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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Научные работы / Статья обо всех президентах США, включая Барака Обаму.

Статья обо всех президентах США, включая Барака Обаму.

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All American presidents

1.George Washington

First. the President of the USA George Washington – the only President to have received 100% of electoral votes. He also became the first President whose image got on the stamp.

One of the richest U.S. presidents - the state of Washington (plantations, real estate, etc.) can be estimated at 900 million at current exchange rate.

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1735-1826

1797-1801

F

2.John Adams

Adams was the first owner built it the White house (then so called).

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1743-1826

1801-09


3.Thomas Jefferson

The author of the Declaration of independence (1776), 3rd President of the United States in 1801-1809, one of the founding fathers of this state, an outstanding politician, diplomat and philosopher of the Enlightenment. The main events of his presidency, successful for the country, was the purchase from France of Louisiana (1803) and the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806).

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1751-1836

1809-17


4. James Madison

As President, he banned to maintain any relations with England and France until the abolition of regulations that impede trade with these neutral countries. When the French government lifted its restrictive orders Madison gave permission to trade with France, but upheld the ban against England. This was the reason of the war with England in 1812, the war that caused great damage to the U.S. economy.

The most low President of the United States – his height was 163 cm.

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1758--1831

1817-25


5.James Monroe

one of the organizers of the Louisiana purchase and the developer of the concept of foreign policy called the Monroe doctrine.

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1767-1848

1825-29


6.John Quincy Adams

Adams died in Washington during the session of Congress, February 28, 1848 Among the statesmen of the old American school, he was the most clever and experienced diplomat in relations with Europe.

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1767-1845

1829-37

DP

7.Andrew Jackson

Critics of Jackson have argued that held on the initiative of the abolition of the Central Bank and transfer the money issue in private hands led to the crisis. Against this criticism was made by Murray Rothbard in "the History of money and banking in the United States."

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1782-1862

1837-41

DP

8.Martin Van Buren

First van Buren had to end with financial difficulties, reached in recent years, the management of Jackson its climax. To this end, he proposed to finally separate the finances of the state banks and to organize the state Treasury in Washington and its departments in the provincial towns. This project, however, was strongly rejected, and the popularity of van Buren declined.

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1773-1841

??.03.-04.04.1841

Whigs

9.William Henry Harrison

The shortest presidential term (March-April 1841):suffered the whole bouquet of diseases Harrison took office on March 4, 1841года, and already on April 4 died.

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1790-1862

1841-45

Whigs

10.John Tyler

Container was the large President in US history. He had 8 children by his first wife and 7 from the latter. His 15th child was born when the President was in his seventies.

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1795-1849

1845-49

DP

11. James Knox Polk

His term was marked by major territorial acquisitions of the United States since the Louisiana purchase: was conquered from Mexico the new Mexico California during the Mexican-American war and ceded by England to Oregon. The United States has gained access to the second ocean and became a major Pacific power.

Modern historians typically include a Shelf list of the most outstanding presidents of the United States.

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1784-1850

1849-50

Whigs

12.Zachary Taylor

The second President of the United States, not occupied before entering the White house, no other government post (the first was the founder of the state, George Washington)

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1800-74

1850-53

Whigs

13. Millard Fillmore

The last President from the Whig party USA and the second, who took the post upon the death of a predecessor. Then twice ran for President independently, but both times unsuccessfully. Fillmore, like his immediate successors, pierce and Buchanan, generally considered one of the worst US presidents in history.

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1804-69

1853-57

DP

14.Franklin Pierce

Elected in 1852, by a large majority to the presidency of the United States as the candidate of the democratic party (48-year-old pierce, a "dark horse" of his party, was at that time the youngest elected President, besides attractive and a good speaker), it is during his administration (1853-1857) has disappointed its voters. Flabby pier, faced with serious setbacks, had become a chronic alcoholic and withdrew from politics. He died from cirrhosis of the liver.

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1791-1868

1857-61

DP

15. James Buchanan

the only US President that was not married. He was once engaged, but his fiancee broke off the engagement and died shortly afterwards. Consensus historians traditionally believes Buchanan the worst US presidents in history; this opinion, however, is disputed by some authors.

