Документы в архиве:
Название документа урок эссе.ppt
Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
Написание эссе с выражением собственного мнения (Opinion essay)
Эссе - (франц. essai - попытка, проба, очерк, от лат. exagium - взвешивание), прозаическое сочинение небольшого объема и свободной композиции, выражающее индивидуальные впечатления и соображения по конкретному поводу или вопросу и заведомо не претендующее на определяющую или исчерпывающую трактовку предмета.
Структура эссе А) Вступление (Introduction) В) Главная часть (main body) C) Заключение (Conclusion) Постановка проблемы Выражение собственного мнения Аргументы подтверждающие собственную точку зрения Противоположное мнение Объяснить почему вы не согласны с противоположной точкой зрения Подведение итогов, обобщение, выводы
Вступление(Introduction) Чтобы заинтересовать читателя можно использовать следующие приёмы: 1) Ссылка на ситуацию или воображаемую сцену 2) Обращение напрямую к читателю 3) Риторический вопрос 4) Цитата
Вступление Рассказать о существовании проблемы; Сказать о том, что проблема все еще существует; Выразить свое отношение к проблеме.
Comment on the following statement: Television рlays an important role in everyday life. However some teachers think its influence upon children is negative, others don’t agree. What can you say for and against the role of TV in children’s life? Text 1 I think that children watch TV too much. They watch films for grown-ups and see a lot of violence and cruelty. They see guns and knives and learn how to use them. I think that such films as thrillers and horror films are not good for them. Text 2 TV plays a big role in the life of some people. Its one of the most important inventions of the 20th century. We can’t overestimate its role of modern society because it has greatly changed our life. Text 3 Nowadays television has become an important part of our life. We turn it on as soon as come home and never switch it off. So children watch everything that is on. Is it good or bad for them? Прочитайте три высказывания, выберите какое из них лучше подходит к заданию. Объясните, почему другие не подходят.
Состоит из трех абзацев. В первом абзаце аргументируется точка зрения автора. Во втором абзаце приводятся аргументы другого мнения. В третьем абзаце объясняются причины несогласия с противоположной точкой зрения. Каждый аргумент подтверждается примером. Главная часть(Main body)
1) You never feel lonely 2) You can get more presents from your relatives 3)You have more people to share secrets with 4) You don’t have to share your room with other brothers or sisters 5) You always have new clothes as they were not handed down from the elder children 6) You don’t have to share the toys with other brothers or sisters 7) You can play more interesting games which involve more people 8) Your parents are more attentive to your needs You are going to write an essay: ”Is it better to be brought up in a big or in a small family? Divide these arguments into two groups
Smoking is bad for health Many people consider smoking as a way of relaxing and a good supplement for communication Women who smoke have certain pregnancy problems or having an ill baby The government would lose a lot of money from taxes on cigarettes For some people smoking brings a feeling of happiness, satisfaction Smokers often say that everyone must have individual freedom of choice- to smoke or not to smoke- and they can’t be lacking in this right Smoking workers spend a lot of time unproductive, often making «a smoking break» Scientists claim that passive smoking is even more dangerous than real one because non-smokers breath deeper and suffer more Divide these arguments into two groups “FOR” “Against” smoking
KEY against Smoking is bad for health Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body Women who smoke have certain pregnancy problems or having an ill baby Scientists claim that passive smoking is even more dangerous than real one because non-smokers breath deeper and suffer more Smoking workers spend a lot of time unproductive , often making «a smoking break». for The government would lose a lot of money from taxes on cigarettes Many people consider smoking as a way of relaxing and a good supplement for communication For some people smoking brings a feeling of happiness, satisfaction Smokers often say that everyone must have individual freedom of choice- to smoke or not to smoke- and they can’t be lacking in this right
Match the arguments with proper justifications . Divide these arguments into two groups (Pros and Cons) Arguments: 1 They are very convenient. 2 You can't travel with your friends. 3 They aren't as safe as cars. 4 They are cheaper to run than cars. 5 They can be quite uncomfortable. 6 You can get to your destination quickly and easily. Justifications: a .They use less fuel and need fewer expensive repairs. b. You don't need to rely on public transport, and you can park them easily. с . You can't sit back and relax on them and you're exposed in bad weather. d They travel as fast as cars and you never get stuck in traffic jams. e You aren't well protected and you can get badly hurt if you fall off. f There's only room for one passenger.
