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Сборник текстов для чтения по английскому языку для медицинских специальностей

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КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»


hello_html_m5efde005.jpg


ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей













МИНУСИНСК, 2014






































КРАЕВОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ

«МИНУСИНСКИЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ ТЕХНИКУМ»













ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ

ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей














МИНУСИНСК, 2014

81.2 Англ.я 723

С 23











ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

для студентов медицинских специальностей/Сост.: Краськова И.Р./2014.- 68с.




В сборнике собраны и систематизированы тексты для чтения по английскомк языку имеющие медицинскую направленность. Все тексты аутентичны, содержат дополнительные упражнения для развития основных видов речевой деятельности: чтения, письма, говорения.

Сборник предназначен для преподавателей и студентов медицинских специальностей.











5

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words and word combinations:


1. skeletal скелетный

2. muscular мышечный

3. digestive пищеварительный

4. respiratory дыхательный

5. urinary мочевой

6. endocrine эндокринный

7. reproductive репродуктивный, половой

8. bone кость

9. ligament связка

10.cartilage хрящ

11.join соединять

12.structural структурный

13.spinal спинной, позвоночный

14.cord столб

15.vessel сосуд

16.pump насос

17.stream ток, поток

18.alimentary пищеварительный

19.gland железа

20.convey передавать, переносить

21. carbon dioxide двуокись углерода

22. kidney почка

23.urine моча

24.ureter мочеточник

25.urinary bladder мочевой пузырь

26.to be stored сохраняться, храниться, скапливаться

27.discharge удалять, выводить из организма

28.hormone гормон




hello_html_m1e1c861.jpg6

SYSTEMS OF THE BODY


There are several main systems of the body: the skeletal, the muscular, the nervous, the digestive, the respiratory, the urinary, the endocrine and the reproductive systems.

The skeletal system consists of the bones of the body and ligaments and cartilages, which join them. The chief function of the skeletal system is structural.

The muscular system consists of the skeletal muscles and their associated structures. The main function of this system is to move us about.

The nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia and receptors. It is a complex information system with all the necessary means for receiving, processing and communicating information.

The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels and the blood, which is pumped through the blood vessels by the heart. Its function is mainly that of transportation system: the nutrients, oxygen, special substances which are required by cells are carried by the blood stream; and the cellular wastes and sometimes other materials produced by the cells are carried away by the blood stream.

The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and a number of associated glands.

The respiratory system consists of the lungs, the air passages leading to them and associated structures. Its main function is to convey oxygen to the lungs, where it can enter the blood stream and to remove carbon dioxide, which escapes from the blood into the lung spaces.

The urinary system consists of the kidneys which produce urine by removing nitrogenous and other wastes from the blood: the two ureters, which convey the urine away from the kidneys; the urinary bladder, where the urine is stored until it is discharged; and the urethra through which the urine is discharged.


7

The endocrine system consists of a number of glands throughout the body, which produce regulatory substances called hormones. The endocrine system serves to regulate a large number of activities

NOTES


1. To move us about – осуществлять наше движение

2. For receiving, processing and communicating informationдля

получения обработки и передачи информации

3. Which are required by cellsкоторые необходимы клеткам

4 .by removing nitrogenous and other wastesпутем выведения

азотосодержащих и других продуктов отхода

  1. where urine is storedгде накапливается моча


EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. которые их соединяют

  2. основная функция

  3. со всеми необходимыми средствами

  4. несколько основных систем

  5. переносится кровотоком

  6. ведущих к ним воздухоносных путей

  7. где он поступает в кровоток

  8. выводить мочу из почек

  9. до тех пор, пока она не выведена

  10. вырабатываются вещества – регуляторы


EXERCISE 2. Найдите в тексте предложения, которые содержат следующие слова и словосочетания:


  1. main systems of the body

  2. the skeletal system

  3. to move about

  4. a complex information system

8

  1. to be pumped through the blood vessels

  2. transportation system

  3. a number of associated glands

  4. to convey oxigen

  5. until it is discharged

  6. a large number of activities


EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What are the functions of the skeletal and muscular system?

  2. What is carried by the blood stream?

  3. What is the chief function of the blood?

  4. What does the nervous system consist of?

  5. What is the main function of the respiratory system?

  6. What does the urinary system consist of?

  7. How do the kidneys produce urine?

  8. How is the urine discharged from the body?


EXERCISE 4. Составьте предложения из разбросанных слов:


  1. The, system, begins, digestive, mouth, the, with.

  2. Function, to remove, major, the, of, urinary, the, system, urine, is.

  3. Is, the, system, of, complex, one, the, nervous, most, systems, all, of, body, human

  4. Lymph, are, blood, and, the, tissues, body, of, liquid, the.

  5. Includes, muscles, the, and, musculoskeletal, system, bones, joints.


EXERCISE 5.Вставьте пропущенные слова:


  1. Another important function of the kidney is to maintain the balance of water, salt and acid in the body fluids.

  2. The brain is the center for regulating and coordinating body activities.

  3. Respiration is the process of breathing.


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  1. The blood and lymphatic systems have many .

  2. Joints are the places where come together.

  3. The endocrine system is composed of located in different regions of the body.


EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикль там, где необходимо.


  1. … main systems of body have groups of organs working together to perform complex functions.

  2. … mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines are organs which compose digestive system.

  3. There are some organs within each system.

  4. … circulatory system is also called cardiovascular system.

  5. The main function of respiratory system is to convey oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide


EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Организм человека насчитывает несколько систем. Это группы органов, совместно функционирующие для выполнения сложных функций организма человека.

  2. Пищеварительная система начинается в полости рта.

  3. Нервная система – это самая сложная информационная система.

  4. Главная функция мышечной системы – это осуществление движения.

  5. Суставы – это места соединения костей.

  6. Эндокринная система состоит из желез, расположенных в различных частях организма человека.

  7. Скелетная система состоит из костей, а также связок и хрящей, соединяющих их.

  8. Сердечно – сосудистая система выполняет транспортную функцию в организме


EXERCISE 8. Перескажите текст, пользуясь планом на с.65.


10

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words and word combinations:



  1. immunity иммунитет

  2. resistance сопротивляемость

  3. provide обеспечивать

  4. antibody антитело

  5. antitoxin антитоксин

  6. causative причинный

  7. stimulate стимулировать

  8. foreign body чужеродное тело

  9. transplant трансплантант

  10. transfusion переливание (крови)

  11. incompatible несоответствующий, несовместимый

  12. antigen антиген

  13. involve вовлекать

  14. overcome подавлять

  15. concerned имеющий отношение, связанный

  16. remain оставаться

  17. acquired immunity приобретенный иммунитет

  18. reproduce воспроизводить

  19. artificially искусственно

  20. vaccination вакцинация

  21. host хозяин

  22. thus таким образом

  23. subsequent последующий

  24. immediately сразу же

  25. exposure проявление

  26. inherit наследовать





11

IMMUNITY hello_html_3469a41.jpg

Immunity means resistance to disease. It is provided by certain white blood cells, which release antibodies and antitoxins into the blood plasma. Many causative factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies antitoxins; for example, microorganisms; bacterial, plant and animals toxins; foreign bodies; transplants; transfusion of incompatible blood cells. All such factors are called antigens.

When infection occurs, inflammation results, and part of this defensive reaction involves antibodies and antitoxins. They are present in the blood and help overcome the microorganisms concerned. Some of these antibodies and antitoxins can remain in the blood for life and prevent any repetition of the same infection. Such life-long protection is called acquired immunity; but unfortunately it does not occur for every type of microorganism.

However, where immunity is possible it can be reproduced artificially in people who have never been infected by a particular microorganism. It may be done by giving a non-immune person a dose of dead microorganisms. This is called vaccination. Dead microorganisms cannot produce disease but they do stimulate the host’s body to produce antibodies and antitoxins against the particular microorganisms concerned. Thus any subsequent infection with these organisms is immediately overcome by the antibodies and antitoxins already present. If there has been no vaccination or prior exposure to disease, acquired immunity is not present. However, all individuals inherit some degree of natural immunity and this helps explain why some people are more resistant to disease than others.

