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  • Иностранные языки

Таблицы по грамматике английского языка.

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PRONOUNS (МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ)


PERSONAL (ЛИЧНЫЕ)

POSSESSIVE (ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ)

Subjective case (имен. пад.)

(кто? что?)

Objective case (косв. пад.)

(кого? кому? чего? чему?)

Relative form (относит. форма)

(ЧЕЙ?)

Absolute form (абсолютная форма без

сущ-ных)

Ед.ч.

I (я)

You (ты)

He (он)

She (она)

It (о не одуш.)

Me (мне, меня)

You (тебе, тебя)

Him (ему, его)

Her (ей, ее)

It (ему, ей, его, ее)

My (мой,-я,-е)

Your (твой,-я,-е)

His (его)

Her (ее)

Its

Mine (мой, -я, -е)

Yours(твой, -я, -е)

His(его)

Hers(ее)

Its


Мн.ч.

We (мы)

You (вы)

They (они)

Us (нам, нас)

You (вам, вас)

Them (им, их)

Our (наш,-а,е,-и)

Your (ваш, -а,-е,-и)

Their (их)

Ours (наш, -а, е, -и)

Yours (ваш, -а, -е, -и)

Theirs (их)





DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (Указательные местоимения)


SINGULAR (ед.ч.)

PLURAL (мн.ч.)

Рядом с говорящим

THIS

(эта, этот, это)


f/e: This is a book.

Give me this book.

THESE

(эти)


f/e: These are books.

Give me these books.

На расстоянии от говорящего

THAT

(та, тот, то)


f/e: That is a book.

That book is good.

THOSE

(те)


f/e: Those are books.

Take those books.



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (Возвратные местоимения)

SINGULAR (ед.ч.)

PLURAL (мн.ч.)

+ SELF (сам,-а)


Myself

Yourself

Himself

Herself

Itself

F/e: Do it yourself! (Сделай это сам!)

+ SELVES (сами)


ourselves

yourselves

themselves



f/e: They will do it themselves. (Они сделают это сами.)

WORD ORDER IN THE AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCE (Порядок слов утв. предл.)


1 2 3 4

Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство


Jane plays the piano very well.


P.S. Дополнение – косвенное (кому?) стоит перед прямым дополнением

Дополнение – прямое (кого? что?)

F/e: Give me a book. (me – косвенное; a book – прямое)

НО! Give a book to me (если косвенное дополнение стоит после прямого, то перед косвенным дополнением должен стоять предлог “to”)




WORD ORDER IN THE INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE (Порядок слов вопр.пред.)


Вопр. слово Вспом. гл. Подлежащее Сказуемое Доп-ние Обст-тво

Does Jane play the piano very well?

WHAT does Jane play very well?

How does Jane play the piano?

Who plays the piano very well?







THE ENGLISH TENSES SYSTEM (Система времен английского глагола)



PRESENT (наст.)

PAST (прош.)

FUTURE (буд.)

SIMPLE (INDEFINITE)

(простое; неопределенное)

V; Vs
V2
(did)
shall V
will V

CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE)

(длительное)

am
is V ing are
was Ving
were Ving
shall be Ving
will be Ving
PERFECT SIMPLE

(завершенное простое)

has V3

have V3

had V3
shall have V3
will have V3
PERFECT CONTINUOUS

(завершенное длительное)

has been V ing
have been V ing
had been V ing
shall have been V ing
will have been V ing








SEQUENCE OF TENSES IN THE INDIRECT SPEECH

(СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЕН В КОСВЕННОЙ РЕЧИ)




PRESENT SIMPLE

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

PRESENT

PERFECT

PAST PROGRESSIVE

PAST

SIMPLE

FUTURE SIMPLE

Direct speech

(Прямая речь)




V(s)


am

is Ving

are



has V3

have V3


Was Ving

Were Ving


V2


Shall V

Will V


PAST SIMPLE

PAST CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

PAST PERFECT

FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST


Indirect speech

(Косвенная речь)



V2


Was Ving

Were Ving



had V3



had been Ving



had V3


should V

would V









Pronouns SOME, ANY, NO, EVERY and their derivatives

(местоимения SOME, ANY, NO, EVERY и их производные)



(+)



(-), (?)


