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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Статьи / Статья "Обучение профессионально ориентированной лексике студентов юридических специальностей профессиональных образовательных учреждений" (из опыта работы)
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Статья "Обучение профессионально ориентированной лексике студентов юридических специальностей профессиональных образовательных учреждений" (из опыта работы)

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ОБУЧЕНИЕ

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО ОРИЕНТИРОВАННОЙ ЛЕКСИКЕ

СТУДЕНТОВ ЮРИДИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ


Шишкевич С.А., преподаватель английского языка НОУ «Гуманитарный техникум экономики и права»


В современных условиях расширения международных экономических связей существует потребность в подготовке высококвалифицированных специалистов с таким уровнем владения иностранными языками, который позволяет осуществлять непосредственное общение с зарубежными партнерами в профессиональной деятельности. В контексте обучения английскому языку студентов неязыковых специальностей профессиональных образовательных учреждений актуальной задачей является овладение ими знаниями терминов специальности и получение навыков и умений использовать узкоспециализированную лексику для выполнения учебных профессионально ориентированных заданий, направленных на дальнейшее общение.

Хотя знание английского языка само по себе уже является ценным навыком, без знания юридической английской терминологии юристы будут не в состоянии понять слова и выражения, потому что английский для юристов существенно отличается от традиционного английского языка. Этот феномен можно назвать «язык в языке». Знание юридического английского является отдельным навыком для профессионального юриста.

В современной методике проблема обучения профессионально ориентированной лексике освещается достаточно широко. Однако вопросы формирования профессионально ориентированной лексической компетенции у студентов-юристов не являются решенными в полной мере. В связи с этим в преподавательской среде достаточно ясно осознана необходимость

дальнейшего совершенствования методики формирования профессионально ориентированной лексической компетенции у студентов юридических специальностей.

Основная проблема состоит в том, что студентам предлагается за короткий срок освоить достаточно большое количество специальной лексики, проработать множество текстов, научиться применять грамматические правила в профессиональной лексике, да еще ко всему прочему, понять основы правовых систем, так как без фоновых знаний понимание специальной литературы невозможно.

Одна из основных задач, которая стоит перед преподавателями иностранных языков в неязыковом учебном заведении – научить студентов юридических специальностей понимать и переводить профессиональные тексты с иностранного языка на русский.

Существует насущная необходимость подготовки специалистов, способных точно переводить юридические тексты разных жанров в письменной и устной форме. Без специальных учебников и словарей такая задача является трудно выполнимой, поскольку в настоящее время учащимся предлагаются пособия по юридическому переводу, содержащие переводные эквиваленты отдельных терминов и терминологических словосочетаний. При этом не ставится задача ознакомиться с различиями между двумя правовыми системами, хотя без изучения соотношения англо-американских юридических терминов с их русскими эквивалентами качественный специальный перевод невозможен.

Профессиональное общение подразумевает не только свободное владение иностранным языком в пределах возможных социальных контактов, но и свободное владение профессионально ориентированной лексикой, которой студент овладевает в процессе чтения литературы по специальности. Условия профессионально ориентированного обучения студентов

юридических специальностей иностранному языку:

- чтение аутентичных текстов,

- необходимость ознакомления обучающихся с общей и юридической терминосистемой права,

- формирование навыков самостоятельной работы по созданию индивидуального словаря и овладение умениями устного профессионального общения, протекающего как сценарии самых распространенных ситуаций повседневного общения, необходимых и для профессиональной коммуникации.

Для того чтобы подготовить будущего студента юридической специальности к обсуждению проблематики, составляющей содержание его профессиональной подготовки, необходимо подобрать тексты по праву, позволяющие формировать умения прагматического характера, которые бы давали студенту возможность ориентироваться в литературе по специальности.

Современные условия развития общества диктуют новую модель преподавания иностранного языка, позволяющую достаточно быстро и качественно обучить студентов не только рецептивным, репродуктивным, но и продуктивным творческим видам речевой деятельности.