NOTES

  1. inflammation resultsнаступает воспаление

  2. such lifelong protection – Такая защита, имеющая место на протяжении всей жизни

  3. dead microorganismsослабленные микроорганизмы

12

EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:


  1. Невосприимчивость к заболеванию

  2. Вырабатывать антитела

  3. Все факторы

  4. Они присутствуют в крови

  5. Предупреждать повторное инфицирование

  6. Приобретенный иммунитет

  7. искусственно

  8. Вакцинация

  9. Они действительно стимулируют

  10. Таким образом

  11. Наследовать

  12. Врожденный иммунитет

  13. Это помогает объяснить


EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. to be provided

  2. Causative factors

  3. Antigents

  4. to involve

  5. to help overcome

  6. to remain for life

  7. to occur

  8. to be reproduced artificially

  9. a non- immune person

  10. dead microorgamisms

  11. a subsequent infection

  12. prior exposure

  13. more resistant to disease


13

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What is immunity?

  2. What is it provided by?

  3. What factors can stimulate white cells to produce antibodies and antitoxins?

  4. What happens when infection occurs?

  5. How long can antibodies and antitoxins remain in the blood?

  6. Does acquired immunity occur for every type of microorganism?

  7. Can it be reproduced artificially?

  8. How may it be done?

  9. What do dead microorganisms stimulate?

  10. Is acquired immunity always present?

  11. What is natural immunity?


EXERCISE 4. Поставьте артикли, где это необходимо:

Where immunity to particular disease is not present, it can be provided by vaccination to prevent that disease; but it can also be introduced by injecting antibodies or antitoxins to treat or temporarily prevent disease concerned. Such protection is called passive immunity and is commonly used against tetanus. During pregnancy mother passes on her own antibodies and antitoxins to her unborn baby and this provides passive immunity for first few months after birth.


EXERCISE 5. Поставьте предлоги, где это необходимо:

Some people have a defective immune system and are accordingly much more susceptible infection. Such individuals are said to be immune – compromised and one the most important examples is the destruction the body’s defense mechanism by the AIDS virus, resulting death from an inability to resist infection.

Other immune – compromised patients may be those suffering leukemia, kidney failure and diabetes; and those taking drugs which suppress immunity; for example, cytotoxics, used the treatment of cancer, and drugs used to prevent rejection transplants.


14

EXERCISE 6. Составьте предложения, используя следующие слова:


  1. Is, immunity, by, provided, cells, white.

  2. Can, many, factors, white, stimulate, to produce, cells, antibodies, antitoxins, and.

  3. Antibodies, antitoxins, and, some, remain, of, for, can, in, remain, the, for, blood, life.

  4. Inherit, natural, individuals, all, degree, immunity, some, of.



EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский язык:


  1. Иммунитет – это невосприимчивость к заболеванию.

  2. В теле человека лейкоциты выполняют функцию пожирателей болезнетворных бактерий.

  3. Воспаление – это защитная реакция организма в борьбе с болезнью.

  4. Существуют два вида иммунитета: врожденный и приобретенный.

  5. И.И.Мечников первым открыл явление иммунитета и назвал свою теорию фагоцитарной теорией иммунитета.

  6. Английский врач Эдвард Дженнер открыл способ искусственно создавать иммунитет к опасной болезни – натуральной оспе.

  7. Ослабленные микроорганизмы не могут вызвать заболевание, но они стимулируют выработку организмом антител и антитоксинов против микроорганизмов, вызывающих данное заболевание.


EXERCISE 8. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Immunity”.


УПРАЖНЕНИЕ 9 Приготовьте пересказ текста “Immunity”.




15


TEXT B

If an infection is too virulent, or the body resistance too weak, the white cells are unable to contain the infection and it can spread throughout the body. Before the discovery of antibiotics, such spread was usually fatal. If the balance between infection and body resistance us equal, a condition of stalemate may supervene, often leading to a persistent state of chronic infection.

hello_html_229e9cb0.jpgDuring the battle between invading bacteria and white cells in the inflamed area, many casualties occur. These dead white cells and bacteria form the creamy liquid known as pus. A localized collection of pus is called an abscess. Abscess of the skin are called boils. Sometimes pus formation spreads diffusely instead of forming an abscess. This is called cellulites.

In the absence of infection, pus formation does not occur and any damage done by the causal irritant is repaired.

Following inflammation the damage is repaired by white cells which rebuild the area by filling the breach with a temporary repair tissue called granulation tissue. This consists of rapidly growing white cells and new capillaries which form fibrous scaffolding in which damaged parts are removed and reconstruction take place. But repair cannot take place in the presence of pus.










16

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words


  1. contain содержать

  2. plasma плазма

  3. microscopical микроскопический

  4. element элемент

  5. erythrocyte эритроцит

  6. leucocyte лейкоцит

  7. thrombocyte тромбоцит

  8. bone marrow костный мозг

  9. transport транспортировать, переносить

  10. convert преобразовывать,превращать

  11. carry переносить

  12. arrive прибывать

  13. expel вытеснять, выводить

  14. catabolism катаболизм

  15. hemoglobin (haemoglobin) гемоглобин

  16. agranulocyte агранулоцит

  17. cytoplasm цитоплазма

  18. granulocyte гранулоцит

  19. eosinophil эозинофил

  20. basophil базофил

  21. neutrophil нейтрофил

  22. node узел

  23. spleen селезенка

  24. lymphocyte лимфоцит

  25. monocyte моноцит

  26. platelet тромбоцит

  27. tiny крошечный

  28. blood clotting свертываемость крови

  29. occur происходить, случаться

  30. remain оставаться

  31. coagulation коагуляция

  32. complete заканчивать

17

BLOOD

Blood contains a fluid called plasma plus microscopical cellular elements: erythrocytes, leucocytes, and thrombocytes.

Erythrocytes are red blood cells of which 4.5 – 5 million are found in each cubic millimeter. These cells are made in the bone marrow and are important in transporting oxygen from the lungs through the blood stream to the cells all over the body. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin, containing iron, is an important protein in erythrocytes, which helps in carrying the oxygen as it travels through the blood stream. Erythrocytes also carry away carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of catabolism of food in cells, from the body cells to the lungs. On arriving there it is expelled in the process of breathing.

hello_html_54932be9.pngLeucocytes are white blood cells from 4.000 to 10.000 per cubic millimeter exiting in several types: granulocytes and agranulocytes, which are also subdivided into different types.

Granulocytes are cells with granules in their cytoplasm formed in the bone marrow. There are three types of granulocytes: eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils.

Agranulocytes are produced in lymph nodes and spleen. There are two types of agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes.

Thrombocytes or platelets are tiny cells formed in the bone marrow. They are necessary for blood clotting. Their number is 400.000 per cubic millimeter. The plasma is the fluid portion before clotting has occurred. The serum is the fluid portion of blood remaining after the coagulation process is completed.

The body contains about five liters of blood kept at a constant temperature of 37*C. Blood consists of three different types of cell floating in a liquid called plasma. The blood cells are known as red cells, white cells and platelets. Red cells and platelets are unique among body cells in having no nucleus. Blood cells are so small that one cubic


18

millimeter of blood (the size of a pin head) contains about five million red cells, 7.000 white cells and 250.000 platelets.

The red blood cells contain a pigment called hemoglobin, which gives the blood its red color. The main function of red cells is to carry oxygen to the body cells.

For its journey from the lungs to the body cells, oxygen combines with hemoglobin of the red cells. It is then released from the hemoglobin when the body cells are reached. Some people do not have enough hemoglobin in their red cells and are consequently short of oxygen. This condition is called anemia and such people tire easily, become breathless on exertion and have a pale complexion. They need special care during general anesthesia.

The white blood cells defend the body against disease. They do this by attacking germs and repairing damage.

The function of platelets is to stop bleeding. They do this in two ways: by blocking the cut blood vessels; and by producing substances, which help the blood to clot.


EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. микроскопические клеточные элементы

  2. в каждом кубическом миллиметре

  3. через кровоток

  4. по всему организму

  5. процесс превращения пищи в энергию

  6. выводить

  7. продукт отхода

  8. выталкивать, выбрасывать

  9. несколько видов

  10. лимфатические узлы

  11. крошечные клетки

  12. свертываемость крови

  13. завершаться


19

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями из текста:


  1. to call

  2. to be found

  3. bone marrow

  4. to be used

  5. to convert

  6. iron

  7. to be expelled

  8. spleen

  9. a fluid portion

  10. coagulation process


EXERCISE 3 Переведите следующие словосочетания:


  1. the habit of smocking

  2. the way of producing it

  3. the hope of seeing you

  4. the chance of getting the prize

  5. the method of transporting

  6. the necessity of knowing

  7. the importance of carrying away waste products

  8. the time of arriving

  9. the fact of existing


EXERCISE4. Составьте предложения, используя следующие модели, переведите на русский язык:


MODEL: You can learn English.(to work hard)

You can learn English by working hard.