(-)


(+), (-)

SOME

(некоторый, несколько)

(not) ANY

NO

EVERY


SOMEBODY

(кто-то)


(not) ANYBODY

(никто)

(кто- то)


NOBODY

(никто)


EVERYBODY

(все, каждый)


SOMETHING

(что-то)


(not) ANYTHING

(ничто, ничего)

(что-то)


NOTHING

(ничто, ничего)


EVERYTHING

(все)



SOMEWHERE

(где-то)


(not) ANYWHERE

(нигде, где-то)


NOWHERE

(нигде)


EVERYWHERE

(везде)



+ I have some books.

- I have not any (no) books.

? Have you any books? – Yes, I have some. No, I haven’t any.

BUT! Would you like some coffee? – Не хотите ли выпить кофе?

May I have some tea? – Можно мне выпить чаю? (предложение, просьба)

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

(степени сравнения прилагательных)


POSITIVE

(положительная)

COMPARATIVE

(сравнительная)

SUPERLATIVE

(превосходная)


SHORT


SAD


DRY


WHITE


WONDERFUL

+ ER

SHORTER


SADDER


DRIER


WHITER


MORE WONDERFUL

+ EST

(the) SHORTEST


(the) SADDEST


(the) DRIEST


(the) WHITEST


(the) MOST WONDERFUL



REMEMBER!


GOOD

BAD

LITTLE

MANY, MUCH

FAR

LATE

OLD


BETTER

WORSE

LESS

MORE

FARTHER, FURTHER

LATTER /LATER

OLDER/ ELDER


(the) BEST

(the) WORST

(the) LEAST

(the) MOST

(the) FARTHEST, FURTHEST

THE LATEST, THE LAST

THE OLDEST/ ELDEST

ADVERBS


FORMATION: SLOW + LY


QUICKLY, BADLY, COLDLY, POLITELY


COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

(степени сравнения наречий)


POSITIVE

(положительная)

COMPARATIVE

(сравнительная)

SUPERLATIVE

(превосходная)


FAST


OFTEN


FASTER


MORE OFTEN


FASTEST


MOST OFTEN



REMEMBER!

BADLY

WELL
LITTLE
MUCH

FAR

WORSE
BETTER
LESS
MORE
FARTHER, FURTHER

WORST

BEST

LEAST

MOST

FARTHEST, FURTHEST



PLURAL FORM OF NOUNS (множественное число существительных)


NOUN + S (a book – books, a pen – pens)

IF NOUN ENDS (-s, -ss, -x, -o, -ch, -sh, -tch) + ES (a bench – benches)


SPELLING CHANGES:

  1. СОГЛАСНАЯ + Y = I+ ES (A FACTORY – FACTORIES)

ГЛАСНАЯ + Y + S (a PLAY – PLAYS)

  1. F; - FE = V +ES A WOLF – WOLVES, A WIFE – WIVES)

REMEMBER! CHIEF + S (начальник), SAFE + S (сейф), CLIFF+S (утёс)

ROOF + S (крыша), HANDKERCHIEF + S (носовой платок, шейная косынка)

  1. OE + S (A POTATO – POTATOES)

REMEMBER! PIANO + S, PHOTO + S

REMEMBER!

ONLY IN SINGULAR

ONLY IN PLURAL

A MAN – MEN

A WOMAN – WOMEN

A CHILD – CHILDREN

AN OX – OXEN

A GOOSE – GEESE

A FOOT – FEET

A TOOTH – TEETH

A MOUSE - MICE

A PERSON – PEOPLE

NEWS

HAIR

ADVICE

KNOWLEDGE

LUGGAGE

FURNITURE

INFORMATION

PHYSICS

TROUSERS

CLOTHES

GOODS

SPECTACLES

SCISSORS

ARCHIVES

CATTLE


ALSO REMEMBER!

