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SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD .
Who has not heard about the Egyptian pyramids, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Colossus of Rhodes or the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus? These and other great monuments of antiquity, known to all as the Seven Wonders of the World enthralled contemporaries. But not only in those ancient times the architects, sculptors and artists have created man-made wonders. And later, at other times, were built amazing structures. Throughout history, people did not know the rest, making all the new discoveries, and to our own times has created such materials and technology that enabled him to translate into reality what yesterday seemed impossible. Mention of the Seven wonders appear in the writings of Greek authors, from the Hellenistic period. They needed to know in school, they wrote about scientists and poets. In the text of an Egyptian papyrus, is a kind of textbook mentions mandatory for learning the names of famous legislators, painters, sculptors, architects, inventors, etc. - the largest islands, mountains and rivers, and finally, the seven wonders of the world. "Selection" miracles gradually, and one wonders replaced others.
The Pyramid of Cheops. The Pyramid of Cheops - the largest of the pyramids of Egypt, the only one of the "Seven Wonders of the World" that has survived to this day. Construction is anticipated that lasted twenty years, ended around 2560 BC. e. There are dozens of Egyptian pyramids. On the Giza plateau are the largest of them - the Pyramid of Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus (Menkaure). The architect of the Great Pyramid is considered Hemiun, the Vizier and the nephew of Cheops. He also held the title of "Managing all construction projects of the pharaoh." More than three thousand years (before the building of a cathedral in Lincoln, England, about 1300) the pyramid was the tallest building on Earth. Sayyid Abdel-Aziz, Governor of Giza, Egypt to create a national holiday proposed to establish the official date of commencement of construction of the pyramid of Cheops. Based on a series of mathematical and astronomical research has been called the date August 23, 2470 BC. Oe. Now this day will be a national day of the Giza pyramids and the image will adorn coat of arms of the province. However, do not consider this date a true historical event, since there is no serious evidence, but the sources are so scarce that Egyptologists can not come together, even in what year construction began.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon . The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II.To fight against the main enemy - Assyria, whose troops were twice destroyed the state capital of Babylon, made a military alliance with Kiaksarom king of the Medes. In victory, they divided the territory of Assyria with each other. Their military alliance was confirmed by his marriage to the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar II of the Median king Amitis. Dusty and noisy Babylon, located on a bare sandy plain, not pleased the queen, grown in the mountainous and green mussels. To comfort her, Nebuchadnezzar ordered to build the Hanging Gardens. The Hanging Gardens lasted about two centuries. First stop to take care of the garden, then the powerful floods have destroyed the foundation of the columns, and the whole edifice collapsed.
Statue of Zeus at Olympia . The Statue of Zeus at Olympia was made by the Greek sculptor Phidias, circa 432 BC on the site where it was erected in the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . Description The seated statue, some 12 meters (43 feet) tall, occupied half of the width of the aisle of the temple built to house it. "It seems that if Zeus were to stand up," the geographer Strabo noted early in the 1st century BC, "he would unroof the temple."The Zeus was a chryselephantine sculpture, made of ivory and gold-plated bronze. No copy in marble or bronze has survived, though there are recognizable but approximate versions on coins of nearby Elis and on Roman coins and engraved gems. A very detailed description of the sculpture and its throne was recorded by the traveler Pausanias, in the 2nd century AD. The sculpture was wreathed with shoots of olive worked in gold and seated on a magnificent throne of cedarwood, inlaid with ivory, gold, ebony, and precious stones. In Zeus' right hand there was a small statue of crowned Nike, goddess of victory, also chryselephantine, and in his left hand, a sceptre inlaid with gold, on which an eagle perched.Plutarch, in his Life of the Roman general Aemilius Paulus, records that the victor over Macedon, when he beheld the statue, “was moved to his soul, as if he had seen the god in person,” while the 1st century AD Greek orator Dio Chrysostom declared that a single glimpse of the statue would make a man forget all his earthly troubles.
Roman Seated Zeus, marble and bronze (restored), following the type established by Phidias (Hermitage Museum) The date of the statue, in the third quarter of the 5th century BC, long a subject of debate, was confirmed archaeologically by the rediscovery and excavation of Phidias' workshop. According to a legend, when Phidias was asked what inspired him—whether he climbed Mount Olympus to see Zeus, or whether Zeus came down from Olympus so that Pheidias could see him—the artist answered that he portrayed Zeus according to Book One, verses 528 – 530 of Homer's Iliad: Coin of Elis illustrating the Olympian Zeus (Nordisk familjebok) He spoke, the son of Kronos, and nodded his head with the dark brows, and the immortally anointed hair of the great god swept from his divine head, and all Olympos was shaken. The sculptor also was reputed to have immortalised his eromenos, Pantarkes, by carving "Pantarkes kalos" into the god's little finger, and placing a relief of the boy crowning himself at the feet of the statue.
