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Статья о достопримечательностях Австралии


Places of Interest in Australia

Australia is one of the biggest countries in the world. Besides, it’s the only country, which is also a continent. It’s an island of 7.7 million square kilometers. It is the sixth largest country in the world, but has the lowest population density in the world, with only two people per square kilometer. Australia is the flattest continent after Antarctica. It is also the world’s driest continent. For many other world countries Australia is a remote land to visit, nevertheless, millions of people gladly fly there to see its places of interest. Mountains, sea, rivers, lakes, plateaus, plains, valleys, forests and much more are to be found together in this amazing place. The most significant places of tourist interests are, Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide and Brisbane. Australia has the quantity and quality of world-class attractions. This vast country has 2,000 national parks and 14 World Heritage-listed areas with more than 7,000 beaches. As Australia is simply huge, many visitors choose to focus on one city or region during their trip. Most Australians haven’t seen half of their own amazing country since it’s so vast.

Australia has 6 states and two territories. It's impossible to say which you should visit and which you shouldn't. Every state has its own charm and natural beauty. The best way to see Australia is to be there for a few months. I’ll begin with the state of Queensland.

Queensland (abbreviated as QLD) is a state located in the in the north east section of Australia. It includes a bit of everything. Outback? It's there. Rain forest? It's there. City life? It's there. Beaches and breathtaking sunsets? Plenty of them. This state is also the place for water sports – surfing, sailing, water-skiing, sail boarding and big game fishing. Queensland is home to the two natural wonders the Great Barrier Reef and the Daintree Rain Forest. Both of these areas span across huge parts of land and are World Heritage Listed. Great Barrier Reef (more than 1,240 miles of colourful coral beds) - the world's largest coral reef, located off the coast of Australia. It is the largest single structure on earth created by living organisms, visible even from space. It’s the largest UNESCO World Heritage site on the planet and home to some 400 different species of coral, 1,500 species of fish and more than 30 historic shipwrecks. This heritage area has been hailed as the “7th” natural wonder of the world. Tourists may view the 1,500 fish species that live in the Great Barrier Reef as well. The Daintree Rainforest is a unique area; it’s the home of birds, animals and reptiles including large crocodiles and pythons. A naturalist's paradise, this region is recognized for its superb wildlife. It is over one hundred and thirty-five million years old - the oldest in the world. Approximately 430 species of birds live among the trees, including 13 species that are found nowhere else in the world. In northern Queensland you'll find Noosa Heads. Noosa Heads is a beach community with breathtaking views and the town has a nice country feel to it. If you want a beach that isn't very crowded Noosa Heads is for you. Port Douglas itself is an exclusive tropical hideaway within short distance to the tropical city of Cairns as well as being close to the famous Daintree Rain Forest. The capital of Queensland is the city of Brisbane where you can always find something to do. Brisbane offers attractive weather conditions all year round: hot summers that involve some rain and warm winters that will not stop you from enjoying the beach, the backyard and multiple outdoors activities. Enjoy a visit to the World famous Australia Zoo of Brisbane. The zoo has around 750 species of native and exotic animals of Australia. It is also famous because of the documentary “Crocodile Hunters” made by Steve and Terri Irwin. You will see here the various theme shows and animal performances.

Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) - this is the real Australia where the aboriginal cultural heritage is most prominent. Uluru or Ayers Rock is the most identifiable one. World Heritage Site - Kakadu National Park is another one.
Territory’s capital Darwin is located in the tropical north. Despite its small size it has everything you'd expect in an Australian city: international restaurants, trendy cafes, shopping malls, marinas, a beach-side casino... On the other hand Darwin isn't really a city, even by Australian standards. Too laid back, too small, too friendly... The Devils Marbles are of great cultural and spiritual significance to the traditional Aboriginal owners of the land. The Devils Marbles are made of granite. Some of the boulders are naturally but precariously balanced atop one another or on larger rock formations, while others have been split cleanly down the middle by natural forces. If you want to see saltwater crocodiles in their natural habitat visit the Crocosaurus Cove - the home of the largest display of Australian reptiles. Enjoy adventure here by entering the Cage of Death, a transparent glass cage and see the crocodiles swimming and swarming all around you. Children love to interact with the baby crocodiles here. Every day thousands of wild fish (mullet, milkfish, bream, barramundi, and many others) come here to the beach to be hand fed by enthusiastic kids and adults. The Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park is an amazing natural landmark and an iconic symbol of the nation; it has deep spiritual meaning to the aboriginals. This UNESCO World Heritage site is best known for Ayers Rock or Uluru, and the Kata Tjuta rock domes. The rock seems mysterious, sitting all alone, right in the middle of nowhere. Many tales surround the mysterious area - which ones are true and which ones aren't remains for you to decide. The land is considered sacred by Aborigines. The Ayers Rock or the Uluru is world famous natural wonder. Kata Tjuta consists of 36 steep sided monoliths, which, just like Uluru, look most impressive at sunrise and sunset. Kakadu National Park is the largest national park in Australia and is known for its aboriginal rock art, fishing, waterfalls, and abundant wildlife. Situated in the northern region of Australia, this park is bigger than the size of Portugal. It is so large that the terrain, flora, and fauna vary greatly depending on where you are. Roughly 1/5th of Australia’s mammals and 1/3rd of its birds are found here! Barramundi is one of live fish. Live fish have an interesting feature in addition to the gills of fish, all they have is lungs. Cascade of waterfalls Jim Jim, Maguk and Twins is another landmark of Kakadu National Park. Among green trees here and there you can see light brown termitaries which are 6-8 meters high. Termites build their constructions from saliva, ground, chopped wood and dung; fortresses are stronger than the brick. In the waters freshwater crocodiles and giant sea crest crocodiles are met. Distinctive and striking feature of Kakadu National Park is the image of untouched nature. There are more than 1700 species of different plants, 280 species of birds, 117 species of reptiles, 77 species of freshwater fish, 1000 species of insects and 60 species of mammals. This is UNESCO World Heritage site because of the natural and cultural value of Kakadu National Park.

Now we come to Western Australia. Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is Australia's largest state with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometers. It covers about a third of the country but only hosts about 10 percent of Australia's population. The state has approximately 2.5 million inhabitants (around 11% of the national total), and 92% of the state's population lives in the south-west corner of the state. Today WA's economy mainly relies on mining, agriculture, and tourism, with the state supplying 46% of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The central four-fifths of the state is a desert and it is lightly inhabited. Western Australia is home to 15 endemic birds. It’s got vast open spaces, huge eucalyptus forests, the Karijini National Park and the Bungle Bungle National Park in the rugged Kimberly. A whole lot is on offer for adventure and wildlife enthusiasts. The port city of Fremantle is an interesting place to visit. Kimberley is Australia's final frontier. Here you'll see reddish mountain ranges, Aboriginal rock art, crocodiles, the bluest-of-blue seas, and farms that span millions of acres. You'll see waterfalls and wilderness, beaches and surfs. This place has everything for tourists. Perth – the capital of WA - sits contentedly isolated on the west coast of the country. Its metropolitan area is home to 75% of the state's population. It is the ideal base for exploring some of Australia’s finest beaches, the Great Western Desert and other natural highlights virtually untouched by tourism. You can see the Woman’s Pioneer Memorial Fountain which plays tribute to the pioneer women of Western Australia or view the famous Swan Bells from Kings Park at night for an impressive colour-changing spectacle. Big centers of economic activity like Perth have the highest salaries rates, but they are also known for the high cost of living. One of the world’s last true wilderness areas is home to the beautifully rugged landscapes of the Kimberley. Visit the Nambung National Park and see the Pinnacles Desert known for its world famous moon like landscape. Enjoy a magical sunset over this vast wild desert - lunar landscape on earth. One of the interesting places to see is the Wave Rock, which is found 4km east of Hyden, a small agricultural country town 350km east of Perth. This huge rock was formed more than 2700 million years ago. Wave Rock is so-named because it looks like a giant surf wave that is about to come crashing down. This rock formation stands at a height of 15 m and 110 m wide. The Horizontal Waterfalls (nicknamed the "Horries") are located in the Talbot Bay in the Kimberley region. While called waterfalls, this natural phenomenon could more accurately be called tidal currents. Massive amount of blue water are pushed by tidal waves, creating temporary waterfalls up to 5 meters high. When the tide changes, so does the direction of the flow. The twin gaps are located on two ridges running parallel approximately 300 meters apart. The first gap is about 20 meters wide and the second one is about 10 meters wide. When the rising or falling tide occurs, the water builds up in front of the gaps faster than it can flow through them. This in turn creates an amazing waterfall effect as the water rushes through and then down to the lower levels on the other side of the ridgelines. The process is reversed and it is repeated again in the opposite direction. This wonder is best viewed from the air. Cable Beach is a popular tourist attraction with temperatures of 30 degrees all year round as well as crystal clear water and a very relaxed atmosphere which you get from holidaying in a small town. Purnululu National Park in Western Australia contains the amazing Bungle Bungle Range. The distinctive beehive-shaped landforms seen today have been produced during the last 20 million years. The area has been used by Aboriginal people for thousands of years as a hunting ground, particularly during the wet season when plant and animal life was abundant. It is rich in Aboriginal artwork and contains a number of burial sites. Purnululu NP is jointly managed by the Aboriginal traditional owners as UNESCO World Heritage areas. Pink Lake – Hiller Lake of Western Australia. The most notable feature of this lake is its pink colour. It is such a significant distinguishing feature of the archipelago that air passengers often take note of it. It has been said that the pink color is because of algae. Another hypothesis is that the pink colour is due to red halophilic bacteria in the salt crusts. While scientists have proven it’s not due to the presence of algae, they still can’t explain why it’s pink. The colour is permanent, and does not alter when the water is taken in a container. The length of the lake is about six hundred meters (3/8 mile). The lake is surrounded by a rim of sand and dense woodland of paper bark and eucalyptus trees with a narrow strip of sand dunes covered by vegetation separating it to the north from the Southern Ocean. Despite the unusual hue, the lake exhibits no known adverse effects upon humans. From above, the lake appears a solid bubble gum pink, but from the shoreline it appears more of a clear pink hue. The shoreline is also covered in salt crust deposits.