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1809-65

1861-65

RP

16. Abraham Lincoln

The civil war was the bloodiest military conflict in the history of the United States and the most difficult challenge for American democracy. Abraham Lincoln became the Central historical figure in consciousness of the American people, a man, to prevent the collapse of the United States and made a significant contribution to the development of the American nation and the abolition of slavery as the main barriers for further normal development of the country. Lincoln marked the beginning of modernization of the South the emancipation of slaves. He belongs to the wording of the main goals of democracy: "Government by the people, by the people and for the people". His presidency was also laid the transcontinental railroad to the Pacific, expanded infrastructure system created a new banking system, solved the agrarian problem. However, at the end of the war the country faced many challenges, including the unity of the nation and the adjustment of the rights of blacks and whites. Partly, these problems still face American society. After the assassination of Lincoln the United States economy for a long time became the fastest growing economy in the world, allowing the country in the early twentieth century to become a world leader. Much to his personal qualities made it possible to mobilize forces and to reunite the country. Lincoln adhered to strict moral principles and ethics, had a sense of humor , but was inclined to strong melancholy. To this day Abraham Lincoln is considered one of the most intellectual presidents of the United States. In gratitude of the American people in Washington, the sixteenth President Abraham Lincoln erected a memorial as one of the four presidents that shaped the historical development of the United States of America.

Was the tallest American President was – his height составлял193 centimeter.

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1808-75

1865-69

DP

17. Andrew Johnson Never went to school. Literacy taught him a wife.

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1822-85

1869-77

RP

18. Ulysses Simpson Grant

General of the U.S. army from March 4, 1869 to March 4, 1877 — 18th U.S. President; despite his enduring fame as a military leader, historians consider his presidency quite restrained.

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1822-93

1877-81

RP

19. Of Of Rutherford B. Hayes

Enlisting in March of 1877 for the presidency, Hayes put his political program final reconciliation between the Northern and southern States, the restoration of a metallic currency and to eradicate bribery in the administration. Corruption to get rid of him failed, but in spite of strong opposition in Congress in the face of so-called grinaker — supporters of paper money, he spent the law of metal currency.

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1831-81

??.??.-19.09.1881

RP

20. James Abram Garfield

President James Garfield was fluent in both hands and was a polyglot. He could simultaneously write with one hand in Greek and the other Latin.

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1830-86

1881-85

RP

21. Chester Alan Arthur

President Arthur held a new reform of the civil service, the results of which remained for quite a long time; it is called the "father of civil service". Despite initial unpopularity, Arthur coped with presidential powers more than successful, and by the end of the term he won universal appreciation from tachoscope, like mark TWAIN, always laughing over politicians.

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1837-1908

1885-89

DP

22. Stephen Grover Cleveland

Was the only President of the United States, who played the wedding directly to the White house.

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1833-1901

1889-93

RP

23.Benjamin Harrison

With Harrison in the White house was electricity, he was the first President to record his voice for the phonograph, and the last President who wore a beard during his stay in office.

During his presidency, has been formed the following States: North and South Dakota, Montana, Washington (1889), Idaho and Wyoming (1890).

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1837-1908

1893-97

DP

24. Stephen Grover Cleveland

The only person who held the presidential post for two terms not in a row, Democrat Grovelling.

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1843-1901

1897-1901

RP

25. William McKinley

In honor of McKinley named mount McKinley in Alaska, highest point in North America. There was also a proposal to rename in honor of McKinley Philippines

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1858-1919

1901-09

RP

26. Theodore Roosevelt

The youngest President was

Theodore Roosevelt

became President without elections, when he was 42 years, 10 months and 18 days.

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1857-1930

1909-13

RP

27. William Howard Taft

Was the heaviest U.S. President – he weighed more 135кг.

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1856-1924

1913-21

DP

28. Thomas Woodrow Wilson Wilson was the first US President to visit an official visit to Europe, attending the Paris peace conference. Wilson's proposal was the basis of the Treaty of Versailles.

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1865-1923

1921-23

RP

29. Warren G. Harding

A supporter of laissez-faire economy. After two years of unpopular rule marked a huge number of scandals in the administration, Harding died August 2, 1923 in San Francisco during a tour of the Western States, presumably from a massive heart attack. After his death, widespread rumors about the poisoning, and, among other suspicion fell also on his wife. Harding is known as a lover of the Bohemian lifestyle (poker, addicted to drinks, love Affairs) that he has not changed and in time of his presidency

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1872-1933

1923-29

RP

30. Calvin Coolidge Coolidge, the Board, relying on the principle of non-interference in the economy was quite successful; States experienced rapid economic growth ("Prosperity", "the Roaring twenties"). Along with the theme of the next Board (with G. Hoover), this success turned into a powerful crisis (the great depression). At Coolidge, the Indians received full American citizenship; however, African Americans were not allowed, and the 1920-ies was marked by the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and the courts Lynch.

