooked, but some, such as apples, pears, and currents, may be used in pies or to make desserts. Fruits are also cooked to make jams, jellies, and marmalades.
The four basic ways to cook food are:
Heating in liquid(boilig, stewing)
Heating in fat or oil( frying and sautéing)
Heating in steam( steaming)
Heating by dry heat(baking, roasting, grilling)
Boiling. We may boil food in different liquids and mixtures, including water, stock, and wine. Meat, poultry many vegetables and spaghetti are cooked in this way.
Stewing is cooking food slowly in liquid. It is often used for meat. Vegetables , herbs, and spices are usually added at the end of cooking.
Deep-frying is immersion of food in hot fat or oil. Chipped potatoes and doughnuts are the best example of deep-frying. Deep-fried foods are called fritters.
Shallow frying is frying on a pan in hot fat or oil, when the food is fried on both sides. We can fry eggs, meat vegetables, mushrooms, onions, and pancakes.
Sautéing is frying when natural juices of the food are mixed with the fat or oil in the saucepan. We can also add stock, wine, or cream. As a result we obtain a dish with a sauce.
Steaming is a method of cooking above the surface of boiling liquid in a covered saucepan. Fish, vegetables , and poultry are especially suitable for steaming, as are some types of pudding.
Baking is a dry cooking inside an oven. Bread, cakes, pastries, tarts , and biscuits are baked. Vegetables especially potatoes, may also be cooked in this way.
Roasting is cooking meat , and poultry , which are placed in an oven and cooked to dry heat. They are often basted, that is, the juice from the meat are spooned over during the process. Some cooks wrap the meat in a roasting foil with a little oil or melted fat. Meat can also be roasted on a spit.
Grilling is a rapid method of cooking poultry, fish, cuts of meat, sausages and kebabs by heat, the source of which may be gas, electricity, or charcoal.
Answer the questions.
1.What are the four basic ways to cook food?
2.What is cooked by boiling?
3.What two methods of frying do you know?
4.What can be baked?
5.What do we usually roast?
6.How are spaghetti cooked?
7.How are doughnuts cooked?
Translate intо English
Тушенное мясо, вареные овощи, жареная говядина, печеная картошка, цыпленок гриль, заворачивать в фольгу, печь пирожные, жарить в растительном масле, поливать сверху жиром, вареная курица, жаренный на вертеле шашлык
CAN HEALTHY BE UNHEALTHY?
Read the text and match headings A-G to paragraphs 1-6.There is one extra heading.
A. Choose the lighter option
B. Remove the bad bits.
C. Ask yourself what’s in your glass?
D. Enjoy a sweet sensation.
E. Some fat is good for you.
F. Cook with a healthier fat.
G. Always chek the ingredients.
People often say” You are what you eat” and we all know that to be healthy we need to eat healthy food. What is really healthy, though?
1__ all fruit juice contain high amounts of sugar. Some juices have only very low amounts of fruit in them-and as much sugar as a glass of cola or a chocolate.
2__ It’s true that salads are full of vitamins and minerals. Creamy mayonnaise – based salad dressing, however, can contain a lot of fat, sugar, and salt. To enjoy a healthy, tasty salad at home, make a dressing by adding lemon juice or vinegar to a small amount of olive oil instead of using heavy mayonnaise.
3__ Food companies like using the words “fat-free” or” low-fat” on their labels. Unfortunately they often replace the fat in these “healthier” products with salt and sugar to give them flavor. It’s a good idea to read the whole label.
4__ People think that chocolate is bad for them, but it has some benefits. Good quality dark chocolate helps protect your heart by lowering your cholesterol. Eating chocolate has also a positive effect on how we feel. All chocolate is high in fat, though, so shouldn’t eat it after every meal.
5__ Eggs are a good source of protein and vitamins. Frying an egg though, is less healthy than boiling them. A fried egg contains around 30% more fat than a boiled or poached egg. If you prefer fried eggs, try frying them in olive oil instead of butter.
6__ Red meat such as beef can be part of a healthy diet. Including red meat in a meal a couple of time a week helps your body to get enough protein and iron. Just make sure you trim off the fat and only lean meat.
Did you know that….