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; it is the fourth largest of Australia's states and territories. With over 1.6 million people, the state comprises less than 8% of the Australian population. The majority of its people reside in the state capital, Adelaide. The city was named after the Queen Adelaide, the wife of William IV. Adelaide is South Australia’s elegant, easy-living capital, where the people will make you feel at home. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous cultural festivals. The state's economy is based on the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries and has an increasingly significant finance sector as well. The National Wine Centre offers the complete wine experience, you can drink wines loved the world over in Barossa, Goonawarra and the Clare Valley. To see the outback journey to the awesome Flinders Ranges located approximately 450 kilometers north of Adelaide. Or head south to Kangaroo Island to visit Seal Bay and clamber over fascinating landscapes like Remarkable Rocks. You can be the captain of your own houseboat and cruise the tranquil waters of the mighty Murray River with friends. Flinders Ranges National Park is a special national park because it protects a number of land uses and remains: the ruins of early European settlement, Aboriginal rock art sites, and impressive fossil remains as part of Australia's geological history. The park is home to many unique animals and plants that have adapted to the arid landscape and have evolved as a result of the area's unique geological history. It is the traditional home of the Adnyamathanha people. One of the most amazing places to visit in the park is Wilpena Pound. It looks like a huge crater - from a meteorite or perhaps an ancient volcano. It is over 80 square kilometers in size and forms a natural amphitheatre with only one entrance in. Coober Pedy is a city in the middle of the desert, about 845 kilometers north of Adelaide. It is very dry and very hot. Coober Pedy is the opal capital of the world. Most of the town’s folk are opal miners and they supply 90% of the world’s opals. Anyone can be a miner; you can apply for your permit, buy a piece of land and start digging. Heavy machinery can destroy the opal so most of the digging is done by hand. This unique place stands out because most of the people here live underground. Their homes with their rose colored sandstone walls are gorgeous and are called "dugouts"; and it is a great idea since the temperature underground is constant at 72 degrees and makes living here bearable during the summer. These dugouts have everything a modern world can supply from tiled flooring to pool tables, but natural light is rare. The cost is 20-30 percent less than conventional housing, but the real saving comes in energy. While several air conditioners struggle to cool a normal house to under 30 degrees in summer, Coober Pedy’s caves remain a comfortable 25 degrees, year-round, free of charge. If you need to expand there is no need to move you can always dig out another bedroom. "This is the kind of place where, if the wife wants another room, you dig her one” people joke. Very little plant life exists in town due to the region's low rainfall, high cost of water, the sandstone and lack of topsoil. The first tree ever seen in the town was welded together from scrap iron. It still sits on a hilltop overlooking the town. Coober Pedy's population is multicultural. 45 nationalities are represented here, making Coober Pedy one of the most ethnically diverse communities in Australia. Mount Gambier is the commercial centre of the SА built on the slopes of an ancient volcano, it’s alternatively known as “Blue Lake City”. East of the city, Umpherston Sinkhole is also known as the Sunken Garden, since it contains Victorian-era terraced gardens – they are floodlit at night when possums come out to feed. Blue Lake is the top tourist attraction in Mount Gambier. Blue Lake changes colour dramatically each year. It is famous for turning from grey in the winter to a deep cobalt blue during the summer months. The exact cause of this phenomenon is still a matter of conjecture. Situated in one of three extinct volcanic craters, the Blue Lake exposes the crystal clear water that has filtered underground through the limestone, passing slowly beneath the city. Blue Lake is thought to be of an average depth of 72 meters, but in places reaches 75 meters deep. The Blue Lake supplies the town with drinking water, providing approximately 3,500 Megalitres per year. No swimming or diving is permitted. Mount Gambier is the highest point in the district, the Historic Centenary Tower commands magnificent views of the Crater Lakes, the city, surrounding district including a coastal outlook. It includes an extensive display of early photographs of the Crater Lakes area. Illuminated at night, the Tower is a spectacular vision, and can be seen from many points around the city and district. The Centenary Tower is open when the flag is flying. Being the third largest island of Australia, Kangaroo Island draws over 140,000 tourists every year. It offers stunning beaches and coastline, cave exploration and an abundance of native wildlife including kangaroos, wallabies, black swans, lion seals and many more. This island is home to a large number of rare animals including koala, common brushtail possum, short-beaked echidna, common ringtail possum, the endangered black cockatoo and platypus. There are also some great camping sites, lagoons and walking tracks. Visitors who want to savor native wildlife, nature, and more will enjoy Kangaroo Island. The island is home to about 4,600 residents. Artwork may be viewed at places like the Kangaroo Island Galley and the Gateway Visitor Information Center. There are a few small towns on the island with most people working in agriculture. Ligurian honey bees make Kangaroo Island well known for its delicious honey. Wineries have also been increasing here.

