Департамент образования, культуры и молодежной политики Белгородской области
Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение среднего профессионального образования
«СТАРООСКОЛЬСКИЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
для самостоятельной работы по дисциплине «Практическая грамматика английского языка»
для студентов ІV курса специальности 050303.52 «Иностранный язык»
преподаватель английского языка
Акинина Н.В., к.п.н., доцент кафедры филологических дисциплин СОФ БелГУ
Старый Оскол – 2013
Рецензент: доцент кафедры филологических дисциплин СОФ БелГУ, к.п.н. Акинина Н.В.
Сборник заданий для самостоятельной работы по дисциплине «Практическая грамматика английского языка» для студентов ІV курса специальности 050303.52 «Иностранный язык» / Сост.
Г.А. Труфанова. – Ст. Оскол, 2013. – 82с.
Сборник заданий предназначен для студентов ІV курса специальности 050303.52 «Иностранный язык» для самостоятельной работы по дисциплине «Практическая грамматика английского языка». Он содержит задания, в которых раскрыты проблемы тем, предусмотренных для изучения на ІV курсе и указанных в программе по этой дисциплине, которая отвечает государственным требованиям. В сборнике представлены задания по таким разделам, как времена группы Perfect, пассивный залог, каузативный залог, модальные глаголы, согласование времен. При составлении данного сборника были использованы материалы различных пособий таких международно-известных изданий как «Longman», «Cambridge», «Oxford».
Материалы сборника полезен студентам ІV курса, а также всем изучающим иностранный язык.
Сборник заданий предназначен студентам ІV курса для самостоятельной работы по дисциплине «Практическая грамматика английского языка». Он представляет собой грамматические задания по изучаемым на ІV курсе темам: формы перфекта, пассивный залог, каузативный залог, модальные глаголы, согласование времен.
При составлении данного сборника были использованы материалы всемирно известных изданий по практической грамматике такие как «Longman», «Cambridge», «Oxford».
Включенные в сборник задания призваны быть дополнительными упражнениями для самостоятельной работы студентов, помочь им лучше разобраться в изучаемых темах. Задания, вошедшие в сборник, можно использовать при подготовке к занятиям и экзамену по предмету.
The Perfect Forms…………………………………………………..5
The Passive Voice…………………………………………..………30
Causative Verbs and Have / Got something done….………………40
The Sequence of Tenses………………….………………………...70
The Perfect Forms
A Give news about yourself and other people to a friend of yours. Use the words given to make sentences in the Present Perfect Tense.
Example: My sister/get married. —My sister has got married
1.1/find/a new job. 2. My father/retire. 3. Jane and Mike/go to work/to Australia. 4. I/buy/a new motorcycle. 5. My niece/start to walk. 6. The Browns/move/to another town. 7. Jack's Grandpa/die. 8. I/join/another football club. 9. Nick and Rita/divorce. 10. John/receive/ a fortune, he/become/a millionaire.
В Ask your friend who is in the USA questions about what he or his relatives have seen or done (use the Present Perfect Tense).
Example: You/have/a good journey? — Have you had a good journey?
1. You/already/see/the Great American Lakes? 2. You/be/to Broadway? 3. Mike/manage to see/the Statue of Liberty? 3. What/new places/your brother/show to you? 4. Ann/visit/the White House? 5. Your father/get/ promotion? 6. You/receive/your driving license? 7. Your brother/change/a car? 8, What kind of house/you/buy1
С Say what you or your friends have not done yet (year, month, etc.).
Example: I/not be/to the theatre/this month. — / have not been to the theatre this month,
1. Sue/not read/Gone with the Wind/yet. 2. Jill/not enter/London University/this year. 3. Larry/not produce/ a new film/yet. 4. Peggy and Paul/not move/to another flat this month. 5. Pete/not finish/his project yet. 6. My cousin/not get married/this month. 7. Mrs. Brown/not recover/yet. 8. They/not go/on business/this week.
Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense, either the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect.
1. As a rule, I (have) porridge for breakfast, but this morning I (order) an omelette. 2. This is the house where I (live). I (live) here since childhood. 3. Stop smoking! The room (be) full of smoke which (come) from your pipe. Usually nobody (smoke) here as Mother (not let) it. 4.1 (write) letters home once a week, but I (not write) one this week, so my next letter must be rather long. 5. No wonder she (look) tired after the strain under which she (be) for a month. 6. Why you (not shave) this morning? — I (shave) every other day. 7. Research (show) that lots of people (absorb) new information more efficiently at some times of day than at others. A biological rhythm (affect) different people in different ways. 8.1 just (look) at the barometer and (see) that it (fall) very quickly. 9. Don't shout so loudly. Father (not finish) work and he hates if anybody (make a noise) while he (work). 10.1 regularly (see) him at the tram stop, but I (not see) him these two or three days.
Open the brackets and put the verb into the correct tense, either the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect.
1. You (find) the money which you (lose) yesterday? — Yes, I (find) it in the pocket of my coat when I (come) home. 2. The rain (stop) but a strong wind is still blowing, 3. You (see) Nick today? — Yes, but he already (leave). 4. We never (see) him. We don't even know what he looks like. 5. She (meet) them in the Globus theatre last afternoon. 6. How long you (know) him? — We (meet) in 1996, but we (not see) each other since last autumn. 7. He (live) in St. Petersburg for two years and then (go) to Siberia. 8. When he (arrive)? — He (arrive) at 2 o'clock. 9. I (read) this book when I was at school. 10.1 can't go with you because I (not finish) my lessons yet. 11. The clock is slow. — It isn't slow, it (stop). 12. He (leave) for Canada two years ago and I (not see) him since. 13. This is the fifth cup of coffee you (have) today! I4.lt is the most beautiful place I (visit). 16 I (not see) Nick lately. Anything (happen) to him? ~- Yes, he (get) into an accident three weeks ago. Since that time he (be) in hospital. 16. Why you (switch on) the light? It isn't dark yet. 17. He (do) everything already? — Yes, he (do) his part of work long ago. 18. The last post (come)? — Yes, it (come) half an hour ago. 19. When you (meet) him last? 20. You ever (be) to Japan? — Yes, I (be) there the year when there was an earthquake. 21. The discussion already (begin). Why are you always late? 22. Why you (take) my pen while I was out? You (break) it. 23. You never (tell) me why you're called Tony when your name is John. 24, Her father (die) when she was a small girl. 25. They (not meet) since they (leave) school. 26. The rain (stop). Come out, I want to speak with you.
Match the two halves of these sentences.
1) He caught a cold a) all day.
2) She was been interested in math b) before.
3) They went out c) since last year.
4) He has been in love with her d) when he was six.
5) The Nobel Fund was set up e) up to now.
6) He has been engaged at the plant f) when he had to wait for the bus.
7) He hasn't been abroad g) a few minutes ago.
8) I've visited seven countries h) in the first half of the 20th century.
9) Mary and Nick have never quarrelled like i) since she began to study it.
10) My son started school j) for two years.
Choose the correct variant.
1 ___ever___ to this museum? — Yes, I___it once when I___a youth, and the pictures___ a deep impression on me. Since then I ___there.
a) did you be, visited, was, made, was not
b) were you, visited, was, have made, was not
c) have you been, have visited, were, have made, have not been
d) have you been, visited, was, made, have not been
2. I___Jack lately. When___him last? — I___ mm two days ago. I ___ that he ___very much.
a) did not see, have you seen, met, thought, changes
b) have not seen, did you see, met, think, changed
c) have not seen, you saw, met, think, changed
d) do not see, have you seen, have met, thought, would change
3, The Egyptian civilization.___ the oldest which___ us art. It ___about five thousand years ago. The story of Egyptian art ___three thousand years and__ the art of different periods.
a) is, left, began, covers, includes
b) was, leaves, has begun, covered, included
c) is, has left, \vas began, has covered9 has included
d) has been, left, began, covers, included
4, ___ your tennis racket with you? — Yes, I am going to show you how much I __ since last summer. I ___tennis lessons now. Now it___for you to judge if I ___ any progress,
a) did you bring, improved, take, is, have made
b) have you brought, improved, take, was, have made
c) did you bring, have improved, am taking, is, made
d) have you brought, have improved, am taking, is, have made
5. ___lunch already? — No, not yet. The waitress my order fifteen minutes ago and ___me anything yet.
a) have you, took, has not brought
b) have you had, took, has not brought
c) did you have, has taken, did not bring
d) have you have, was taken, was not brought
Translate the following sentences using the Past Indefinite or the Present Perfect.
1. Где мистер Андерсен? — Он уехал в Гаагу. — Когда? — Несколько дней тому назад. — А я никогда не был в Нидерландах, хотя хочу там побывать уже несколько лет. 2. Вы когда-нибудь были в Санта-Барбаре? — Да. — Когда вы там были в последний раз? — В прошлом году. 3. Где Анна? Почему она не пришла в институт? Я ее сегодня не видел. С ней что-нибудь случилось? — Да нет, Анна здесь. Она только что пошла на лекцию. Но лекция уже началась, так что ты не сможешь сейчас с ней поговорить. 4. Вы были в театре на Бродвее? Что вы там смотрели? Когда вы там были в последний раз? 5. В последнее время я не получала писем (hear from) от своих родителей. — Когда ты получила последнее письмо? — Месяц назад. С тех пор я уже отправила им несколько писем. 6. Пойдемте в ресторан обедать. — С удовольствием. Я еще не обедал. — А когда вы завтракали? — Поздно утром, но я уже давно хочу есть. 7. Погода изменилась со вчерашнего дня. Очень холодно, идет снег и дует сильный ветер. 8. Они уже ушли? — Да, они вышли ровно в семь. 9. Они познакомились полгода тому назад у моей подруги, но с тех пор не виделись. 10. Я скучаю по своей семье. Мне кажется, я не был дома уже целую вечность. Моя командировка длится уже полгода. 11. Вы уже написали контрольную работу? Покажите мне ее» 12. Давно вы приехали? Видели его? — Я приехала вчера, Я видела его и говорила с ним сегодня после завтрака. 13. Месяца три спустя он уехал в Африку, С тег пор они не встречались. 14, Я давно пришла сюда. Я здесь с 9 часов. 15, У тебя с тех пор немного потемнели волосы,, 16, Мы только что продали последний экземпляр этой книги. Жаль, что вы не сказали нам, что она вам нужна» 17. Когда я заболел? — Три дня назад. Я с ним со вчерашнего дня. 18, Я узнал ваш телефон в справочном бюро (enquiry office) и звонил вам несколько раз, но никто не отвечал. 19. Вы давно здесь? — Нет, я только что пришел. 20. Он научился плавать в детстве. Они тогда были на юге.