Процесс интеграции в мировую систему образования требует первостепенного формирования готовности специалиста осуществлять свою профессиональную деятельность посредством языкового сотрудничества с представителями других социумов. Без компетентного владения специалистом профессиональным иностранным языком своей специальности такое сотрудничество является неосуществимым. Современные условия на рынке труда требует от образовательных учреждений необходимость подготовки компетентных специалистов, владеющих профессиональным иностранным языком, способных постоянно совершенствовать свой опыт, развивать свою индивидуальность, в том числе и с помощью иностранного языка – через приобщение к профессиональной коммуникации на данном языке.


Ниже в приложениях (приложения 1,2,3) я предлагаю примеры материалов для обучения студентов, обучающихся по специальности 40.02.01 Право и организация социального обеспечения, профессиональной лексике на занятиях по английскому языку.

В Приложении 1предлагаются примерные тексты профессиональной направленности. К текстовому материалу необходимо составить задания на понимание прочитанного, закрепление и отработку лексики, применение изученных ЛЕ и РО в собственной речи.

В Приложении 2 подобраны слова для лексической работы. Такой вид заданий поможет студентам лучше запомнить большое количество слов, научиться употреблять их в речи.

Приложение 3 содержит различные виды упражнений, которые целесообразно и полезно применять на занятиях в целях закрепления профессиональной лексики.










Приложение 1

Texts

International Law (Международное право)

International law is a body of laws, regulations, and accepted practices by which different nations through the world interact with each other as well as with their own citizens and citizens of other countries. There are two basic categories of International Law, public International Law and private International Law, although the two tend to overlap frequently. Public International Law deals with relationships between different nations or between a nation and persons from another country. Private International Law generally deals with individual concerns, such as civil or human rights issues, not only between a government and its own citizens but also in how its citizens are treated by other nations.


International Law is developed and agreed upon by those that make up the international system, but not every nation state is a member or has a part in the process. Most nations are said to comply with International Law, but that appears questionable considering the number of human rights violations still occurring around the world. While the International community does attempt to hold all nations to International Law, it is not always feasible. Force may be necessary in order to ensure compliance, and the International community is generally against the use of force except in the direst circumstances.


There are also cultural issues that play a part in acceptance of and compliance (соответствие) with International Law. Some nations have a theocratic, or religious, government rather than a secular one and feel more bound to the tenets of their faith than to man-made law. In some cases, what most of the world views as human rights violations according to International Law, may be viewed by some nations as acceptable actions or punishments prescribed by religion. This can create very sensitive situations.


The United Nations (UN) is probably the most well recognized of all International institutions. It has influence over the world community as whole as well as individual nations. The UN is supposed to establish and protect peace and cooperation between nations and to ensure that people are treated humanely by their own as well as by other governments and groups.


While many nations have agreed to the UN Charter (Устав ООН), they still retain sovereignty. Few would agree to live completely under UN rule, especially in light of recent scandals and the inability of the institution to achieve its goals. The United Nations has unfortunately been plagued by scandals and perceived incompetence over the years. Critics give the Oil for Food program and the ineffectiveness in protecting human rights in the Rwanda genocide and more recently the Darfur region of Sudan, as examples.


As the world seems to grow smaller, with people interacting on a global scale, International Law seems to make sense. However, it must continue to evolve and it must be applied evenhandedly (беспристрастно). It is also necessary for those with the duty to enforce it to be seen as being up to the task.

Social Inequality (Социальное неравенство)


Economic inequality refers to disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income. The term typically refers to inequality among individuals and groups within a society, but can also refer to inequality among nations. There is debate as to what equality should mean. Some think in terms of Equality of opportunity and others in terms of Equality of outcome.


Economic inequality has always existed; its nature, cause and importance are open to broad debate. A country's economic structure or system (such as capitalism, socialism and everything in between), ongoing or past wars, and individuals' different abilities to create wealth are all involved in the creation of economic inequality.


Economic inequality among different individuals or social groups is best measured within a single country. This is due to the fact that country-specific factors tend to obscure inter-country comparisons of individuals' incomes. A single nation will have more or less inequality depending on the social and economic structure of that country.


Causes of Inequality

There are many reasons for economic inequality within societies. These causes are often inter-related and complex. For example, race differences and wealth condensation are different causes but can be highly correlated within a population. The relationship between cause and effect can also be non-linear and complex. For example, economic inequality decreases the amount of social cohesion within society, leading to greater inequality. Among the acknowledged factors that impact economic inequality in some part are the labour market, innate ability, education, race, gender, culture, wealth condensation etc.