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state located along the Pacific Ocean in southeastern Australia. New South Wales is the centre of commercial farming, industry, and culture in Australia. It is economically the most important state in Australia. New South Wales has a large aboriginal population; over 50% of the Australian aborigines live in New South Wales and Queensland.
Sydney is the largest and most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. About two-thirds of the state's population lives in the Greater Sydney area. Sydney Tower is the third tallest in Australia, it is also the second tallest observation tower in the Southern Hemisphere. The Sydney Tower is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers. The tower stands 309 m above the Sydney central business district (CBD). The Sydney aquarium is a must visit. It is one of the largest aquariums of the World. There are more than 6000 species of marine life. It is also the centre for research and studies of marine biology. The Aquarium has a series of underwater, see-through, acrylic glass tunnels where the sharks swim above visitors. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is standing 134 meters above the water surface. The bridge is the focal point of many celebrations in Sydney like Sydney Olympics, Christmas Day celebration, New Year celebration. On the Bridge you get to see a panoramic 360-degree view of the famous harbor: the fantastic views of the Opera House and also other wonderful sights of Sydney. The Blue Mountains can be seen in the hazy distance. As the tour winds up, you will be given a Climber Certificate. Sydney Opera House is a top quality theater and also an architectural wonder in our world. Designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon, this spectacular masterpiece is composed of 3 groups of interlocking domed shells that are built upon an enormous platform. Undoubtedly, Sydney takes great pride in this marvelous modern-day wonder. The visitors can take a walk over the central stage, admire the grand concert hall, walk in the orchestra pit and take a look inside the green room. The Blue Mountains are named for the sublime blue mist created by the eucalyptus trees which grow all over the region. This UNESCO World Heritage site offers panoramic views, hiking, rock climbing, and mountain biking. You can see the lush green vegetation, rock walls and flora and fauna of the Blue Mountains National Park and learn about the aboriginal legends associated with the rock formations. There are also more than 400 species of animals found here. There is a world famed collection of toys and dolls, teddy bears, tinplate, ships, automobiles, airplanes, and trains, plus a permanent Barbie Doll exhibition and New South Wales Railway memorabilia in the Toy and Railway Museum. The Blue Mountains and Wildlife Park tour takes you through a world-heritage site - the famous Three Sisters sandstone rock formations. In the Homebush Bay Olympics were held in the year 2000. Byron Bay beaches are considered to be the best in the world. Long stretches of white sand beaches are perfect for relaxing and unwinding. It’s also becoming a happening spot for an increasing number of writers, artists, filmmakers, and mobile lifestyle nomads loving the laid back atmosphere, warm and mild weather, and beautiful beaches. Minus 5 isn't exactly a family location, but it is a highly unique bit of Sydney nightlife! More specifically, Minus 5 is a bar completely made of ice: the chairs, bar, even the glasses! The bar provides you with parkas and other warm accessories, however, despite the wonderful world inside you aren't likely to stay in the frigid weather long. Instead, you can jump over to the next door vodka bar or wine bar as per your taste. Luna Park is Sydney's homegrown version of Disneyland. Now it stands as a National Heritage protected site, providing fun for a whole new generation of kids. The entrance is still through the face, a giant, polyurethane mask nearly 9 m wide. Luna Park Sydney offers more than 20 exciting rides and attractions. The Taronga Zoo of Sydney is one of the best wildlife parks of Australia. The zoo has more than 200 species of animals and birds including the inhabitants of Australia – kangaroo, Koala and other animals.