Complete the sentences with the verbs from the box using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense,run
1. He __ for two hours, tell him to rest a little. 2 "I ___a long time for you," said my friend with a displeased air. 3. They___ a noise since I came here. 4. How long you ___to get in touch with your friend? 5. Your face is dirty with paint. What you___? You ___the house? 6. They ___this problem for more than two hours. 7. I ask you to keep to the point, You ___for fifteen minutes,
but the subject of your report is not clear yet. 8. He is a rather experienced specialist. He ___his business for seven years. 9. There is a lot of snow in the street as it ___since yesterday. 10. How long your brother ___as a doctor? 11. I've got sore feet. We ___for six hours already.
Open the brackets end put the verbs into the Present Perfect Continuous Tense or the Present Perfect Tense.
1. I (try) to get into contact with them for a long time, but new I (give) it up as hopeless» 2, My shortsighted uncle (lose) Ins spectacles. We (look) for them everywhere but we can't find them, 3, She (be) of great help to us since she (live) for such a long time with us, 4. You ever (work) as interpreter? — Yes, that is what I (do) for the last five months, 5. They (make up) their quarrel? — I don't know. I only know that they (not be) on speaking terms since September. 6. Our pilot (ask) for permission to take off for ten minutes already, but he (get) no answer yet. 7. A skilful photographer (help) me with the development of summer films for two weeks, but we (develop) only half of them, 8.1 (know) them since we met at Ann's party» 9. You (open) the door at last» I (ring) for an hour at least, it seems to me. 10. Looks the typist (talk) all the time, she already (miss) several words.
Open the brackets and pat the verbs into the proper tense, either the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
1. Don't come in, He (take) an exam. He (take) his exam for half an hour already. 2, Where are the children? — They (play volleyball). They (play volleyball) since t\\o o'clock, 3. 1 (learn) to type for a month and can say that my typing (improve). 4. Nick (come) round to see as tonight. 5* He (stay) at his sister's for six weeks» He (try) to find somewhere to live. 6. We can't dance as my father (work) in the study. He (prepare) a report. He (v rite) it for the whole day. 7. Do you see what the child (do) with your hat? Тakе it from him. 8. They still (discuss) the article? But they (do) it since twelve o'clock! 9. The prices (go up)o They (rise) since 1991, 10. What a strong wind (blow)! It (blow) since yesterday.
Open the brackets and put the verbs into the proper tense (the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Tense).
1. It (snow) steadily the whole week and it still (snow). 2. We (climb) for six hours already, but we (not reach) the top of the mountain yet. 3. The pain already (go) but the child still (cry), 4. The workers (work) very hard these two weeks, they (be) busy with the interior decoration of the house» 5. He (solve) the crossword puzzle for an hour and he (say) he (be) about to solve it as he (think) over the last word о 6. He (work) at the language all the time and (make) great progress. His pronunciation (be) rather good, only a slight accent (remain). 7„ Не (finish) the first part of his book and now he (write) the second. He (work) at his book for two years, 8. Dustin Hoffman, who (play) the hero, (give) a fine performance. 9. Why your hair (be) wet? You (swim)? 10. Doctors and scientists (show) recently the benefit of fish in the diet.
Translate into English.
1. Он наш тренер (trainer) с тех пор, как я начал играть в этой команде. 2. Они уже приняли решение (take a decision) по этому вопросу? — Нет. Они все еще спорят (argue). Они обсуждают этот вопрос уже два часа и еще не пришли ни к какому решению, 3. Утро было солнечное, но с одиннадцати погода изменилась, и сейчас идет дождь. 4. Чем вы занимаетесь с тех пор, как мы расстались (part)? 5. Мэри уже приехала? — Да, она уже здесь два дня. Она приехала в пятницу. 6. Студенты пишут контрольную работу уже два часа. Пока только двое сдали работы. 7. Гроза (thunderstorm) прошла, но небо покрыто темными тучами, и дует сильный ветер. 8. Вы прочитали книгу, которую я вам дала? 9. Вы плохо выглядите. Вы много работали на этой неделе? — Да. Я работаю над переводом уже десять дней, но сделала только половину. 10. Что здесь делает этот человек? — Он ждет секретаря. Она еще не пришла на работу.
Find the mistakes if any. Use the proper tense.
1. When I came, he was having breakfast. 2. When she worked there, she often made mistakes. 3. When he was phoning, she had a bath, 4. While I was ironing, he read a newspaper, 5.1 cooked supper when I heard this news. 6. He was working in this company in 1997. 7.1 could not answer your call. I worked in the garden then. 8. They wished to stay because they enjoyed themselves. 9. Were you quarreling all evening? 10. The train was approaching the city when it was raining heavily, 11. The secretary still typed when the boss came in and was putting some documents on the table. 12. When he came up to the square, he saw a lot of people: they sang, danced and shouted. They were celebrating New Year. 13. Just as I was coming into the room, the students discussed the first report. 14. All the time I was writing, he was annoying me with silly questions. 15. The children played while the mother put the room in order.
Choose the right variant using the Present Perfect, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous Tense.
1. While I (was waiting/waited/have waited) for him to call up, he (had/was having/have had) a good time in the bar. 2. She (has written/wrote/was writing) this exercise yesterday at 8 o'clock. 3. He (has invited/was inviting/ invited) me to the party yesterday. 4. I (passed/have passed/ was passing) my exam in history today. 5. He (read/has read/was reading) a book two days ago. 6. They (have seen/ saw/were seeing) this film last week. 7. She (painted/has painted/was painting) the picture when I came. 8. I (made/ have made/was making) my report when you entered the hall. 9. They (learnt/were learning/have learnt) the new words yesterday from three till seven. 10. It (rained/has rained/was raining) this week. 11. She (was having/had/ has had) a bath at seven o'clock last night. 12. She (was washing/washed/has washed) dishes already. 13. They (had/have had/were having) supper when the telephone rang, 14. I (didn't meet/haven't met/was not meeting) you for ages. 15. Last summer he (has gone/was going/ went) to the Caucasus. 16, She was thoughtfully looking at him while he (read/was reading/has read) a newspaper. 17. While I (swept/was sweeping/has swept) the floor, Mrs. Parker began cooking. 18. I just (had/have had/was having) a telegram to say that my poor friend is badly ill again. 19. We (sat/were sitting/have sat) in silence for a few minutes. He (spoke/was speaking/has spoken) at last. 20. While she (washed/was washing/has washed up), she (was hearing/heard/has heard) the doorbell, then voices. 21. "She (was making/made/has made) tea, let's go to the dining room". 22. Only two stars (shone/were shining/ has shone) in the dark blue sky. 23. On glancing at the address, he observed that it (contained/was containing/ has contained) no name. 24. He just (left/was leaving/has left) the hall when a stranger (entered/was entering/has entered). 25. I (met/was meeting/have met) Ann at her father's house twenty years ago and (knew/have known/ was knowing) her ever since.
Choose the right variant.
1. Higher education in the US ___in 1636 when the first colonists ___Harvard College.
a) has begun, founded
b) began, have founded
c) began, founded
d) was beginning, have founded
2. Noah Webster___ An American Dictionary of the English Language in two volumes in 1828, and since then it ___the recognized authority for usage in the United States.
a) published, became
b) has published, has become
c) published, was becoming
d) published, has become
3. He ___at Oxford then. He was not the best student, though he ___ well known among the second year students.
a) was studying, became
b) was studying, has become
c) studied, became
d) has studied, has become
4. One day when he ___home he ___a boy who___ him from the opposite side of the street.
a) was walking, saw, watched
b) walked, has seen, was watching
c) was walking, saw, was watching
d) has walked, has seen, has watched
5. It was midnight. She____ in her lonely room. The rain driven by the rain__ against the window.
a) sat, beat
b) was sitting, was beating
c) has sat, beat
d) has been sitting, has been beating
Translate into English.
1. Я так и не увидел Великие озера. Когда поезд проезжал этот район, была ночь. 2. Пока директор вел беседу с представителями (representative) иностранных фирм (firm), секретарь сортировала утреннюю почту. 3. Том Сойер не мог играть со своими товарищами Он красил забор (fence). 4. Уже садилось солнце, когда я подъехал к Эдинбургу. 5. Он вел машину на большой скорости, б. Они вышли, когда еще было светло, но черные тучи собирались на горизонте (horizon) и дул холодный северный ветер. 7. Ей было очень труд но жить с миссис Грин в одной комнате (share a room), так как та постоянно жаловалась (complain of) на холод и на плохое обслуживание. 8. Она шла по темной улице и оглядывалась, Кто-то следил (follow) за ней. 9. Я выглянул из окна. Много людей стояло около дома» 10. Когда я вошла в комнату, она плакала, 11. Мы катались на лыжах, хотя шел снег. 12. В тот день у нас было много работы, т.к. вечером мы уезжали. 13. Мы познакомились (get acquainted), когда сдавали вступительные (entrance) экзамены. 14. Вчера он был занят, он чинил (fix) телевизор. 15. Он вошел в комнату, поздоровался (greet) со всеми и сел у окна. 16. Она готовилась к экзаменам. 17. Когда часы пробили одиннадцать, он все еще работал. 18. Дождь начался в тот момент, когда она вышла в сад. 19. По вечерам он имел обыкновение читать вслух своему сынишке. 20. Они прекратили ссориться (quarrel), т.к. гости входили в зал.
Open the brackets paying attention to the use of the Past Perfect Tense.
1. He already (go) by the time I (come) to the party. 2. Mother (cook) dinner before he (come). 3. When I (reach) the front door, I realized that I (loose) the key. 4. The shop (close) by the time I (get) there. 5. The scientists (carry) out many experiments before they (achieve) satisfactory results. 6. When I (arrive), he (stay) in the same hotel where we first (meet). 7. By the end of the year he (finish) research. 8. He told me that he (not see) much of her since she (move) to another town. 9. When I (come), he already (come) and (sit) near the fireplace looking through a magazine. 10. She said that they (meet) in 1990 for the first time.
Choose the right variant.