The Labour Market

One of the major reasons there is economic inequality within modern market economies is because wages are determined by a market, and are hence influenced by supply and demand. In this view, inequality is caused by the differences in the supply and demand for different types of work.


A job where there are many willing workers (high supply) but only a small number of positions (low demand) will result in a low wage for that job. This is because competition between workers drives down the wage. An example of this would be low-skill jobs such as dish-washing or customer service. Competition amongst workers tend to drive down the wage since if any one worker demands a higher wage the employer can simply hire another employee at an equally low wage.


A job where there are few willing workers (low supply) but a large demand for the skills these workers have will results in high wages for that job. This is because competition between employers will drive up the wage. An example of this would be high-skill jobs such as engineers or capable CEOs. Competition amongst employers tend to drive up wages since if any one employer demands a low wage, the worker can simply quit and easily find a new job at a higher wage.


While the above examples tend to identify skill with high demand and wages, this is not necessarily the case. For example, highly skilled computer programmers in western countries have seen their wages suppressed by competition from equally skilled workers in India who are willing to accept a lower wage.


Innate ability

Many people believe that there is a connection between differences in innate ability, such as intelligence, strength, or charisma, and between an individual’s levels of wealth. Relating these innate abilities back to the labour market suggests that such innate abilities are in high demand relative to their supply and hence play a large role in increasing the wage of those who have them. Contrary wise, such innate abilities might also affect an individual’s ability to operate within society in general, regardless of the labour market. Various studies conducted on the correlation between IQ scores and wealth/income show that it is fairly difficult to come towards an objective conclusion on whether or not there is a relationship between intelligence and wealth/income.


Education

One important factor in the creation of inequality is the variable ability of individuals to get an education. Education, especially education in an area where there is a high demand for workers, creates high wages for those with this education. Contrary wise, those who are unable to afford an education generally receive much lower wages. Many economists believe that a major reason the world has experienced increasing levels of inequality since the 1980s is because of an increase in the demand for highly skilled workers in high-tech industries. They believe that this has resulted in an increase in wages for those with an education, but has not increased the wages of those without an education, leading to greater inequality.


Gender, Race, and Culture

The existence of different genders, races and cultures within a society is also thought to contribute to economic inequality. The idea of the gender gap tries to explain the reasons there are different levels of income for different genders. Culture and religion are thought to play a role in creating inequality by either encouraging or discouraging wealth-acquiring behavior and providing a basis for discrimination. It is felt that in many countries individuals belonging to certain racial and ethnic minorities are found more often among the poor than others.


Development patterns Simon Kuznets argued that levels of economic inequality are in large part the result of stages of development. Kuznets saw a curve-like relationship between level of income and inequality. This relationship is now known as Kuznets curve. Supposedly, countries with low levels of development have relatively equal distributions of wealth. As a country develops, it acquires more capital, which leads to the owners of this capital having more wealth and income and introducing inequality. Eventually, through a variety of possible redistribution mechanisms such as social welfare programs, more developed countries move back to lower levels of inequality.


Wealth Condensation

Wealth condensation is a theoretical process by which, in certain conditions, newly-created wealth tends to become concentrated in the possession of already-wealthy individuals or entities. This is reflected in the common saying 'the rich get richer and the poor get poorer'. According to this theory, those who already hold wealth have the means to invest in new sources of creating or accumulation of wealth, thus are the beneficiaries of the new wealth.


As an example of wealth condensation, truck drivers who own their own trucks consistently make more money than those who do not since the owner of a truck can escape the rent charged to drivers by owners (Even taking into account maintenance and other costs). Hence, a truck driver who has wealth to begin with can afford to buy his own truck in order to make more money. A truck driver who does not own his own truck makes a lesser wage and is therefore unable to buy his own truck to increase his income.


Related to wealth condensation are the effects of inter generational inequality. It has been noted that the rich tend to provide their offspring with a better education, increasing their chances of achieving a high amount of income. Furthermore, the wealthy often leave their offspring with a substantial inheritance, jump starting the process of wealth condensation for the next generation.