Bananas are not normally food of ‘savage’ hunter-gatherer tribes. Wild bananas are practically inedible - they have many hard seeds. The edible, seedless bananas which you get from the supermarket can only be grown by farmers.
Koreans do eat dogs. But they do not butcher their pets or seize lost dogs in the street. Dogs for culinary needs are specially bred at farms. (If you still find it shocking, think of the fact that in Russia pet shops sell pet rabbits and food markets sell rabbit meat).
Тексты для дополнительного чтения
Central and South American Food History
When people first came to Central and South America, perhaps about 15,000 BC, they were hunting and gathering all of their food. They picked wild potatoes, wild teosinte (the ancestor of corn), wild beans and wild tomatoes and avocados. They hunted rabbits and llamas and turkeys, and fished in the rivers and the ocean.
Beginning about 10,000 BC, South American people began to farm some of their food instead of gathering it, or in addition to gathering it. This is about the same time that people started farming in West Asia, halfway across the world. Archaeologists think people in South America started by farming squash.
Other crops came along gradually. About 8000 BC, people in South America were farming potatoes. By around 7500 BC, people in both Central America and South America were farming corn, and very soon after that they were farming avocadoes in Central America. About 5000 BC, people in both Central and South America were farming beans. A thousand years after that, about 4000 BC, people were farming chili peppers.
A little later on, perhaps around 3000 BC, farmers began to grow sweet potatoes as well. Around 800 BC, Central American farmers began keeping tame turkeys for food. One of the last crops that people started farming was tomatoes, sometime before 500 BC.
In South America, Inca women freeze-dried the potatoes so they would keep all winter, and used them to make stews and soups spiced with chili peppers. People also ate a lot of corn. They also dried llama meat into a kind of jerky - our word "jerky" comes from the Inca word "charqui".
In Central America, people's normal food was a lot like what you know as Mexican food. People wrapped flat corn tortillas around refried beans, tomato and avocadoes, and added fish, turkey, and chili peppers for flavor. Central American people also ate tamales, cooked in corn husks (our word "tamale" comes from the Aztecword for "wrapper"), and tortillas made with turkey eggs. Popcorn was popular in both Central America and South America. Finally, did you know that Central America was the home of chewing gum?
How to Eat Figs?
The best way to find out more about figs is to eat some! If you live where there are fig trees (anywhere warm), pick one from a tree. Or get a fresh fig at the grocery store if you can find one (ask the produce manager), cut it open and eat itIf you live somewhere where it gets cold in the winter, there may not be any fresh figs available in your grocery store. But they will certainly have dried figs, so you can try those. Dried figs are good just eating them by themselves, like raisins. You can make dried figs more interesting with this recipe:
Chop a cup of dried figs into little pieces and soak them in water for a few hours. Meanwhile, grind up half a cup of almonds into crumbs. You can put them in a plastic bag and roll them with a rolling pin, or use a food processor, but don't make them into paste. Add 1/4 cup shredded coconut and mix until it forms a sticky ball (if it's too sticky, add more almonds or coconut; if it's too dry, add more figs). Make one inch diameter balls and roll them in more shredded coconut. Refrigerate until firm.
Nervous about eating figs? Try a Fig Newton cookie - the filling is made of dried figs.
Where does coffee come from?
Coffee plants grew wild in East Africa, and sometime before 1000 AD, the people who lived in Ethiopia, in East Africa, began to mash up the red coffee berries and mix them with fatty meat (like bacon) to make an energy bar like the North American pemmican.
By about 1000 AD, the Ethiopians were selling coffee beans toIslamic traders, who brought the coffee beans back to the Arabian peninsula in the Abbasid Empireto sell there. Slowly more and more people heard about coffee, and traders began selling coffee all over the Abbasid Empire and in India. Farmers grew coffee in the Arabian Peninsula, and did their best to keep anyone else from getting any coffee plants, so that they could charge whatever they wanted for coffee.
By 1453, people in the Ottoman Empirefigured out how to roast the beans, grind them, and brew coffee into a drink. Because Muslimswere not supposed to drink wine or beer, a lot of people began serving coffee to their guests instead. (Some caliphs banned coffee and tea too, but people mostly drank them anyway.)