1.1___to the USA so far.
a) have not been
b) had not been
2 I never___them when I lived in London.
a) had met
b) have met
3.1 came at 2 o'clock. He ___the work by that time.
a) had done
b) has done
4,1 met her on Monday and___her since.
a) had not seen
b) have not seen
5. She said in a voice she never___about it before.
a) has heard
b) had heard
6. Yes, I know Jim. I ___him for more than ten years.
a) have known
b) bad known
7. She tried to concentrate. She ___ John since 1978. No, he could not have done it.
a) has known
b) had known
8. He___ in a bank before he came to our office.
a) had worked
b) has worked
9. We___ there since we were young.
a) have not been
b) had not been
10. Why___the window? It is very noisy in the street.
a) had you opened
b) have you opened
Open the brackets and use the required past tense.
1. It was the poorest room he ever (see). 2. No sooner she (come) at the station than a fast London train (arrive). 3. I (finish) my work by afternoon and (sit) quietly in my armchair, thinking of the days that (pass) by. 4. The storm already (die) away, but very far off the thunder still (mutter). 5. I already (go) into the bed and (fall asleep) when my mother (knock) at the door and (ask) me to get up. 6. By the time the guests (come), she still (not be ready). 7. I (not listen)s so I missed what she (say). 8. By 9 o'clock he (finish) work. He (go) outside. The rain (stop) but it (be) rather cool. 9. By the time I (come) the shop already (close), 10. Hardly we (leave) when our bicycle (break) down.
Complete the sentences with the verbs from the box using the Past Perfect Continuous Tense.consider
1. He ___the car for many hours before he came to the crossroads, 2. The pianist ___ the passage hour after hour till he mastered it. 3. When I met her, her eyes were red. She and Mike again____. 4, When I came, they___ this question for more than an hour. 5. It was evening and he was tired because he ___since dawn. 6. He ___ to get her on the phone for 15 minutes before he heard her voice. 7. By 12 o'clock they _____ a composition for two hours. 8. The fire ___for some time before a fire brigade came. 9. I ___to meet her for ages when I bumped into her by chance. 10. When I left home, it was raining, and as it ___since morning, the streets were muddy.
Open the brackets and use the proper tense.
1. When he (arrive), I (live) in London for a week. 2, We (read) while he (eat). 3. When Jack (phone) me, I (write) a letter, 4. When my friend (come), I (do) an exercise for an hour. 5. The library (close) by the time I (get) there. 6. I (drive) home when I (hear) the news on the radio. 7. They always (have) loud parties which (go on) till the early hours, 8. We (walk) for some hours before we (realize) that we (lose) our way. 9. No sooner I (complain) that I (not hear) from them for a long time than the letter (come). 10. The concert was a great success. When the pianist (finish) his part, the audience (applaud) the orchestra for some minutes.
Translate into English.
1. Мы посмотрели пьесу до того, как обсудили ее. 2. Мы посмотрели пьесу, а затем обсудили ее. 3. Я был в Лондоне в прошлом году. Раньше я там не бывал. 4. Ему не нравилось письмо, которое он пытался написать уже два часа. Слова казались ему неубедительными (unconvincing). 5. Когда мы пришли, он уже вернулся и что-то писал в своем кабинете (study). 6. Он окончил свою работу в саду и сидел на террасе (terrace). Вечер был теплый, и солнце только что зашло. 7. Она проработала с нами только два месяца, но доказала, что она опытный юрист (lawyer) . 8. Шел очень сильный снег, и я не смог разобрать (make out) номера трамвая. Когда я уже проехал (cover) несколько остановок (tram stops), я понял что ехал в неправильном направлении. 9. Я звонила вам с 4-х часов, но не смогла дозвониться (get): ваша линия была все время занята, 10. Две недели шли дожди: наконец три дня назад установилась (set in) хорошая погода.
Complete the sentences with the verbs from the box in the Future Perfect Tense.go tidy up pack learn type buy paint receive cook see
1. She _ an urgent paper for the conference. 2. Bob __ his room by his mother coming. 3 He already _____ a portrait for the exhibition. 4, Peter _ dinner by the time his wife comes. 5. She__ a wedding dress by the time her wedding takes place. 6. They __ by the time we come here. 7. Т _a letter by the end of the week. 8. The train is to leave at nine o'clock. They ___their suitcase by that Иже. 9. I _ the film by 9 o'clock. 10. She _ the new words for the spelling test, which her teacher is going to give tomorrow.
Open the brackets and put the verbs into the Future Indefinite, the Future Perfect, the Present Indefinite or the Present Perfect Tense.
1. By 8 o'clock they (have) dinner. 2. By the end of the week he (finish) the translation. 3, Before you (come) I (do) all the work. 4. She (look) through the article by 12 o'clock. 5. They (receive) our letter by Monday. 6. By the time we (get) to the forest the rain (stop), 7. I think he (answer) the letter by this time. 8. We (begin) to work after we (read) all the instructions. 9. We (not do) anything until he (take) necessary steps. 10. The committee (prepare) the plan by tomorrow. 11. I suppose when my letter (reach) you I already (return) from your voyage, 12. He (pass) an exam after he (learn) all the material. 13. I am afraid they (not discuss) all the questions by the time they (come). 14. We (not be able) to start the experiment before we (obtain) the necessary data. 15. The secretary already (look) through all the papers before the boss (come). 16. My train (leave) by the time you (come) to the station.
Translate into English.
1. Боюсь, к тому времени, когда вы придете с деньгами, они уже все распродадут. 2. Позвоните мне после того, как вы прочитаете книгу. 3. Мы сделаем все упражнения к его приходу, а затем все вместе поедем на каток (skating rink). 4. Я напишу ему после того, как увижусь с его родителями. 5. Наш завод выпустит (produce) новый автомобиль к концу года. б. Не знаю, напишет ли он статью к первому сентября. Если она будет готова к этому времени, мы ее напечатаем. 7. Я уже уйду в театр, если вы придете так поздно. 8. Боюсь, вы опоздаете. Они уже закончат переговоры (talks) к 5 часам. 9. К сожалению, вы его не застанете. К этому времени он уже уедет на вокзал. 10. К воскресенью они закончат ремонт (repairs) и переедут на новую квартиру.
Open the brackets and use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense.
1. They already (rehearse) for an hour when we come. 2.1 (work) in this company for 10 years next April. 3. By next year he (writing) the novel for three years. 4. The thieves are sure that they (drive) for 6 hours when the police discover the robbery in the morning. 5. They (study) for 3 hours when you come.
Find and correct the mistakes if any (pay attention to the use of tenses).
1. After graduating from the institute I came to St. Petersburg. I am working here since then. 2. I have just left the house when you phoned me. 3. By the time I came to the country cottage my friends have already left. 4. When I came, my friend was sitting on the sofa and was reading a newspaper. 5. It has rained since morning and I am afraid, it won't stop by Saturday. 6. He will work at his new book during his holiday. 7. The woman who speaks with my sister is my neighbour who is living opposite us. 8. They were looking for the money since morning but they couldn't find it anywhere. 9. Yesterday when I came to see my friend he was having supper. He has just come home. 10. After he has finished the picture he will invite his friends to look at it.
Choose the right variant.
1. When, Ann last?
I___her since she _____to another city.
a) have you seen, haven't seen, has moved
b) did you see, didn't see, moved
c) did you see, haven't seen, moved
d) have you seen, didn't see, has moved
2. Our train___at 8 o'clock. If you___at 5 we ____our things.
a) leaves, come, will pack
b) will leave, will come, will be packing
c) is leaving, will come, are packing
d) leaves, come, will be packing
3. They___. to build a new McDonalds in several days and ___it by the end of the year.
a) will start, will finish
b) are starting, will have finished
c) start, will be finishing
d) start, are finishing
4. I ___the performance for twenty minutes when my friend ___at last. His car ___on his way to the theatre.
a) was watching, had come, had broken down
b) had been watching, came, had broken down
c) watched, came, broke down
d) have been watching, had come, has broken
5. Look, what he ___on the blackboard. He __three mistakes.
a) is writing, has made
b) has written, had made
c) has been writing, is making
d) writes, made
6. What ___if the rain „__by evening? It ___since yesterday, I wonder when it___.
a) will we do, doesn't stop, is pouring, will stop
b) are we doing, hasn't stopped, had been pouring, stops
c) shall we have done, won't have stopped, was pouring, will be stopping
d) shall we do, hasn't stopped, has been pouring, will stop
7. What ___when I___? – We ___the article which Mary ___just _I ___to read it for a long time.
a) did you do, was coming in, were reading, has brought, have wanted
b) were you doing, came in, were reading, had brought, had wanted
c) had you been doing, came in, read, brought, had been wanting
d) have you done, have come in, have read, has brought, wanted
8. It ___dark, it's time for the children to go home. They ___in the yard for the whole evening.
a) got, play
b) has got, are playing
c) is getting, have been playing
d) gets, played
9. I haven't heard you come into the room. When___? — I __ long ago. You ___and I ___to disturb you.
a) did you come, came, were reading, was not wanting
b) did you come, came, were reading, did not want
c) have you come, have come, have been reading, don't want
d) were you coming, was comings read, haven't wanted
10. I__ till Father___. He ___his key and I will have to wait for him.
a) won't be leaving, will come, had lost
b) won't leave, will come, has lost
c) won't leave, comes, has lost
d) aren't leaving, comes, loses
Translate into English (revision).
1. Он стоял у окна и думал о своем будущем» 2. Я видел его давно. Я видел его недавно. Я не видел его давно. 3. Это произошло до того, как мы туда приехали. 4. Они сделали все возможное (do one's best) до того, как пришел врач. 5. Я надеюсь, тебе будет все ясно, когда ты получишь письмо. 6. К 9 часам он закончил работу и вышел на улицу. Ветер утих (fall), но было довольно прохладно. Он медленно шел, стараясь ни о чем не думать. 7. Я не видел тебя целую вечность. Как дела, какие новости? 8. Вы ошиблись. Вы передаете мне соль, а не горчицу (mustard). 9. Мы остановились, так как какой-то человек подходил к нам, 10. Я пришел, чтобы попрощаться с вами. Завтра в это время я буду плыть (sail) к острову Пасхи (Easter), 11. Куда ты положил ключ? Я нигде не могу его найти. 12. Он не видел меня, так как что-то писал. 13. Наконец я сделал свою домашнюю работу и теперь свободен. 14. Кто-то стоит у нашей двери. Мне кажется, он подслушивает (overhear). 15. Если она не получит никаких известий от брата на этой неделе, она пошлет телеграмму. 16. К тому времени, когда мы добрались до дома, снег прекратился, а луна ярко сияла на темном небе. Мы устали, т. к. шли три часа. 17. Ты когда-нибудь слышал, как хорошо она говорит по-английски? Говорят (they say), она учит его уже три года. 18. Что ты будешь делать завтра в три часа? Если ты будешь свободен, мы придем к тебе.