Mitigating Factors

There are many factors that tend to constrain the amount of economic inequality within society. Progressive taxation, where the rich are taxed more than poor, is effective at reducing the amount of income inequality in society. The Nationalization or subsidization of essential goods and services such as food, healthcare, education, and housing is also thought to reduce the amount of inequality in society. By providing goods and services that everyone needs for cheap or free, governments can effectively increase the disposable income of the poorer members of society.

Effects of Inequality:

Social Cohesion Research has shown a clear link between income inequality and social cohesion. In more equal societies, people are much more likely to trust each other, measures of social capital suggest greater community involvement, and homicide rates are lower. There is a very strong correlation between socioeconomic status and health. This correlation suggests that it is not only the poor who tend to be sick when everyone else is healthy, but that there is a continual gradient, from the top to the bottom of the socioeconomic ladder, relating status to health. Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to chronic stress, heart disease, ulcers, diabetes, certain types of cancer, and premature aging.


The concept of psychosocial stress attempts to explain how psychosocial phenomenon such as status and social stratification can lead to the many diseases. Higher levels of economic inequality tend to intensify social hierarchies and generally degrades the quality of social relations - leading to greater levels of stress and stress related diseases.


Economic Incentives

Many people accept inequality as a given, and argue that the prospect of greater material wealth provides incentives for competition and innovation within an economy. Some modern economic theories have suggested that a functioning economy requires a certain level of unemployment. These theories argue that unemployment benefits must be below the wage level to provide an incentive to work. Several recent economists have investigated the relationship between inequality and economic growth arguing that inequality reduces growth in poor countries and helps growth in rich ones.


Views on Inequality

In most western democracies, the desire to eliminate or reduce economic inequality is generally associated with the political left. The main practical argument in favor of reduction is the idea that economic inequality reduces social cohesion and increases social unrest, thereby weakening the society. There is evidence that this is true and it is intuitively true, at least for small face-to-face groups of people. Also, there is the argument that economic inequality translates to political inequality, which further aggravates the problem.


The acceptance of economic inequality is generally associated with the political right or at least that section of the right that is concerned with economics. The main practical argument in favor of the acceptance of economic inequality is that, as long as the cause is mainly due to differences in behavior, the inequality serves as an economic engine to push the society towards economically healthy and efficient behavior, and is therefore beneficial.



Sources of Law of the United States

(Источники права в США)


The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. However, the supreme law of the land is the United States Constitution and, under the Constitution's Supremacy Clause [Supremacy Clause положение о верховенстве (общенационального права) Фундаментальное конституционное положение, изложенное в статье VI Конституции США, о примате общенационального (федерального) закона над законами штатов.], laws enacted by Congress and treaties to which the U.S. is a party. These form the basis for federal laws under the federal constitution in the United States, limiting the boundaries of the jurisdiction [юрисдикция, территория в подведомственности органа власти] of federal law and the laws in the fifty U.S. states and territories.


In the United States, the law is derived from four sources. These four sources are constitutional law [конституционное право, государственное право], administrative law [административное право], statutes [закон, законодательный акт парламента; статут, statutory law статутное право, право, основанное на законодательных актах], and the common law (which includes case law). The most important source of law is the United States Constitution, and everything falls under [попадать в (сферу действия чего-л.)], and is subordinate to, it. No law may contradict the United States Constitution. For example, if Congress passes a statute that conflicts with the constitution, the Supreme Court may find that law unconstitutional, and strike it down [опротестовать, расторгнуть].

American common law

Although the United States and most Commonwealth countries are heirs to the common law legal tradition of English law, American law tends to be unique in many ways. This is because the American legal system was separated from the British system by the Revolution, and afterwards, it evolved independently from the British Commonwealth legal systems. Therefore, when attempting to trace the development of traditional judge-made common law principles, that is, the few that have not already been overridden by newer laws, American courts will look at British cases only up to the early 19th century.