1. You can improve your health (to walk in the evening, to have a proper diet, to follow your doctor’s advice).

20

2. You will help me (to take part in the conference, to deliver a lecture on Monday, to organize a seminar).

3. You can keep up your English (to read books in the original, to learn grammar, to work with a tape- recorder).


EXERCISE 5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What does blood contain?

  2. How many erythrocytes can be found in each cubic millimeter/

  3. Where are these cells made?

  4. What is their function?

  5. What role does hemoglobin play?

  6. What are the types of leucocytes?

  7. 7.Where are agranulocytes produced?

  8. 8.What types of granulocytes do you know?

  9. 9.What organ forms thrombocytes?

  10. How many platelets are there in one cubic millimeter?

  11. 11.What is the difference between the plasma and serum?


EXERCISE 6. Вставьте артикли, где это необходимо:


1. Blood contains … fluid called plasma and cellular elements.

2. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are important in … gas exchange taking place in … lungs.

3. Leucocytes (white blood cells) are subdivided into … different types.

4. Granulocytes are formed in … bone marrow.

5. Agranulocytes are produced in … lymph nodes and … spleen.

6. Platelets are … tiny cells formed in the bone remaining after … coagulation process is the serum.


EXERCISE7. Вставьте предлоги или наречия:


  1. Thrombocytes are necessary … blood clotting.

  2. The plasma is the fluid portion … clotting has occurred.

  3. There are two types … agranulocytes.

  4. 21

  5. Granulocytes are cells … granules in their cytoplasm.

  6. The number of leucocytes is … 4.000 … 10.000 per cubic millimeter.

  7. The oxygen is used … body cells in the process …converting food … energy.

  8. Carbon dioxide is expelled … the process … breathing.

  9. Erythrocytes transport oxygen … the lungs … the blood stream … the cells of the body.

  10. They also carry … a waste product … catabolism.


EXERCISE8. Закончите предложение, используя окончание ing. Слова из правой колонки вам помогут:


  1. Do you mind my… to ask you

  2. I insist on … to do it now, not tomorrow

  3. The lecturer began … to speak on gas exchange in the lungs

  4. It’s no use … to try it again

  5. He stopped … to do laboratory experiments on blood

  6. Most of us dislike the idea of … to be examined

  7. We had no difficulty in … to learn the blood formula

  8. Please go on … to speak on the topic

  9. I can not help … to visit my sister, who is ill

  10. The students made much progress to learn this material in Physiology by…


EXERCISE 9. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Blood”.


EXERCISE 10. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Blood”.








22

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read learn the following words and word combinations:


  1. mean означать

  2. invasion инвазия, вторжение

  3. saliva слюна

  4. contaminated зараженный

  5. skin cuts порезы

  6. abrasion абразия

  7. staff персонал

  8. defence оборона

  9. intact неповрежденный

  10. surface поверхность

  11. liquid жидкость

  12. produce производить

  13. poison яд

  14. kill убивать

  15. tears слезы

  16. sweat пот

  17. hello_html_790aa2c4.jpgsimilar подобный, схожий


INFECTION

Infection means invasion of the body by microorganisms, which are harmful. The most common sources of infection in medical practice are direct contact with a patient’s blood and saliva, consequently instruments and equipment used in the treatment become contaminated. If no action were taken infection may enter the body through skin cuts or abrasions or the eyes, it may also be swallowed. Infection from the contamination would be passed on from patient to patient, from patient to staff and from staff to patient. This involvement is called cross – infection.

Even ancient people taught that body’s first of defense against infection was an intact surface, e.g. the outer layer of skin and the protective outer layer of

23

mucous membrane. If infection had passed it the second line of defense started its action. It was the liquid secretion produced by the protective surfaces. The mucous membrane and the salivary glands had produced saliva, which neutralized some bacterial poisons and could kill some microorganisms. Tears and sweat had a similar effect. The acidity of gastric juice killed many bacteria in food. The third line of defense is discovered now. It is immunity.

And we also know that if these defense mechanisms fail to prevent infection, the last line of defense is a response by the body called inflammation.

EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. Означать

  2. Кровь и слюна пациента

  3. Через порезы на коже

  4. Глотать

  5. Наружный слой слизистой оболочки

  6. Продуцируемая защитной поверхностью

  7. Яды, вырабатываемые бактериями

  8. Желудочный сок

  9. Пища

  10. Ответная реакция

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. Direct

  2. Abrasion

  3. To teach

  4. To start

  5. To produce

  6. To kill

  7. To discover

  8. Mechanism

  9. Effect

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EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  1. What are the most common sources of infection?

  2. How may infection enter the body?

  3. What did ancient people teach?

  4. When does the second line of defense start its action?

  5. What is it produced by?

  6. What can saliva do?

  7. What effect do tears and sweat have?

  8. When was the third line discovered?

  9. What is the last line of defense?


EXERCISE4. Измените предложения в прошедшее совершенное время:

MODEL: They have finished the work (by 5 o’clock yesterday).

They had finished the work by 5 o’clock yesterday.


  1. My friend has prepared the report (by last Monday).

  2. The students have done the exercises (by the end of the lesson).

  3. Mother has cooked supper (by the time I came home).

  4. We have not seen our teacher (before the bell rang).

  5. Have you done the work (before I called you up)?

  6. He has translated the article (by this time yesterday).

  7. She has not bought a present for him (when we came to her place).


EXERCISE 5. Составьте 12 вопросов к тексту “Infection”.


EXERCISE 6. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Infection.







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hello_html_m1d58b0c6.jpgTEXT B


In order to prevent cross – infection it is essential to kill all the microorganisms on infected instruments. This process is known as sterilization and means the killing of all microorganisms: bacteria, spores, fungi, and viruses. It is carried out immediately after completion of treatment so that all instruments are sterile again before use on the next patient.

Countless number of microorganisms lives on the skin and in the mouth, nose and throat. Normally they do no harm to their host as they living on an external surface and not among delicate internal cells. However, they may become harmful if they are introduced inside the body tissues, or are transferred from one person to another. This can occur when the tissues penetrated by contaminated forceps blade, scalper or syringe needle, and may give rise to harmful reaction. After each patient has left the surgery, it is the nurse`s duty to see that all instruments are properly sterilized before being used again for another patient.

As already mentioned, sterilization means killing not only bacteria and fungi, but all other microorganisms, including viruses and bacterial spores. Any method which kills bacteria and fungi but allows some spores or viruses to survive cannot be sterilization. The term used for this restricted range of action is disinfection.




26

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words:


  1. crown коронка

  2. neck шейка

  3. root корень

  4. visible видимый

  5. hidden спрятанный

  6. junction место соединения

  7. to be called называться

  8. cover покрывать

  9. hard твердый

  10. sensitive чувствительный

  11. unlike в отличие от

  12. purely чисто

  13. insert вставлять

  14. alveolar альвеолярный

15. gum десна

STRUCTURE OF TEETH


hello_html_mcd50909.jpgEvery tooth consists of a crown, a neck and one or more roots. The crown is the part visible in the mouth and the root is the part hidden inside the jaw. The junction of crown and root is called the neck and end of the root is called the apex. Every tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp.

Enamel is the outer covering of the crown and is the hardest substance in the body.

Cementum is the outer covering of the root and is similar in structure to bone. Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth.

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Dentine occupies the interior of the crown and root, and is very sensitive to pain.

Pulp. Unlike enamel, dentine and cementum, the pulp is purely soft tissue. It contains blood vessels and nerves, and occupies the centre of the dentine.

Supporting Structures. Every tooth is insert into the jaw by its root. The part of the jaw containing the teeth is known as the alveolar process and is covered with a soft tissue called gum. The jaw bones consist of a dense outer layer known as compact bone and a softer interior called spongy bone.

A tooth is attached to its socket in the jaw by a soft fibrous tissue called the periodontal membrane.



NOTES



  1. Alveolar processальвеолярный отросток

  2. Compact boneкомпактное вещество

  3. Spongy bone – губчатое вещество


EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний:


  1. Состоять из

  2. Быть скрытым

  3. Называться

  4. Быть нечувствительным к боли

  5. Содержит кровеносные сосуды и нервные окончания

  6. Быть покрытым чем – либо

  7. Наружный слой

  8. Мягкая фиброзная ткань

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EXERCISE 2 Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:


  1. Visible

  2. The function

  3. To be composed of

  4. The hardest substance in the body

  5. Very sensitive to pain

  6. Soft tissue

  7. Alveolar process

  8. To be attached


EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What does a tooth consist of?

