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Статья на английском языке по теме "Защита окружающей среды"

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Information and Research Project

The Protection of the Environment”









Leaders of the Рroject:

Mariya Plakhotnikova

Sofiya Sharaga

Coordinator of the Рroject:

N. Petrova,

the English teacher of the first category



April, 2016





Project type: Information and research

Target group: 8 grade

Coordinator of the project: N. Petrova

Institutional framework: the English language, 8 grade

Justification of the project: In recent years the environmental problems have become extremely urgent and received a great publicity. Today our planet is in serious danger. That’s why is very important to draw public attention to ecological problems.



Objectives of the project: to make students acquainted with the ecological problems.



Work schedule:

First phase: We chose a theme.

Second phase: We searched information in the Internet.

Third phase: We made a presentation of the project.



Contents:

  • Introduction

  • Main part

  • Conclusion

  • Resources

  • Appendix







Introduction

Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the Universe, but nowadays it’s the only place where we can live.

People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale. With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous.

Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth. In recent years the environmental problems have become extremely urgent and received a great publicity. In some way they are the result of scientific and technological progress of the 20-th century. But people also do a lot of harm to nature because they don't understand that the man is the part of environment. The relationship between man and nature has become one of the most vital problems facing civilization today.

That’s why is very important to draw public attention to ecological problems. The government must think of it, organize round tables on TV and radio. We must teach children to protect environment because deeds are better that words.

In this project we would like to remind you that the Earth is polluted, pollution is not reduced, air, land and water are damaged.

People! Help the Earth!!!











Main part

Environment is the natural habitat that surrounds us everywhere. Over the last decades people have built so many harmful factories that environment started to suffer. Some environmental problems are really urgent in modern society. The problems we are facing air pollution, water pollution, global warming, nuclear pollution, the disappearance of certain animal species, etc. There are numerous reasons for such vast pollution of the surrounding environment on our planet. First of all, today there are so many petrol-driven cars in the streets. In search of newer and newer inventions people have completely forgotten that natural resources are limited. We can’t continue exhaling harmful gases into the atmosphere. Such human behavior leads not only to air pollution but also to global warming. This problem really touches all countries in the world and is considered to be global. We have never had such warm winters before. Besides, the glaciers are melting. It is one of the most serious problems in the modern world. Some scientists state that global warming is the result of industrial revolution. Other urgent problems include water pollution and waste of certain natural resources. Water pollution is mostly the result of factory wastes. If we had reasonably treated such natural resources as water, forest, soil, our planet would be in a better shape today. Unfortunately, not everyone cares about nature and many people think that natural resources will never end.

Ecological problems

There are a lot of ecological problems. The most serious ecological problems are: noise from cars and buses; destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty; shortage of natural resources; the growth of population; pollution in its many forms.

Water is everywhere, but there is no ocean or sea which is not used as a dump. Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can t live in them. People can't drink this water. So we have to clean the water environment.

Another problem is air pollution. Air pollution influents the health of people. For example: ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution.

Also we have problem with nuclear pollution. Nuclear pollution cannot be seen but its effect can be terrible.

To make air clear clean again we need good filters at nuclear power stations, at factories, in cars and buses.

Another problem is growth of population. They don't have enough places to live. They need more water, more food. So it is the reason of the shortage of the natural resources. It is very difficult to solve this problem.

Also one of the most serious problems is green house effect. It works like this: sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the atmosphere and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the heat can't go into space. That's why winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher. If the temperature continue growing up the snow on the mountains and ice will melt, so the most of the earth will be under water.

So every person has to understand how important it is to solve these problems, that endanger people's life.

People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on different continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun, on animals and plants around them. People must take care of Earth.

Wildlife

Our ecology becomes worse and worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make furniture. They forget that people can’t live without trees and plants, because they fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population and animals destruction.

The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of our rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are very dangerous for our life ‘cause’ they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it.

