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Статья "Система упражнений для преподавания грамматики через общение"
Преподаватель второй категории,
английского языка КГК
УРОВЕНЬ И КАЧЕСТВО ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКОЙ И НАУЧНОЙ
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ ПЕДАГОГОВ – ПРАКТИКОВ
Ғылыми жұмыстың мақсаты: оқушыларды мәтін ішіндегі грамматикалық қателерді ескерту, т.б. және грамматикалық дағдыларды коммуникация арқылы кескіндеу.
Берілген жұмыстың өзектілігі, грамматика – тіл аймағы, мұғалімдерге қиын берілетін жұмыс, ал оқушылар оны қиын деп есептейді, әсіресе, байланыс процесінде. Сондықтан, біз білім беруге, көп көңілді ауызекі сөйлесу арқылы бөлуіміз керек.
Түйінді сөздер: грамматика, коммуникациялық әдіс, жаттығулар жүйесі.
Цель научной работы: Предостеречь учеников от совершения грамматических ошибок в процессе речи, т.е. сформировать у них грамматические навыки через коммуникацию.
Актуальность данной работы заключается в том, что грамматика это та область языка, которую учителя затрудняются преподавать, а ученики в свою очередь находят её тяжёлой для изучения, особенно использовать ее в процессе общения. Вот почему мы должны уделять больше внимания методу обучения через общение.
Ключевые слова: грамматика, коммуникативный метод, система упражнений
The main goal of this work is to help students to avoid grammar mistakes in the process of speaking i.e. to form grammar skills through communication.
Grammar it is the sphere that teachers find difficult to teach and the student find it difficult to learn, especially to use it in communication. That is why we need to pay more attention to the question of teaching grammar communicatively.
Keywords: grammar, communicative approach, system of exercises.
Any language can be acquired if one develops four basic skills in that language i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening and speaking are interactive processes that directly affect each other. Speaking is an expressive language skill in which the speaker uses verbal symbols to communicate, while listening is a receptive language skill, which involves the interpretation of those symbols into meaning. Writing is also expressive language skill in which the writer (student) uses written symbols to communicate, while reading is a receptive language skill which involves the interpretation of those symbols into meaning. [1, с. 81]
The Communicative Approach includes listening and speaking. Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. [2, с. 87]
The communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses. The real-life simulations change from day to day. Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics. [2,с. 146]
In case communicative grammar instruction is supported with a relevant system of grammar activities that allow students to practice new grammar items communicatively as well, teaching and learning grammar can lead to successful communicative competence formation.That is why we tried to work out a system of exercises for grammar presentation and consolidation communicatively. It consists of three steps: primary consolidation, speech preparatory activities (exercises) and communicative usage.
In teaching, there are many theoretical approaches that have been developed to promote the students' success in learning new information. There are two main theoretical approaches for the presentation of new English grammar structures or functions to students: inductive approach and deductive approach. The more traditional of the two theories, is the deductive approach, while the emerging and more modern theory is the inductive approach. [3, с. 87]
That is why if you want to present new grammar material deductively you should do the following:
Give your students the rules of new grammar material
Give abandoned examples to illustrate each point
Follow a system of exercises to consolidate the new material
And if you want to present grammar using inductive approach you should let your students:
Experience the new material
Gather and restructure relevant data
Work out the rules
Get more language experience
Use the new grammar in context
After the presentation stage you should go to primary consolidation. Which is consist of two types of exercises such as recognition and drill exercises. First let’s consider recognition exercises.
Recognition exercises are the easiest type of exercises for pupils to perform. They observe grammar item in structures (sentence patterns) when hearing or reading. Since pupils only observe the new grammar item the situations should be natural and communicative. [4, с. 82]The following types of exercises may be suggested.
Listen to the sentences and clap whenever you hear the verbs in the Past Simple Tense.
Mike lives in Pushkin Street. I lived there last year. Ann gets up at 7 o’clock in the morning. She got up at half past seven yesterday, etc.
It is desirable that sentences formed should concern real situations and facts. Pupils listen to the teacher and claps when they hear a verb in the Past Simple. The teacher can see whether each of his pupils has grasped the sentence.