  2. How is the junction of crown and root called?

  3. What is every tooth composed of?

  4. What do you know about enamel?

  5. Where does cementum meet enamel?

  6. What is cementum?

  7. Is dentine sensitive to pain?

  8. What does pulp contain?

  9. What supporting structures can you name?


EXERCISE 4 Вставьте артикли, где это необходимо:


  1. … tooth consists of a crown and one or more roots. … crown is …visible part, … root is … hidden part.

  2. … tooth is composed of enamel, dentine, cementum and pulp.

  3. Enamel is … hardest substance in the body.

  4. Cementum is … outer covering of …root.

  5. Dentine occupies … interior of the crown and root.

  6. … vessels and … nerves of the pulp enter … root apex through the apical foramen.

  7. … space occupied by the pulp is called … pulp chamber.

  8. 29

  9. Every tooth is inserted into … jaw by its roots.

  10. … part of the jaw containing the teeth is known as the alveolar process.

  11. It is covered with … soft tissue called gum.

  12. … tooth is attached to its socket in the jaw by … soft tissue called the periodontal membrane.


EXERCISE 5. Вставьте предлоги или наречия:


  1. Every tooth consists…a crown and one or more roots.

  2. It is insensitive … pain.

  3. Any damage caused … decay or injury is permanent.

  4. Cementum is similar … structure to bone.

  5. Dentine occupies the interior … the crown and root.

  6. Vessels and nerves of the pulp pass … the root canal … the crown dentine.

  7. A tooth is inserted … the jaw … its root.

  8. Any tooth is attached … its socket … the jaw … a soft fibrous tissue called the periodontal membrane.


EXERCISE 6. Задайте вопросы к выделенным словам в ответах:


  1. The root is the part hidden inside the jaw.

  2. The microscope shows that it consists of long solid rods.

  3. Cementum is similar in structure to bone.

  4. Cementum meets enamel at the neck of the tooth.

  5. Dentine is very sensitive to pain.

  6. The pulp is purely soft tissue.

  7. The alveolar process is covered with gum.

  8. Periodontal membrane acts as a shock absorber.


EXERCISE 7. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:


  1. Коронка, шейка и корни составляют зуб.

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  1. Место перехода коронки в корень называется шейкой.

  2. Эмаль – самая твердая часть человеческого тела.

  3. Цемент соединяется с эмалью у шейки зуба.

  4. Дентин очень чувствителен к боли.

  5. В отличие от других структур зуба, пульпа – это рыхлая ткань.

  6. Зуб удерживается в десне корнем и периодонтом.

  7. Альвеолярный отросток покрыт мягкой тканью, называемой десна.

  8. Периодонтальная мембрана действует как амортизатор.


EXERCISE 8. Задайте 10 вопросов к тексту « Structure of teeth».


EXERCISE9. Приготовьте пересказ текста « Structure of teeth».






















31

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words:


  1. pathology патология

  2. change изменение

  3. shallow неглубокий

  4. breach нарушение

  5. mucous слизистый

  6. membrane мембрана, оболочка

  7. ulcer язва

  8. raw ссадина

  9. bleeding кровоточащий

  10. cyst киста

  11. sac мешочек

  12. localized локализованный

  13. tumor опухоль

  14. growth рост

  15. destruction разрушение

  16. adjacent прилегающий

  17. spread распространяться

  18. severe сильный, тяжелый (о болезни)

  19. fatal фатальный

  20. cancer рак

  21. congenital врожденный

  22. cleft palate волчья пасть

  23. X – ray рентген

  24. determine определять

  25. confirmation подтверждение

  26. removal удаление

27. minor малый

28. biopsy биопсия

29. specimen образец

30. swab мазок

31. smear мазок

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hello_html_45a4579.jpg

PATHOLOGY

Pathology is the study of disease. It covers the changes in normal anatomy and physiology brought about by disease and the body’s reaction to it.

Any shallow breach of the skin or mucous membrane is called an ulcer. The raw base of an ulcer often has a painful bleeding surface. A cyst is an abnormal sac of fluid. Cysts are usually small and localized and can occur in soft tissues or bone anywhere in the body.

A tumor is a swelling caused by an abnormal and uncontrolled growth of body cells. It serves no useful purpose and may cause displacement or destruction of adjacent structures. Some types of tumor can spread throughout the body causing severe, and often fatal, destructive effects. This condition is commonly known as cancer.

Congenital defects are defects, which are present at birth, such as heart and valvular defects, cleft palate or other deformities.

The cause or nature of an ulcer or tumor cannot always be determined by physical or X – ray examination. Confirmation of the diagnosis often necessitates surgical removal of some diseased tissue for examination under a microscope. This minor operation is called a biopsy. The biopsy specimen is sent to a hospital pathology department.

The diagnosis of infections often requires bacteriological examination of a swab or smear from an infected surface. Other types of disease are commonly diagnosed by blood and urine tests.


NOTES

  1. brought aboutвызванные

  2. It serves no useful purpose – Она (опухоль) не несет ничего хорошего.

  3. commonly knownшироко известно.

  4. often necessitates – часто несет за собой.


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EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:


  1. Изучение заболевания

  2. Реакция организма

  3. Слизистая оболочка

  4. Болезненная кровоточащая поверхность

  5. Локализованный

  6. Неконтролируемый рост клеток

  7. Близлежащие структуры

  8. Значительные и часто фатальные разрешающие воздействия

  9. Врожденные отклонения

  10. При рождении

  11. Рентгенологическое исследование

  12. Хирургическое удаление

  13. Под микроскопом

  14. Анализы крови и мочи.


EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте следующие предложения из текста:


  1. Pathology

  2. To cover the changes

  3. Shallow breach of the skin

  4. The raw base

  5. An abdominal sac of fluid

  6. To occur

  7. A swelling

  8. Displacement and destruction

  9. Throughout the body

  10. Cancer

  11. Deformity

  12. The cause of an ulcer

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  1. Diseased tissue

  2. Minor operation

  3. The biopsy specimen

  4. To be diagnosed


EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What is pathology?

  2. What does it cover?

  3. Is any shallow breach of the skin of mucous membrane called an ulcer or a cyst?

  4. What is a cyst?

  5. When can cyst occur?

  6. What is a tumor?

  7. What may it cause?

  8. What condition is called cancer?

  9. When are congenital defects already present?

  10. Can the cause of an ulcer or tumor be determined by only physical examination?

  11. What is called a biopsy?

  12. How are other types of disease commonly diagnosed?


EXERCISE 4. Закончите предложения:


  1. Pathology covers .

  2. An ulcer is .

  3. Cysts can occur .

  4. A tumor is .

  5. A cancer is a condition when .

  6. Congenital defects can be .

  7. The diagnosis of infections often requires .





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EXERCISE 5 .Составьте предложения из разбросанных слов:


  1. Base, the, an, of, raw, ulcer, surface, other, bleeding, a, has, painful.

  2. Cause, may, tumor, structures, displacement, adjacent, or, of, destruction, a.

  3. Pathology, the, specimen, department, biopsy, is to, a, sent, hospital.

  4. Many, disease, types, are, of, commonly, by, diagnosed, blood, urine, and, tests.

EXERCISE 6. Переведите предложения на английский язык.

  1. Патология рассматривает отклонения, проявляющиеся в нормальной физиологии и анатомии.

  2. Язва часто имеет болезненную кровоточащую поверхность .

  3. Кисты обычно небольшие по размеру.

  4. Опухоль может вызвать смещение или разрушение прилегающих к ней структур.

  5. Врожденные дефекты часто видны уже при рождении ребенка.

  6. Для определения вида опухоли, как правило, используется биопсия.

  7. При постановке диагноза чаще всего необходимы анализы крови и мочи

EXERCISE 7. Диалог. Составьте по 5 вопросительных предложений по тексту “Pathology”.


EXERCISE 8. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Pathology”.


TEXT B


hello_html_7e47796a.jpgSometimes a normal immune response does not occur. Instead, a violent reaction called allergy is produced. This can cause sudden death but usually involves

36

consequences of varying degrees of seriousness, ranging from skin rashes or mouth ulcers to partial obstruction of the airway. Sensitivity to certain types of pollen, food, stings, latex products and drugs can produce an allergic reaction.