Pollution isn’t the only actual problem. Every day a big number of animals disappeared. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil, elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And also animals are used for medical experiments. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book.

Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace.

The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals.

The WWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These organizations also helped to create more than 250 National parks.

Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals cause many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees, have disappeared.

We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must take care of nature, because we are part of it.

Since ancient times Nature has served Man, being the source of his life. For thousands of years people lived in harmony with environment and it seemed to them that natural riches were unlimited. But with the development of civilization man's interference in nature began to increase.



Air pollution

Large cities with thousands of smoky industrial enterprises appear all over the world today. The byproducts of their activity pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, the land we grow grain and vegetables on.

Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other harmful substances. Many cities suffer from smog. Vast forests are cut and burn in fire. Their disappearance upsets the oxygen balance. As a result some rare species of animals, birds, fish and plants disappear forever, a number of rivers and lakes dry up.

The pollution of air and the world's ocean, destruction of the ozone layer is the result of man's careless interaction with nature, a sign of the ecological crises.

The most horrible ecological disaster befell Ukraine and its people after the Chernobyl tragedy in April 1986. About 18 percent of the territory of Belarus were also polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the agriculture, forests and people's health. The consequences of this explosion at the atomic power-station are tragic for the Ukrainian, Byelorussian and other nations.

Environmental protection is of a universal concern. That is why serious measures to create a system of ecological security should be taken.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. As many as 159 countries - members of the UNO - have set up environmental protection agencies. Numerous conferences have been held by these agencies to discuss problems facing ecologically poor regions including the Aral Sea, the South Urals, Kuzbass, Donbass, Semipalatinsk and Chernobyl. An international environmental research centre has been set up on Lake Baikal. The international organization Greenpeace is also doing much to preserve the environment.

But these are only the initial steps and they must be carried onward to protect nature, to save life on the planet not only for the sake of the present but also for the future generations.

Pollution of water and air is one of the problems millions of people are concerned today. Acid rains, hydraulic power stations, radioactive and other poisonous materials, disposal of wastes became the global disasters. Cars are one of the most harmful and dangerous polluters of air.

In more than a hundred towns and cities the concentration of harmful substances in the air and water is over 10 times the admissible level. Archangelsk is one of the most "dirty" towns of the country. The Nothern Dvina - our main water source is fully polluted with industrial and communal wastes - the result of side-effect in the work of three giant pulp and paper mills. Water is not suitable for drinking.

Another problem is presence of dangerous radioactive military objects and cosmodrom "Plesetsk". Besides we must remember about ozone holes over our heads. The ozone layer doesn't protect us from dangerous ultraviolet rays any more. They get through the atmosphere causing skin cancer and other diseases.

All these facts make us become more sensitive towards the environment. The trouble is that our local powers don't realize enough the danger of the situation and don't pay much attention and money for construction of cleanser enterprises. Various public organizations and unofficial movement make their best to change official and public opinion on the environmental problems. One of the most famous and strong organizations nowadays is "Green peace". I suppose the solution of the problem requires the cooperation the people's efforts in nature conservation.

The word environment means simply what is around us. Some people live in a town environment; for others, their environment is the countryside.



Water pollution

There is no ocean or sea, which is not used as a dump. Many seas are used for dumping industrial and nuclear waste. This poisons and kills fish and sea animals. "Nuclear-poisoned" fish can be eaten by people.

Many rivers and lakes are poisoned too. Fish and reptiles can’t live in them. There is not enough oxygen in the water. In such places all the birds leave their habitats and many plants die. If people drink this water they can die too. It happens so because factories produce a lot of waste and pour it into rivers. So they poison water.

Most of the pollution in big cities comes from cars and buses. More and more often people are told not to be in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer. Normally the ozone layer in the atmosphere protects us from such radiation, but if there are holes in the ozone layer ultraviolet radiation can get to the earth. Many scientists think that these holes are the result of air pollution.