Read the sentences and choose the correct form of the verb. The following sentences may be suggested:
I (go, went) to school yesterday.
Tom (takes, took) a bus when he goes to school.
She (got, gets, gets) up at 7 o’ clock every day.
Pupils should read the sentences and find the signals for the correct choice of the form. Since the necessary form is suggested in each sentence they should only recognize the one they need for a given context.
Recognition exercises are indispensable as pupils retain the grammar material through auditory and visual perception. Auditory and visual memory is at work. [4, с. 85]
Drill exercises are more completed as they require reproduction on the part of the pupils. In learning a foreign language drill exercises are indispensable. The learners cannot assimilate the material if they only hear and see it. They must reproduce it both in outer and inner speech. The more often they say it the better they assimilate the material. Though drill exercises are those in which pupils have only one difficulty to overcome, they should also be graded. [5, с. 62]
Repetitive drill.Pupils pronounce the sentence pattern after the teacher, in imitation of the teacher, both individually and in unison.
Teacher: They are dancing in the park.
Class: They are dancing in the park.
Individuals: They are dancing in the park.
Or pupils listen to the dialogue and say it after the speaker.
-Is Ann dancing now?
-No, she isn’t.
-What is she doing?
-She is watching television.
Attention is drawn to the correct pronunciation of the sentence pattern as a sense unit, as a statement (sounds, stress, and melody).
Substitution. Pupils substitute the verbs or phrases in a sentence pattern.
The children are dancing in the park.
The children were dancing in the garden.
The child was dancing in the street.
Completion. Pupils complete the sentences the teacher utters looking at the pictures he shows.
Teacher: Look at the picture. Mike is ... ... .
Pupil: Mike is getting up.
Class: Mike is getting up.
Teacher: Mike is ... ... .
Pupil: Mike is dressing.
Class: Mike is dressing.
Attention should be given to the use of is in this exercise. The teacher should pronounce Mike is... to prevent the typical mistake of the pupils (Mike dressing). This is essential structural element of the tense form of the Present Continuous; Russian-speaking pupils, however, do not feel any necessity to use it.
Drill exercises may be done both orally and in written form. Pupils perform oral exercises during the lesson and written ones at home. [5, с. 83]
The next stage is speech preparatory exercises (activities).This is the most difficult type of exercises as it requires creative work on the part of the learners. All the exercises are designed:
to develop pupils' skills in recognizing grammar forms while auding and reading English texts;
to accumulate correct sentence patterns in the pupils' memory which they can reproduce whenever they need these patterns for speaking or writing;
to help the pupils to produce sentences of their own using grammar items necessary for speaking about a situation or a topic offered, or writing an essay on the text heard or an annotation on the text read. [6, с. 57]
Also, speech preparatory exercises subdivided into four:
Past Perfect or Past Simple? Underline the correct verb form.
Choose the right tense and complete the sentences.
Put while, during or for into each gap.
Will or going to? Complete the dialogue using the necessary form. Say when both are possible.
Complete the conversations using the words from the box once only. Read the dialogue till the end before you start.
In the following pairs of responses, one verb form is right and one is wrong. Put a tick for the correct response.
In each sentence there are two mistakes. Find and correct them.
Listen to the questions and answers. In pairs, make similar conversations about yourselves and your family.
Make sentences according to the given model (pattern).
Read the letter of invitation, identify the patterns. Write a similar letter.
Write the dialogues using the cues.
Complete the conversation using the new grammar forms.
Put the words in brackets in the most natural place in the sentence.
Answer the questions about you.
Write suitable questions for the given answers.
And the last stage of grammar consolidation is communicative usage. Teachers can freely use all the activities of Communicative language teaching method, such as: games, role- plays, interviews, pair work, surveys and so on.
Role plays give learners an opportunity to practice grammar through communication in different social contexts and different social roles and improve learner's speaking abilities. First of all give a definite situation, for example:
Student A: One boy always teased you, shouted horrible things at you. And you ask your friend to give an advice how to beat the bully.