A much more serious type of allergy which could be happen in practice is that affecting patients sensitive to penicillin and its derivatives. If one these drugs were given to such patients, the above – mentioned reactions could occur – the worst effect of all being the rapid onset of a severe state of collapse which may be fatal. This is called anaphylactic shock. The patients most at risk of allergic responses are those with a history of asthma, eczema and hay fever.


























37

ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words:


  1. drug лекарство, наркотик

  2. exclusively исключительно

  3. prescribe предписывать

  4. volume объем

  5. reference book справочник

  6. available доступный

  7. precaution осторожность, противопоказание

  8. data sheet вкладышинструкция

  9. administer назначать, применять, давать (лекарство)

  10. externally наружно

  11. anesthetic анестетик

  12. abolish снимать, устранять

  13. kill убивать

  14. derive происходить от

  15. derivatives производные

  16. liable подверженный, склонный

17. beforehand заранее

18. order заказывать


DRUGS

hello_html_6152d710.jpgThe metric system is used exclusively when ordering and prescribing drugs. The metric unit of weight is the gram (g) and this is divided into thousandths called milligrams (mg).

The unit of volume is the liter (l) which is subdivided into thousandths called milliliters (ml). A liter is equivalent to just under two pints. The standard medicine teaspoon holds 5 ml.



38

Various reference books are available to help practitioners keep up to date with new drugs, the trade names of drugs, dosages and precautions with particular drugs. Manufacturers are also legally required to provide data sheets for all new drugs, giving full details of usage.

Drugs may be administered externally or internally.

Drugs are classified into groups which have a specific action, such as antibacterial drugs, which are used for the treatment of infections, or local anesthetics, which abolish pain. Some drugs belong to more than one group. For example, lignocaine, which is local and surface anesthetic. Let's take antibacterial drugs as an example.

They are administered internally to kill bacteria.

Antibiotics are drugs originally derived from microorganisms: for example, penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Many people are allergic to penicillin and its derivatives. If such people are given any of these drugs they are liable to develop a dangerous reaction. Patients must always be asked beforehand if they are allergic to penicillin or any other drugs.

hello_html_m17e5126a.jpgThere are strict legal requirements for the purchase, storage, use, identification, dispensing and prescription of drugs.

Many drugs are poisonous if taken accidentally or in excess; others caustic and may cause painful burns. Some common sense precautions in storing drugs are to keep them well away from food and drinks; keep poisons locked up in a special poisons cabinet; and to keep caustics on the lowest shelf where accidental spillage cannot affect the eyes or burn the face.

Stocks of drugs must be stored in accordance with manufacturers' instructions and not kept beyond their expiry date. Records of their purchase, supply and expiry date must be kept for at least 11 years. Any drugs which have passed their expiry date should be discarded, together with any solutions which have become discolored or cloudy.

Certain drugs, such as adrenaline, halothane and hydrogen peroxide must be stored in dark bottles to prevent premature


39

deterioration, while poisons bottles are ribbed to indicate by touch that their contents are dangerous.



NOTES


  1. just under two pints – приблизительно двум пинтам

  2. various reference books are availableсуществуют самые различные справочники

  3. keep up to date with new drugsосваивать новые препараты

  4. trade names – торговые знаки (зарегистрированные фирменные названия, например, лекарств)

  5. to provide data sheets – обеспечить вкладышем – инструкцией

  6. which abolish pain – которые действуют обезболивающе


EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1.Найдите в тексте следующие эквиваленты слов и словосочетания:


  1. метрическая система

  2. деленные на тысячные доли

  3. стандартная чайная ложка содержит 5 мл

  4. торговый знак

  5. в соответствии с законом

  6. представляя детальное предписание по употреблению

  7. внутреннее или наружное применение

  8. классифицироваться по группам

  9. местное обезболивающее

  10. получаемые из микроорганизмов

  11. быть аллергенным

  12. опросить заранее



40

EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:


  1. exclusively

  2. unit of weight

  3. to be subdivided into

  4. to hold

  5. particular drugs

  6. to be required

  7. to be administered

  8. a specific action

  9. to belong to

  10. derived from

  11. a dangerous reaction

  12. to be allergic to

EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. What system is used when ordering and prescribing drugs?

2. What is the metric unit of weight?

3. What units of volume do you know?

4. Why are reference books useful to practitioners?

5. Who are legally required to provide full details of new drugs usage?

6. How are drugs administered?

7. What groups are drugs classified into?

8. Do drugs belong only to one group?

9. What is the aim of administering antibacterial drugs?

10.What are antibiotics originally derived from?

11. What reaction can develop if the people are allergic to some drugs?


EXERCISE 4. Вставить артикль, где это необходимо:


When drugs are administered to some patients … severe adverse reaction, such as collapse, may occur. This may be caused by … allergy


41

to … drug administered, e.g. penicillin, or interaction with another drug which … patient is already taking for medical reasons.

To prevent these undesirable effects … careful study of a case history must always be made before any drugs are used. If it is found that … drug allergy exists, or … patient is taking drugs prescribed by … doctor, or taking nonprescription drugs for self – medication this information must be recorded on … patient’s chart, regularly up – dated and … appropriate precautions taken.


EXERCISE 5. Вставьте предлоги там, где это необходимо:


Analgesics are drugs administered internally or externally … the relief of pain. Most pain is caused … inflammation and the most effective drugs … relief of pain are accordingly those that combine analgesic and anti – inflammatory effects. However, the anti – inflammatory drugs mentioned above are all corticosteroids, and these cannot be taken internally … the treatment. Nonsteroidal anti – inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used instead and those that have analgesic properties may be taken internally … pain.


EXERCISE 6. Переведите предложения на английский язык:


  1. Для взвешивания лекарственных средств применяется исключительно метрическая система мер.

  2. Различные справочники помогают врачу ориентироваться в многочисленных новых препаратах, которые поступают на рынок лекарственных средств.

  3. Производители препаратов должны обязательно указывать срок годности (expiry date) лекарства.

  4. Существуют различные пути классификации лекарственных препаратов.

  5. Ряд лекарств можно отнести к нескольким группам одновременно.

  6. Многие люди аллергенны к антибиотикам.


42

  1. Пациента обязательно нужно спросить об аллергической реакции на препарат данной группы.


EXERCISE 7. Работа в парах. Составьте 10 вопросов по тексту “Drugs”.


EXERCISE 8. Приготовьте пересказ текста “Drugs”.



ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words:

  1. pump насос

  2. circulate циркулировать

  3. tube труба

  4. carry переносить

  5. artery артерия

  6. vein вена

  7. adult взрослый

  8. pulse пульс

  9. skin кожа

  10. occur происходить

  11. wrist запястье

  12. chest грудная клетка

  13. breast грудь

  14. chamber камера

  15. valve клапан

  16. atrium предсердие

  17. ventricle желудочек

  18. death смерть

  19. apply применять

  20. pressure давление

  21. squeeze сжимать

  22. spine позвоночник

  23. relax расслабиться

hello_html_m59556a6a.jpg43

HEART

The heart is simply a pump, which circulates blood throughout the body. Tubes called blood vessels carry it from the heart to all parts of the body and back again. This round trip is known as the circulation. Vessels carrying blood away from the heart are known as arteries and those returning blood to the heart are known are known as veins.

The heart pumps blood round the body about 70 times a minute in adults. The heartbeats can be felt as the pulse where certain arteries lie just beneath the skin, and the most well – known place where this occurs is at the wrist.

The heart lies in the chest immediately behind the breast bone. It consists of two chambers, left and right, separated from each other by a wall. Each chamber is further divided into upper and lower compartments, which communicate with each by valves. Each upper compartment is called an atrium and each lower a ventricle. Note that there is no communication at all between the left and right sides of the heart.

Heart failure, or cardiac arrest, means that the heart has stopped beating. This of course, means that no blood is being pumped round the body and death occurs in a few minutes. But as the heart is just a simple pump, it can be made to beat artificially by rhythmically applying pressure to the chest. This squeezes the heart between the breast bone and forces blood out the heart into the circulation. When pressure on the chest has been relaxed, blood returns to the heart again.

NOTES


  1. can be felt as the pulseможно определить по пульсу.


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  1. immediately behind the breast boneнепосредственно за грудиной.