Both clean air and clean water are necessary for our health. If people want to survive they must solve these problems quickly. Man is beginning to understand that his environment is not just his own town or country, but the whole earth. That’s why people all over the world think and speak so much about ecology.

Since ancient times people have been trying to produce more and more to increase human wealth. Nobody noticed that we were destroying Nature by using it as the source of raw materials, and as the garbage can for our waste. Nature seemed to be boundless and endless... Far from it as it turned out. Millions of cars and smoky factories pollute and spoil the air we breathe in. Pollution is hanging over big cities like an ugly brown cloud. It is hurting our lungs as well as the life of animals, birds and plants.

People need wood and paper, so we cut down our forests. We don't know what to do with waste materials of our industry, so we pour them into water, bury them into soil, shoot them into atmosphere. We pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in. People build nuclear power stations and carry out nuclear tests. As a result, radiation represents one of the main problems nowadays.

The rapid growth of population in the world may turn into another grave problem very soon. The speed with which we are using up our non-renewable resources like oil and gas, is appealing. With the development of our civilization we have become dangerous to the planet and to ourselves. What must we do not to find ourselves in a dirty desert in the near future? This question cannot be ignored.

Some scientists are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that we have already reached the point of no return. Others are more optimistic and believe that our ecological problems are solvable because more and more people begin to understand how dangerous they are. There is increasing awareness of people of the real state of the planet.

In many countries environmental protection agencies and research centers are set up. Such organizations as "Green Peace" and "Friends of the Earth" try to put pressure upon those governments that do not care for ecology in their countries. The humankind will be able to survive only if we all understand that environmental protection is our universal concern.



Global warming

"Global warming" has been introduced by the scientific community and the media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from higher average global temperatures. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects. In general, Global warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature.

An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth has warmed an average of 0.5°C over the past 100 years. This is consistent with predictions of global warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect and increased aerosols. Part of the current global warmth is associated with the tropical El Nino, without which a record global temperature would probably not have occurred.

The Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions among the atmosphere, the oceans, the land masses, and living organisms, which are all warmed daily by the sun's energy. This heat would radiate back into space if not for the atmosphere, which relies on a delicate balance of heat-trapping gases - including water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane - to act as a natural "greenhouse," keeping in just the right amount of the sun's energy to support life.

For the past 150 years, though, the atmospheric concentrations of these gases, particularly carbon dioxide, have been rising. As a result, more heat is being trapped than previously, which in turn is causing the global temperature to rise. Climate scientists have linked the increased levels of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere to human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas for heating and electricity; gasoline for transportation), deforestation, cattle ranching, and rice farming.

As the Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex interactions, scientists still cannot predict the exact impact on the earth's climate of these rising levels of heat-trapping gases over the next century. The current best estimate is that if carbon dioxide concentrations double over preindustrial levels, according to the scientific possible scenarios, an atmospheric doubling of carbon dioxide could occur as early as 2050.

In 1995, scientists with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the authoritative international body charged with studying this issue-reached a conclusion in the Second Assessment Report, which summarizes the current state of scientific knowledge on global warming, also called climate change.

For the first time ever, the Panel concluded that the observed increase in global average temperature over the last century "is unlikely to be entirely natural in origin" and that "the balance of evidence suggests that there is a discernible human influence on global climate."

Many years ago people lived in harmony with the environment because industry was not much developed. Now the situation is quite different.

People all over the world cannot ignore the problem of the protection of the environment because of modem industry and the need for energy.

Newspapers and magazines write a lot about water pollution, air pollution and land pollution. There are some laws and decisions on this important question. There are state organizations and international conventions which pay much attention to this problem.

Many parts of the world are crowded now, much of our waste, especially waste from factories, electric power stations, the chemical industry and heavy industry are very dangerous. Fish dies in the lakes, rivers and seas, forest trees die too.

The problem of radiation has also become a very important problem because it is very dangerous for health of people.

There is a science, named ecology, which study the relation between people and their environment. But each of us also must do everything possible to keep our environment clean for ourselves and for the next generations.

