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The United States of America Подготовила учитель английского языка Хот Анжели Элчиновна
United States of America (USA) The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and one federal district. The United States of America is also referred as United States, the USA, the US or simply America. The United States of America is located in the middle of the North American continent, and is geographically one of the world's largest countries. It is the third most populous (after China and India), and the world's wealthiest nation. The United States plays a prominent role in world affairs and is an influential member of such multinational organizations as the United Nations (headquartered in New York City) and the World Bank (headquartered in Washington, DC). Its overseas territories include Guam and Puerto Rico (acquired in 1899); American Samoa (1900); and the U.S. Virgin Islands (1917).
Government and politics The United States Capitol, where Congress meets: the Senate, left; the House, right The White House, home of the U.S. President Supreme Court Building, where the nation's highest court sits
The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered byminority rights protected by law". The government is regulated by a system ofchecks and balances defined by the U.S. Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. For 2014, the U.S. ranked 19th on the Democracy Index and 17th on the Corruption Perceptions Index. In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels. The federal government is composed of three branches: Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government. Executive: The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to Congressional override), and appoints themembers of the Cabinet (subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the President with Senate approval, interpret laws and overturn those they findunconstitutional.
Presidents of USA 1. George Washington 1732–1799 (Lived: 67 years) 2. John Adams 1735–1826 (Lived: 90 years) 3. Thomas Jefferson 1743–1826 (Lived: 83 years) 
4. James Madison 1751–1836 (Lived: 85 years) 5. James Monroe 1758–1831 (Lived: 73 years) 6. John Quincy Adams 1767–1848 (Lived: 80 years) 7. Andrew Jackson 1767–1845 (Lived: 78 years
8. Martin Van Buren 1782–1862 (Lived: 79 years) 9. William Henry Harrison 1773–1841 (Lived: 68 years) 10. John Tyler 1790–1862 (Lived: 71 years) 1 11. James K. Polk 1795–1849 (Lived: 53 years) 12. Zachary Taylor 1784–1850 (Lived: 65 years) 13. Millard Fillmore 1800–1874 (Lived: 74 years)
14. Franklin Pierce 1804–1869 (Lived: 64 years) 15. James Buchanan 1791–1868 (Lived: 77 years) 16. Abraham Lincoln 1809–1865 (Lived: 56 years) 17. Andrew Johnson 1808–1875 (Lived: 66 years) 18. Ulysses S. Grant 1822–1885 (Lived: 63 years)
19. Rutherford B. Hayes 1822–1893 (Lived: 70 years) 20. James A. Garfield 1831–1881 (Lived: 49 years) 21. Chester A. Arthur 1829–1886 (Lived: 57 years) 22. Grover Cleveland 1837–1908 (Lived: 71 years) 23. Benjamin Harrison 1833–1901 (Lived: 67 years) 24. Grover Cleveland 1837–1908 (Lived: 71 years)
30. Calvin Coolidge 1872–1933 (Lived: 60 years) 29. Warren G. Harding 1865–1923 (Lived: 57 years 28. Woodrow Wilson 1856–1924 (Lived: 67 years) 27. William Howard Taft 1857–1930 (Lived: 72 years) 26. Theodore Roosevelt 1858–1919 (Lived: 60 years) 25. William McKinley 1843–1901 (Lived: 58 years)
31. Herbert Hoover 1874–1964 (Lived: 90 years) 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1882–1945 (Lived: 63 years) 33. Harry S. Truman 1884–1972 (Lived: 88 years) 34. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890–1969 (Lived: 78 years) 35. John F. Kennedy 1917–1963 (Lived: 46 years) 36. Lyndon B. Johnson 1908–1973 (Lived: 64 years)
37. Richard Nixon 1913–1994 (Lived: 81 years) 38. Gerald Ford 1913–2006 (Lived: 93 years) 39. Jimmy Carter Born 1924 (91 years old) 40. Ronald Reagan 1911–2004 (Lived: 93 years) 41. George H. W. Bush Born 1924 (92 years old)
