Инфоурок Другое СтатьиСтатья "Сущность, цели и принципы организации образовательного процесса с применением активных методов обучения иностранному языку"

Статья "Сущность, цели и принципы организации образовательного процесса с применением активных методов обучения иностранному языку"

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УДК 1751

СУЩНОСТЬ, ЦЕЛИ И ПРИНЦИПЫ ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА С ПРИМЕНЕНИЕМ АКТИВНЫХ МЕТОДОВ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Лукьянова Евгения Александровна,

Студент

 ГОУ ВО МО «Государственный социально-гуманитарный университет»

Научный руководитель: Ковалёва Татьяна Анатольевна

кфилн, доцент

ГОУ ВО МО «Государственный социально-гуманитарный университет»

 

          Аннотация: цель статьи – описать активные методы обучения иностранному языку. Это методы, побуждающие учащихся к активной мыслительной и практической деятельности в процессе овладения учебным материалом. Активные методы обучения способствуют формированию положительной учебной мотивации, развивают творческие способности учащихся, активно вовлекают учащихся в образовательный процесс, раскрывают личностно-индивидуальные возможности учащихся, развивают нестандартное мышление, повышают познавательную активность учащихся, позволяют с большей эффективностью усваивать большой объём материала, развивают коммуникативные качества личности, умение работать в команде, вести совместную проектную и исследовательскую деятельность, отстаивать свою позицию и прислушиваться к чужому мнению.

          Ключевые слова: активные методы обучения, учебно-познавательная деятельность, образовательные цели, коммуникативные навыки, речевые способности, входной контроль, выходной контроль, индивидуализация, электиновность, гибкость, контекстуальность, сотрудничество.

         

 

THE ESSENCE, GOALS AND PRINCIPLES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS WITH THE USE OF ACTIVE METHODS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Lukyanova Evgeniya

Scientific adviser: Kovaleva Tatiana Anatolyevna

 

          Abstract: the purpose of the article is to describe active methods of teaching a foreign language. These are the methods that encourage students to active mental thinking and practice in the process of mastering the educational material. Active teaching methods contribute to the formation of positive learning motivation, develop students' creative abilities, actively involve students in the educational process, reveal students' personal and individual capabilities, develop non-standard thinking, increase students' cognitive activity, allow them to assimilate a large amount of material with greater efficiency, develop personal communicative qualities, the ability to work in a team, conduct joint project and research activities, defend their position and listen to other people's opinions.

          Key words: active methods of teaching, cognitive activity, educational aims, communicative skills, speech abilities, entrance control, final inspection, individualization, electivity, flexibility, contextuality, cooperation.

 

Active methods of teaching a foreign language stimulate students’ cognitive activity due to the fact that these methods are based on dialogues involving a free exchange of views on ways of solving a problem. It is a common name for a group of methods focused on practical language learning on account of the use of a variety of collective forms of learning.

The analysis of the concept of ‘active teaching methods’ shows that these teaching methods are opposed to traditional ones (when students take a role of passive listeners, and the knowledge is transmitted in the form of theories, facts, lectures). Active methods of teaching a foreign language allow children to extract useful information independently, such methods are aimed at developing universal social and educational skills.

Active methods’ key features are:

1.                     the problematic feature since the main task of the methods is to encourage students to find the missing information on their own, analyze their own social experience and solve a problematic situation;

2.                     the accordance of educational and cognitive activity with the real life activity;

3.                     mutual teaching and collective communication;

4.                     students’ high motivation based on professional and personal interests in the phenomena, the creative nature of educational and cognitive activity, high emotional involvement in the educational process;

5.                      creative, productive nature of educational and cognitive activity (as a result of the use of active teaching methods, a new product is created in the form of models, schemes, etc.);

6.                     individualization: students’ intensive personal development takes place, special conditions are created for children’s full self-realization in the educational space;

7.                     focus on the development of communicative, social, interactive and professional competencies.

According to A.A. Verbitskiy, active methods of teaching a foreign language solve the following educational aims:

1.                     to form cognitive and professional motives and interests;

2.                     to create a holistic view of professional activity;

3.                     to teach students collective thinking and practical work, to enrich social skills, to acquire the skills of individual and joint decision-making;

4.                     to form a sense of responsibility in relation to work, social attitudes, values of the team and society;

5.                     the assimilation of new knowledge allows the student to feel the growth of his capabilities due to the fact that he is able to apply the information in practice [6, c. 110].

The purpose of teaching a foreign language is the planned results of studying this subject by children. Teaching a foreign language pursues practical, educational and developmental goals. Despite their close interrelation, the main goal is practical. It involves mastering all types of speech activity within the framework of the educational program.