The Passive Voice
Match the beginning of the sentence on the left with its ending on the right.1) The experiment
2) The mail
3) These machines
4) When can the new equipment
5) It's a pity the concert
6) Are the orders
7) If we use the old methods, a lot of time
8) Something important
9) No decisions
10) This monument
12) Have any interesting exhibitions or fairs
13) All these little wooden houses
14) The future church
15) The lost dog
a) been held recently?
b) was erected three hundred years ago.
c) was being looked for everywhere.
d) will be described in several journals.
e) are made and contracts are signed in this office.
f) is being designed by several well-known architects.
g) were built with very simple tools many years ago.
h) was not recorded,
i) are going to be tested again.
j) have been taken yet.
k) was being discussed, so I sat down to listen.
1) may be wasted and very little be achieved,
m) always fulfilled in time?
n) usually brought at 9 a.m.
o) be installed?
Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice.
A using the Indefinite Tenses (give two forms where possible).
Example: Tom gave her a book. — She was given a book. The book was given to her.
1. He broke my watch. 2. The teacher explained the rule to the students. 3. He often asks me to help them. 4. They usually do written exercises in class. 5. She will make a new discovery soon. 6. Steve will make a report at the conference. 7. They play tennis all year round, 8. His friends never forgave his betrayal. 9. The manager offers me several jobs. 10. They will promise you much, but don't imagine they will give you everything. 11. His parents regularly sent him parcels with fruit from their garden. 12. They will give me a leave in July if there is no urgent work. 13. The Spanish government offered Columbus three ships, 14. They usually send their children to camp for summer. 15. The officer charged him with a very important mission. 16. I'm sure we'll settle the matter easily. 17. The policeman fined the driver for exceeding the speed limit 18. Somebody calls her every day. 19. We request the passengers leaving for London to register. 20. The manager will sign contracts tomorrow.
В using the Indefinite Tenses (pay attention to prepositions).,
Example: She looks after him well. — He is well looked after (by her).
1. We sent for the police. 2. They speak much about this book. 3. They often laugh at him. 4. They listened to our conversation very attentively. 5.1 think they will wait for us only in a week. 6. Nobody took notice of his late arrival. 7. We looked through all the advertisements very attentively. 8. He was a brilliant speaker, and whenever he spoke, the audience listened to him with great attention, 9. They will look after him in hospital much better. 10. Everybody looked at her new dress with interest. 11. She sent them for a taxi. 12. People will talk much about the successful performance of the young actress. 13. They always make fun of him. 14. The teacher pointed out gross mistakes in the translation. 15. He referred to very interesting plans. 16. They agreed upon Monday as the most suitable day. 17. He did not touch upon this question unfortunately. 18. They spoke to him about his promotion yesterday.
С using the Continuous Tenses.
Example: They are solving a difficult problem now. — The problem is being solved now.
1. Don't come in! The professor is examining students. 2. Can I read the article? — No, the secretary is typing it. 3. We had to hurry. They were waiting for us. 4. It was noisy. Nobody was listening to him. 5. Does he realize that they are laughing at him? 6. Look at this man. I think he is following us. 7. Listen carefully! He is giving a very interesting talk. 8. The waiter is serving us rather fast. 9. The secretary was looking through morning mail. 10. The interpreter is translating their conversation rather well. 11. The briefing is in full swing. The correspondents are interviewing the participants of the conference. 12. The company was developing a new project. 13. You can't watch the film now. The mechanic is fixing the TV set.
D using the Perfect Tenses
Example: They have already brought the medicine. — The medicine has already been brought.
1. You have repaired our house lately. 2. When the fire brigade came, the fire had destroyed the building. 3. The athlete has shown much better results since this coach trains him, 4.1 will have answered all the business letters by noon. 5. The president of the board has signed the document. 6. Is she washing the floor? — No, she has already washed it. 7. By his arrival they had repaired his car. 8. He has booked the tickets and the clerk will have brought them by 2 o'clock. 9. They had painted the house by his arrival. 10. The police haven't found the reason for the accident yet. 11. Have you touched anything here? 12. The sociologist has interviewed a lot of students. 13. Have they tested all the machines? 14. The flood has caused considerable damage. 15. John will have received the papers by tomorrow.
E using modal verbs.
Example: He can do this work. — The work can be done (by him).
1. She can find a job easily. 2. The matter is urgent. They should phone her immediately. 3. The boss wants Mr. Black. You must find him. 4. I can make an interesting offer to you. 5. He's get a pay rise and low they can buy a new house. 6. You must send the document as quickly as possible. 7. The weather is warm. She may plant the flowers. 8. The document is of great importance. He must show it to us. 9. He must give back the book on Sunday. 10. Their kitchen is large and they can use it as a dining room. 11. Ecologists say that we should take care of our planet. 12. You must send for the doctor immediately. 13. The lecture is over. You may ask questions. 14. You should avoid the center of town during rush hours. 15. They agreed that the club should raise membership fee.
Choose the correct grammar form to translate a predicate.
1. Этот дом был построен в прошлом году.
a) was being built
b) has been built
c) was built
2. Сейчас здесь строится новый супермаркет.
a) is being built
b) is building
c) is built
3. На этой неделе преподаватель объяснил (преподавателем был объяснен) новый материал.
a) had been explained
b) was explained
c) has been explained
4. Новое здание института уже построили, когда я поступила на юридический факультет.
a) was built
b) has been built
c) had been built
5. Студентов экзаменуют два раза в год.
a) are being examined
b) is examined
c) are examined
6. «Вы были невнимательны, когда объяснялось это правило», — сказал преподаватель.
a) was explained
b) had been explained
c) was being explained
7. Цветы уже политы.
a) are watered
b) have been watered
c) were watered
8. Такие столы делают из дорогого дерева.
a) are being made
b) have been made
c) are made
9. Этот фильм никогда не показывали по телевизору,
a) has never been shown
b) was never shown
c)' had never been shown
10. Мою квартиру отремонтируют к субботе,
a) will be repaired
b) will have been repaired
c) is being repaired
11. Списки все еще печатаются.
a) are typed
b) are being typed
c) have been typed
12. Их еще не пригласили,
a) were not invited
b) had not been invited
c) have not been invited
13. Вам сообщат об этом завтра.
a) will be informed
b) will have been informed
c) are informed
14 Когда я вошел, обсуждение было прервано.
a) had been interrupted
b) was interrupted
c) has been interrupted
15 Земля была покрыта снегом.
a) was being covered
b) was covered
c) had been covered
Open the brackets and use the verb in the appropriate form of the Passive Voice,
1. The first draft resolution (not discuss) yesterday; it (withdraw) long before the beginning of the meeting. 2. He is not in town; he (send) on a special mission, 3. Don't come into the compartment; the berth (fix) now. 4. A new underground line (construct) now. They say one of its stations (build) in my street. 5. He wants to know when the final decision (take). The activities of the committee and their delays already much (speak) about. 6. It was three o'clock. We (tell) to hurry up because we (wait). 7. Do you believe that such a problem can (solve)? 8. It must (do) without delays. 9. On September 9, 1850, California (admit) to the Union as the thirty-first state. 10. Don't speak in a loud voice: we (listen). 11. The plan (approve)? — No, it (discuss) now. — How long it (discuss)? 12. By the time he arrives everything (settle). 13. Not all the necessary things (buy) for our trip that's why the departure (postpone). 14. The money (lend) to him two months ago, but it (not give) back yet. 15. The business day was in high gear: the mail (look) through, documents (type), letters (answer), talks (hold). 16. Wait a minute. The table (lay). 17. Dynamite (invent) by Alfred Bernhard Nobel. 18. This exercise may (write) with a pencil. 19. This work (do) before you went to Moscow? 20. If you (ask) about it, will you be able to answer?
Find and correct the mistakes if any,
1, Don't bring the article today. It will be being typed only tomorrow. 2. The South Pole was discovered by Amundsen in 1912. 3. The book which was written last month is discussing a lot. It has been written a lot of articles about. 4. When I came, an experiment was been holding in the lab. 5. Do you know that this house was belonged to Mr. Brown? 6. What new buildings have been built in your town since I was there? 7. The building was collapsed during the earthquake. 8. Have you seen him? Has he been changed much? 9. Do you know that you are following? 10. I hope this journal can find at the library.
Translate into English using the Passive Voice.
1. К сожалению, на конференции такие вопросы не затрагивались (touch upon). 2. Кто вам сказал, что соглашение (agreement) подписано? 3. Здесь говорят только на английском. 4. Ей разрешили заниматься спортом. 5. Посетителей принимают каждый день. 6. Бетти не разрешают приходить сюда. 7. В больнице за ним ухаживали плохо. 8. За ним уже послано? — Да, ему позвонили и велели придти в восемь. 9. На нашей улице строят новый кинотеатр. 10. Не говори это, а то (otherwise) над тобой будут смеяться. 11. Мне еще ничего об этом не говорили. 12. Мы поедем завтра за город, если будет дождь? — Да, мы должны туда поехать, нас там будут ждать. 13. Это здание было только что построено, когда мы приехали сюда. 14. К вечеру работа была закончена. 15. Когда мы вернулись, на рассказали много интересных новостей.
and Have / Got something done
Write sentences in the way shown.
Example: He did not paint the walls. — He had (got) them painted.
1. He did not fix the fridge. 2. I did not wash the floor. 3. She did not type the article. 4. He did not translate the letter. 5. They did not repair the house. 6. I did not wash the car. 7. She did not make the dress. 8. He did not cook supper. 9. He did not iron the shirt. 10. They did not build the fence.
Choose the right variant.