Has the same form for singular and plural form

AN ENGLISHMAN- ENGLISHMEN

A FRENCHWOMAN- FRENCHWOMEN

BUT! A GERMAN- GERMANS

A DEER – DEER

A SHEEP – SHEEP

A SWINE – SWINE

A FISH- FISH

A FRUIT- FRUIT

THE ARTICLE (АРТИКЛЬ)


INDEFINITE (неопределенный)

A, AN

DEFINITE (определенный)

THE

а pen (1-я согласная)

an apple (1-я гласная)

the pen

the books

the meat

the rain



F/e: 1. THIS IS A BOOK. THE BOOK IS GOOD.

  1. THIS IS _ MILK. THE MILK IS FRESH.

  2. LOOK AT THE BLACKBOARD.

  3. THIS IS A BIG APPLE.


THE ARTICLES ARE NOT USED!


  1. AFTER AND BEFORE PRONOUNS (my, your, his, her, our, their, this, that, these, those) – It’s my a hat. Take that a book.

  2. BEFORE UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS (liquid, natural phenomenon, abstract matter, substance that must be weighed (flour, sugar, rice etc.) materials) – a water, a rain, an air, a butter.

  3. AFTER POSSESSIVE CASE – My father’s a car.

  4. AFTER AND BEFORE CARDINAL NUMERAL (one, two etc.) – He has one an English book.

  5. AFTER NEGATIVE PRONOUN “NO” – There is no a letter on the table.

  6. BEFORE AND AFTER ADJECTIVES – This apple is a big. BUT! This is a big apple.




MODAL VERBS AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS (модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты)


PRESENT (настоящее)

PAST (прошедшее)

FUTURE (будущее)


CAN (могу, умею)

F/e: I can read.



COULD

F/e: I could read when I was 5 years old.

SHALL BE ABLE TO

WILL BE ABLE TO

F/e: I will be able to swim next summer.


MAY

(могу, имею разрешение)

F/e: May I come in?



MIGHT

F/e: He might go home when he had written the task.

SHALL BE ALLOWED TO

WILL BE ALLOWED TO

F/e: John will be allowed to go abroad in few days.



MUST (должен, вынужден))

F/e: You must learn the rules!

I am to go there. – должен, предстоит, (договорились, или такое расписание)


HAD TO

F/e: I had to copy the text twice.

I was to go there.- предстояло

SHALL HAVE TO

WILL HAVE TO

F/e: We will have to read the book again.


SHOULD (следует)

F/e: Jane should go to the library.



OUGHT TO (следует)

F/e: Pete ought to buy this book.





THE PASSIVE VOICE (страдательный залог)



PRESENT

PAST

FUTURE

FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST


INDEFINITE


be + P II

(Participle II)



am

is told

are


was told

were told


shall be told

will be told


should be told

would be told




CONTINUOUS


be + being P II


am

is being told

are



was being told

were being told


________


_______


PERFECT


have been P II


have been told

has been told



had been told


shall have been told

will have been told


should have been told

would have been told







TYPES OF QUESTIONS (типы вопросов)

________________________________________________


  1. GENERAL Question (общий вопрос)

F/e: ARE YOU A STUDENT? - Yes, I am.

DO YOU WORK? – No, I do not (don’t).

DO YOU LIKE ENGLISH? – Yes, I do.


  1. ALTERNATIVE Question (альтернативный вопрос)

F/e: ARE YOU A STUDENT OR A DOCTOR? – I am a student.

DO YOU WORK OR STUDY? – I work.

DO YOU LIKE ENGLISH OR FRENCH? – I like English.


  1. SPECIAL Question (специальный вопрос)

WHO? – КТО?

WHAT? – ЧТО? КАКОЙ?

WHOSE? – ЧЕЙ?

WHOM? – КОМУ? КОГО?

WHERE? – ГДЕ?

WHEN? – КОГДА?

WHAT COLOR? – КАКОГО ЦВЕТА?

WHAT KIND OF? – КАКОГО ВИДА? КАКОЙ?