In the 1500s, Ottoman traders brought the new fad of coffee-drinking to Italian ports. Europeans loved coffee (which they mixed with another new fad, sugar), but they didn't want to pay the high prices. It wasn't hot enough in Europe to grow coffee (or sugar), so Dutch colonists (part of the same Holy Roman Empire as Italy) brought coffee plants to the Caribbean and the Americas, so they could grow coffee (and sugar) themselves and not have to buy it from Islamic traders. European colonists enslaved West African people to work on huge coffee plantations.
Right before the American Revolutionary War, the American rebel colonists didn't want to drink tea, because the British were taxing tea. So people showed that they were rebels by drinking coffee instead.Thats why even today most Americans drink coffee, while most British people still drink tea.
When did people start to eat honey?
Beesfirst began to make honey about 200 million years ago, long before there were any people. People almost certainly ate wild honey even before they evolved into people, as monkeys do when they can get it.Chimpanzees strip leaves from sticks and then push the sticks into beehives in tree trunks or underground to get the honey. Probably early people in Africa also used sticks to fish honey out of beehives. Honey is a great source of carbohydrates, plus it tastes delicious! In addition, you can use honey to preserve food so it won't go bad.
When people first leftAfrica, about 60,000 BC, they continued to look for wild beehives and get the honey out of them. Certainly people were collecting honey in Europe using baskets or hollow gourds by at least8000 BC.
Egyptian bee-keeping, 5th Dynasty
(Temple of Pharaoh Niuserre at Abu Gorab, ca. 2400 BC)
Of course climbing trees to get honey is dangerous and difficult, and that made honey very expensive. At some point, people began to capture beehives by taking home sections of hollow logs that had beehives inside them.
Where did dates come from?
Wild dates probably evolved around 3 million years ago, as a way for date palms to get animals to eat their seeds and carry them to other places before pooping them out. Date palms are palm trees, related to the palms that Africans got palm oil from. Wild dates probably first grew around the Persian Gulf, in what is now Iraq and Iran. When peoplefirst left Africa to travel along the coastline towards India, about60,000 BC, they must have found and eaten wild dates.
By around 4000 BC, people in West Asia and Egypt, North Africa, and probably India, were already farming dates and eating a lot of them. Our word date comes from the Semitic words for dates, daqal or deqel. People pollinated the dates by hand, climbing the date palms with male pollen and smearing it on the female flowers. They harvested the dates during the summer, between June and September depending on the type of date. People loved to eat dates because they are very sweet, and also a good source of potassium. When people didn't have sugar, dates were a great dessert.
Dates from ancient Egypt
Dates are long oval fruits. Each date has one big seed inside it. You can eat dates fresh, or dry them like raisins. Sometimes people coated dried dates with honey so they would last longer. In Egypt, people also made dates into date wine, and they also used dates to sweeten their beer; in North Africa, people used the sap from the date palm to make palm wine.
Where does salt come from?
In the Stone Age, people didn't need to find salt, because they were hunting a lot of their food, and eating a lot of red meat. Red meat has plenty of salt in it, naturally, without having to go find any extra salt.
But when people began to farm, about10,000 BC, they started to eat mainly grains like rice and wheat and barleyand millet, and very little meat. Then they really needed another way to get salt. And when people began to keep cows and sheep, they needed to feed the animals salt too. People also used salt to preserve all different kinds of food, because there were no refrigerators -you use salt to make bacon, or ham, or salted fish, or pickles.
By about 4500 BC, Central Asian people along the shores of the Caspian Sea (in modern Azerbaijan) were mining rock salt underground. This is the earliest known salt mine in the world. Probably these people were selling the salt along early Silk Road trade routes, perhaps in exchange for copper or obsidian, wheat from West Asia and millet from China.
In Egypt, people were using salt to preserve meat and fish by about 3000 BC, around the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The Egyptians also used salt to preserve mummies. They evaporated seawater from the Mediterranean Sea, and also bought salt from Libya, Sfax in Tunisia, and Nubia to their south.
By 800 BC, Chinese written records tell us that people in China were producing salt by filling clay jars with ocean salt water and boiling it until the water boiled away and only the salt was left. After the Chinese learned how to make iron from West Asia, about 700 or 600 BC during the Eastern Chou dynasty, they started using iron pans instead of clay ones to boil water for salt; this saved a lot of fuel. They were definitely using iron pans by 450 BC. The Etruscans in Italy, and the early Romans, and theCarthaginians in North Africa, also used evaporation to produce salt.