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1874-1964

1929-33

RP

31. Herbert Clark Hoover

the reign of Hoover, elected President in 1928, was marked by a severe economic crisis — the great depression; the policy of laissez faire(government noninterference in the economy) has demonstrated its complete bankruptcy. Faded and reputation of Hoover as a good Manager, despite a number of attempts to reduce the scale of the crisis — at the time a very bold attempts (tax increases and increased government spending caused even the Association with the left and socialist politics).Traditionally, Hoover blamed as the President who failed to offer an effective exit strategy from the situation, like a New course for his successor Roosevelt.

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1882-1945

1933-45

DP

32. Franklin Delano Roosevelt

The longest presidency was occupied by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945). He was the only one who won the elections four times. Roosevelt showed himself as an extraordinary, flexible policies, sensitive to the situation, able to match trends and promptly and accurately respond to changes in the mood of all sections of society. Staying true son of his class, Roosevelt was doing everything to preserve and develop the existing socio-economic system in the country and strengthen the dominant position of the US throughout the world. Roosevelt always remained sober and pragmatic politician. Four times re-elected to the presidency (which is a record in US history) and occupied it until his death April 12, 1945 (death from bleeding in the brain).

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1884-1972

1945-53

DP

33. Harry Truman

Ordered the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One of the initiators of the creation of NATO (National Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO).

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1890-1969

1953-61

RP

34. Dwight David Eisenhower

Eisenhower ended the war in Korea and sought to resume the Soviet-American summit (Geneva, 1955 and camp David, 1959). However, he was firmly convinced of the reality of the Communist threat and the need to strengthen American national security.

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1917-63

1961-63

DP

35. John Fitzgerald Kennedy

Kennedy is first President USA Catholic, first President born in the twentieth century, the youngest elected President in the country's history. A two-year presidency of Kennedy, interrupted by his mysterious assassination, marked by the Cuban missile crisis, serious steps by the equation of black rights, the beginning of the U.S. space program "Apollo".

John F. Kennedy was assassinated on 22 November 1963 in Dallas (Texas), during a route of the presidential motorcade through the streets of the city heard the shots. The first bullet struck the President in the back of the neck and out the front of the throat, the second hit the head and caused the destruction of the bones of the skull occipital portion, as well as damage to the brain substance. President Kennedy was taken to the operating room, where, half an hour after the assassination, he was diagnosed with his death.

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1908-73

1963-68

DP

36.Lyndon Johnson

November 22, 1963 Kennedy was assassinated,and then Johnson began the duties of President. Johnson(who was riding in the same motorcade as the President) assumed the duties of the President, oath aboard the presidential plane No. 1, standing at the airport in Dallas, just before the departure to Washington.

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1913-94

1968-74

RP

37. Richard Milhouse Nixon, the Only President of the United States, to prematurely terminate his powers and has resigned. It happened after the scandal known as "Watergate", and accusations, which threatened him with impeachment. Nixon is usually considered among the most notorious presidents (although emphasizing the contradictory figures: foreign policy successes, harsh effective management style).

During his reign, American astronauts landed on the moon.

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1913-

1974-77

RP

38. Gerald Rudolph Ford

The short reign of the Ford was marked by a continuation of the policy of detente in relations with the USSR; so he paid a visit to the Soviet Union and met with Brezhnev in Vladivostok. Controversial assessment led to the decision of Ford to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon (September 8) for all offences revealed and not revealed that he could commit during the presidency (since the impeachment of Nixon in the U.S. Senate did not have time to begin with his resignation, the President was entitled to such a pardon). Ford was organized a few assassination attempts.

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1924-

1977-81

DP

39. James (Jimmy) Earl Carter

Was the only US President who has published several novels.

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1911-

1981-89

RP

40. Ronald Wilson Reagan was supporter of least government intervention in the regulation of the economy. Such views he held as Governor and successfully implemented them in this post. His economic policy is to stimulate the production in combination with decreasing taxes for the wealthy population — was later nicknamed Reaganomics. Survived the assassination attempt (1981). Conducted military operations abroad, including in Grenada and against Libya. In 1984 he was re-elected for a second term an absolute majority, defeating Walter Mondale.

The second term in office was marked by substantial steps forward to the end of the cold war. But his administration was also involved in many scandals, the largest of which was the "Iran—contra". The President has promoted a policy of "Peace through strengthening", which was reflected in the arms race with the Soviet Union, rejecting the previous model the discharge and going to a direct confrontation with communism. He called the Soviet Union an evil Empire and openly supported anti-Communist movements worldwide (the Reagan Doctrine). He later held talks with General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Mikhail Gorbachev on the reduction of the nuclear Arsenal. Reagan left office in 1989

Reagan's successor was George Bush senior, the former at both time Vice-President. In 1994 Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. In 1995 was awarded "Keeper of the Flame" from the Center for security policy of the United States. He died in 2004 at the age of 93 years. About it the film "the Reagans" (The Reagans, 2003).