WHICH? – КОТОРЫЙ?

HOW? – КАК?

HOW MANY (HOW MUCH)? – СКОЛЬКО?

F/e: WHAT ARE YOU? – I am a student.

WHERE DO YOU WORK? – I work in the office.

WHAT LANGUAGE DO YOU LIKE? – I like English.


4. DISJUNCTIVE Question (разделительный вопрос)


F/e: You are a student, aren’t you? – Yes, I am.


You work, don’t you? – Yes, I do.


You don’t work, do you? – No, I don’t.



Present Continuous Tense (Настоящее длительное время)

Форма образование: to be (am, is, are) +Ving

  1. I am working at the moment.

  2. He is not (isn’t) working.

  3. Are you writing a letter now?

Present Continuous Tense употребляется:

  1. Для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в момент речи:

He is reading a book. Don’t make any noise, he is sleeping.

  1. Для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в настоящий период времени, хотя и не обязательно в момент речи:

He is writing a new play.

  1. Для выражения будущего длительного действия в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях условия и времени, которое вводятся союзами if, when, while, etc.

If I am sleeping when he comes, wake me up, please.

  1. Для выражения будущего действия, когда выражается намерение совершить действие или уверенность в его совершении:

He is taking his examination on Friday.

NOTE: Не употребляющиеся глаголы в во временах группы Continuous:

  1. Глаголы выражающие чувственные восприятия:

to see видеть

to feel – чувствовать

to smell – нюхать, пахнуть

to hear – слышать

to taste – пробовать на вкус, иметь вкус


  1. Глаголы выражающие эмоциональное состояние:

    to envy – завидовать

    to like - нравиться

    to love - любить

    to fear – бояться

    to prefer - предпочитать

    to hope – надеяться to regret – сожалеть to hate – ненавидеть

  2. Глаголы выражающие умственное состояние:

to believe – верить

to consider – считать

to recognize – узнавать

to suppose – предполагать

to know – знать

to forget – забывать

to notice – замечать

to think – думать

to mean – иметь в виду

to remember – помнить

to understand - понимать

to imagine – представлять


  1. Глаголы выражающие желание:

to desire, to wish- желать to want – хотеть


  1. Глаголы выражающие отношение между предметами:

to appear, to seem – казаться

to belong – принадлежать

to exist – существовать

to have – иметь


to consist – состоять

to contain – содержать в себе

to own – владеть


to cost – стоить

to depend – зависеть

to weigh - весить

to possess – обладать



SIMPLE TENSES



Types of the sentences

Present

Past

Future

Future-in-the-Past



Positive (+)

Ihello_html_126d24b5.gif

You V

We

They

Hhello_html_100cd7f8.gife

She V+ es/s

It

E.g. We usually work.

He goes to the Zoo every Sunday.

I

Yhello_html_m7940b8d2.gifou

We

They V +ed/ V2

He

She

It

E.g. They worked yesterday.

He went to the Zoo 2 years ago.

I / We shall V


Yhello_html_m757ad91b.gifou

They

He will V

She

It

E.g. We shall work next week.

He will go to the Zoo tomorrow.

I / We should V

Yhello_html_m43e60d2d.gifou

They

He would V

She

It

E.g. (He said that) We should work next week.

He would go to the Zoo the next day.



Negative (-)

Ihello_html_335533b8.gif

You

We do not V

They

Hhello_html_2190b4e9.gife

She does not V

It

E.g. I don’t like it.

He does not go to the Zoo every Sunday.

Ihello_html_m6a7225c6.gif

You

We

They did not V

He

She

It

E.g. I didn’t like it.

He did not go to the Zoo yesterday.

I / We shall not V

Yhello_html_m1ece2b70.gifou

They

He will not V

She

It

E.g. I shan’t cook tomorrow.

He will not go to the Zoo tomorrow.

I / We should not V

You

Thello_html_m69a7f445.gifhey

He would not V

She

It

(He said that) We should not work next week.

He would not go to the Zoo the next day.