1. Get your children (to feel/feel/felt) responsible for their studies. 2. She had her husband (to entertain/ entertain/entertained) the guests while she was making tea. 3. He got them (to pay/pay/paid) for the damage. 4. She had her carpets (to clean/clean/cleaned). 5. He couldn't get the dog (to rise/rise/risen). 6. She had the porter (to carry/carry/carried).her luggage. 7. She got her baggage (to carry/carry/carried) in. 8. Peter the Great got his noblemen (to have/have/had) their beards (to shave/shave/shaven). 9. The rebellions had the president (to leave/leave/left) the country. 10. She had to get the tyre (to change/change/changed). 11. The manager had his employees (to work/work/worked) till seven. 12. She got him (to buy/buy/bought) an expensive gold bracelet for her. 13. Din has his things (to wash/wash/washed) in the laundry. 14. She couldn't get the child (to go/go/ gone) to bed. 15. Speak to him, please; try to get him (to refuse/refuse/refused) this offer.
Use the correct form of the verb.
1. Her remark made everybody (feel) uncomfortable. 2. They got the manager (sign) the contract. 3. She was made (give up) smoking. 4. They got him (sell) the car. 5. Let him (do) the task himself. 6. He had a fireplace (install) in the corner of the sitting room. 7. She bought a nice dress but she had to get the sleeves (shorten). 8. The professor let Mike (leave) the room. 9. They were made (hand) in their reports on Thursday. 10. He let me (decide) for myself. 11. They had him (contribute) to expenses. 12. The teacher got the pupils (learn) the poem by heart. 13. He took a lot of photos during his holiday and got them (develop). 14. The robber had the teller (open) the safe. 15. The opposition got the government (decrease) prices. 16. Don't let them (attend) the conference. 17. They were made (go) to the police station. 18. He got the chairman (make) an announcement, 19. She made him (forget) the incident. 20. Do you let your children (watch) TV till late at night? 21. I got my son (shave) his moustache. 22. Let your children (have) tastes in music different from yours.
Find and correct the mistakes if any.
1. My mother won't let anybody to think ill of him. 2. It was so difficult for me to get him to believe us again. 3. The party was dull, and we decided to tell stories to make the time to pass. 4. Nick got Mary given him a lift to the school. 5. He will try to get her to replace him. 6. Let's to try to get them join our company. 7. She got the telephone to repair. 8. The thought of his coming made me to feel ill. 9. The wind made the windows rattled. 10. They must have the problem settle. 11. She had the secretary to make another copy. 12. He had the copy to make. 13. They did their best to make themselves agreeing to the proposal. 14. He changed his mind to have his house to paint green, 15. Let him choosing his friends himself. 16. Your enthusiasm makes me to feel young again. 17. She had a desire let her life to go on as though nothing had happened. 18. The director got his paper to type. 19. The teacher made the girl do the exercise again. 20. What makes you to think so? 21. The boy was made to water the garden. 22. She is getting her hair to cut tomorrow. 23. She did not let her daughter to go to discos. 24. Let's try to have him come to the party. 25. I got him to go to India.
Translate the sentences with causative verbs into English (you may have several variants).
1. Грабители (robbers) заставили людей, находящихся в банке, встать к стене. 2. Пусть ребенок съест мороженое. 3. Я не виноват. Меня заставили сделать это. 4. Вчера мне вымыли окна. 5. Позвольте мне попытаться сделать это самому. 6. Дети очень шумят. Пусть они идут гулять. 7. Его заставили выполнять скучную (dull) работу. 8. Я уговорил ее поехать отдохнуть (go for a holiday). 9. Ему отремонтировали квартиру. 10. Затруднительные обстоятельства (circumstances) заставили его поступать таким образом. 11. Давай сделаем перерыв (break) на обед. 12. Ты должен заставить ее принять это предложение. 13. Дайте знать, когда захотите меня повидать снова. 14. Он уговорил своего соседа присматривать за собакой во время его отсутствия (absence). 15. Интересно, что заставило его убить президента? 16, Она всегда разрешает своим детям смотреть мультфильмы (cartoons) в воскресенье, 17. Подозреваемого (suspect) заставили лечь на землю (ground). 18. Ей нужно починить часы. 19, Она плохо себя чувствует: ей вчера удалили (pull out) зуб. 20. Он не строил дом сам, ему его построили.
Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verbs must, have to or be to.
1. You___ (not tell) him about it. It's a secret. 2. It looks like rain. You___ (take) your raincoats. 3. You ___ (not talk) so loudly here. 4. In his youth he ___ (work) from morning till night to earn his living. 5. He ___ (wait) at the station till it stopped raining. 6. The secretary informed us when the manager___ (come). 7. They___(leave) on Saturday, but because of the delay with their visas they___(book) tickets for Monday. 8. They___ (not tell) him anything about it before they get further instructions. 9. He___ (leave) for London that night. 10. ___I (do) it all by myself? 11. It was too late to change their plans and they___(put up) with it. 12. You___ (not prepare) all this work, I will help you. 13. Stay here till she is free. I think you___ (not wait) long. 14. We___ (conduct) a series of experiments this week. 15. Remember that we___ (be) at this place not later than noon.
Choose the correct variant.
1. His German is very poor. He must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 2. His German is very good, he must (study/be studying/have studied) very hard. 3. His German is considerably improved, ho must (study/be studying/have studied) hard during hi» holiday. 4. He must (study/be studying/have been studying) German these two years, his German is rather rich and fluent. 5. She must (have taken/be -faking/have been taking/ a bath at that moment that's why she did not answer your call. 6. She must (be/be being/ have been) at home now, we saw her leaving the office. 7. She must (be/be being/have been) at home, she can't go away because there is no one to look after her sick mother. 8. You must always (think/be thinking/have thought) twice before you say anything. 9. Now he must (think/ be thinking/have thought) of what she has said. 10. He knows they are coming. They must (write/be writing/ have written) to him of their arrival in due time. 11. She must (play/be playing/have been playing) the piano now. 12. The foreigner must (understand/understood/have understood) me, for he nodded his head. 13. Where is Sara? I haven't seen her for a long time. — She must (stay/be staying/have stayed) at her friends'. She wanted to spend July with them. 14. He must (get/be getting/ have got) all he needed, otherwise he would have come again. 15. We must (meet/have met/have been meeting) somewhere before.
Open the brackets and use the proper infinitive after the verb must.
1. Look! All people in the street are going with their umbrellas up. It must (rain). 2. He has changed his job. He must (follow) your advice, 3. He must (fall) ill. Otherwise he would have come to the party. 4. Where is Michael? He must (be) here by now. — He lives in the country. He must (miss) the train. 5. What a dreadful noise! What is the matter? — Our neighbors must (quarrel) again. 6. Nobody must (notice) that he was not used to speaking in public. 7. The criminal must (be) very careful. He did not leave any fingerprints. 8. We are late, I am afraid. Ann must (wait) for us. 9. He must (forget) that he promised to come. 10. They must (write) a composition for two hours. They must (be) tired. 11. You must (misunderstand) me, I did not want to hurt your feelings. 12. Nobody must (see) him enter. Everybody startled when he came in. 13. I hear someone's steps outside. She must (go). 14. You may find him in the garden. He must (read). 15. It is impossible to change anything. One must (take) things as they are.
Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb must.
Example: I am sure they have changed the time. — They must have changed the time.
1. They are in Greece. I am sure they are enjoying themselves. 2. She is an experienced teacher. I am certain she has been working at school for at least twenty years. 3. They have probably finished painting the house. 4. I feel sure she is at home. 5. Probably they have already passed the frontier. 6. She is sure he is playing cards with his friends. 7. She is not very young, as she seems to be. I think she is nearly forty. 8. I think you have visited this place before. 9. He has to do a very urgent task. I feel sure he is working now. 10. He is so absent-minded. I am sure he left the letter unanswered. 11. You know he is a good tennis player. He is no doubt has won this match. 12. I shan't bother you any longer; no doubt you feel tired of my talking after a tiring day. 13. It is clear that they are expecting somebody. 14. She was obviously upset by something; I never saw her so nervous. 15. The youth is probably reading something funny. He is smiling all the time.
Choose the right variant.
1. He wants us to obey him. We____exactly what he says.
a) have to do
b) must to do
c) are to do
2. Mrs. Sparred ____very beautiful when she was young. She has a fine face.
a) was to be
b) must have been
c) must be
3. You____so late. You should leave after dinner.
a) are not to stay
b) must not have stayed
c) must not stay
4. Something____. He____at seven,
a) must happen, must come
b) must have happened, had to come
c) must have happened, was to have come
5. Yesterday's rain spoiled my shoes completely and I___new ones.
a) had to buy
b) must have bought
c) was to buy
6. Which of them____the documents?
a) must have brought
b) have to bring
c) was to bring
7. The only thing he knew for certain was that he ____them.
a) must not meet
b) hasn't to meet
c) is not to meet
8. You can't come in. You ___a catching disease like that.
a) must not have
b) don't have to have
c) aren't to have
9. There___ a garden once.
a) was to be
b) must have been
c) must be
10. We ___in. The weather is changing,
a) must go
b) must have gone
c) are to go
Translate into English using the verb must and its equivalents.
l Он, должно быть, слышал об этом. 2. Этот дом, должно быть, построен в начале столетия. 3. Вы не должны прекращать работу, пока вы ее не закончите. 4. У них, вероятно, сейчас урок. 5. Не огорчайся, он, должно быть, сделал это случайно. 6. Он, вероятно, сейчас спит. 7. Я ищу этот дом вот уже полчаса и нигде не могу его найти. Должно быть, она дала мне неправильный адрес. 8. Мне не пришлось делать этот чертеж. 9. Он, вероятно, не успел закончить работу к пятнице и был вынужден потратить на нее все выходные, т.к. ее нужно было закончить к понедельнику. 10 Она, должно быть, не полила сад. Земля очень сухая. 11. Выбора не было, и им пришлось согласиться. 12. Она, должно быть, ждет нас дома. 13. Она должна ждать нас дома. 14. Ей, наверное, не сказали, что мы уже вернулись, 15. Ей пришлось извиниться, хотя это и было неприятно.
Open the brackets and give the correct form of the verb after need.
l. The vegetable garden needs (water). 2. The TV needs to be (fix). 3. They need (come) here at three o'clock. 4. The cottage needs to be (repair). 5. She needs (prepare) harder for her exams. 6. The lawn needs (cut). 7. You need (book) a ticket beforehand. 8. Granny needs to be (look after). 9. The walls need to be (paper). 10.1 need (get) this book somewhere.
Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Pay attention to the use of the particle to.worry
Example: All is agreed and understood between us, so you needn't ___about it any more. —
All is agreed and understood between us, so you needn't worry about it any more,
You don't need ___there. — You don't need to go there.
1. You needn't ___here by yourself. You may send someone else. 2. She doesn't need ___bags by herself: there are porters at the station. 3. You don't need___ about her; she is quite able to take care of herself. 4. I don't need ___you how important it is. 5. I needn't ___him. He will tell me everything himself. 6. You needn't ___me again, I never forget my promise. 7. She doesn't need ___to the library; I have got this book. 8. They needn't ___for the airport so early; I will give them a lift. 9. I can do it by myself. You needn't ___ me. 10. You don't need ___to her. I have already told her everything.
Choose the right variant.
1. He says I (mustn't/needn't) do it. He has already done it. 2. You (needn't/mustn't) carry your driving license with you. 3.1 can show my student's card, and I (mustn't/needn't) pay to get in. 4. I've hurt my knee and the doctor says I (mustn't/needn't) play football for two weeks. 5. Copies (needn't/mustn't) be done without permission. 6. He is a very discreet person, you (needn't/ mustn't) be afraid of telling him anything. 7. He (needn't/mustn't) be said twice. 8. You (needn't/mustn't) answer the question if you don't want to. 9. It's a nonsmoking carriage. You (needn't/mustn't) smoke here. 10. She (needn't/mustn't) go to bed so late. Has she forgotten the doctor's instructions?
Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with either didn't need (to) 01 needn't have (done).
1. You___ (go) into so many details. The report was too long. 2. She got up late because she was alone and she____ (cook) breakfast for the whole family. 3. We ___ (hurry): she wasn't ready yet. 4. He___ (return) to the office so he took a taxi and went home. 5. I ___ (take) a bus because Martin gave me a lift. 6. We___ (come) so early. Now we must wait. 7. She___ (go) shopping so she went straight home. 8. You___ (make) this remark, I am sure he felt hurt. 9. She was on holiday and she___ (wake up) early. 10. He___ (spend) so much money. Does he remember that he's got children?
Translate into English using the verb need.
1. Зря ты сказал Майку об этом. 2, Его не надо об этом спрашивать. 3. Мне нужна ваша помощь. 4. Зря ты учил текст наизусть (by heart); учитель его не спрашивал. 5. Вечером температура упала, и он решил, что ему не нужно идти к врачу. 6. Разве ты не видишь, что ему надо подстричься? 7. Зря он отказался от приглашения. 8. Вы купили машину только год назад. Неужели ее надо красить? 9. Мне нужно наладить (fix) компьютер. 10. Джону не надо было ехать в Лондон, и он решил провести выходные в Брайтоне.
Read the situations and write sentences with should (shouldn't) have or ought to (ought not to) have.
Example: He had a test this morning. — He didn't do it well. He should have studied more last night.
1. She didn't take a taxi. She was late for the wedding. 2. I didn't eat at home. Now I'm hungry. 3. She bought a TV set last month. Now she regrets doing that. Her children watch it day arid night. 4. He signed a contract without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he has no right to make any amendments there. 5. Mary sold her house. That was a mistake because now she spends a lot of money to rent an apartment. 6. I enjoyed the party last night a lot. Why didn't you come? 7. The driver in front of me stopped suddenly and I smashed into the back of his car. It was not my fault. 8. The boy went out without the doctor's permission. Now he is much worse. 9. When we arrived at the hotel there were no free rooms. We hadn't reserved one. 10. It was not a good idea for Tom and Mary to get married. Now they quarrel all days long.
Choose the right variant.
1. She looks bad. She should (be/have been) more careful about her health. 2. You shouldn't (miss/have missed) the chance. It was a brilliant opportunity for you. 3. I think the policeman was right. She shouldn't (exceed/have exceeded) the speed. 4. I ought to (bring/ have taken) the opera glasses. Now I see nothing. 5. It seems to me that he is a hot-temper person and often flies into a rage because of mere trifles. He should (control/ have controlled) his temper. 6. They should (clear/have cleared) up the problem long time ago. 7. I ought not (to stay/have stayed) there long. The party was a failure. 8. You should (shave/have shaved) this beard of yours! 9. She should (be/have been) more attentive. Didn't she see a car on the right? 10. It's a secret. You ought not to (reveal/have revealed) it to anybody.
Choose the right variant.
1. Don't argue with her, you ___her age.
a) need respect
b) have to respect
c) ought to respect
d) are to respect
2. You ___it long ago.
a) must do
b) should have done
c) needn't have done
d) are to do
3. This is serious; you ___at it.
a) haven't to laugh
b) should not laugh
c) don't have to laugh
d) must not have laughed
4. There ___an interesting concert last night, but I didn't feel well and ___home.
a) had to be, had to stay
b) should be, was to stay
c) must be, ought to stay
d) was to be, had to stay
5. According to the rules a football player ___the ball with his hands.
a) must not touch
b) need not touch
c) don't have to touch
d) must not have touched
6. The situation was dangerous. You ___frightened.
a) should have got
b) must have got
c) have to get
d) need have got
7. We ___ to write and thank them for their hospitality.
a) must not forget
b) must not have forgotten
c) shouldn't forget
d) don't have to forget
8. Why ___I know where he is?
9. They ___more polite.
a) need have been
b) should have been
c) must have been
d) are to have been
10. You ___so much noise or you'll wake up the baby!
a) must not make
b) must not have made
c) needn't have made
d) don't have to make
Open the brackets and fill in the blanks with must, have to, be to, should, need, ought to (in ноте cases you may have several variants)
1. He ___ (not go) to court because the case was dismissed. 2. If I'm late, I'll ___ (take) a taxi. 3. The young___ (respect) the old age. 4. The conversation grew awkward. She felt that something ___ (do), or else the party would break up. 5. They___ (meet) tomorrow, so you___ (not make) an appointment to see him. 6, You ___ (have) a visa to enter a foreign country. 7. You___ (try) and be more punctual. 8. Why are you so late? — I ___ (change) a tyre. 9. You___ (not shout), I am not deaf. 10. They___ (cross) the English Channel now.
Translate into English using modal verbs.
1. Тебе следовало позвонить ему вчера. 2. Ему не следовало говорить с ней таким тоном (tone). Его тон, должно быть, и обидел (hurt) ее. 3. Это должно было произойти. Всем известна его забывчивость (forgetfulness). 4. Она должна была выяснить все до того, как начинать работу. Теперь ей нужно многое переделывать. 5. Ей следовало принести все документы давным-давно. Теперь слишком поздно. 6. Детям нельзя смотреть фильмы ужасов, 7. Мне их проводить (see off)? — Нет, не нужно. Мне придется сделать это самому, 8. В чужой стране необходимо приспосабливаться (adapt oneself) к новым условиям жизни, 9. Зря ты купил это пальто. 10. Мы, должно быть, не заметили его в этой толпе (crowd). 11 „Нам не надо было спешить, поэтому мы решили пойти пешком. 12. Почему я должен это делать?
Fill in the blanks with сап/can't or be (not) able to in the proper form.
1. He ___speak English rather fluently, but that time he ___say a word. 2. He has never ___speak in public. 3. I used to ___speak German very well. 4. You ___marry her, but you ___make her love you. 5. I ___ do it on Friday, but I ___do it next week. 6.___you give me a lift to the station, please? 7. I used ___eat a kilo of sweets for supper. 8.1 have never ___ride a bicycle. 9. You ___see him at the meeting. He was ill. 10. I'd like ___ski very well. 11. Luckily I ___find a taxi. 12. I ___drive when I was fifteen. 13. I ___hear somebody running. 14. He did not want to go there, but we ___to persuade him. 15. She sighed. I ___feel her hands shaking.
Open the brackets with could (expressing a possibility) or could have (expressing a possibility that did not happen) and make all necessary changes.
1. A car is pulling up. It could (be) Lucy. 2. He could (get) a credit, but he did not prepare all the documents in time. 3. Why didn't you ask me? I could (do) it for you. 4. He could (be) there tomorrow. 5. They could (be) there yesterday. 6. Why are you so depressed? He could (tell) a
lie. 7. You should have told us about your delay. We could (cancel) our meeting. 8. He could (do) it if he tries. 9. Somebody has called on you today. — It could (be) a friend of mine. 10. I think he could (commit) a crime, but he's got an alibi. 11. The train arrives at 11.30. She could (come) at noon. 12. Yesterday I saw him driving at a very high speed. He could (crash).
Express your surprise and disbelief using can/could.
A in interrogative sentences.
Example: He is working now. — Can/Could he be working now?
1. He was at the party yesterday. 2. They are in Germany. 3. He has broken his leg. 4. They were sent to prison. 5. She got married. 6. He studies at Cambridge University. 7. She has been practicing the violin for five years. 8. He has made an interesting report. 9. He has won a lot of money in the casino. 10. They will go to the Canaries next summer. 11. He has passed his English exam. 12. She will be forty in June. 13. She is stubborn. 14. He was a cruel man.
В in negative sentences.
Example: He bought a new car. — He can't/ couldn't have bought a car.
1. You are mistaken. 2. They forgot about the meeting. 3. He is writing a new novel now. 4. She has bought a new fur coat. 5. He had an accident. 6. Mary will invite the Jones to her place for the weekend. 7. They upset our plans. 8. She wastes a lot of time. 9. Mr. Fox is a reliable person. 10. She is making a cruise now.
Translate into English.
I. He может быть, чтобы он был дома вчера в это время. 2. Неужели он сказал вам об этом? 3. Возможно, он и заходил к ним, когда был в Москве. 4. Он мог бы сделать это, но не захотел. 5. Неужели он отказался ехать туда? 6. Не может быть, чтобы оп спал сейчас. 7. Не может быть, чтобы они уехали, не попрощавшись с нами. 8. Не может быть, чтобы она вам так ответила. 9. Он мог бы приехать завтра. 10. Не может быть, что он столкнулся (collide) с другой машиной. Он такой осторожный водитель. 11. Вряд ли он забыл о своем обещании, я напоминала ему об этом вчера. 12. Он не мог прочитать эту книгу так быстро, она слишком трудна для него. 13. Они смогли бы подняться на вершину, но им помешала погода. 14. Вряд ли они поженятся; они слишком разные люди. 15. Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать, что он выиграет матч?