Key: 1b 2f 3e 4a 5c 6d for:1,4,6 against:2,3,5
Conclusion Последние несколько предложений в Вашем эссе являются крайне значимыми. Во-первых, они должны завершать Вашу мысль. Во-вторых, у читателя они должны оставить в памяти яркий след. Важно, чтобы вывод возвращался к главной идее. Другими словами, он должен содержать то, что было написано во введении.
Introduction… 1 Did you ever dream of becoming a doctor when you were young? Although it can be a very rewarding career, being a doctor also has its drawbacks. 2 Imagine going to school all day long and then having to work as well. Many young people decide to attend school and have a part-time job at the same time. This can have both advantages and disadvantages. 3 Cooking is something that few of us have time to do in today's fast-moving world. But does eating out really have as many advantages as people think it does?... Conclusion A It is up to each individual to decide whether he or she would Benefit from working and studying at the same time. However, isn't it a pity that many simply have no choice due to poor financial situations? В On balance, the life of a doctor can be both exciting and very demanding. No t everyone is suited for it, especially as it is not a profession with room for mistakes. С All in all, while eating out does have its advantages, it is not something we should make a habit of. Perhaps we should all try to make time in our lives to eat properly. Match the introductions with proper conclusions
KEY 1B 2A 3 C
Introduction 1 Spending one's summer holiday climbing in the mountains of Tibet or white-water rafting may not be everyone's idea of fun, but adventure holidays are becoming extremely popular. They have both their good and bad points. 2 Becoming a vegetarian is a choice that many people are making after recent health scares. The question is, does being a vegetarian have a positive or negative effect on one's health? I believe that it can do more harm than good. 3 A scene unfolds before one's eyes of yet another miracle of nature: a baby elephant being born. If it were not for television, this is something we might never see and for this reason I feel that TV plays an important role in education.... Conclusion A To sum up, I believe that television should continue to play a role in education. Well- made programmers can give us a broader view of the world and can teach us about things which are outside our everyday experience. B All in all, whether you will enjoy an adventure holiday or not depends on the type of person you are. Taking holidays of this kind should be carefully considered, because they are not for the faint-hearted! C In conclusion, I feel that vegetarians could suffer from health problems if they do not have a healthy, nutritious diet. However, everyone must decide for themselves which lifestyle choice suits them best. Match the introductions with proper conclusions
KEY 1B 2C 3 A
Важно, чтобы текст был правильно построен с точки зрения логики. Для этого нужно: Использовать слова-связки Правильно разделить текст на абзацы Слова-связки Linking words
Введение: The problem/issue/phenomenon of… is/appears to be/has always been…, people always say/have always thought/ agreed/said/believed, it is a controversial/ burning/hot question…, there is a dispute/discussion/no agreement.. Основная часть: On the one hand… on the other hand; firstly, to begin with, secondly finally, in addition, besides, moreover, what is more, furthermore, however, despite this, in spite of this, in fact, as a result, conseqently.
Заключение: All in all, to sum up, In conclusion, in summary, in general, it seems important to add/ point out/ remind that…, the issue/ debate is far from solving/ resolving yet, but… Другие выражения: One major advantage is.., As advocates of… claim/argue, there is a number of disadvantages/ weakness/ drawbacks/ downsides.
However, Finally, in spite of the, On the other hand, firstly, What is more, Moreover, In addition, Secondly In conclusion, To my mind, It seems to me that, To sum up, All in all, to list points of view to add more points to express your opinion to contrast opinions to conclude
Fill the gaps with linking words In many schools nowadays pupils study many foreign languages. Learning foreign languages has become more popular now than it used to be. However some people think learning foreign languages is a waste of time. Are they right? I have a different point of view. 1 … it is very good to know a foreign language. There are several reasons why think so. 2 …, if you know a foreign language, you may have a better chance to make a good career finding a well paid work in a good company. 3 …, you can read books in original. Is not it pleasant to read a new book by a popular modern writer which has just been published? You can also read a scientific article for your work. 4 …, when travelling to other countries you are always able to solve all problems you may have. 5… , some people think that learning a foreign language is just a waste of time. They say that tourists are usually accompanied by guides who speak Russian 6 …, most important articles and books are translated into Russian and it is easier to read in your mother tongue. I don’t agree with this point of view. I prefer to be independent when I travel and too choose the books I want to read myself instead of waiting for them to be translated. 7 … I can say that it is important to know a foreign language and if you do not know any I would recommend you to start learning English as its spoken in many countries a) firstly; b) in my opinion; c) thirdly; d) secondly; e) however; f) in conclusion; g) furthermore.