Interrogative (?)

hello_html_5b902363.gifI

Do you V

we

they

hello_html_m5c46de3.gifhe

Does she V

It

E.g. Do you live here?

Does he go to the Zoo every Sunday?

I

hello_html_ma9730c2.gifyou

we

Did they V ?

he

she

It

E.g. Did you live here last year?

Did he go to the Zoo last year?

Shall I / we V ?

hello_html_m3544cdd1.gifyou

they

Will he V ?

she

It

E.g. Shall we do it tomorrow?

Will he go to the Zoo tomorrow?

Should I / we V ?

hello_html_m248e259d.gifyou

they

Would he V ?

she

It

E.g. Should we do it tomorrow?

Would he go to the Zoo the next day?



Clue words

Usually, always, often, sometimes, every day (week, month, year)

Yesterday, last week (month, year), ... ago

Tomorrow, next week (month, year), in



























CONTINUOUS TENSES

Types of the sentences

Present

Past

Future

Future-in-the-Past

Positive (+)

I am

Yhello_html_efc114a.gifou

We are Ving

They

Hhello_html_mc266016.gife

She is

It

E.g. I am reading book at 5 o’clock today.

She is doing her homework now.

Ihello_html_m4ac653fd.gif

He was Ving

She

It

Yhello_html_m22c70e41.gifou

We were Ving

They

E.g. When I came they were reading book.

She was doing her homework at 5 o’clock yesterday.

I / We shall be Ving

Yhello_html_m3145c4a0.gifou

They

He will be Ving

She

It

E.g. When I come they will be reading book.

She will be doing her homework at 10 o’clock tomorrow.


I / We should be Ving You

Thello_html_m4ac653fd.gifhey

He would be Ving

She

It

E.g. (He said that) We should be working at 10 o’clock the next day.

He would be going to the Zoo at this time next day.

Negative (-)

I am

Yhello_html_efc114a.gifou

We are not Ving

They

Hhello_html_mc266016.gife

She is

It

E.g. I am not reading book.

She is not doing her home task now.

Ihello_html_m6dcc8e57.gif

He

She was not Ving

It

Yhello_html_mc266016.gifou

We were not Ving

They

E.g. When I came they weren’t reading book.

She wasn’t doing her home task at 5 o’clock yesterday.

I / We shall not be Ving

Yhello_html_m7018b13.gifou

They

He will not be Ving

She

It

E.g. When I come they will not be reading book.

She will not be doing her homework at 10 o’clock tomorrow.

I / We should not be Ving

Yhello_html_m426e8479.gifou

They

He would not be Ving

She

It

E.g. (He said that) We should not be working at 10 o’clock the next day.

He would not be going to the Zoo at this time next day.

Interrogative (?)

Am I

hello_html_7fb3c877.gifyou

Are we Ving ?

they

hello_html_2ac7fd01.gifhe

Is she

it

E.g. Am I reading book.

Is she doing her home task now?

hello_html_45ada246.gifI

he

Was she Ving ?

it

hello_html_4c739af3.gifyou

Were we Ving ?

they

E.g. Were you reading book?

Was she doing her homework at 5 o’clock yesterday?

Shall I / we be Ving ?

hello_html_m43b37933.gifyou

they

Will he be Ving ?

she

It

E.g. Shall we be doing it whole day tomorrow ?

Will she be doing her homework at 10 o’clock tomorrow?

Should I / we be Ving ?

hello_html_4bd89d3b.gifyou

they

Would he be Ving ?

she

It

E.g. Should we be doing it whole day tomorrow?


Clue words

Now, at ... o’clock today, at the moment, still.

When I came..., from... till o’clock yesterday, whole, while

When I come..., from... till o’clock tomorrow, whole, while



PERFECT TENSES

Types of the sentences

Present

Past

Future

Future-in-the-Past

Positive (+)

Ihello_html_m4f661a6a.gif

You

We have V +ed/ V3

They

Hhello_html_mc266016.gife

She has V +ed/ V3

It

E.g. They have just talked

He has already written a letter.