Paraphrase the following sentences using the verb may /might.
1. Under the law you are allowed to make one photocopy for your personal use but you can't make multiple copies. 2. This is possibly the reason why they have refused to join us. 3. Perhaps I will have to take her to hospital; it is possible she has broken her arm in the accident. 4. It is possible he did not have her phone number. 5. When the World Cup was shown on TV, I was allowed to stay up late and watch it. 6. Perhaps your friend will help you, but I don't believe it. 7. Maybe they did not know that the problem was so urgent. 8. Would you mind my smoking here? 9. Why didn't you come? I needed your help badly. 10. Perhaps she has made a mistake, but I am not sure of it. She is a very punctual person.
Fill in the blanks with may /might or can/ could and make all necessary changes.
1. You___ (warn) me about it beforehand. 2. The weather is changing. It ___ (start) raining. 3. No, he___ (not hear) your name. We tried to speak in a whisper. 4. He___ (not hear) your name. That's why he did not say anything. 5. She ___ (not notice) us. We were standing too far away. 6. She___ (not notice) us though we were standing beside her. 7.___I use your name as a referee? 8. She___ (not hear) the news, that's why she looks as if nothing had happened. 9. She___ (not hear) the news, nobody___tell her about it. 10. The professor says that I___ (rewrite) the essay. 11.___I use your phone? 12. He___ (help) them when they were in trouble. 13. ___he (say) it? No, it's not like him. He is a man of few words.
Choose the right variant.
1. О don't like the way you study. I think you___harder!
a) might have worked
b) might work
c) could work
d) could have worked
2. Let's wait a little. He ___.
a) may have come
b) could have come
c) may come
d) might have come
3. She ___ of the plan herself. Somebody has suggested it to her.
a) can't have thought
b) may not have thought
c) can't think
d) may not think
4. They ___our telegram, that's why they did not meet us.
a) couldn't have received
b) can't have received
c) may not have received
d) may not receive
5. She ___my letter! — Don't be so angry with her. She ___it by mistake,
a) may not read, may do
b) cannot read, can do
c) might not have read, can't have done
d) can't have read, might not have done
6. He ___it. I don't believe you.
a) is not able to say
b) might not say
c) can't have said
d) might not have said
Fill in the blanks with the modal verbs making necessary changes (you may have several variants).
1. He is in the garden. He___ (read) a newspaper in the summerhouse. 2. Her son ___ (get) into trouble yesterday. I've seen him today and he looked quite happy and gay. 3. I don't remember him well but it seems to me he___ (be) in charge of the Finance department last year. 4. He ___already (get) used to driving on the left. He has been living in London for a year. 5. He___ (receive) an emergency call, that's why he is out. 6. They___ (not take up) this problem. It has been already solved. 7. Where is Mr. Black? — He___ (receive) a foreign delegation. They ___ (come) at two o'clock. 8. Why haven't the Smiths arrived yet? — They ____ (lose) their way. They don't know the road well. 9. You___ (introduce) me to your wife long ago. 10. He ___ (buy) a new car. He is deeply in debt. 11. He ___ (buy) a new car, but I am not sure. 12. They ___already (arrive). Look, the windows are open. 13. Where is John? — He___ (smoke) in the corridor. 14. I think for your children's sake you___ (do) it. 15. You___ (buy) this book for me. You know I have wanted to have it. 16. A wife___ (obey) her husband, the Bible says. 17. You ___(wait) for me, I knew the road well and found my way myself. 18. Judging by his papers on the writing table he___ (work) for several hours. 19. ___it (be) Nick? He has changed a lot. 20. They___ (not know) of the plane's delay, otherwise they did not come at 2 o'clock.
Find and correct the mistakes if any.
1. I must not dress in my best. When I came, everybody was wearing jeans and T-shirts. 2. He must have known that she needed his help. 3. He had to have an accident in the thick fog. 4. You should phone her long ago. I am sure she is looking forward to your call. 5. With your knowledge of the language you may read the article. 6. I may not imagine Mary teaching students. She used to be so impatient. — You know time changes people. She is able to become quite different. 7. I am sure you might have done it much better. You did not try. 8.1 was so angry, I must have thrown my boot at him. 9. May you do me a favour, please? 10. May I ask you to do me a favour, please?
Translate into English using the modal verbs.
1. Что здесь происходит? Не могли вы бы вы сказать, в чем дело? — Должно быть, полиция ловит опасного преступника (criminal), и поэтому здесь нельзя прейти. 2. Он мог бы объяснить мне с самого начала, как это важно. 3. Тебе следует поторопиться. Мы можем опоздать. 4. Какой скучный фильм я посмотрел! Не стоило ходить в кино, я мог бы посмотреть что-нибудь по телевизору. 5. Тебе следовало бы сесть на диету (go on a diet) еще полгода назад. Посмотри на себя! Ты поправилась (gain) на 3 килограмма. Тебе нельзя есть сладкое. 6. Неужели она потеряла мой номер телефона? 7. Почему он молчит (keep silence)? — Может быть, он не расслышал ваш вопрос. Не могли бы вы его повторить? 8. Ты должен уважать (respect) своих родителей. 9. Наверное, он сегодня не придет. Уже восемь часов, а он должен был прийти в семь. 10. Вряд ли они уже вернулись. Они там впервые и могут задержаться (stay long).
Choose the right variant.
1. "They ___an excellent vacancy last week. You ___an opportunity of getting it," he reproached me.
a) had, mustn't miss
b) have had, might not have missed it
c) had, shouldn't have missed
d) were having, couldn't miss
2. He had to earn ___living at ___an early age,___?
a) ___, such, hadn't he
b) his, such, didn't he
c) himself, so, hadn't he
d) to, so, didn't he
3. We ___a camera because we never ___a chance to use it.
a) might not have taken, had
b) should not have taken, have had
c) needn't have taken, had
d) mustn't have taken, had had
4. The line is busy; somebody ___on the telephone now.
a) should be speaking
b) should have been speaking
c) must be speaking
d) can't be speaking
5. You ___this! See how ___she is.
a) ought not to say, distressing
b) ought not to have said, distressed
c) won't be able to say, distressing
d) cannot have said, distressed
6. He says that nothing___, because it is too___. But I don't believe a single word___; they ___us.
a) should do, lately, of him, mustn't have failed
b) can't be done, late, of his, oughtn't fail
c) mustn't be done, lately, of him, shouldn't have failed
d) can be done, late, of his, can't have failed
7.1 managed to come here at half past six. But I ___. They ___.
a) needn't have hurried, had already left
b) needn't hurry, have already left
c) mustn't have hurried, had already left
d) shouldn't hurry, have already left
8. If she doesn't take care of___, she ___have a nervous breakdown and ___to hospital.
a) hers, may, should go
b) her, can, need to go
c) herself, may, may have to go
d) herself, must, must go
9. He ___his wallet himself, it___.
a) might lose, couldn't be stolen
b) may have lost, can't have been stolen
c) could have lost, must not have been stolen
d) ought to lose, shouldn't be stolen
10. You ___a message at least! We ___for two hours.
a) should send, waited
b) must have sent, were waiting
c) could send, have been waiting
d) might have sent, had been waiting
11. The only trouble is that I ___my exams in spring and ___them now.
a) couldn't have taken, must have
b) couldn't take, must have
c) mustn't have taken, must have had
d) can't take, must have had
12. The plane ___at 5 a.m. and in this hurry-scurry she ___the tickets on the table.
a) had to take off, can leave
b) was to take off, must have left
c) was to take off, needn't leave
d) must have taken off, shouldn't leave
13. Why ___he take the scandal on himself? It is not
a) must, fairly
b) may, fair
c) should, fair
d) could, fairly
14. You ___to him. His information is ___.
a) shouldn't listen, misled
b) needn't have listened, misleading
c) can't have listened, misled
d) mustn't have listened, misleading
15. It is not worth___ to ___bed if he ___at five.
a) to go,___, have to get up
b) going, the, must have got up
c) to have gone, the, is to get up
d) going,___, doesn't have to get up
16. They have made me ___that I ___selfish about it.
a) think, may have been
b) to think, must be
c) thinking, might have been
d) thought, should have been
17. It ___late when I ___ home; there were no people in the street.
a) must have been, was going back
b) must be, am going
c) can't have been, was going
d) could not have been, went
18. You ___worry, you ___always rely on me in this matter.
a) must not, need
b) need not, may
c) can, need not
d) should, must
19. You ___this device. It ___dangerous.
a) couldn't have touched, may be
b) must not touch, may be
c) shouldn't have touched, ought to be
d) needn't touch, must have been
20.1___my job. I ___you before.
a) needn't have put off, should ask
b) shouldn't have put off, need to ask
c) needn't have put off, should have asked
d) shouldn't put off, should ask
The Sequence of Tenses
Change the following into indirect speech,
1. "I have something to tell you," I said to her. 2, "I met her for the first time on a warm sunny morning last spring," he said. 3. "I am going to call again tomorrow, mother," she said. 4. "I've been to Turkey twice, but so far I haven't had time to visit Istanbul," said Robert. 5. "It will be very difficult to persuade her to take care of herself, doctor," I replied. 6. "The president is to come to Madrid the day after tomorrow," said the BBC announcer. 7. "We have a lift but very often it doesn't work," they said. 8. "We have bought a new flat. But we don't like it so much as our last one," said my cousin. 9, "I have left a message for him, but he hasn't phoned yet," she said. 10, "I've no idea who has done it but I'll find out," said Peggy. 11. He said, "My mother has just been operated on," 12. 'I'll come with you as soon as Fin ready," she replied to me. 13. I have a French lesson this evening and I haven't done my homework yet," said the small boy. 14. "She has been sitting” in the garden since the police came," I said to the officer. 15. "You haven’t closed the window and has forgotten to turn off the light," he pointed out,
Change the following general questions into indirect speech. Begin your sentences with the words I/he wondered, we/they asked; she/he wanted to know, etc.
Example: Did she go shopping? — 4c asked if/ whether she had gone shopping,
1. Are your children still skiing? 2. Have they had breakfast yet? 3. Is Mike still taking an exam? 4. Did she take part in the performance? 5. Had they already left by the time you went to the station? 6. Do they regularly go to the swimming pool? 7. Will she buy a new Hoover? 8. Will she be training at 10 tomorrow? 9. Does he usually go to the Caribbeans for his holiday? 10. Did she learn to play the guitar? 11. Has the decision been already taken? 12. Do you know when the results will be out? 13. Does he know your new address? 14. Have you known each other for a long time? 15. Did he begin smoking a pipe?