About the same time (700 BC), in Europe, the Indo-EuropeanCelts were mining salt underground in modern Austria, Hungary, southern Germany and Poland. The Celts sold their salt to other people - the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Carthaginians, maybe the Phoenicians. The Celts also sold salted meat - salami, ham, and bacon. In exchange, the Celts bought glass and pottery for their houses and their graves.
Where do sweet potatoes come from?
People in both North America and South America ate lots of sweet potatoes. That's because sweet potatoes are very good for you. They have lots ofcalcium, potassium, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C, and yourbody needs all of those things. Plus, sweet potatoes taste good, and they are very sweet, which helps to give you energy. Sweet potatoes are distantly related to morning glory flowers, and also to white potatoes. Sweet potatoes are a kind of vine, with white flowers. The part you eat is the root of the vine plant. People first ate sweet potatoes by gathering them in the wild, where they grew naturally, which was in Central America and the warmest parts of South America. But sweet potatoes were so useful and so good that by about 3000 BCpeople had learned to grow them on purpose, and soon they shared that knowledge with their neighbors, and so after a while people were growing sweet potatoes all over South and North America, wherever it was warm enough for the plant to grow.
Sometime around 1000 AD, sweet potatoes also reached New Zealand and the Philippines, possibly by floating in the ocean, or because Pacific islanders sailed to Peru and got the sweet potatoes there.
Enslaved African-Americans plant sweet potatoes (1862/3)
When European people first came to live in North and South America, they also learned to eat a lot of sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes were a main food of European people living in America in the1500s, 1600s, and 1700s AD. Spanish traders quickly brought sweet potatoes to sell in Africa, India and China, and by the 1600s many people in China ate sweet potatoes as their main food instead of rice.
Sweet potato noodles from
Sichuan in SW China
When African people came toNorth America, they called sweet potatoes "yams". That's because back home in Africa, they had eaten a food that was a lot like sweet potatoes, which in Africa was called "nyami" or "anyinam". They aren't really the same plant, but they look and taste a lot alike, so the African people called sweet potatoes "yams." African-American people cooked sweet potatoes the way they had cooked yams back home, and ate a lot of them.
In the United States, people cooked sweet potatoes by just putting them in the coals from the fire, so they would roast and be like baked potatoes. Or they cut sweet potatoes into chunks and boiled them, and then mashed them with eggs to bake into sweet potato pie. But in China, people made sweet potatoes into noodles, or into stew with soy milk.
History of sunflowers-Who invented sunflower oil?
Sunflowers grew wild all over North America, and from thePaleo-Indian time on, many different groups of people picked sunflowers and ate the little seeds, which are a good source of fat. People who live by hunting andgathering always need more fat to eat, because wild animals andfish have very little fat. Either they just ate the seeds, or they ground them up into flour and mixed the flour with water to bake a flat bread, like pita bread.
By about 3000-2000 BC, in the Late Archaic period, people in south-western North America (modern Mexico) began to farm sunflowers (grew them on purpose) and were encouraging the flowers to evolve bigger and bigger seeds, and more of them. About the same time, people like the Cherokee along the East Coast of North America also independently began to farm sunflowers.
This picture shows a domesticated (farmed) sunflower, with a bigger middle than the wild ones, and bigger seeds. Sunflowers, like olives in Ancient Greece and West Asia and North Africa, became an important food for people in North America, because of the fat they provided. Further south, in southern Mexico, the Aztecs also ate a lot of sunflower seeds, and at Aztec temples to the Sun the priestesses wore crowns made of sunflowers.
When theEuropeaninvaderscame to North America and South America in the 1500s AD, people showed them how to grow sunflowers too. Spanish explorers brought sunflower seeds back to Europe with them, where people grew them mainly for decoration. But by the 1830s people were farming sunflowers in Russia for their oil, and then Russian people moving to the United States and Canada in the 1900s brought sunflower seeds back with them. In the 1930s, the Canadian government encouraged farmers to grow more sunflowers for food in Canada, and by the 1970s this idea spread south into the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Kansas.
