Информация о проекте
Проект выполнили ученицы 8 класса «Г» Пугановская Софья и Пугановская Яна
Руководитель Мухитдинова Нурия Матыгулловна
ГБОУ СОШ №460 г. Москва
1.2. Актуальность темы
Сейчас многих молодых людей привлекает творческая карьера, в частности имеющая музыкальную направленность. Во многих школах создаются музыкальные объединения, нацеленные на дальнейшую совместную карьеру. Исторический пример показывает, как лучше всего добиться успеха, и нам кажется, история возникновения, триумфа и падения величайшей группы мира вполне может послужить примером и уроком для тех, кто хочет оставить свой след в истории музыки.
1.3. Цели проекта
Расширить знания об истории музыки, о влиянии на нее самой знаменитой музыкальной группы XX века The Beatles.
Донести информацию о группе учащимся, расширить их кругозор.
1. Сбор информации.
Систематизирование и классификация собранных материалов.
Чтение литературы по данной теме на английском языке.
Перевод, отбор конкретного материала.
1. Собрать необходимый план по теме и систематизировать информацию
Создать презентацию работы, написать текст к презентации
Выступить с презентацией перед учащимися и отправить проект на конкурс
The Beatles are the best-selling band in history, and over four decades after their break-up, their recordings are still in demand. They have had more number one albums on the UK charts and have held the top spot longer than any other musical act. They have sold more albums in the United States than any other artist, and they topped Billboard magazine's list of all-time Hot 100 artists in 2008. They have received 7 Grammy Awards from the American National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences and 15 Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people.
The four boys from Liverpool were all born during the Second World War. Sometimes ships brought something that other places in Britain couldn’t get rock and roll from the USA. For the young people of Liverpool in the 1950s, the exciting sound of rock and roll was escape from their daily lives.
In March 1957, John Lennon formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank School. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined as a guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. When McCartney in turn invited George Harrison to watch the group the following February, the fourteen-year-old joined as lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's schoolfriends had left the group, and he had begun studies at the Liverpool College of Art. The three guitarists, billing themselves at least once as "Johnny and the Moondogs", were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer.
Lennon's art school friend Stu Sutcliffe joined in January 1960. It was he who suggested changing the band's name to "The Beetles". By July they had changed their name to "The Silver Beatles", and in August, to "The Beatles".
Before the end of August they auditioned and hired Pete Best, and the five-piece band left for Hamburg four days later.
John Winston Lennon was born in Liverpool on October 9, 1940. He grew up with his Aunt Mimi and Uncle George Smith. Julia, John’s mother, died in 1958, in an automobile accident.
It was at Liverpool Art College, in 1956, a friend played him Elvis' Heartbreak Hotel, and John's musical interest was piqued. Then he heard Lonnie Donegan's Rock Island Line and became part of the new Skiffle craze by begging his Aunt Mimi until she broke down and bought him a guitar, although she forever told him he would never get anywhere with it.
In 1955 he started his own band, the Quarrymen, singing all the popular songs, sometimes making up the words when he couldn't get them all off the radio.
John married his girlfriend of four years, Cynthia Powell, in 1962. She was pregnant with their son Julian at the time, who was born in April, 1963.
On June 18, 1942, James Paul McCartney was born in Liverpool.
Music was always a part of the McCartney household. Paul's father was a Cotton salesman during the day and a jazz musician by night. Both Paul and his brother received piano lessons.
When Lonnie Donnegan appeared in Liverpool and the Skiffle craze hit, Jim McCartney scraped together Ј15 for a guitar for Paul. Paul's friend Ivan Vaughan invited Paul to Woolton to see the Quarrymen play. Later in the afternoon Paul borrowed a guitar and impressed the boys with all the chords and the words to "Twenty Flight Rock". Paul's first impression of John was that he was drunk. A few days later Pete Shotten told Paul the others wanted him to join the band.
George Harrison was born February 25, 1943. He showed his independent nature at an early age, defying his school's age-old dress code by wearing jeans and growing long hair.
George and Paul took the same bus to school, and soon found they had music and guitars in common. They spent many hours together at each other's homes practicing guitar. In 1956, Paul introduced the George to the Quarrymen. Not old enough to join the group, George hung around with the boys. George stood in the back of the room at all their shows with his guitar. A few times he filled in for the regular guitarist who didn't show up.
Richard Starkey was born in Dingle area of Liverpool, on July 7, 1940.
Young Ritchie became caught up in Liverpool's Skiffle craze. After starting his own group called The Eddie Clayton Skiffle Group in 1957, he joined The Raving Texans in 1959. During this time, he got the nickname Ringo, because of the rings he wore, and the last name Starr so that his drum solos could be billed as "Starr Time".
Ringo first met the Beatles in Hamburg in October 1960. Ringo joined the Beatles on August 18, 1962.
2.4. The history
2.4.1. Early years
In the group was resident for further periods in Hamburg. The Beatles were also becoming more popular back home in Liverpool. In November they encountered Brian Epstein, a local record store owner and music columnist. The band appointed Epstein manager in January 1962.
