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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Статьи / The role of undergrounders of The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre in the victory in the Great Patriotic War
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The role of undergrounders of The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre in the victory in the Great Patriotic War

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The role of undergrounders of The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre in the victory in the Great Patriotic War





Made by:

Taisia Danko

Form 9 “B”

School № 23

The supervisor of studies:

Irina Vladimirovna Lada







Simferopol

2015

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………….....3

PART I. HISTORY OF THE CRIMEAN ACADEMIC RUSSIAN DRAMA THEATRE BY M. GORKY……..............................................................................4

PART II. UNDERGROUND GROUP “SOKOL”………………………………6

CONCLUSION……………………………………..…………………………...9

THE LIST OF THE USED LITERATURE…………..……………………..11
























INTRODUCTION

The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky is the oldest theatre of Crimea.

Today the Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky is a unique complex of buildings and scenes, which occupies the whole block. There are no analogues of the Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky in the countries of the former CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States).

But not everyone knows that there was an underground group called “Sokol” in the Russian theatre. This group worked in 1943-1944 during occupation years. Peaceful actors, theatre workers went in to the attack. They stood up for Homeland and they fought in the Crimean underground.

My work promotes extension of knowledge about underground group and the Great Patriotic War, it broadens outlook and educates patriotism. Moreover my work is associated with the seventieth anniversary of the victory. That is the actuality of my work.

The aim of my work is to give more understandable and interesting information about the underground group “Sokol”.

The object of my work is the activity of the underground group “Sokol” and its role in the victory in World War II.

In accordance with aim and object of my work these tasks were defined:

  • To define the history of The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky.

  • To define members of the underground group “Sokol”.

  • To define the activity of the underground group “Sokol”.

  • To define the role of the underground group “Sokol” in victory in the World War II.

My work consists of introduction, main part, conclusion and the list of the used literature.



PART I. HISTORY OF THE CRIMEAN ACADEMIC RUSSIAN DRAMA THEATRE BY M. GORKY

The Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky is the oldest theatre of Crimea. The theatre began its history as a small theatre at Noble assembly. Performances in this theatre were put on the stage in the 1920th [7].

The founder of the theatre is Moscow merchant Volkov, who moved to Simferopol. He rented a shed, constructed stage, boxes and wooden floor. Volkov and other amateurs of arts put performances there [7].

The old building of the theatre was rebuilt in 1873.

The modern building of the theatre was built according to the project of the famous academician of architecture A.Beketov in neoclassicism style in 1911. There are P.I.Chaikovsky, A.S. Pushkin and N.V. Gogol’s busts in the central part of the theatre. They were founders of the Russian theatre art. The theatre is crowned by figures of Appolo Musaget and muse Melpomene. Also you can see lions-griffins at the edge of the fronton [7].

The building of the theatre was widely used in public and political life of Simferopol. The triumphant opening of the Taurian Academy of the Crimean Federal University by V.I.Vernadsky took place in the theatre in 1918 [7].

A lot of famous people acted at the theatre. N.A.Semashko gave a report in the theatre in 1920. A congress of working, peasant, Red Army and naval councils took place at the theatre in 1921 [7].

In January 1996 reconstruction of the theatre, which lasted about 16 years, was completed.

Today the Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky is a unique complex of buildings and scenes, which occupies the whole block. There are no analogues of the Crimean academic Russian drama theatre by M. Gorky in the countries of the former CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) [7].

There are 7 different scenes, from the big one for 711 seats to the chamber one, the theatre of the young viewer, the theatre of the modern ballet. About 600-700 performances are put on the stage every year. Also there is a theatrical school, where future actors are trained [7].





























PART II. UNDERGROUND GROUP “SOKOL”

There was an underground group called “Sokol” in the Russian theatre. This group worked in 1943-1944 during occupation years [7]. Peaceful actors, theatre workers went in to the attack. They stood up for Homeland and they fought in the Crimean underground [3].

Nikolai Baryshev & Alexandra Peregonets were organizers of the underground group. Nikolai Baryshev was the art director. His nickname was Sokol. Alexandra Peregonets was an actress [2].

There were 60 members of the underground group, including 10 workers of the theatre [4]:

  • Actor Dmitriy Dobrosmylov.

  • Actress Alexsandra Peregonets.

  • Actress Zoya Yakovleva.

  • Costumier Elizaveta Kucherenko.

  • Scene-shifter Pavel Chechyotkin.

  • Charlady Praskovya Efimova.

  • Art-student Oleg Savvateev.

Mass sending of youth Germany began in the spring of 1942. Workers of the theatre decided to open a theatre studio to save youth from German slavery. It was necessary to save youth. Young boys and girls were taken to the theatre studio as necessary support and then they played different roles in performances [3].

Nikolay Baryshev decided to appoint Alexandra Peregonets as a teacher to distract her from the death of her husband, because she was suffering very much.

Quite soon she became Nikolay Baryshev’s assistant in underground group working [5].

It was one of those rare cases, when important tasks were charged not to professional secret-service agents, but to actors. In particular, terrorist operation was planned. It was planned to attempt upon Hitler’s life in the fall of 1943; it was told that Hitler would arrive to Crimea for opening of the bridge through the Kerch Strait. But “Crimean Bridge” was destroyed, Hitler didn’t arrive, the operation was cancelled [6].

Underground workers reoriented on secret-service work, prepared acts of sabotage. In particular, they blew up building of the regional archive, from where during retreat secret documents weren’t taken out. In general, underground group “Sokol” organized 45 large acts of sabotage, transferred hundreds of secret-service reports [2].