Wild sunflowers still grow all over North America today. You may know them as Black-eyed Susans.
When did people start eating egg?
People have been eating eggs since there first started to be people, about six million years ago. Eggs have a lot of protein in them, and they don't fight back - you can get them just by climbing to where the nest is and picking them up.
Chicken eggs didn't reach West Asia, Egypt, or Europe until about 800 BC, or even later, and people in southern Africa didn't start to eat chicken eggs until about 500 AD. Before that, Europeans and West Asians kept ducks and geese for their eggs.
All through antiquity and the Middle Ages, right up until modern times, chickens only laid eggs for part of the year - mainly in thespring, when there was plenty of daylight but it wasn't too hot out. That's why we have Easter eggs and the egg on the Seder plate - to celebrate the return of eggs in the spring. A lot of traditional egg recipes call for other foods that are in season in the spring, like chives or asparagus.
(Today chickens lay eggs all year round because farmers keep them inside in big barns with electric lights and air-conditioning so they can control the temperature and the amount of light.)
At first people ate their eggs raw, but once people began to use fire, about a million years ago, they often roasted eggs in the coals. With the invention of pottery, about5000 BC, boiling eggs gradually became more common. In ancient Rome, hard-boiled eggs were so common as an appetizer that people said "ab ova ad mala", from eggs to apples, meaning from the beginning of the meal to the end, or from start to finish. People also began to use eggs in breads, cakes, and custards.
Eggs would keep for only about a month before you had to eat them. To make them keep longer, people would often pickle eggsin salt water and vinegar. In China, people fermented eggs to make them keep longer. They called this "thousand-year-old eggs" but they are really only a few weeks or a month old.
(You don't have to refrigerate eggs unless you wash them; in the United States our eggs are washed, so they do have to be refrigerated.)
Thousand year old eggs
When and where did people first make cheese?
If you don't have a refrigerator, there's no way to keep milk from going bad within a few hours. Even WITH a refrigerator milk goes bad in about a week. But ancient cows and sheepand goats only gave milk part of the year, right after they had had their babies in the spring. By mid-summer their milk had all dried up. And yet milk was an important source of fat and protein for many people. How could people manage to preserve this milk to be able to eat it in the fall and winter as well?
They made the milk into cheese. The easiest kind of cheese to make isyogurt, which was very common in Central Asia and in India (and still is today). If you leave milk out on a sunny kitchen counter on a warm day, it will soon get all lumpy and turn into yogurt. This is because bacteria called yeast get into the milk from the air and eat it. Some bacteria are bad for you, or make the milk taste bad. But if you get the right kind of bacteria in your milk, it turns into good yogurt. The yeast eat the lactose in the milk (a kind of sugar), break down the lactose for energy inside the cell, and then poop out what is left over: lactic acid. The lactic acid changes the part of the milk that the bacteria don't eat: the protein. Normally protein molecules are curled up in balls, but the lactic acid makes the proteins unfold, and then they get tangled up with each other, making one solid lump.
Aged cheese drying
Yogurt tastes good, and it will keep for a few days without being refrigerated, but it still won't keep all winter. Once people realized how to make yogurt, they began experimenting with other types of bacteria, and found that you can use different bacteria to make aged cheeses. People were making cheese in Poland by about 5500 BC. Some of these cheeses can be kept without being refrigerated for four or five years or even more. Swiss cheese is an example of an aged cheese that you might have eaten. Or cheddar cheese. Most aged cheese is made using rennet, a piece of the stomach lining of a cow. Indo-European people in Central Asia, the first to keep cows, may also have been the first to use rennet because they were carrying milk around in empty cow stomachs and accidentally curdled it.
You make cheese by adding a little bit of rennet to some milk, which makes it clump up and divide into curds and whey, and then straining out most of the whey, leaving solid curds (the milk you buy at the store will work fine! You can buy rennet pretty easily). It's pretty hard to make aged cheese, but if you are interested it is not very hard to make yogurt or ricotta cheese.
В.Эванс, Ю.Ваулина ,О. Подоляко “Spotlight” 2013г. 2-е издание
Р.Мильруд, К.Баранова, Д. Дули “Starlight” 2014 г. 2-е издание
Джон и Лиз Соарс “New Headway” 2001 издание “Oxford”
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