The communication skill in a foreign language forms the following communicative skills in students:

1.                     the ability to support oral-speech communication in standard communication situations, to build coherent sentences in a foreign language;

2.                     the ability to perceive by ear and understand foreign language texts;

3.                     the ability to read and understand simple authentic texts of different genres;

4.                     the ability to convey information in written form within the framework of the topic covered, write a personal or thankful letter.

Communicative skills are formed on the basis of language and speech skills brought to automatism as a result of exercises.

The general educational goals of teaching a foreign language deepen the general students’ philological education. The correlation of native and foreign languages contributes to the accurate and complete perception and transmission of meanings and ideas in the native language, enriches the general culture of speech, improves speech abilities. Students strengthen their skills working with a book, a dictionary, and making translations.

The educational goals of teaching a foreign language form a system of moral values among students, a positive attitude to the culture of the people of the foreign language. Developmental teaching goals improve logical thinking, language guessing, and the mental development of children in general [18, с. 329].

Russian researchers distinguish the following features of active teaching methods: the activity of students' thinking, the constant children’s of involvement in the educational process, the dialogue form of educational organization, reflexive self-organization of a teacher and students.

According to A.A. Balaev, active methods of teaching a foreign language are based on the following principles:

1.                     a balance between the content and the method of teaching: the topic of the lesson and schoolchildren’s level of preparation are taken into account;

2.                     modeling is supposed to form a future professional activity, a s well as personal traits and socio-professional competencies are developed;

3.                     the entrance control allows you to build the teaching process according to the real level of students’ readiness, taking into account their interests and needs; control makes it possible to clarify the content of the training course, revise the selected teaching methods, determine the nature and volume of independent work of students and etc.;

4.                     conformity of the content and methods to the learning objectives: the teacher chooses the types of students’ educational activities that are most suitable for studying specific topics;

5.                     negative experience happens when students make mistakes, and then learn to avoid them by analyzing incorrect decisions and situations;

6.                     from simple to complex: the lesson is organized by increasing complexity of the educational material and individual work, collective generalizations are regarded;

7.                     a continuous updating is supposed to introduce the material’s originality, a specific topic or method of conducting classes fastening children’s cognitive activity;

8.                     a collective form of educational process is organized due to the fact that active teaching methods are focused on social skills’ formation that is achieved through group and collective work;

9.                     advanced teaching happens when students acquire  necessary skills that ensure rapid adaptation to professional activity in the future;

10.                  diagnostics checks the effectiveness of classes (whether the method of conducting classes is chosen correctly, whether the children have learned the selected material well and etc.);

11.                  saving the educational time: active methods allow you to reduce the time spent on mastering the content of education, as knowledge, skills and abilities are formed in a complex way;

12.                  the final inspection is carried out after completion of the teaching course in the form of an exam, test, interview, abstracts. Through reflection, the results are summed up, the results achieved are noted [4, с. 21].

The principles of individualization, flexibility, electivity, contextuality, cooperation are related to active methods of teaching a foreign language:

1.                     the principle of individualization is aimed at the individual students’ characteristics, revealing unique abilities for education;

2.                     the principle of flexibility is focused on the students’ requests, changing the orientation of the educational program;

3.                     the principle of electivity gives schoolchildren freedom to choose educational elective courses that meet the inclinations and cognitive interests of children;

4.                     the principle of contextuality subordinates the content of teaching to the content and conditions for the realization of specific students’ abilities, as a result of which teaching acquires a contextual character;

5.                     the principle of cooperation is aimed at developing of trust, mutual assistance of students and teachers, provides an opportunity to show initiative and responsibility for the result [11, с. 207].

To sum it up, the close relationship of the above principles determines the effectiveness of active teaching methods that are aimed at achieving high interests and students’ involvement in educational, project, research activities; the formation of personality qualities, moral attitudes, value orientations that meet the expectations and needs of students, parents, society.

 

Список источников

1.     Вербицкий А.А. Методы обучения: традиции и инновации // Вестник Воронежского Государственного Технического Университета. 2015.  – С. 106-111.

2.     Цветкова Т.К. Актуальные проблемы лингводидактики: определение целей и задач обучения иностранному языку// Вестник МГИМО Университета. №4. – 2013. –  С.328-332.

3.     Балаев А.А. Активные методы обучения. – М.: Профиздат, 1986. –С.532.

4.     Кругликов В.Н. Активное обучение в техническом вузе: теория, технология, практика//  Воен. инженер.-техн. ун-т. - СПб.: ВИТУ, 1998. – С.308

© Е.А. Лукьянова, 2021

 

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