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic.) is a state in the south-east of Australia. Victoria is Australia's most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall. Most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay. The economy of Victoria is highly diversified: service sectors including financial and property services, health, education, wholesale, retail, hospitality and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Attractions include the snowfields and forests of the Victorian Alps. Fairy penguins at Phillip Island are enchanting. Melbourne served as capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, now it had become the largest city & leading financial centre in Australasia. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is also described as the "sporting capital of Australia". This bayside city is just as passionate for its rugby, cricket and Aussie rules football as it is for its theatre and cultural arts. The 12 Apostles is the name given to a collection of natural limestone stacks that rise up to 46m from the sea off the coast of Port Campbell National Park. There are not actually twelve stacks now, a number have fallen over entirely as their bases are being continually eroded by the force of the waves, diminishing to seven stacks for now, due to erosion there are approx 8 “Apostles” left and from the main viewing point you can only see about 5 of them as the rest are scattered along the coast and are out of site from the main view area. They change colour from dark and foreboding in shadow to brilliant sandy yellow under a full sun. They are located along the spectacular Great Ocean Road. It is an Australian National Heritage listed 243 kilometers stretch of road along the south-eastern coast of Australia. Built by returned soldiers between 1919 and 1932 and dedicated to soldiers killed during World War I, the road is the world's largest war memorial.  Phillip Island and its famous Koala Conservation Centre play host to a special koala breeding program over the year to conserve these important animals. Here you will meet some of the friendly and cute and cuddly native of Australia, catch a glimpse of koala joeys, as they take their first adventures out of the mother’s pouch, learning to climb, find food and meet each other. The Koala Conservation Centre is part of the Phillip Island Nature Parks. The Penguin Parade is very funny when just after dark every night the world’s smallest penguins waddle ashore after spending the day fishing out at sea; they pass right before your eyes on their journey back to their homes. At the Phillip Island Chocolate Factory you may watch the chocolaters at work, as they hand make delicious chocolate varieties using recipes handed down over many generations. The Australian Alps is the highest mountain range in Australia. The Alps are the only bioregion on the Australian mainland in which deep snow falls annually.

Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as "Tassie") is an island located 240 kilometers to the south of Australia, it’s the smallest Australian state. This island off the coast of Australia is best known for its role in the convict era. It still preserves a rich heritage of the era. Hobart is the capital of Tasmania; the city has been described as the most picturesque of all the capital cities of Australia. Being the second-oldest city of Australia, there are many elegant historic buildings. Many of these were erected by convicts during the city's earliest days.  Tasman Bridge is the most famous structure in Hobart; it is 1,417 meters long, longer than the more famous Sydney Harbour Bridge. Its wilderness and the world heritage site of Cradle Mountain - Lake St. Claire are areas of breathtaking natural beauty. Above the picturesque, glacially formed lakes stands Cradle Mountain at 1,545m’s. On the island of Tasmania you’ll find Overland Track, one of Australia’s most famous must-do bush walks. You need about 6 days to complete the entire trek from Cradle Valley to Lake St Clair, north to south. The weather can be unpredictable and extreme, but there are huts along the way for hikers to keep dry and sleep in overnight. Located on a hilltop overlooking the valley and ocean, Rocky Hills Lair Lodge is surrounded by 250 acres of native Australian forest. Only 1% of visitors to the Freycinet National Park have the rare opportunity to see the world famous Wineglass Bay. It is consistently ranked as one of the 10 best and most beautiful beaches in the world. The Tasmanian Blue Gum was proclaimed as the floral emblem of Tasmania. Blue Gum is a tall, straight tree growing to 70 meters in height and 2 meters in trunk diameter under favorable conditions. The cream flowers produce copious nectar which tends to yield a strongly flavored honey. There are endemic animals on the island of Tasmania. Wombats are short-legged, muscular marsupials approximately 1 meter in length, with short, stubby tails. They are found in forested, mountainous areas of Tasmania. Hairy-nosed wombats are rarer; they generally eat grasses and leaves in bush clearings. The short-beaked echidna is one of Tasmania's unique mammal animals. They are monotremes, meaning that they lay eggs despite being warm-blooded. Echidnas grow to about 40 cm in length. They are known as spiny ant-eaters, and use their long snout to feast on ants and termites. The Tasmanian devil is a  marsupial, now found in the wild only on  island state of Tasmania. The size of a small dog, it has a black coat with a white patch on his throat and spots on sides and rump. They are active at night and spend their days hiding in a bush. The devil is an iconic symbol of Tasmania and many organizations use it in their logos.

Australian Capital Territory (abbreviated ACT) is a territory in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. It is the smallest self-governing internal territory in Australia. The only city and the most populous community is Canberra, the capital city of Australia. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory also contains agricultural land (sheep, dairy, vineyards and small amounts of crops) and a large area of national park (Namadgi National Park), much of it mountainous and forested. The site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an entirely planned city outside of any state, similar to the American Federal District of Columbia. The ACT, like Washington, D.C. in the United States, is independent of any state. Unlike Washington, however, the ACT has voting representation in the Federal Parliament, and has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government. Australia's Parliament House is one of Canberra's landmarks. The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organizations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. The memorial includes an extensive national military museum. It was opened in 1941, and is widely regarded as one of the most significant memorials of its type in the world. Namadgi National Park is in the south-west of the Australian Capital Territory, The Park protects part of the northern end of the Australian Alps with its spectacular granite mountains. Its habitat ranges from grassy plains over snow gum forests to alpine meadows.  In November 2008 The Park was added to the Australian National Heritage List as one of eleven areas constituting the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves. The Australian National Botanic Gardens (ANBG) located in Canberra are a collection of native Australian flora, the mission of the ANBG is to "study and promote Australia's flora". The area on Black Mountain of about 40 hectares is currently developed as the Botanic Gardens. The gardens maintain a wide variety of botanical resources for researchers and cultivate native plants threatened in the wild. Space communications NASA in the southern hemisphere of the earth, Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) at Tidbinbilla plays a crucial role in the DSN (Deep Space Network). The DSN is made of up three tracking stations from around the world — Canberra (Australia), Goldstone (California) and Madrid (Spain). It controls spacecraft travelling through the solar system and receives the data they send back. Together, the three stations provide around-the-clock contact with more than 40 spacecraft, including missions to study Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Pluto, the Moon and the Sun. View of the Canberra Complex showing the 70m antenna and the 34m antennas. The National Gallery of Australia is the national art museum of Australia as well as the largest art museum in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art.

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