  2. is further dividedдалее подразделяется

  3. communicate with each otherсообщаются друг с другом.

  4. heart failure – паралич, остановка сердца; сердечная недостаточность.

  5. as the heart is just a simple pumpпоскольку сердце всего лишь простой насос.

EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1. Найдите в тексте следующие эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний:

  1. Просто насос

  2. Кровеносные сосуды

  3. Круговое движение

  4. Известны как

  5. У взрослых

  6. Располагаться непосредственно под кожей

  7. Где это происходит

  8. Состоит из двух камер

  9. Каждый верхний отдел

  10. Вообще нет сообщения

  11. Его можно заставить биться искусственно

  12. Выталкивать кровь из сердца.


EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. Throughout the body

  2. Blood vessels

  3. About 70 times a minute

  4. Immediately behind the breast bone

  5. Separated from each other

  6. Upper and lower compartments

  7. Communication

  8. Cardiac arrest

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  1. Round the body

  2. To beat artificially

  3. Pressure on the chest


EXERCISE 3. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную форму.


  1. The heart circulates blood throughout the body.

  2. The heartbeats can be felt as the pulse.

  3. Each chamber is divided into upper and lower compartments.

  4. The heart has stopped beating.

  5. Death occurs in a few minutes.

  6. Vessels returning blood to the heart are known as veins.


EXERCISE 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту:


  1. What is heart?

  2. What are tubes carrying blood called?

  3. Where can the heartbeats be felt?

  4. Where does the heart consist of?

  5. What compartments is each chamber divided into?

  6. What are the compartments called?

  7. What does heart failure mean?

  8. Can the heart be made to beat artificially?

  9. When does blood return to the heart again?


EXERCISE 5. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:


  1. Сердце похоже на простой насос.

  2. У взрослого человека сердце сокращается с частотой примерно 70 раз в минуту за час оно перекачивает около 300 литров крови.

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  1. Работа сердца очень важна. Оно непрерывно движет кровь по кровеносным сосудам.

  2. Если прижать стенку артерии к кости там, где она ближе к коже, то можно ощутить пульс.

  3. Сердце состоит из двух камер, разделенных перегородкой.

  4. Правый и левый отделы сердца не связаны между собой.

  5. Паралич означает, что сердце остановилось.

  6. Когда давление на грудную ослабевает, кровь вновь возвращается в сердце.


EXERCISE 6. Составьте 10 вопросов к тексту “Heart”.


EXERCISE 7. Перескажите текст “Heart”.















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ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:

1. cavity полость

2. esophagus пищевод

3. swallow глотать

4. coiled изогнутый

5. manufacture производить

6. pancreas поджелудочная железа

7. loop петля

8. duodenum двенадцатиперстная кишка

9. rectum прямая кишка

10. remnants остатки

11. orifice отверстие

12. anus анус

13.alimentary canal пищеварительный тракт

14. liver печень

15. storehouse склад

16. distribute распределять

17. bile желчь

18. gall – bladder желчный пузырь

hello_html_12c8266d.jpg

ABDOMEN

The abdomen is a cavity containing the main organs of digestion. It is immediately below the chest but separated from it by the diaphragm.

The stomach lies just below the diaphragm and receives all the food which has passed down the oesophagus after being swallowed. Food stays in the stomach for a few hours while the


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stomach enzymes begin the first stages of digestion.

After leaving the stomach, the partially digested food enters the small intestine. This is a long coiled tube about six metres long in which digestion is completed. It manufactures its own enzymes for this purpose but also receives some help from the pancreas. This gland lies in the loop of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine after the stomach. The pancreas produces some enzymes which pass into the duodenum.

When the food has been completely digested in the small intestine, the indigestible residue passes into the large intestine. This is a wider tube, nearly two meters long, leading from the small intestine to the rectum. The large intestine absorbs water and minerals from waste food remnants. The rectum carries this waste to the external orifice or anus where it is eliminated from the body. The whole system of tubes through which the food passes on its way from mouth to anus is called the alimentary canal.

After digestion has been completed in the intestines, the digested food, which is now in a state the body can use, passes through the walls of the intestines into capillaries where the blood carries it to the liver.

The liver lies just below the diaphragm to the right of the stomach. It is a storehouse for digested food and distributes it to those parts of the body requiring it. It also produces a digestive juice known as bile. This is stored in the gall – bladder, which lies underneath the liver. Bile passes into the duodenum at the same point as the digestive juice from the pancreas.

The next stage of digestion occurs in the stomach, which produces a mixture of acid and enzymes called gastric juice. The acid kills germs and extracts any iron from the food – for hemoglobin formation. The enzymes initiate digestion of proteins and fat.

Food is churned up in the gastric juice for up to five hours before being released into the duodenum. That is why patients must not eat for at least four hours before receiving a general anesthetic. If such precautions were not taken, the stomach might still contain food which could be vomited during anesthesia and cause blockage of the airway. It must be remembered that the protective mechanism of swallowing,

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which prevents food entering the airway, may be paralyzed during general anesthesia.



NOTES

  1. immediately below – непосредственно под

  2. for this purpose – для этого

  3. in a state the body can use – в том виде, который приемлем для организма

  4. to those parts of the body requiring itмежду теми органами, которым она нужна

  5. at the same point as – в том же месте, что и …



EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1 Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. полость, содержащая основные органы пищеварения

  2. отделено от грудной клетки

  3. после проглатывания

  4. первый этап пищеварения

  5. попадает в тонкий кишечник

  6. где завершается пищеварение

  7. вырабатывает свои ферменты

  8. первый отдел кишечника

  9. не переваренные остатки пищи

  10. ведущий от кишечника к прямой кишке

  11. вся система труб

  12. проникать через стенку

  13. она скапливается в желчном пузыре



EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. the main organs

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  1. below the chest

  2. to lie below

  3. the stomach enzymes

  4. the partially digested food

  5. digestion is completed

  6. to manufacture

  7. to receive some help

  8. in the loop of the duodenum

  9. to pass into

  10. nearly two metres long

  11. waste food remnants

  12. to be eliminated from the body

  13. the digested food

  14. known as

  15. underneath the liver


EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. What is the abdomen?

  2. Where is it situated?

  3. Where does the stomach lie?

  4. How long does food stay in the stomach?

  5. What does the partially digested food enter?

  6. Where is digestion completed?

  7. What does the small intestine manufacture?

  8. Where does pancreas lie?

  9. What does it produce?

  10. What is the large intestine?

  11. How long is it?

  12. What does the large intestine do?

  13. Can you characterize the alimentary canal?

  14. What carries the digested food to the liver?

  15. Where does the liver lie and what does it do?

  16. How is digestive juice called?





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EXERCISE 4. Задайте вопросы к следующим утверждениям:

MODEL: I have already translated the test. (your friend)

Has your friend translated it too?



  1. The small intestine has manufactured its own enzymes. (pancreas)

  2. The abdomen has been described in this text. (the stomach)

  3. Some enzymes have passed into the duodenum. (the digestive juice)

  4. The first stage of digestion has taken place in the mouth. (the second stage)

  5. The blood has carried the digested food to the liver. (pancreatic juice)


EXERCISE 5. Поставьте глаголы в правильную форму.(Present Simple, Past Simple, Present Progressive and Present Perfect)

  1. I (to be) a medical student. I (to have) an English class now. We (to do) just

Exercise 6 and now we (to do) exercise 7.

  1. You (to buy) the necessary food already?” “Yes, I have,”

  2. He (to come) just to the office. It’s a quarter to nine.””And he (to come) to the office yesterday?” “He (to come) at five minutes to nine yesterday.”

  3. I (to translate) the next an hour ago, but my friend (not to translate) it yet.

  4. He (not to go) to college yesterday. He (to be) ill.

  5. “You (to be) in the library today?” “No, I (to be) there yesterday.”




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EXERCISE 6. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

  1. Брюшная полость расположена непосредственно под грудной клеткой.

  2. Желудок лежит под диафрагмой и получает пищу, которая уже прошла через пищевод.

  3. В желудке пища остается несколько часов.

  4. Из желудка пища попадает в тонкий кишечник, происходит ее полное переваривание.

  5. Толстый кишечник имеет длину около двух метров.

  6. Здесь происходит всасывание воды и минеральных веществ из не переваренных остатков пищи.

  7. Вся система, которую проходит пища от полости рта до ануса, называется пищеварительным трактом.


EXERCISE 7. Работа в парах. Задайте 10 вопросов к тексту “The abdomen”.