Ihello_html_m7940b8d2.gif

You

We

They had V +ed/ V3

He

She

It

E.g. They had talked

He had written a letter.

I / We shall have V +ed/ V3

Yhello_html_689626c5.gifou

They

He will have V +ed/ V3

She

It

E.g. He will have written a letter by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

I / We should have V +ed/ V3

Yhello_html_m757ad91b.gifou

They

He would have V +ed/ V3

She

It

E.g. (He said that) He would have written a letter by 5 o’clock the next day.

Negative

(-)

Ihello_html_m449c3bd8.gif

You have not V +ed/ V3

We

They

Hhello_html_64ed81ff.gife

She has not V +ed/ V3

It

E.g. They have never talked about it.

He has not written a letter yet.

I

Yhello_html_m7940b8d2.gifou

We

They had not V +ed/ V3

He

She

It

E.g. They had not talked about it.

He had not written a letter.

I / We shall not have V +ed/ V3

Yhello_html_6a399836.gifou

They

He will not have V +ed/ V3

She

It

E.g. He will not have written a letter by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

I / We should have V +ed/ V3

Yhello_html_m7940b8d2.gifou

They

He would not have V +ed/ V3

She

It

E.g. (He said that) He would not have written a letter by 5 o’clock the next day.

Interrogative (?)

hello_html_2ac7fd01.gifI

you V +ed/ V3 ?

Have we

they

hello_html_m413c7f28.gifhe

Has she V +ed/ V3 ?

it

E.g. Have they ever talked about it?

Has he written a letter yet?

hello_html_m71eadfad.gifI

you

we

Had they V +ed/ V3 ?

he

she

it

E.g. Had they ever talked about it?

Had he written a letter yet?

Shall I / we have V +ed/ V3?

hello_html_m128077ea.gifyou

they

Will he have V +ed/ V3 ?

she

It

E.g. Will he have written a letter by 5 o’clock tomorrow?

Should I / we have V +ed/ V3?

hello_html_m63dc95d4.gifyou

they

Would he have V +ed/ V3 ?

she

It

E.g. Would he have written a letter by 5 o’clock the next day?

Clue words

Just, already, yet, never, ever, recently, for

For, by … o’ clock yesterday, before.

by … o’ clock tomorrow, before




PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

Types of the sentences

Present

Past

Future

Future-in-the-Past

Positive (+)

I

Yhello_html_m4f661a6a.gifou have been Ving

We

They


Hhello_html_38ada558.gife

She has been Ving

It

E.g. We have been reading since morning.

I

Yhello_html_m6a7225c6.gifou

We

They had been Ving

He

She

It

E.g. We had been reading for 2 hours when mother came.

I / We shall have been Ving


You

Thello_html_39ee8bfb.gifhey

He will have been Ving

She

It

E.g. We shall have been reading for 2 hours when they come.

I / We should have been Ving

Yhello_html_m757ad91b.gifou

They

He would have been Ving

She

It

E.g. (We said that) We should have been reading for 2 hours.

Negative (-)

Ihello_html_m4ac653fd.gif

You have not been Ving

We

They

He

She has not been Ving

It

E.g. We have not been reading since morning.

Ihello_html_m7940b8d2.gif

You

We

They had not been Ving

He

She

It

E.g. We had not been reading for 2 hours when mother came.

I / We shall not have been Ving


Yhello_html_m757ad91b.gifou

They

He will not have been Ving

She

It

E.g. We shall not have been reading for 2 hours when they come.


I / We should not have been Ving

Yhello_html_m3fe553ff.gifou

They

He would not have been Ving

She

It

E.g. (We said that)We shall not have been reading for 2 hours.


Interrogative (?)

hello_html_5b902363.gifI

Have you been Ving?

we

they

hello_html_m2dd5e691.gifhe

Has she been Ving?

it

E.g. Have we been reading since morning?

hello_html_3f86829a.gifI

you

we

Had they been Ving?

he

she

it

E.g. Had we been reading since morning?