Federal law [федеральное право, федеральный закон]

Federal law in the United States originates with the Constitution, which gives Congress the power to enact statutes for certain limited purposes like regulating commerce. Nearly all statutes have been codified in the United States Code [Кодекс Соединенных Штатов Многотомный свод федеральных законов и поправок к ним. Переиздается раз в шесть лет, в остальные годы выходят приложения-ежегодники. Состоит из 50 тематических разделов; первые 6 посвящены законам общего характера, остальные публикуются в алфавитном порядке]. Many statutes give executive branch agencies the power to create regulations, which are published in the Code of Federal Regulations ["Свод федеральных нормативных актов" Собрание нормативных актов федерального правительства США, официальное издание правительственной документации] and also carry the force of law. Many law suits [судебный процесс; иск; тяжба] give a federal statute or regulation the meaning, and judicial interpretations of such meaning carry legal force under the principle of stare decisis ["стоять на решенном" ("принятое решение остается в силе") Принцип общего права [common law], применяемого в США, согласно которому решение, принятое судом более высокой инстанции (обычно Верховным судом США или штата), имеет силу прецедента и становится обязательным для всех аналогичных дел и для всех судов низшей инстанции и остается таковым до принятия нового решения с отменой предыдущего].

State Law [право штата; закон штата]

The fifty American states are separate and sovereign ones with their own constitutions and retain plenary power [полномочия] to make laws covering anything not reserved by the federal Constitution or federal statutes. Nearly all states started with the same British common law base, although Louisiana law has always been strongly influenced by the French Napoleonic Code, but the passage of time has resulted in enormous diversity in the laws of the states. Over time, state courts expanded the old common law rules in different directions (through their traditional power to make law under stare decisions), and state legislatures passed various statutes expanding or overriding [иметь преимущественное юридическое действие] such judge-made rules.


Unlike other common law jurisdictions, all American states have codified some or all of their statutory law into legal codes, which was an idea borrowed from the civil law through the efforts of American lawyer David Dudley Field. New York's codes are known as "Laws." California and Texas simply call them "Codes." Most other states use "Revised Statutes [статут с внесёнными в него поправками]," "Compiled Statutes [сборник действующего законодательства; свод законов]," or some other name for their codes. California, New York, and Texas have separate subject-specific codes, while all other states and the federal government use a single code divided into numbered titles.


In some states, codification is often treated as a mere [простой] restatement [свод права, свод норм] of the common law. Judges are free to liberally interpret the codes unless and until their interpretations are specifically overridden by the legislature. In other states, there is a tradition of strict adherence [строгое соблюдение] to the plain text of the codes.


In jurisdictions with uncodified statutes, like the United Kingdom, it is much harder to determine what the current law is. One has to trace back to the earliest relevant Act of Parliament, and then identify all later Acts which purported [иметь целью] to amend the earlier Act or which directly overrode it. For example, when the UK decided to create a Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, it had to identify every single Act referring to the House of Lords that was still good law [действующее право], and then amend all of them to refer to the Supreme Court.


However, American codes are not the direct equivalents of their civil law counterparts [эквивалент; аналог], and should not be confused with them. American codes do not have complete internal logical coherence [последовательность]. They have been labeled mere "collections of statutes" due to the failure of all levels of government to allocate adequate resources [распределять ресурсы] towards maintaining the internal coherence of the codes.


Even worse, some states were never able to reconcile [согласовывать] the old common law lawmaking model with the concept of codification. For example, California codes are to be liberally construed [толковать] as a continuation of the common law to the extent that they harmonize with the common law or pre-code statutes. This confusing [сбивать с толку] compromise has created a continuing state of chaos in the judge-made law of California statutory interpretation [толкование закона].

Criminal law

In the arena of criminal law, all states have somewhat similar laws in regard to [относительно] "higher crimes," such as murder and rape, although penalties for these crimes may vary from state to state. Additionally, state laws dealing with drug crimes vary widely, with some states treating possession of small amounts of drugs as an offense [правонарушение] and others categorizing the same offense as a serious felony [уголовное преступление].


However, for public-welfare [общее благо, общественное благосостояние, общественное благоденствие] offenses where the state is punishing merely risky (as opposed to injurious [наносящий вред]) behavior, there is significant diversity across the various states. For example, the laws controlling drunk driving were rather unstandardized prior to the 1990s.