EXERCISE 8. Перескажите текст “The abdomen”


ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:


1. breathing дыхание

2. provide обеспечивать

3. interchange обмен

4. protective защитный

5. cage клетка

6. rib ребро

7. muscle мышца

8. diaphragm диафрагма

9. abdomen живот

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10. throat горло

11. larynx глотка

12. trachea трахея

13. bronchi бронхи

14. huge огромный

15. air sac легочная альвеола

16. network сеть

17. passage проход, проходить

18. airway воздушный путь

19. surround окружать

20. simultaneously одновременно

21. replenish пополнять; снова насыщать

22. eliminate устранять


RESPIRATION


Respiration means breathing. Its function is to provide the means whereby oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves. This interchange of gases occurs in the lungs which are situated in the chest, one on each side of the heart.

The chest forms a protective cage for the heart and lungs. The bars of the cage are formed by the ribs – which are joined to the breast bone in front and spine behind. The spaces between the ribs are filled by the rib muscles. The floor of the cage is formed by the diaphragm, which is a sheet of muscle separating the chest from the abdomen.

In order to reach the lungs, the air we breathe enters the hello_html_m6047ab64.jpgthroat through the nose or mouth and passes into the larynx. Below the larynx the air passes along a tube called the trachea, which runs down the neck to the chest where it divides into two. These two branches are known as the right and left bronchi and they enter their respective lungs. Just as arteries divide up into smaller arteries and finally into thin –

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walled capillaries, so do the bronchi divide inside the lungs. Each bronchus divides into many smaller and smaller tubes until eventually ends up as a huge number of tiny air sacs, which comprise each lung. A network of capillaries originating from the pulmonary artery passes round each air sac.

Air breathed in through the nose passes via the throat, larynx, trachea and bronchi to the air sacs of the lungs. This passage from nose to lungs is known as the airway. In the lungs, oxygen from the air passes through the thin walls of each air sac and its surrounding capillary to reach the blood. In the same way carbon dioxide passes simultaneously out of the blood into the air sacs. This gaseous exchange for replenishing the blood with oxygen and eliminating the waste product, carbon dioxide, is the sole purpose of respiration.

Oxygen enters the blood by combining with hemoglobin in the red cells; where as carbon dioxide is carried by the plasma.


NOTES

  1. the floor of the cageоснование клетки

  2. in order to - для того чтобы.

  3. just as arteries … so do the bronchiкак артерии…, так и бронхи.

  4. passes round each air sacоплетает каждую альвеолу.

  5. breathed in through the noseвдыхаемый через нос.

EXERCISES


EXERCISE 1. Процитируйте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями из текста.

  1. to provide the means

  2. to be situated

  3. the bars of the cage

  4. to be joined to the breast bone

  5. the space between the ribs

  6. a sheet of muscle

  7. to pass into larynx

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  1. to pass along

  2. thin – walled capillaries

  3. a huge number of tiny air sacs

  4. pass round

  5. to reach blood

  6. the sole purpose

  7. to be carried by


EXERCISE 2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:


  1. What is respiration?

  2. How can you characterize its function?

  3. Where does the interchange of gases take place?

  4. What does the chest form?

  5. What are the spaces between ribs filled by?

  6. What does the diaphragm separate?

  7. Where does the air pass below the larynx?

  8. How do the bronchi divide inside the lungs?

  9. What passes round each air sac?

  10. How can you describe the airway?

  11. What is the sole purpose of respiration?

  12. What takes place in the red cells during respiration?



EXERCISE 3. Задайте вопросы к выделенным курсивом словам или словосочетаниям:


  1. The floor of the cage is formed by the diaphragm.

  2. Below the larynx the air passes along the trachea.

  3. The bronchi divide inside lungs.

  4. Air enters the body through the nasal cavities.

  5. There are three divisions of the pharynx.

  6. The larynx contains the vocal cords.



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EXERCISE 4. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:


  1. Легкие расположены в грудной клетке.

  2. Пространство между ребрами занято межреберными мышцами.

  3. Диафрагма отделяет грудную клетку от брюшной полости.

  4. Воздух, который мы вдыхаем через нос или рот, проходит по

  5. дыхательному пути в легкие.

  6. В альвеолах происходит обмен газов между организмом и средой.

  7. Длина трахеи примерно 15 см.

  8. Каждый бронх входит в легкое, где ветвится на мелкие бронхи и бронхиолы.

  9. Всего имеется около 300 миллионов альвеол.

  10. Альвеолы оплетены капиллярами.

  11. Стенки альвеол очень тонкие.

  12. Через тонкую стенку и происходит газообмен.


EXERCISE 5.. Работа в парах Задайте 10 вопросов к тексту “Respiration


EXERCISE 6. Перескажите текст “Respiration”.


ACTIVE VOCABULARY


Read and learn the following words and word combinations:


  1. require требовать

  2. utilize потреблять

  3. process процесс

  4. enzyme фермент

  5. protein белок

  6. carbohydrate углевод

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  1. fat жир

  2. amino – acid аминокислота

  3. repair восстановление

  4. starchy содержащий крахмал

  5. glucose глюкоза

  6. perform осуществлять

  7. diary молочный

  8. layer слой

  9. beneath под, ниже

  10. source источник

  11. insulation изоляция

  12. juice сок

  13. sweat пот

  14. daily ежедневно



hello_html_m27bea11d.jpgDIGESTION

For life to continue, the body requires fuel in the form of oxygen and food.

Respiration provides the oxygen. Our food, however, cannot be utilized by the body in the form in which it is eaten. It must be specially processed by the body before it can be of any use. This special processing is known as digestion. It is brought about by the action on the food of certain substances called enzymes which are made by the body and mixed with the food during its passage through the body.

The food we eat consists of protein, carbohydrate and fat. It also contains small quantities of vitamins and minerals.

Proteins are found in meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese. They are broken down into amino – acids during digestion. Protein is necessary for cell growth and repair.

Carbohydrates are found in sweet and starchy foods such as sugar, flour and potatoes.

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They are broken down into glucose during digestion. Carbohydrates provide body cells with the energy required to perform their functions.

Fats are found in meat, fish, dairy products and vegetable oils. The digestive process breaks them down to fatty acids. Fats provide energy and body fat, which is stored in a layer beneath the skin. It acts as a reserve source of energy when needed, and also as insulation which helps maintain body temperature in cold weather.

The body required water for the production of blood, digestive juices, urine and sweat. Many foods contain a large quantity of water but it is still necessary to drink more than a liter of fluid daily.



NOTES

1. for life to continueдля поддержания жизни

2. in the form in which it is eatenв том виде, котором мы ее потребляем

3. before it can be of any useперед тем как ее использовать

4. to be broken down – расщепляться

  1. to be stored in a layer beneath the skinнакапливаться в подкожном слое


EXERCISES

EXERCISE 1.Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. организму необходимо

  2. быть специально переработанным

  3. оно производится

  4. по мере ее прохождения

  5. небольшое количество

  6. можно найти

  7. для роста и восстановления клетки

  8. обеспечивать энергией

  9. для осуществления их функций

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  1. дополнительный источник энергии

  2. желудочный сок

  3. ежедневно


EXERCISE 2. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. to provide

  2. utilized

  3. to be of any use

  4. to be known as

  5. certain substances

  6. vitamins and minerals

  7. to be found

  8. body cells

  9. fatty acid

  10. a layer

  11. insulation

  12. sweat


EXERCISE 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту

  1. What does the body require for life?

  2. Can food be utilized in the form in which it is eaten?

  3. How is the processing of the food by the body called?

  4. What are enzymes?

  5. What does our food consist of?

  6. Where are proteins found?

  7. What are proteins necessary for?

  8. What do carbohydrates provide body cells with?

  9. Where is body fat stored?

  10. How does body fat act?

  11. How much water is it necessary to drink daily?




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EXERCISE 4. Задайте вопросы к выделенным словам:

  1. Saliva is always present in the mouth.

  2. Hunger and the thought, smell, sight and taste of food all stimulate an increased flow of saliva from the glands.

  3. Saliva glands only produce saliva.

  4. They must not be confused with the glands, which produce hormones.



EXERCISE 5. Переведите на английский язык предложения:

  1. Для его функционирования организму необходима энергия.

  2. Пища должна быть специально переработана для потребления организмом.

  3. Пищеварение осуществляется при помощи ферментов, вырабатываемых организмом.