In Liverpool, the Merseybeat movement was gaining popularity. The band had their first recording session at EMI's Abbey Road Studios in London in June 1962. The producer complained to Epstein about Best's drumming and suggested the band use a session drummer in the studio. Instead, Best was replaced by Ringo Starr. After a November studio session that yielded what would be their second single, "Please Please Me", they made their TV debut with a live performance on the regional news programme.
The band concluded their last Hamburg stint in December 1962. Lennon and McCartney had established a songwriting partnership. Epstein, sensing their commercial potential, encouraged the group to adopt a professional attitude to performing. Lennon recalled the manager saying, "Look, if you really want to get in these bigger places, you're going to have to change—stop eating on stage, stop swearing, stop smoking." Lennon said, "We used to dress how we liked, on and off stage. He'd tell us that jeans were not particularly smart and could we possibly manage to wear proper trousers, but he didn't want us suddenly looking square. He'd let us have our own sense of individuality ... it was a choice of making it or still eating chicken on stage."
On September 4, 1962 in London The Beatles started the repetitions and songs’ recordings for the first single. The single take 17th place in the British national top. For the debut it was an unexpectedly big success. On November 26 The Beatles recorded the second single "Please Please Me" / "Ask Me Why". On January 12 the single came out whit a big success. On February 16 the record headed the British top.
On February 11 the Beatles recorded all the material of the debut album "Please Please Me" for 585 minutes. After realize, the album was headed the top for 6 months.
October, 1963 is the month of a birth "Beatlemania". On October on Sunday 13 the band sang in "Palladium" in London. 15 millions of people have watched them. At the end of October the band has a tour in Sweden.
On November 22 came out the second album of a quartet "With The Beatles". In 1965 it was bought more than million copies.
In USA at the end of 1963 came out the single "I Want To Hold You Hand". It has become the leader in the the top. February the 4 thousand people met them on the Kennedy Aifrport.
On March 2 the band started the shooting of their first musical movie "A Hard Day’s Night" and the recording of a new album.
2.4.3. The Beatles came to America
The Beatles' first visit to the US came at a time of great popularity in Britain. The band's UK commercial breakthrough, in late 1962, had been followed by a year of successful concerts and tours. The start of The Beatles' popularity in the US, in early 1964, was marked by intense demand for the single "I Want to Hold Your Hand"—which sold one-and-a-half million copies in under three weeks—and the band's arrival the following month. The visit, advertised across the US on five million posters, was a defining moment in The Beatles' history, and the starting-point of the British Invasion.
Following popular television appearances and concerts during their February 1964 visit, The Beatles returned to the US in August 1964, and again in August 1965, for tours. In August 1966 they returned once more, and although this tour was commercially successful, it coincided with a storm of US public protest after publication of a quote from John Lennon's remarks about Christianity. The 1966 US tour marked the end of The Beatles' concert days. The band ceased to perform commercial concerts, instead devoting their efforts to creating new material in the recording studio
Beatlemania is a term that originated during the 1960s to describe the intense fan frenzy directed toward The Beatles during the early years of their success.
Andi Lothian, a former Scottish music promoter, claims that he coined the term while speaking to a reporter at the Caird Hall Beatles concert that took place as part of The Beatles' Mini-Tour of Scotland, on 7 October 1963, and an early printed use of the word is in The Daily Mirror 15 October 1963 in a news story about the previous day's Beatles concert in Cheltenham.
Beatlemania became common in the United States after The Beatles performed on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. It was characterized by intense levels of hysteria demonstrated by fans both at the actual concerts and during the band's travels to and from hotels, concert venues, and the like.
The extent of Beatlemania in the United States is evidenced by their single and album sales. The Beatles had the Number One single for 59 weeks during their six and half years spanning "I Want to Hold Your Hands" first appearance at the top on 1 February 1964 and Let It Be LP's last Number One Week, 4 July 1970. In the same period they topped the LP charts for 116 weeks. In other words they had the Number One single one out of every six weeks, and the top album one out of three.
Although Let It Be was The Beatles' final album release, most of it was recorded before Abbey Road.
Recording sessions for Abbey Road began in late February. On 4 July, while work on the album was in progress, the first solo single by a Beatles member was released: Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance", credited to the Plastic Ono Band. The final mix of the Abbey Road track "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" on 20 August 1969 was the last occasion on which all four Beatles were together in the same studio. Lennon announced his departure to the rest of the group on 20 September.
For the still uncompleted Get Back album, the final song, Harrison's "I Me Mine", was recorded on 3 January 1970. McCartney publicly announced his departure from the band on 10 April, a week before the release of his first, self-titled solo album. Pre-release copies of McCartney's record included a press statement with a self-written interview, explaining the end of the Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership and his hopes for the future.
On 8 May, Let It Be was released. The accompanying single, "The Long and Winding Road", was the band's last; it was released in the United States, but not Britain. The Let It Be documentary film followed later in the month; at the Academy Award ceremony the next year, it would win the Academy Award for Best Original Score. The Sunday Telegraph called it "a very bad film and a touching one ... about the breaking apart of this reassuring, geometrically perfect, once apparently ageless family of siblings." Legal disputes continued long after the band's break-up, and the dissolution of the partnership did not take effect until 9 January 1975.