Tort Law [tort - деликт, гражданское правонарушение]

United States tort law for personal injury tends to vary widely across the states. For example, a few jurisdictions allow actions for negligent infliction [причинение (вреда) по небрежности] of emotional distress even in the absence of physical injury, but most do not. With practically any tort, there is a "majority rule" [принцип большинства, правило принятия решений большинством голосов] adhered to by most states, and one or more "minority rules."



Local law

States have delegated lawmaking powers to a number of agencies, counties, cities, and special districts. And all the state constitutions, statutes and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation like their federal counterparts.


Thus, at any given time, the average American citizen is subject to the rules and regulations of several dozen different agencies at the federal, state, and local levels, depending upon one's current location and behavior.

Terrorism (Терроризм)


The word «terrorism» is controversial. Definitions of «terrorism» generally involve some or all of the following: 1) a terrorist act is generally unlawful; 2) it is violent and may be life threatening; 3) the violence is politically motivated; 4) the direct targets are civilians; 5) the direct targets may not be the main targets; 6) the main targets may be one or more nation-states, governments, or societies; or a political, ethnic, or religious group, or an industry or commercial operation, within those societies; 7) the objective is usually to frighten the main targets; 8) there may or may not be a claim of responsibility.


Terrorism expert A. P. Schmid of the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention has proposed a short legal definition for use by the UN, namely that an act of terrorism is «the peacetime equivalent of a war crime». The words «terrorism» and «terror» originally referred to methods employed by regimes to control their own populations through fear, a tactic seen in totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia. The current use of the term relies more on the example of the 19th-century revolutionaries who used the technique of assassination, particularly the anarchists and Narodniks (populists) in Tsarist Russia, whose most notable action was the assassination of Alexander II.


In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, political leaders from Europe, North America, Asia, and the Middle East have placed the phenomenon of terrorism within the context of a global struggle against systems of government perceived by those accused of using terrorist tactics as harmful to their interests. Acts of terrorism can be carried out by individuals or groups. The most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause. Terrorists often seek to demoralize and paralyze their enemy with fear, using their acts as a form of blackmail to apply pressure on governments to achieve goals the terrorists could not achieve by other means.


Recent developments have seen a divergence in social and political responses to terrorism between the United States and Western Europe. The September 11, 2001 attacks were carried out by foreigners who entered the country for that purpose, on behalf of a foreign organization, operating from bases in a remote country. Western European countries, on the other hand, are now confronted with a domestic terrorism based within a domestic religious minority, some recent immigrants, but many native-born citizens.



Приложение 2

Vocabulary

Выучите наизусть следующие слова и фразы. Составьте как можно больше предложений с данными выражениями (не менее 25 предложений).


Accept – принимать

Acquiring a knowledge of the theory and practice приобретение знаний по теории практике

Advocacy – адвокатская деятельность

Advocate – защитник, адвокат

Arbiter – арбитр, третейский судья

Argue – доказывать, обсуждать

Argue a case – обсуждать дело

Argument – доказательство по аргументу, дискуссия

Assess the facts – оценивать факты

Assist – способствовать

Associate – сообщник, компаньон, чиновник судов общего права

Attorney – поверенный

Barrister – адвокат, выступающий в суде

Be charged with the duty – иметь обязательства

Bring a case – возбуждать дело

Build up a practice – приобрести клиентуру

Carry a case – проводить судебное дело

Case – случай, судебное дело, спорной вопрос в суде, обвинение, доказательство

Chamber – комиссия судей, контора адвоката

Charge – обвинять

Charge of a crime – обвинять в совершении преступления

Close a case – прекратить дело

College of advocates – коллегия адвокатов

Confess – признавать, сознаться

Confess guilt – признать вину

Counsel (a client) – советовать, консультировать

Counselor – советник, адвокат (Ирландия и США)

Court – суд

Court proceedings – рассмотрение дела в суде

Deal with – иметь дело с кем-л., с чем-л.