Change the following special questions into indirect speech. Begin your sentences with the words I/he wondered, we/they asked, she/he wanted to knew, etc.
Example: When did she go shopping? — He asked when she had gone shopping.
1. Why did he decide to go to Ethiopia? 2. When was she sent on business? 3. Who will fulfill this task? 4. How long has she been staying here? 5. Who was he speaking to when I came tip to him? 6. Who will play the role of Hamlet? 7. What is shown in this diagram? 8. What is he going to do on Sunday? 9. How long have they been developing this project? 10. Who was this book written by?
Imagine that you have come to study to a foreign country and students are asking you questions. Report these questions later to your friend.
Example: "What country do you come from?" asked Bill. — Bill asked what country I came from.
"Do you often go to the swimming-pool?" asked Pete. — Pete asked if I often went to the swimming-pool.
1. "How long have you been here?" said Ann. 2. "Are you working as well as studying?" asked Peter. 3. "Have you got a work permit?" Bill wanted to know. 4. "What are you going to study?" asked Ann. 5. "Have you enrolled for more than one class?" said Peter. 6. "Do you want to buy any second-hand books?" said Bill. 7. "Have you seen the library?" asked Ann. 8. "Do you play rugby?" said Peter. 9. "Will you have time to play regularly?" he went on. 10. "Did you play for your school team?" asked Bill. 11. "Are you interested in acting?" asked Ann. 12. "Would you like to join our drama group?" she asked. 13. "What do you think of our canteen?" asked Pete.
Change commands, requests, recommendations into indirect speech.
Example: "Close the door," she asked me. — She asked me to close the door.
1. "Open the safe!" the raiders ordered the bank clerk. 2. "Please do as I say," he begged me. 3. "Help your mother, Peter," Mr. Pitt said. 4. "Don't make too much noise, children," he said. 5. "Do whatever you like," she said to us. 6. "Don't miss your train," she warned them. 7. "Read the document before you sign it," the lawyer said to his client. 8. "Fill in the blank again," he said. 9. "Buy a new car," I advised him. 10. "Don't drive too fast," she begged him. 11. "Don't put your bicycle near my window," said the shopkeeper to me. 12. "Come to the cinema with me," he asked her. 13. "Cook it in butter," I advised her. 14. "Send for the fire brigade," the manager said to the porter. 15. "Please pay at the desk," said the shop assistant to her. 16. "Don't argue with me," said the teacher to the boy. 17. "Pull as hard as you can," he said to her. 18. "Don't lend anything to her," he advised us. 19. "Stand clear off the door," a voice warned the people. 20. "Put down that gun. It's loaded," she warned him.
Change sentences with modal verbs and their equivalents into indirect speech.
1. "If what you have said is true I must go to the police," he said. 2. "You don't need to come in tomorrow," said my employer. "You may take a day off." 3. "I'll be busy next week and won't be able to help you," she said to us. ''Besides this text must be typed and as for me, I cannot type, so I'll have to ask somebody to do it," she added. 4. The official said, "This passport photo isn't like you at all. You must have another one taken." 5. "I needn't get up till nine tomorrow," I said. 6. "I must go to the dentist tomorrow," she said to me. "I have an appointment." 7. "I will go to bed. I had to get up very early today," he said. 8. "I couldn't meet her, I was working," he said. 9. "Ann's English is very poor. She must study very hard," the teacher said. 10. "Something was wrong with the receiver, I could not hear you well yesterday," she said.
Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses.
1, Я знал, что она еще не прочитала письмо. 2. Она считала, что ананасы растут на деревьях. 3. Он сказал нам, что расплатился с долгами (pay one's debts) больше месяца назад. 4. Она сказала, что пишет это сочинение (composition) уже три часа. 5. Она не знала, успешно лл закончилась (be a success) операция. 6. Том позвонил в полицию и сказал, что все его вещи украдены. 7. Капитан приказал всем подняться на борт (get aboard). 8. Они не знали, будут ли опубликованы результаты их исследований. 9. Я думал, что он работает, и не вошел в комнату. 10. Он попросил, чтобы она не беспокоилась. 11. Я не знаю, когда он приедет в Москву. 12. Они поинтересовались, бывал ли я когда-нибудь заграницей (abroad). 13. Он сказал им, что они не должны говорить об этом сейчас. 14. Наш гид (guide) рассказал нам, что замок (castle) был возведен в 14-ом веке. 15. Я надеюсь, что новый мост будет построен в следующем году.
Change the following into indirect speech paying attention to conditional sentences.
1. "I'll put a book into your briefcase in case you want to read," Mother said. 2. He said, "If she follows my advice, all will turn out well." 3. "Annette will have come to Paris in an hour if there are no delays," Pete thought. 4. "These letters must be sent immediately as soon as they are translated," the manager said. 5. "I'll take you out for a walk after I have seen the film," he said to his dog. 6. "I am sure she will sing to us provided we ask her," he whispered. 7. "If she trains hard she will win the Cup," the trainer said. 8. "If she stays in bed for a couple of days, she will be all right in a week," the doctor said to the mother. 9. "If the train comes on time we'll be able to see the football match," he said to me. 10. She said, "I won't come if I am not invited."
Translate into English paying attention to the sequence of tenses in the clauses of time and condition.
1. Я знал, что когда они вернутся, они обязательно позвонят нам. 2. Он сказал мне, что они не поедут туда, пока не узнают адреса. 3. Она сказала, что встретила приятеля, с которым училась в школе. 4. Она сказала мне, что вряд ли узнает район, так как он сильно изменился. 5. Он спросил, что я буду делать, когда выйду на пенсию (retire). 6. Он сказал, что как только документы будут получены, их пришлют нам. 7. Медсестра (nurse) сказала, что мы сможем поговорить с врачом только после того, как он осмотрит больного (examine a patient). 8. Он спросил меня, есть ли какая-нибудь надежда, что я изменюсь. 9. Корреспондентам сообщили, что проблема цен еще обсуждается и что, как только она будет решена, контракт будет подписан. 10. Он сказал, что прошло пять лет тех пор, как они женаты. 11. Он напомнил (remind) мне, что когда мы были студентами, мы всегда помогали друг другу. 12. Профессор сказал, чтобы я не приходил, пока не выучу весь материал.
Choose the right variant.
1. He ___for some time before a servant ___and ___what he___.
a) knocked, opened, asked, wanted
b) was knocking, opened, asked, was wanting
c) had been knocking, opened, asked, wanted
d) had knocked, had opened, had asked, had wanted
2. The doctor ___there ___nothing to worry about if the fever ___above 38,5°.
a) said, was, would not go
b) tells, is, will go
c) says, had been, went
d) said, was, did not go
3. I ___a wash and a brush-up before starting to go to the luncheon Tom ___me to, when they ___me from the desk to say that he ___below.
a) had, was invited, were ringing, had been
b) was having, invited, had rung, was
c) was having, had invited, rang, was
d) had been having, had invited, had rung, had been
4. While we ___at ___lunch, a letter ___to me from my sister.
a) were,___, was delivered
b) had been, a, was being delivered •
c) were, the, had been delivered
d) have been,___, has been delivered
5. Some day I ___to Paris to revisit all the places where I ___in the time of my youth. I ___them for a quarter of a century or so.
a) will have gone, have lived, haven't seen
b) am going, had lived, did not see
c) will go, lived, haven't seen
d) will be going, had lived, hadn't seen
6. Hardly ___asleep ___an alarm clock___.
a) have I gone, than, will ring
b) had I gone, when, rang
c) I had gone, then, had rung
d) was I going, as, was ringing.
7. We ___continue our research unless he ___us.
a) can't, won't help
b) will not be able to, does not help
c) can, will help
d) won't be able to, helps
8. We ___him in many moods, but none of us ___him to do a cruel thing.
a) see, ever know
b) see, don't ever know
c) have seen, have ever known
d) have seen, haven't ever known
9. He needed to feel that he___, that he ___here, and that his word___.
a) was being listened to, was commanding, was always obeyed
b) is being listened to, is commanding, is always obeyed
c) was listened to, was being commanding, was always being obeyed
d) is listened to, is being commanding, was always being obeyed
10. Look! What ___beautiful view! The sun ___yet, but the grey sky ___near the horizon.
a) ___, was not appeared, is parted
b) ___, did not appear, parted
c) the, has not been appeared, has parted
d) a, has not appeared, is parted
11. When he saw that someone ___at him, he did not immediately realize who this someone___.
a) looked, is
b) was looking, was
c) has been looking, is
d) had looked, was being
12. While our coffee___, I ___him our sad story which impressed him___.
a) was making, told, greatly
b) was being made, said, great
c) had been made, told, great
d) was being made, told, greatly
13. It ___in the night, but now there ___sunshine.
a) has rained, was
b) had rained, had been
c) is raining, is being
d) has been raining, is
14. As he ___the room that morning, Ann ___up the letter which she___.
a) was entered, was holding, had just received
b) was entering, has held, has just received
c) entered, was holding, had just received
d) had entered, held, has just received
15. I ___a note with the address of the hotel and the boy's name into his pocket ___he ___his way.
a) have put, provided, will lose
b) will put, providing, will have lost
c) have put, in case, loses
d) will have put, when, have lost
16. They___, but as they ___me there ___a hush.
a) were talking, saw, was
b) are talking, have seen, had been
c) had been talking, will see, would be
d) have been talking, had seen, will be
17. Come on, if the sun ___before we ___home, we ___our way.
a) has set, reach, will lose
b) will have set, will reach, lose
c) will have set, reach, will lose
d) has been set, will reach, lose
18. ___when he ___her for the first time.
a) Tell me, has met c) Say to me, met
b) Say me, had met d) Tell me, met
19. He was tired and by the time I___, he ___asleep.
a) have come, has fallen
b) came, fell
c) came, had fallen
d) had come, had fallen
20. The great majority of students ___present at the conference ___great number of them ___to listen to your lecture and each of them __ready to answer your questions.
a) are, A, want, is c) is, A, wants, are
b) are, The, want, is d) is, The, wants, has been
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