  4. Кроме белков, углеводов и жиров пища содержит витамины и минеральные вещества.

  5. Белки необходимы для роста и восстановления клетки.

  6. Углеводы превращаются в глюкозу в процессе пищеварения.

  7. Жир является дополнительным источником энергии.

  8. Многие продукты питания содержат в себе большое количество воды.


EXERCISE 6. Задайте по 10 вопросов по тексту”Digestion”.



EXERCISE 7. Перескажите текст ”Digestion”.







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ACTIVE VOCABULARY

Read and learn the following words and word combinations:


  1. harmless безвредный

  2. dangerous опасный

  3. subdivide подразделять

  4. shape очертание, форма

  5. decayed teeth гнилые (испорченные) зубы

  6. chain цепь

  7. cluster гроздь

  8. strain штамм

  9. gumboil флюс

  10. acute острый

  11. . gingivitis воспаление десен

  12. exist существовать

  13. survive выживать

  14. resistant резистентный, устойчивый

MICROBIOLOGY.

The body provides a home for a great number of the smallest organisms – microorganisms. Most of them are harmless but some take part in dental diseases. There are three different groups of microorganisms: fungi, bacteria and viruses. They may be of different kinds, both harmless and more or less dangerous.

hello_html_44141a39.jpgBacteria are subdivided into groups according to their shape bacilli, cocci, spirochetes, spores.

Bacilli are rod – shaped bacteria. For example, lactobacillus is found in decayed teeth.

Cocci are round bacteria.

Streptococci are berry – shaped bacteria which grow in twisted chains. They are associated with different

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diseases. Hemolytic streptococci (called hemolytic because bacteria cause hemolysis) are responsible for such conditions as “strep” throat, tonsillitis.

Streptococci viridians (viridians means “green” and these bacteria produce a green color on the growth medium) are less virulent (poisonous) than the hemolytic form and cause infections in teeth.

Staphylococci are bacteria which grow in small clusters like grapes. One strain of staphylococcus may be found in gumboils.

There are also spiral bacteria (spirochetes) found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

Some bacteria can exist in the form of spores. Spores can survive extremes of temperature and live for years until conditions become more favorable again. They are highly resistant to destruction.


EXERCISES



EXERCISE 1. Укажите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. to provide a home;

  2. both harmless and less or more dangerous;

  3. to be associated with;

  4. the growth medium;

  5. to cause infection,

  6. gumboils;

  7. to survive extremes of temperature;

  8. to be highly resistant to destruction.



EXERCISE 2. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

  1. безвредный

  2. более или менее опасные

  3. в соответствии с формой

  4. ассоциироваться

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  1. менее вирулентный

  2. острый

  3. споры

  4. перепады температуры

  5. более благоприятные условия

  6. разрушение



EXERCISE 3. Процитируйте предложения из текста со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

  1. to provide a home

  2. to take part in

  3. to be subdivided into

  4. to be found

  5. to grow in twisted chains

  6. to initiate

  7. to cause infection

  8. to grow in small clusters

  9. to survive

  10. to be highly resistant.



EXERCISE 4. Ответьте на вопросы:

  1. What does a mouth provide a home for?

  2. Are all bacteria harmless?

  3. What groups of bacteria do you know?

  4. How are bacteria subdivided?

  5. What are bacilli and where are they found?

  6. How do streptococci grow?

  7. What do they initiate?

  8. What bacteria are called staphylococci?

  9. What can be found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis?

  10. Can spores survive extremes of temperature?




64

EXERCISE 5. Закончите следующие предложения:

  1. Streptococci are less virulent than

  2. Viruses are sometimes more dangerous than

  3. One strain of staphylococcus is easier found in gumboils than

  4. Spores are more resistant to destruction than

  5. Bacteria are often more dangerous than

  6. Inflammation may be more protective than

  7. Infection may be often the initial cause of the disease than


EXERCISE 6. Переведите на английский следующие предложения:

  1. Большинство бактерий безвредны, но некоторые вызывают серьезные заболевания.

  2. Споры гораздо более устойчивы к неблагоприятным условиям, чем другие бактерии.

  3. Они более устойчивы к разрушению, чем другие виды бактерий.

  4. Этот вид бактерий такой же опасный, как и тот, который мы изучили на прошлом занятии.

  5. Иногда воспаление – скорее неблагоприятная реакция, чем защитная.



EXERCISE 7. Задайте 10 вопросов по тексту.



EXERCISE 8. Перескажите текст.






65

hello_html_2417729e.jpgPLAN OF THE RETELLING

  1. I have read the … which is called…

  1. text

  2. story

  3. article

  4. novel


  1. The text is written in…

  2. The article deals with …

The text touches upon the problem of…

The main discussing thing is…

  1. In conclusion I can say that this text is very interesting and instructive.

  2. In conclusion I must say that this article is very useful because it is very informative.
















66


СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

  1. Аванесьянц Э.М., Кахацкая Н.В., Мифтахова Т.М. Английский язык для старших курсов медицинских училищ и колледжей. М.: АНМИ, 1999.

  2. Бонк Н.А. и др. Учебник английского языка в 2 частях. - М.: 2002.

  3. Грузинская И.А., Черкасская Е.Б., Романович А.Ю. Просто о главном. Грамматика английского языка. М.: ЮНВЕС, 2000.

  4. Дроздова Т.Ю., Маилова В.Г. Students Grammar Guide: учебное пособие. СПБ, «Химера», 2000.

  5. Войтенко В.М., Войтенко А.М. – Разговорный английский язык. Учебное пособие. – М.:ТОО «Новинка», 1995.– 424с.

  6. Кирсанов Л.А. Книга для чтения на англ. Языке для студентов 1-2 курсов мед. вузов. Уч. пособие.– М., Высшая шк., 1997.

  7. Козырева Л.Г., Шадская Т.В. Английский язык для медицинских колледжей и училищ. Учебное пособие– Ростов н/Д.: изд-во «Феникс», 2002.– 320с.

  8. Кравцова Л.И. Английский язык для средних профессиональных учебных заведений: Учебник/Л.И.Кравцова.– М.: Высшая школа, 2004.– 463с.: ил.

  9. Маслова А.М., Вайнштейн З.Н., Плебейская Л.С. Учебник английского языка для медицинских вузов./ А.М.Маслова, З.И.Вайнштейн, Л.С.Плебейская.– 4-е изд., испр.– М.: Лист Нью, 2003.– 320с.

  10. Муравейская М.С., Орлова Л.К. Англ. язык для медиков: Учебное пособие для студентов, аспирантов, врачей и научных сотрудников.– 6-е изд., испр. и доп.– М.: Флинта: Наука, 2002.– 384с.



67

  1. Мухина В.В., Английский язык для медицинских училищ: Учеб. пособие/ В.В.Мухина, Н.С.Мухина, П.Н.Стрипников.– М.: Высш. шк., 2003.– 141с.

  2. Парахина А.В., Тылкина С.А. Учебник англ. языка. Для средних специальных учебных заведений.– 2-ое издание исправ. и доп.– М., Высш. шк., 1987.– 384с.

  3. Протопопова Л.И. Учебник английского языка для медиков.– М., Высш. шк., 1978.

  4. Тылкина С.А., Темчина Н.А. Пособие по английскому языку для мед. училищ.– М., АНМИ, 1997.– 110с.

  5. Чичерова Л.Г. Читай и говори. Сборник рассказов о здоровье человека.– СПб: КАРО, 2001,– 176с.
























68

Оглавление


SYSTEMS OF THE BODY 6

IMMUNITY 11

BLOOD 17

INFECTION 22

STRUCTURE OF TEETH 26

PATHOLOGY 32

DRUGS 37

HEART 43

ABDOMEN 47

RESPIRATION 53

DIGESTION 57

MICROBIOLOGY 61

PLAN OF THE RETELLING 65

СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ 66

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ 68


Краткое описание документа:

ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

 

для студентов медицинских специальностей/Сост.: Краськова И.Р./2014.- 68с.

В сборнике собраны и систематизированы тексты для чтения по английскомк языку имеющие медицинскую направленность. Все тексты аутентичны, содержат дополнительные упражнения для развития основных видов речевой деятельности: чтения, письма, говорения.

         Сборник предназначен для преподавателей и студентов медицинских специальностей. Кроме того он может использоваться преподавателями при подготовке к занятиям либо студентами при самостоятельном изучении иностранного языка.

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Дата добавления 13.01.2015
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Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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