Temple of Artemis . The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus - one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was in the Greek city of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor (now the city of Selcuk south of Izmir province (yl), Turkey). The first major temple was built in the middle of the VI century BC. Oe., Gyrostat burned in 356 BC. Oe., soon restored in the reconstructed shape, in the III century, destroyed by the Goths. According to legend, Artemis was the twin sister of Apollo. According to the beliefs of the ancient Greeks, Artemis took care of all that lives on earth and grows in the forest and on the field. She took care of wild animals, herds of livestock, it causes the growth of grasses, flowers and trees. Artemis did not give the attention and people - she gave a happy marriage and blessed the birth of children. Greek women have traditionally sacrificed to Artemis - Artemis patron chadorodiya.V honor the people of Ephesus was built near the town, the place where the sanctuary was located before kariyskoy goddess of fertility, a huge temple, which is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Donated funds to build a famous rich man, Lydian king Croesus (on bases of the columns of the temple preserved its two labels ). The project of the temple, according to Strabo, the architect developed a Hersifron of Knossos. With him were erected the walls of the temple and colonnade set (the first half of VI century). After the death of the architect building by his son Metagen , And finished the building, according to Vitruvius, architects already Peon and Demetrius. When finished a huge white marble temple was opened to the gaze of the townspeople, it caused astonishment and admiration. No one knows exactly how it was decorated. We only know that in the creation of sculptural decoration of the temple attended by the best artists of the Greek world, and the statue of the goddess Artemis was made of gold and ivory. The Temple of Artemis was used not only for religious ceremonies. He was both a financial and business center of Ephesus. The temple was completely independent from city government and administered by College of the priests.
The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus . Halicarnassus mausoleum - tomb of the ruler Mausolus kariyskogo , built in the middle of the IV century BC. Oe. by order of his wife Artemisia II of Halicarnassus (modern Turkey), one of the ancient wonders of the world. The construction of the mausoleum began before the death of Mausolus in 353 BC and, according to ancient authors, run by his wife Artemisia. For the design of the mausoleum, she invited the Greek architects Satyrus and Pytheas, and the most celebrated sculptors of the time - Leohara, Scopas (whose work also graced the second Temple of Artemis at Ephesus), Briaksida Timofeya.O and location of the Mausoleum and the material preserved evidence of Vitruvius. The architecture of the Mausoleum is unusual for a Greek architecture of the time: if the classical Hellenic temples in terms of rectangular and their height does not exceed the length of the facade, the mausoleum in the plan is almost square, and its height is much greater than the side of the base.
Colossus of Rhodes Colossus of Rhodes - a giant statue of the Greek sun god Helios, which stood in the port city of Rhodes, located on the same island in the Aegean Sea, Greece. One of the "Seven Wonders of the World." Twelve years he worked sculptor Hares, a pupil of Lysippus, to create a nearly 36-foot bronze giant. When work on the statue was completed, the affected eye Rhodians appeared tall and slim boy-god with a radiant crown on his head. He stood on a white marble pedestal, slightly leaning back, and hard-staring into the distance. A statue of the god towered directly at the entrance to the harbor of Rhodes and was visible from the nearby islands. The statue was made of clay, was the basis of its metal frame, and on top of it was covered with bronze plates. For work over depicting god directly locally his installation Hares used original reception: with gradual exaltation sculptures ascended and earthen hill around her; hill was subsequently razed, and statue in full was disclosed astonished natives. On manufacturing grandiose monument took 500 talents bronzes and 300 talents iron (respectively about 13 and about 8 tons). Colossus spawned and kinda fashion on gigantic statues, Rhodes already in II. BC. Oe. found about hundred colossal sculptures.
Lighthouse of Alexandria . Lighthouse of Alexandria - one of the seven wonders of the world, was built in the III century BC. e.v Egyptian city of Alexandria, so ships could safely pass the reefs on the way to Alexandria Bay. At night, they helped in the reflection of flames, and a day - a pillar of smoke. It was the first lighthouse in the world, and he stood for nearly a thousand years, but in 796 AD. Oe. was severely damaged by the earthquake. Later, the Arabs came to Egypt tried to restore it, and the XIV century. height of the lighthouse was about 30 m. At the end of the XV century. Sultan Kait Bey built a fort on the site of the lighthouse that stands today. The lighthouse was built on a small island of Pharos in the Mediterranean coast near Alexandria. This bustling port founded by Alexander the Great during his visit to Egypt in 332 BC. Oe. Construction was called by the name of the island. For its construction should have gone 20 years, and it was completed about 283 BC. Oe., during the reign of Ptolemy II, king of Egypt. The construction of this giant structure only lasted 5 years. Architect - Sostrat Cnidus. Faroese lighthouse consisted of three towers of marble, standing on the basis of massive stone blocks. The first tower was rectangular, it is a room where the workers lived and soldiers. Above this tower housed smaller octagonal tower with a spiral ramp leading to the top of the tower. The upper tower is shaped like a cylinder in which there was a fire, helping ships safely reach the harbor.