Defend – защищать на суде; защищаться

Defendant – ответчик, обвиняемый, подсудимый

Dispute – спор

Do the court work – выполнять работу в суде

Do the office work – выполнять работу в конторе

Draft – проект

Draft – составить проект

Drop a case – отказаться от иска

Duty – обязанность

Employ – нанять на работу

Engage – обязывать, заниматься чем-л., нанимать

Engage in factual investigation – заниматься фактическим расследованием

Engagement – обязанность, договоренность

Enterprise – предприятие, предпринимательство

Evidence – доказательство, свидетельские показания, улика

Executive board – исполнительный комитет

Foundation – основание, обоснование, учреждение, фонд

Get a favorable resolution – добиться благоприятного решения

Give – давать, предоставлять

Give evidence – давать показания

Give notice – уведомлять

Give opinion – выносить решение, давать заключение

Give the benefit of the doubt – истолковывать сомнения в пользу ответной стороны

Give time – предоставлять отсрочку

Have duties to the court – иметь обязательства перед судом

Hearing – допрос в суде, слушание

Hearsay – показание с чужих слов

Hold a position – занять должность

In the light of the law – в свете закона

In-house counsel – юрисконсульт

Initiate a case – возбуждать судебное дело

Innocent – невиновный

Interpretation – толкование

Investigator – следователь

Judge – судья

Juridical – юридический, правовой; судебный, судейский

Lawful – правомерный, законный

Legal – юридический, правовой

Legal aid offices – юридическая консультация

Legal documents – юридические документы

Legal education – юридическое образование

Legal practice – юридическая практика

Legal profession – юридическая профессия

Legality – законность

Legalize – узаконивать, засвидетельствовать

Legislative – законодательный

Legitimate – законный

Litigation – тяжба судебного спора

Litigator – сторона в судебном деле

Locate – устанавливать местонахождение

Lodge – подавать (заявление, жалобу, прошение)

Lodgment – подача прошения

Maintain order – поддерживать порядок

Meeting – собрание

Memorandum – меморандум

Motion – ходатайство

Negotiate – вести переговоры

Negotiation – переговоры

Negotiator – лицо, ведущее переговоры (посредник)

Object – возражать

Objection – возражение

Obtain – получать, приобретать

Obtain a paid position – получить оплачиваемую должность

Obtain a seat in chambers – получить место в конторе

Offence – правонарушение

Officer of the court – судебный исполнитель

Onerous – обременительный

Oppose – возражать

Opposition – возражение

Order the clients affairs – приводить в порядок дела клиента

Override – превышать

Perceive – понимать, осознавать

Plaintiff – истец

Pleadings – состязательные бумаги

Position – должность

Practice – практика; обычай

Proceedings – рассмотрение дела в суде, судебное разбирательство

Promote – способствовать, содействовать

Promotion – повышение в должности

Pursue – проводить (политику)

Qualify as / for – отвечать требованиями

Qualify as a solicitor – получить квалификацию поверенного

Reject – отклонять

Render – представлять, предоставлять

Represent – представлять; сообщать, заявлять

Represent a client at full hearing – представлять клиента на полном слушании

Require – требовать

Requirement – требование; необходимое условие

Resolution – резолюция; разрешение спора, решение

Restrict – ограничивать

Retain the right – сохранять право

Return a verdict – вынести вердикт

Ruling – постановление; решение суда

Seek – искать, добиваться

Seek right so advocacy – требовать права защиты

Self-managed cooperative type organization – независимая общественная организация

Settlement – урегулирование

Sick-pay – insuranceоплата по болезни

Solicitor – поверенный

Take / reach verdict – выносить вердикт

Testify – давать показания; быть свидетелем

Testimony – свидетельские показания

The art of negotiation – искусство ведения переговоров

To commit a crime – совершить преступление

To give (present / provide) evidence – давать показания

Trainee – практикант

Training – обучение

Trier – лицо, рассматривающее юридические вопросы

Trust deed – акт учреждения доверительной собственности

Umpire – арбитр

Verdict – решение присяжных, вердикт

Witness – свидетель; свидетельство, свидетельские показания

Witness box – место для дачи свидетельских показаний

Would-be barrister – стремящийся стать адвокатом


Приложение 3

Lexical tasks


1. Переведите слова и выражения на русский язык:


Get away (escape), prevent or reduce crime, be allowed to, carry gun, avoid dark streets, murder, break in.