2.4.6. After break-up (1970s)
Lennon, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr all released solo albums in 1970. Further albums followed from each, sometimes with the involvement of one or more of the others. Starr's Ringo (1973) was the only solo album to include compositions and performances by all four, albeit on separate songs. With Starr's collaboration, Harrison staged The Concert for Bangladesh in New York City in August 1971 with Ravi Shankar. Other than an unreleased jam session in 1974 (later bootlegged as A Toot and a Snore in '74), Lennon and McCartney never recorded together again.
2.4.7. Deaths of the members of the band
John Lennon. At around 10:50 pm on 8 December 1980, as Lennon returned to his New York apartment in The Dakota, Mark David Chapman shot Lennon in the back four times at the entrance to the building. Lennon was taken to the emergency room of the nearby Roosevelt Hospital and was pronounced dead on arrival at 11:07 pm. Earlier that evening, Lennon had autographed a copy of Double Fantasy for Chapman.
Lennon’s body was cremated at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. Ono scattered his ashes in New York's Central Park, where the Strawberry Fields memorial was later created. Chapman pleaded guilty to second-degree murder and was sentenced to 20 years to life; as of 2011, he remains in prison, having been denied parole six times.
George Harrison. Harrison developed throat cancer, which was discovered in the summer of 1997 after a lump on his neck was analyzed. He attributed it to smoking heavily from the 1960s until at least the late 1980s. He was successfully treated with radiotherapy.
Despite the treatments and operations, Harrison died on 29 November 2001, at a Hollywood Hills mansion that was once leased by McCartney and was previously owned by Courtney Love. The cause of death was listed on his Los Angeles County death certificate as "metastatic non-small cell lung cancer". He was 58 years old. Harrison was cremated at Hollywood Forever Cemetery and his ashes were scattered in the Ganges River.
2.4.8. Films with the Beatles
A Hard Day's Night is a 1964 British black-and-white comedy film directed by Richard Lester and starring The Beatles during the height of Beatlemania. It was written by Alun Owen and originally released by United Artists. The film was made in the style of a documentary, describing a couple of days in the lives of the group.
The plot of the film represents one usual day of The Beatles’ life. The most famous band of the world goes from native Liverpool to London to act on TV. The musicians try to get to the studio and not to be broken off on souvenirs by the enthusiastic fans, lead up a nervous breakdown their manager, have a good time and get to various adventures.
Help! is a 1965 film directed by Richard Lester, starring The Beatles. Help! was the second feature film made by the Beatles and is a comedy adventure which sees the group come up against an evil cult. The soundtrack was released as an album, also called Help!.
Ringo Starr casually gets the ring, which belongs to an evil cult. In this religion such ring designates the person who is sentenced to sacrifice. The ring is impossible to remove from a finger. The Beatles are compelled to disappear from the men who hunt for Ringo. They address for the help to Dr. Foot, the mad scientist. When he doesn't manage to remove a ring, he decides to take hold of it in the scientific purposes.
Yellow Submarine is a 1968 animated musical fantasy film based on the music of The Beatles. It is also the title for the film's soundtrack album, released as part of The Beatles' music catalogue. The film was directed by animation producer George Dunning, and produced by United Artists (UA) and King Features Syndicate. The real Beatles participated only in the closing scene of the film, with the fictional counterparts of The Beatles voiced by other actors.
The importance of The Beatles in the history
The Beatles' influence on popular culture was—and remains—immense. Former Rolling Stone associate editor Robert Greenfield said, "People are still looking at Picasso ... at artists who broke through the constraints of their time period to come up with something that was unique and original. In the form that they worked in, in the form of popular music, no one will ever be more revolutionary, more creative and more distinctive."
Their musical innovations, as well as their commercial success, inspired musicians worldwide. A large number of artists have acknowledged them as an influence, or have had chart successes with covers of Beatles songs. On radio, their arrival marked the beginning of a new era; program directors like Rick Sklar of New York's WABC went so far as to forbid DJs from playing any "pre-Beatles" music. The Beatles redefined the album as something more than just a few hits padded out with "filler". They were primary innovators of the music video. The Shea Stadium date with which they opened their 1965 North American tour attracted what was then the largest audience in concert history and is seen as a "landmark event in the growth of the rock crowd." Emulation of their clothing and especially their hairstyles, which became a mark of rebellion, had a global impact on fashion.
The Beatles changed the way people listened to popular music and experienced its role in their lives. From what began as the Beatlemania fad, the group grew to be perceived by their young fans across the industrialized world as the representatives, even the embodiment, of ideals associated with cultural transfiguration. Particularly after the "more popular than Jesus" controversy in 1966, the Beatles felt considerable pressure to say the right things and "began a concerted effort to spread a message of wisdom and higher consciousness.
Results summing up
In 1965, Queen Elizabeth II appointed the four Beatles Members of the Order of the British Empire. They have had more number one albums, 15, on the UK charts and held down the top spot longer, 174 weeks, than any other musical act. The Beatles were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the 20th century's 100 most influential people.
Thank you for your attention!
“The Beatles”, Paul Shipman, Longman
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