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1924-

1989-93

RP

41. George Herbert Walker Bush

Was permanent US representative to the UN in 1971-1973 In 1976-1977 — the Director of the CIA, in 1981-1989, he was Vice President of the United States in the administration of his predecessor, Ronald Reagan. In 1982, 1984 and 1985 represented the United States at the funeral of the Soviet leader. His presidency saw the collapse of the Warsaw Pact, COMECON, and later the Soviet Union (1990-1991; the coalition led by the United States successfully carried out the operation "desert Storm" freed Kuwait from Iraqi occupation (1991). In August 1991, paid a visit to the USSR, in their speeches in Kiev supported Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.

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1946-

1993-2001

DP

42. William (Bill) Jefferson Clinton

Made most trips abroad – he visited 133 countries.

Sex scandal bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky political scandal in США1998 year resulting from short-term sexual relations between the 42 th U.S. President bill Clinton and a 25-year-old Intern Monica Lewinsky. This information and subsequent investigation led to the attempted impeachment of bill Clinton in 1998, it came to a vote in the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice. In 1995 Monica Lewinsky, a graduate, was hired to work at the White House. Communicating with U.S. President bill Clinton, persuaded him to short-term sexual relationship, which lasted two days. Then left the White House to work at the Pentagon and stopped to chat with the President, reported the employee of the Department of defense of Linda Tripp, who secretly kept a record of telephone conversations. In January 1998 the investigation began, Kenneth Old, who had investigated many other political scandals. Reports of the scandal appeared on 17 January 1998, at websites,on 21 January 1998 in the Washington post. On January 26, President Clinton said something like this: "I did not have sexual relations with miss Lewinsky". "First lady" Hillary Clinton publicly supported her husband during the scandal and said that this story was a plot against the President. July 28, Lewinsky under oath stated to the jury that he had sexual relations with Clinton, including oral sex, which could be supported with evidence and the testimony of Tripp. August 17, Clinton said at the trial that "he had an inappropriate physical relationship with Lewinsky". However, earlier in the judicial process in the Paula Jones case, Clinton claimed that he did not have sexual relations with Lewinsky, which later served as the basis for the prosecution of Clinton for perjury. Protection Clinton pointed to the vagueness of the term "sexual relations".

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1946-

2001-2009

RP

43. George W. Bush (George Walker Bush) Bush is constantly criticized for aaa

In 2003, Bush initiated an attack on Iraq to overthrow Saddam Hussein. The pretext for the war was Bush's statement about the presence in Iraq of weapons of mass destruction. A new blow to the image of Bush was the flood in New Orleans caused by hurricane Katrina in late August - early September 2005, when inundated 80 % of the city; due to the fact that it was taken is not enough. In 2007, Bush was an active supporter of placing U.S. anti-missile defense in Eastern Europe, have also advocated early membership of Georgia and Ukraine into NATO.

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1961

2009-2016

DP

44.Barack Hussein Obama II (Barack Hussein Obama II)

After the victory of Barack Obama in the presidential election increased the number of cases of religious and racial intolerance; 22 Jan 2009 signed a decree on closure during the year the prison for terrorism suspects at the us military base of Guantanamo (Cuba). In 2009, Obama has twice increased the American contingent in Afghanistan. In February there were sent 17,000 troops. In December, Obama announced sending 30,000 more troops, stressing that the U.S. is not interested in the occupation of Afghanistan. Currently, the U.S. contingent in Afghanistan already has about 70,000 troops, and after the arrival of reinforcements will reach 100,000, which is comparable with the size of the Soviet contingent at the peak of the war, the Soviet Union in Afghanistan (about 109 000). Obama spoke for allowing abortion, including late-term abortions. During discussion in the U.S. about the law prohibiting abortion method, the so-called partial birth wrote that if he were elected, would be tirelessly defended this method of abortion as a legitimate medical procedure. He also participated in the development of programs to prevent teenage pregnancies, including by means of distribution of contraceptives and educational programs on sexual education for teenagers.

DP - Democratic party (1828); RP - Republican party (1854); f - Federalists (con. 18 - nach. 19 centuries); The Whigs (1834-54)



























































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Автор
Дата добавления 20.11.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Научные работы
Номер материала ДБ-372217
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