Shall I / we have been Ving?

hello_html_m3544cdd1.gifyou

they

Will he have been Ving?

she

It

E.g. Will we have been reading for 2 hours when they come?

Should I / we have been Ving?

hello_html_m42e879dd.gifyou

they

Would he have been Ving?

she

It

E.g. Would we have been reading for 2 hours?

Clue words

since

since

for

for


The verb to be in the Present, Past, Future Tenses


PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

FUTUTE TENSE

Positive (+)

I – am (I’m)

Yhello_html_36c6e686.gifou

We are (‘re)

They

Hhello_html_38feffd1.gife

She is (‘s)

It


I am a student.Я (есть) студент.

You are a student.. Ты (есть) студент.

He is a student. Он (есть) студент.

Ihello_html_2b423d2a.gif

She, He was (‘s)

It

Yhello_html_2ea66c40.gifou

We were (‘re)

They


I was a student. Я был студентом.

He was a student. Он был студентом.

You were a student. Ты был студентом.

I, We – shall be (‘ll be)

Yhello_html_m7fae44b0.gifou

They

He will be (‘ll be)

She

It


I shall be a student. Я буду студентом.

He will be a student. Он будет студентом.

You will be a student. Ты будешь студентом.


Negative (-)

I am not (‘m not)

Yhello_html_efc114a.gifou

We are not (aren’t)

They

Hhello_html_mc266016.gife

She is not (isn’t)

It

E.g. He is not at home.

We are not students.


Ihello_html_m6dcc8e57.gif

He

She was not (wasn’t)

It

Yhello_html_mc266016.gifou

We were not (weren’t)

They

E.g. He was not at home.

We were not students.


I / We shall not be (shan’t be)

Yhello_html_m7018b13.gifou

They

He will not be (won’t be)

She

It

E.g. He will not be at home.

We shall not be students.


Interrogative (?)

Am I

hello_html_7fb3c877.gifyou

Are we ?

they

hello_html_2ac7fd01.gifhe

Is she

it

E.g. Is he at home?

Are we students?


hello_html_45ada246.gifI

he

Was she ?

it

hello_html_4c739af3.gifyou

Were we ?

they

E.g. Was he at home?

Were we students?


Shall I / we be ?

hello_html_m43b37933.gifyou

they

Will he be ?

she

It

E.g. Will he be at home?

Shall we be students?


Clue words

Today, now, usually, always, often, sometimes, every day (week, month, year)

Yesterday, last week (month, year), ... ago

Tomorrow, next week (month, year), in


The verb to have (got) in the Present, Past, Future Tenses


PRESENT TENSE

PAST TENSE

FUTUTE TENSE

Positive (+)

Ihello_html_m4f661a6a.gif

You

We have (‘ve ) (got)

They

Hhello_html_mc266016.gife

She has (‘s) (got)

It

E. g. They have a big house.

He has a new car.

Ihello_html_m7940b8d2.gif

You

We

They had (‘d) (got)

He

She

It

E. g. They had a house.

He had a black car.

I / We shall have (‘ll have) (got)

Yhello_html_689626c5.gifou

They

He will have (‘ll have) (got)

She

It

E.g. We shall (We’ll) have a big house.

He will (He’ll) have a new car.

Negative (-)

Ihello_html_m449c3bd8.gif

You have not (haven’t) (got)

We

They

Hhello_html_64ed81ff.gife

She has not (hasn’t) (got)

It

E.g. They have not a house.

He has not a new car.

I

Yhello_html_m7940b8d2.gifou

We

They had not (hadn’t) (got)

He

She

It

E.g. They had not a house.

He had not a black car.

I / We shall not (shan’t) have (got)

Yhello_html_6a399836.gifou

They

He will not (won’t) have (got)

She

It

E.g. We shall not have a big house.

He will not have a new car.

Interrogative (?)

hello_html_2ac7fd01.gifI

you (got) ?

Have we

they

hello_html_m413c7f28.gifhe

Has she (got) ?

it

E.g. Have they a house?

Has he a car?

hello_html_m71eadfad.gifI

you

we

Had they (got)?

he

she

it

E.g. Had they house?