Student B: Your friend asked you for an advice how to beat the bully. He always teased and shouted at your friend. Give him an advice. [8с. 12]
Then give the instruction to use definite grammar theme, for example: you should use past simple during your speech. You can change situation and grammar theme according your lesson.
An information gap activity is an activity where learners are missing the information they need to complete a task and need to talk to each other to find it. The information gap is useful and really understandable for learners exercise.For example:
You give to student A text with the gaps (verbs are missed in the Past Perfect Tense) and to student B the whole text without gaps. The task is to fill in the gaps, after they are completed the task you can do vice versa.
Grammar Auction (Game)
Make a list of 6 typical sentences that the students have been saying over recent classes. Put typical errors into half of them.
Put your students into two teams and give then a notional €1000. The teams take turns to bid for each sentences in turn (best to mix the levels in teams of three). One person is the official bidder for the team and the position rotates.
The highest bidder gets the sentence and the sum is deducted from their total cash and the next sentence is presented.
At the end show them which of the sentences were correct and which were not. The group that owns the most correct sentences is the winner. They will start to realize that a good strategy is to inflate the price of the sentences that they spot as wrong so that the others waste all their money on them.
(Optional extra, pay them €100 to use in the next round if they can correct the sentence)
After a speaking task try to write up mistakes that they make and one or two correct sentences. In teams they discuss and decide if the sentences on the board are correct or not. They get 5 points if they are right in saying whether it’s correct or not and 10 points if they can correct it. They can work together but a different person must stand up to answer each time. Deduct 2 points for speaking 1st language or shouting out the answer when it is not their turn!
Pair work (Interview
Decide on a theme or topic that is appropriate for the students considering their areas of interests and levels. ( _____________)
Decide the grammatical area(s) to be focused on, to be reinforced or to be introduced. (WH questions (where, who, when, why, and what) and questions asking for opinions)
Prepare six to eight questions related to the particular topic area chosen in #1, the theme/topic, and the grammatical area in #2.
Add space for students to produce their own questions.
On the backside, write a number (letter) on each handout - two handouts with the same number (letter), so that in class students can look for their partners to pair up with (someone with the same number) to do the interviews.
Grammar focus: reviewing WH questions and responses about.
LET'S FIND OUT!
was your worst trip?
do you want to do most when you travel?
was the last time you went on a trip?
do you usually travel with?
do you want to travel to next?
do you like to /don't like to travel?
was your best trip?
Let's match and make four or five questions. (Write an original question for number five.)
Have the students match and complete the questions in the box. This can be done in groups or on their own. Ask for volunteers or assign students to write their questions on the board for everyone to see. Go around and help students make their original questions.
Start the interview activity. Students, with a pen and their handout, go around looking for their partners asking, "What's your number? / What number are you?" They sit down with their partners and interview each other with their questions in English.
After they finish the interview, have them write a short report (summary) to the teacher of their interview results. Small classes can report the results orally.[10, с. 47]
We have such a conclusion that the forming of grammar skills depends on training. We must use a lot of training exercises for the assimilation of grammar. We should provide the motivation of learn English, encourage children to communicate. The method and techniques the teacher should use in teaching children of secondary school is the communicative method and various techniques and activities which can develop pupils’ speaking and communicative skills.
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2. Harmer, J, “the practice English language teaching”; London-New York; Long,1991
3. Синявская, Е.В. и др., «Вопросы методики обучения иностранным языком за рубежом.» /: Е.В.Синявская, М.М. Васильева, С.В.Калинина/; М., Просвещение, 2008
4. Handschin, Ch.H., “Methods of teaching modern languages.”; N.Y.,World Book
6. Lado Robert and Fries Charles C., “English pattern practices. Establishing the patterns as habits.”; The univ. of Michigan press, 2000
7. F.L Billows., “The Techniques of Language Teaching.”; Longman, 2002
8. Fries, Charles Carpenter., “Teaching and Learning English as a foreign language.”; The univ. of Michigan press, 2007
9. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rogers., “ Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching.”; Cambridge univ. press, 2006
10. Elaine Tarone and George Yule., “Focus on Language Learner.”; Oxford univ., 2001
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