Key: 1b, 2a,3d.4c,5e,6g,7f
Nowadays the problem of smoking is very important. Almost everyone understands it. 1___________more and more people, mostly young ones, start smoking _2__________the warning lines on the pockets of cigarettes. To solve the problem is often suggested to ban smoking officially. There are both advantages and disadvantages of such a solution. Let’s begin with arguments for it. In its favour, _3______, it goes without saying that smoking is bad for health. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body.__4_________, women who smoke have certain pregnancy problems or having an ill baby._5____________, scientists claim that passive smoking is even more dangerous than real one because non-smokers breath deeper and suffer more._6_________, smoking workers spend a lot of time unproductive , often making «a smoking break». _7________________, if authorities banned smoking, the government would lose a lot of money from taxes on cigarettes. _8___________, many people consider smoking as a way of relaxing and a good supplement for communication . For some people smoking brings a feeling of happiness, satisfaction._9___________, smokers often say that everyone must have individual freedom of choice- to smoke or not to smoke- and they can’t be lacking in this right. Finally, On the other hand, What is more, In addition However, in spite of the ,firstly, Moreover, Secondly, Fill the gaps with linking words
1However, 2 in spite of the , 3 firstly, 4Moreover, 5 Secondly, 6 Finally, 7 On the other hand 8 What is more 9 In addition KEY
A In its favour, firstly, it goes without saying that smoking is bad for health. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Moreover, women who smoke have certain pregnancy problems or having an ill baby. Secondly, scientists claim that passive smoking is even more dangerous than real one because non-smokers breath deeper and suffer more. Finally, smoking workers spend a lot of time unproductive , often making «a smoking break». B To sum up, I’d like to say that , in my opinion, our health is the most important thing not only for a personal life but for the state itself. Even though many people feel good about smoking and never admit that smoking is bad for health, it is necessary to point out that people do waste a lot of money on smoking which could be used for a good purpose. C Nowadays the problem of smoking is very important. Almost everyone understands it. However, more and more people, mostly young ones, start smoking in spite of the warning lines on the pockets of cigarettes. To solve the problem is often suggested to ban smoking officially. There are both advantages and disadvantages of such a solution. Let’s begin with arguments for it. D On the other hand, if authorities banned smoking, the government would lose a lot of money from taxes on cigarettes. What is more, many people consider smoking as a way of relaxing and a good supplement for communication . For some people smoking brings a feeling of happiness, satisfaction. In addition, smokers often say that everyone must have individual freedom of choice- to smoke or not to smoke- and they can’t be lacking in this right. Put the parts of the essay in the necessary order
1C 2A 3D 4B KEY
Критерии оценивания Содержание Организация сочинения Лексика Грамматика Орфография и пунктуация
соответствие теме и ситуации общения, указанной в задании; правильность отбора материала, не давать информацию, которая не является важной и необходимой в данной ситуации; использование определенного стиля речи; соответствие высказывания заданному объему (200-250 слов) Содержание и полнота выполнения задания (3 балла )
логичность изложения материала; связность текста, т. е. использование союзов, вводных слов, местоимений и т. п.; деление текста на абзацы, наличие вступления и заключения. Организация текста (3 балла)
точность выбора слов и выражений; правильность формирования лексических словосочетаний; грамотность словообразования; запас слов и разнообразие лексики (синонимы, антонимы, фразеологизмы). Лексическая грамотность (3 балла)
точность выбора грамматических конструкций; разнообразие используемых грамматических средств; сложность используемых конструкций. Грамматическое оформление письма (3 балла)
ошибки в словах; правильное оформление начала и конца предложений (заглавная буква, точка, вопросительный знак), запятая после вводных слов (Firstly, Moreover). Орфография и пунктуация (2 балла)