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Название документа Total Physical Response.ppt
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Total Physical Response Already in the late 1800s, a French teacher of Latin by the name of Francois Gouin was hard at work devising a method of language teaching that capitalized on the way children naturally learn their first language, through the transformation of perceptions into conceptions and then the expression of those conceptions using language.
His approach became known as the Series Method, involving direct conceptual teaching of language using series of inter-connected sentences that are simple and easy to perceive, because the language being used can be directly related to whatever the speaker is doing at the immediate time of utterance (one's actions and language match each other).
Objectives One of the primary objectives underlying Asher's TPR methodology was that learning needed to become more enjoyable and less stressful. Asher thought that a natural way to accomplish this was to recreate the natural way children learn their native language, most notably through facilitating an appropriate "listening" and "comprehension" period, and encourage learners to respond using right-brain motor skills rather than left-brain language "processing".
James J Asher, Ph.D Originator of the Total Physical Response, known worldwide as TPR San Jose State University, California,
Key Features (1) The teacher directs and students "act" in response - "The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors" (Asher, 1977:43). (2) Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over oral production. (3) The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also heavily used. (4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.
(5) Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so. (6) Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language.
Typical Techniques Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (1986:118-120) provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely associated with TPR. The listing here is in summary form only. (1) Using Commands to Direct Behavior (The use of commands requiring physical actions from the students in response is the major teaching technique)
(2) Action Sequence (Teacher gives interconnected directions which create a sequence of actions [also called an"operation"] - as students progress in proficiency, more and more commands are added to the action sequence. Most everyday activities can be broken down into a sequence of actions)
It is an excellent method for young/beginning teachers to learn, as TPR lessons tend to be a lot of fun and the techniques involved are relatively simple. As with any other method or technique style, overdoing it will eventually create boredom and a feeling of repetition, which is enjoyable for neither students nor teachers.
The original theories underlying the method, orientated around creating an effective and stress-free listening period in combination with physical responses (the same way we all began learning our own native language as babies) are the safest ones to stick to. Therefore it as an almost pre-requisite technique for teaching young students or older students at beginning levels, but a method that needs to be supplemented with other approaches as students progress in proficiency.
Not all the things we do are "physical" and not all of our thinking is orientated around the visible physical universe. To some extent you can be innovative and even develop "physical" manifestations of abstract and/or mentally-based verbs and nouns, but it loosens the connection and thus weakens it. I personally try to limit TPR activities to the directly obvious and visible. This makes it a great method for young learners before they develop enough cognitively to start considering more abstract concepts.