Theft, shoplifting, burglary, robbery, manslaughter.

Witness, murderer, tough or capital punishment, criminal.


2. Расположите фразы в логической последовательности:


1. steal 2. receive punishment 3. break the law 4. get into trouble with the police 5. commit a crime.

1. murder, get away (escape), break in.


3. Среди выражений в упр. 1 найдите синоним фразе "be armed".


4. Переведите предложения на английский язык:


Полицейским разрешено носить оружие.

Преступник вооружен и опасен.


5. Закончите предложения по-английски, выбрав соответствующие фразы из упр. 1:


The thieves waited until it was dark enough to ... .

To protect themselves people should ... .

Tougher punishments will help to ... .


6. Translate from English into Russian:


to administer; justice meaning; to involve; compulsory for everyone; miscarriage of justice.


7. Translate from Russian into English:


самосуд, расправа; поддерживать друг друга; беспристрастный суд;

требование справедливого суда; уйти от правосудия.


8. Translate from Russian into English:


  1. Трое грабителей зашли в банк, застрелили охранника, взяли деньги и убежали.

  2. Гордон Браун был хулиганом, а не убийцей. Он мог совершить мелкую кражу, мог красть в магазинах, но не убивать.

  3. Присяжные признали Смита невиновным, так как не было доказательств его вины.

  4. Час назад террористы захватили самолет и заставили пилотов приземлиться в арабской стране.

  5. Я не продавал и не покупал наркотики. Я не совершал никакого преступления.

  6. Том Буш – опасный преступник. Он убил пять человек, ограбил три магазина, взял людей в заложники за выкуп. Полиция назначила вознаграждение за его поимку (голову).

  7. Суд приговорил Макса к пяти годам тюрьмы за убийство в состоянии аффекта.

  8. Питер, осужденный за фальшивомонетничество, бежал из тюрьмы и прожил два года в бегах.


9. Translate from English into Russian:


to feel remorse for his crime; to stab with a knife; fingerprints; to hail somebody as a hero; an economic fraud.

10. Translate from English into Russian:


to work in shifts; to deal with; X-ray machine; duty; canine enforcement team.


11. Translate from Russian into English:


штат, сотрудники; правоохранительные органы; транспортное средство;

наказывать; таможенный пост.


12. Translate the sentences into English:


  1. Сотрудники таможни досматривают весь багаж пассажиров.

  2. Они оформили все документы на груз на прошлой неделе.

  3. Документы были в порядке и сотрудник таможни подписал их.

  4. Обычно сотрудники этого таможенного поста работают посменно и часто сверхурочно.

  5. Таможенник спросил пассажира о цели визита.

Как долго вы работаете в таможенной службе?


13. Translate from English into Russian:


  1. The assessment and collection of duties and taxes have always been one of the main functions of customs organizations.

  2. A full exemption from customs duties and taxes is granted for cultural valuables.

  3. If the passenger’s baggage exceeds Free Baggage Allowance, he has to pay for the excess.

  4. The customs officer looks through the declaration form and asks questions about the contents of the passenger’s baggage.


14. Translate from Russian into English:


    1. Люди должны заполнять таможенные декларации при выезде из страны.

    2. Таможенник досмотрел багаж, проверил декларацию и вернул ее пассажиру.


15. Translate from Russian into English:


зарегистрироваться на стойке регистрации; прикрепить ярлык к багажу; потерять багажные квитанции; забрать товар со склада временного хранения; совокупный таможенный платеж.


16. Make sentences from these words:


Get penalty, to lend to the government, to check payments, exception, to escape, in need, to withdraw, on retirement, to cover expenditures, fixed term, allowances from the state.


17. Translate the abbreviations into Russian:


VAT, PAYE, NIC, GNP, DTR.


18. Translate the sentences into Russian:


1) We expect sales taxes to be levied on all goods including the items related to necessities.

2) The aim is to tax the additional value in the foreign resident’s country.

3) The old tax rate is said to have been reduced.

4) Employers want to be informed of their taxes paid to the government.

5) He believes you to reclaim the difference from the tax authorities.

6) The individuals think the government to charge too heavy taxes.





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