Had he a black car?

Shall I / we have ?

hello_html_m128077ea.gifyou

they

Will he have (got)?

she

It

E.g. Shall we have a big house?

Will he have a new car?

Clue words

Today, usually, always, often, sometimes, every day (week, month, year)

Yesterday, last week (month, year), ... ago

Tomorrow, next week (month, year), in







Prepositions of place and direction

Prepositions

Предлоги

For example

Например

on

на (где? куда?)

on the table (где?)

on the table (куда?)

на столе

на стол

in

в (где?)

The flowers are in the vase

Цветы в вазе.

into

в (куда, во что?)

Put the flowers into the vase

Положи цветы в вазу

to

в (куда?)

to the country

в деревню (загород)

from

из, от, с, у

from the country

from Peter

from the table

из деревни

у Петера

со стола

out of

из (из внутри ч. л.)

out of room

из комнаты

off

с (со) (с поверхности ч.-л.)

off the table

со стола

near, at, by

у, около, за

near (by) the window

at the table

у окна

за столом

behind

позади

behind the house

за домом

under

под

under the bed

под кроватью

in front of

перед

in front of the house

перед домом

among

среди

among the balls (many balls)

среди мячиков

between

между

between the balls (two balls)

между мячиков

in the middle of

в середине

in the middle of the room

в середине комнаты

above

над

above the tree

над деревом

next to

рядом

next to the shop

рядом магазином

on the left

с лева

on the left of the supermarket

с лева от супермаркета

on the right

с права

on the right of the drugstore

с права от аптеки



Prepositions of movement

English

Russian

across the road

через дорогу

through the wood

через лес

across the river

через реку (вплавь, на лодке)

over the river

через реку (по мосту, по воздуху)

over the fence

через забор

along (down) the street

по улице

down (up) the river

по реке

across the sea

по морю

about the town

по городу

about the room

по комнате

along the corridor

по коридору

about the country

по стране






Prepositions of time

English

Russian

at 6 o’clock

at noon

at midnight (at night)

at sunrise (sunset)

в шесть часов

в полдень

в полночь (ночью)

на восходе солнца (на закате)

in spring

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening

весной

утром

днем

вечером

in September

в сентябре

in two hours

через два часа

in 2007

в 2007 году

on Monday

в понедельник

on the 1st of September

первого сентября

after dinner

после обеда

before entering the institute

перед (до) поступлением в институт

by 5 o’clock

к пяти часам

since morning

с утра

during the holidays

в течение каникул

from ... (morning) till (until) ... (night)

с … (утра) до … (ночи)


Conditional sentences

I type (Real Condition)

Present Simple Tense

(If- clause)


Future Simple Tense

(Principal clause)

If Subject+ do/ does

E.g. If she comes in time,

+

Subject+ shall/will+ do

we shall go to the theatre


II type (Unreal Condition)

Past Simple Tense

(If- clause)


Future- in- the Past

(Principal clause)

If Subject + did

E. g. If she came in time,

+

Subject should/ would +do

we should go to the theatre (сегодня, завтра)


III type (Unreal Reference)

Past Perfect Tense

(If- clause)


Future in the Past + Perfect Tense

(Principal clause)

If Subject + had done

E.g. If she had come in time,

+

Subject should/ would + have done

we should have gone to the theatre (вчера)

Conjunctions: if, unless, in case, as soon as, when, before, after, till (until), while


  1. Past Indefinite: I wish he were with us. - Жаль, что он не с нами. Либо: Как мне хотелось, чтобы он был с нами. I wish I knew it. – Жаль, что я не знаю об этом.

  2. Past perfect: I wish he had stayed at home. – Жаль, что он не остался дома.

  3. would+ Infinitive, might+ Infinitive, could + Infinitive: I wish he would tell me everything. – Как бы мне хотелось, чтобы он мне все рассказал. I wish that you would (could) call tomorrow (today) - Я хочу, чтобы Вы позвонили завтра.(сегодня)

Автор
Дата добавления 10.12.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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