Computers project that between now and the year of 2030 we are going to have increase of the average temperature between 1,5-4,5 Degrees C. Sea levels would rise by several metres, flooding coastal areas and ruining vast tracts of farmland. Huge areas would be infertile and become uninhabitable. Water contamination could lead to shortages of safe drinking water. It looks like the end of civilization on the Earth.

For hundreds of thousands of years the human race has thriven in Earth's environment. But at the end of the 20th century, we were at a crucial turning point. We have upset nature's sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful substances into the air, polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and tearing up the countryside to accommodate our rubbish. These are the consequences of the development of civilization. We are to stop it by joint efforts of all the people of the world.

The range of environmental problems is wide. But the matters of people's great concern nowadays are atmosphere and climate changes, depletion of the ozone layer, freshwater resources, oceans and coastal areas, deforestation and desertification, biological diversity, biotechnology, health and chemical safety. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) concentrates its activities on these issues.

One of the most alarming forms of air pollution is acid rain. It results from the release into the atmosphere of sulphur and nitrogen oxides that react with water droplets and return to earth in the form of acid rain, mist or snow. Acid rain is killing forests (nearly every species of tree is affected). It has acidified lakes and streams and they can't support fish, wildlife, plants or insects.

The protective layer of the Earth, the ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the sun's destructive ultraviolet rays, is being damaged by chlorofluorocarbons. They are released by the daily use of industrial and household products: refrigerators, air conditioners, foam insulation, cleaning chemicals, food packaging. In the ozone layer they attack the ozone molecules making a "hole". This "hole" allows more UV rays to penetrate to the Earth. It increases the risk of skin cancer, weakens the immune system of people. Besides, UV rays influence the oceans, the growth of plankton, an essential part of the marine-life food chain in the negative way, reduce economically important-crops (rice, cotton, soy beans). The life cycle is going to be undermined by the ozone.

It’s generally agreed that the destruction of the tropical forest has a major impact on the world climate. The tropical rain forest is a natural recycler, provider and protector for our planet. It recycles carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, helps determine temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions and supports the most diverse ecosystem in the world. Deforestation could cause one forth of all species on earth to vanish in the next 25 years. These forests in Amazonia, South-East Asia and West and Central Africa are being destroyed at an alarming rate of 42 million acres per year.

Conclusion

We have only a few years to attempt to turn things around. We must review our wasteful, careless ways, we must consume less, recycle more, conserve wildlife and nature, act according to the dictum "think locally, think globally, act locally". To my mind, we are obliged to remove factories and plants from cities, use modern technologies, redesign and modify purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances, protect and increase the greenery and broaden ecological education. These are the main practical measures, which must be taken in order to improve the ecological situation.

Some progress has been already made in this direction. 159 countries-members of the UNO have set up environmental protection agencies. They hold conferences discussing ecological problems, set up environmental research centers and take practical urgent measures to avoid ecological catastrophe. There are numerous public organizations such as Greenpeace that are doing much to preserve environment. The 5th of June is proclaimed the World Environmental Day by the UNO and is celebrated every year.

Nowadays people understand how important it is to solve the environment problems that endanger people’s lives. The most serious environmental problems are: pollution in its many forms (water pollution, air pollution, nuclear pollution), noise from cars, buses, planes, etc., destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty, shortage of natural resources (metals, different kinds of fuel), the growth of population.

It is interesting to note that people celebrate the Earth day. This day is celebrated on the 22nd of April when people demonstrate their concern for a better environment. It was first held in 1970.

Fortunately, it’s not too late to solve the ecological problems. We have the time, the money and the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place.



Resources

1. en.wikipedia.org

2. www.projectbritain.com

3. www.alleng.ru

4. Видео фрагменты с Youtube от пользователя Watch Mojo

и Bibigon.ru




Автор
Дата добавления 16.09.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Статьи
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Номер материала ДБ-197500
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