Nikolay Baryshev made a plan of Simferopol and applied secret-service information about military objectives of the enemy in 1943. This plan was given to guerrillas and was used during release of Simferopol by the 51 army in 1944 [1].

Underground workers kept in touch with Crimean guerrillas and with underground regional committee [4].

A hiding place was made in the theatre, where a rich collection of 5000 theatrical costumes, which Germans planned to take out, was hidden [2].

Activity of the underground group was mostly agitation - they distributed leaflets, carried reports of Sovinformburo. Also they sent out secret-service information, warm theatrical costumes, medicines (which were collected by Alexandra Peregonets) to the wood [6].

But, after all, the most important thing was that they saved the building of the theatre. The thing is that firstly Germans wanted to make a motor-transport depot at the very beginning of war. Secondly, Germans wanted to blow the theatre building up, when they were falling back in 1944 [5].

In March, 1944 the Gestapo found a trace of the underground group. Underground workers were arrested just right after the performance on March 18. The only one underground worker who could escape was Elizaveta Kucherenko. It was she who saved the theatre building from the fire, when Germans were falling back [1].

When Simferopol underground group began to fail in its activity, they were offered to go to the forest, but actors refused. Who gave out underground group? It’s not quite clear until how [5].

On the 10th of April, 1944, three days before liberation of Simferopol by the Soviet Army, underground workers were shot in the natural boundary “Dubki”.

All night long cars full of prisoners arrived to the natural boundary. Prisoners were shot and spotted [2].

Underground workers were buried in the square of the Victory (where Alexander Nevskiy’s temple is recreated now). Then they were buried on a city cemetery near central market. Underground workers were bore on hands. Guard of honor stood near coffins. The city was saying good bye to favorite actors [6].

Heroic acts of the underground group aren’t forgotten. There is a memorial plaque on the theatre building. It says “To actors and theatre workers, who died in fascist invaders’ arms: N. Baryshev, A. Peregonets, D. Dobrosmyslov, Z. Yakovleva, P. Chechyotkin, I. Ozerov, P. Efimova, O. Savvateen” [3].

A performance “They were actors” is put on the stage of the theatre. A film of the same name was shot in 1981.

A documentary film “After premiere – execution. The history of one betrayal” was shown on the TV channel “Russia 1” on the 12th of May in 2010. The director of the film is Alexandr Belanov.

Undergrounders left forever, but the memory of them is still alive. Their main monument is wonderful theatre, which decorates our town. Poets devote them verses.










CONCLUSION

Of course it’s impossible to tell about all interesting facts about the activity of the underground group “Sokol” in my small work. But still as a result of my work I’d like to conclude that:

  1. The underground group “Sokol” worked in 1943-1944 during occupation years. Peaceful actors, theatre workers were members of the group.

  2. Nikolai Baryshev & Alexandra Peregonets were organizers of the underground group. There were 60 members of the underground group, including 10 workers of the theatre.

  3. Workers of the theatre decided to open a theatre studio to save youth from German slavery. Young boys and girls were taken to the theatre studio as necessary support and then they played different roles in performances.

  4. Nikolay Baryshev made a plan of Simferopol and applied secret-service information about military objectives of the enemy in 1943. This plan was given to guerrillas and was used during release of Simferopol by the 51 army in 1944.

  5. Activity of the underground group was mostly agitation - they distributed leaflets, carried reports of Sovinformburo. Also they sent out secret-service information, warm theatrical costumes, medicines (which were collected by Alexandra Peregonets) to the wood.

  6. The underground group “Sokol” saved the building of the theatre. The thing is that firstly Germans wanted to make a motor-transport depot at the very beginning of war. Secondly, Germans wanted to blow the theatre building up, when they were falling back in 1944.

  7. In March, 1944 the Gestapo found a trace of the underground group. Underground workers were arrested just right after the performance on March 18. The only one underground worker who could escape was Elizaveta Kucherenko. It was she who saved the theatre building from the fire, when Germans were falling back.

  8. On the 10th of April, 1944, three days before liberation of Simferopol by the Soviet Army, underground workers were shot in the natural boundary “Dubki”.

  9. Heroic acts of the underground group aren’t forgotten. There is a memorial plaque on the theatre building. It says “To actors and theatre workers, who died in fascist invaders’ arms: N. Baryshev, A. Peregonets, D. Dobrosmyslov, Z. Yakovleva, P. Chechyotkin, I. Ozerov, P. Efimova, O. Savvateen”.
























THE LIST OF THE USED LITERATURE

  1. Илюхин Ф. Двести двадцать дней в тылу врага. – Симферополь: Крым, 1967.

  2. Македонский М. Пламя нал Крымом. Воспоминания командира южного соединения партизанских отрядов Крыма. - Симферополь: Крым, 1969.

  3. Осипов Н. Пароль «Виктория». - Симферополь: Таврия, 1987.

  4. Третьяков Ф.А. Звезды немеркнущей славы. Очерки о крымчанах-героях советского союза. - Симферополь: Крым, 1967.

  5. Чуб М.И. Так было. - Симферополь: Таврия, 1980.

  6. Шамко В.И., Шамко Е.Н. По следам народного подвига: Маршрутами мужества и славы крымских партизан и подпольщиков в годы Великой Отечественной войны. - Симферополь: Таврия, 1986.

  7. электронный ресурс http://www.poluostrov-krym.com/ dostoprimechatelnosti/teatry-kryma/simferopolsky-teart-imeni-gorkogo.html//.






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Дата добавления 09.10.2016
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