42. Bill Clinton Born 1946 (70 years old) 43. George W. Bush Born 1946 (70 years old) 44. Barack Obama Born 1961 (55 years old)
List of states
State Abbr. Capital Largest city[A] Population (2015 est) Total area in mi2 (km2)[C] Alabama AL Montgomery Birmingham 4,858,979 52,420 (135,767) Alaska AK Juneau Anchorage 738,432 665,384 (1,723,337) Arizona AZ Phoenix 6,828,065 113,990 (295,233) Arkansas AR Little Rock 2,978,204 53,179 (137,733) California CA Sacramento Los Angeles 39,144,818 163,695 (423,968) Colorado CO Denver 5,456,574 104,094 (269,602)
Connecticut CT Hartford Bridgeport 3,590,886 5,543 (14,356) Delaware DE Dover Wilmington 945,934 2,489 (6,446) Florida FL Tallahassee Jacksonville 20,271,272 65,758 (170,312) Georgia GA Atlanta 10,214,860 59,425 (153,910) Hawaii HI Honolulu 1,431,603 10,932 (28,314) Idaho ID Boise 1,654,930 83,569 (216,443) Illinois IL Springfield Chicago 12,859,995 57,914 (149,997)
Indiana IN Indianapolis 6,619,680 36,420 (94,327) Iowa IA Des Moines 3,123,899 56,273 (145,746) Kansas KS Topeka Wichita 2,911,641 82,278 (213,099) Kentucky[D] KY Frankfort Louisville 4,425,092 40,408 (104,656) Louisiana LA Baton Rouge New Orleans 4,670,724 52,378 (135,658) Maine ME Augusta Portland 1,329,328 35,380 (91,634) Maryland MD Annapolis Baltimore 6,006,401 12,406 (32,131)
Massachusetts[E] MA Boston 6,794,422 10,554 (27,335) Michigan MI Lansing Detroit 9,922,576 96,714 (250,488) Minnesota MN St. Paul Minneapolis 5,489,594 86,936 (225,163) Mississippi MS Jackson 2,992,333 48,432 (125,438) Missouri MO Jefferson City Kansas City 6,083,672 69,707 (180,540) Montana MT Helena Billings 1,032,949 147,040 (380,832) Nebraska NE Lincoln Omaha 1,896,190 77,348 (200,330)
Nevada NV Carson City Las Vegas 2,890,845 110,572 (286,380) New Hampshire NH Concord Manchester 1,330,608 9,349 (24,214) New Jersey NJ Trenton Newark 8,958,013 8,723 (22,592) New Mexico NM Santa Fe Albuquerque 2,085,109 121,590 (314,917) New York NY Albany New York 19,795,791 54,555 (141,297) North Carolina NC Raleigh Charlotte 10,042,802 53,819 (139,391) North Dakota ND Bismarck Fargo 756,927 70,698 (183,107)
Ohio OH Columbus 11,613,423 44,826 (116,099) Oklahoma OK Oklahoma City 3,911,338 69,899 (181,038) Oregon OR Salem Portland 4,028,977 98,379 (254,800) Pennsylvania[F] PA Harrisburg Philadelphia 12,802,503 46,054 (119,279) Rhode Island[G] RI Providence 1,056,298 1,545 (4,002) South Carolina SC Columbia 4,896,146 32,020 (82,931) South Dakota SD Pierre Sioux Falls 858,469 77,116 (199,730)
Tennessee TN Nashville Memphis 6,600,299 42,144 (109,152) Texas TX Austin Houston 27,469,114 268,596 (695,660) Utah UT Salt Lake City 2,995,919 84,897 (219,882) Vermont VT Montpelier Burlington 626,042 9,616 (24,905) Virginia[H] VA Richmond Virginia Beach 8,382,993 42,775 (110,787) Washington WA Olympia Seattle 7,170,351 71,298 (184,661) West Virginia WV Charleston 1,844,128 24,230 (62,755) Wisconsin WI Madison Milwaukee 5,771,337 65,496 (169,634) Wyoming WY Cheyenne 586,107 97,813 (253,335)
California is the most populous state, with 38,332,521 residents (2013 estimate); Wyoming is the least populous, with an estimated 582,658 residents. The District of Columbia, with an estimated 646,449 residents as of 2012, has a higher population than the two least populous states (Wyoming and Vermont). The largest state by area is Alaska, encompassing 665,384 square miles (1,723,337 square kilometers), while the smallest is Rhode Island, encompassing 1,545 square miles (4,002 square kilometers). The first state to ratify the current Constitution was Delaware, which it did on December 7, 1787, while the newest state is Hawaii, which was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959. The largest territory in terms of both population and size is Puerto Rico, with 3,725,789 residents as of the 2010 Census and a total area of 5,325 square miles (13,792 square kilometers).
The sights of the USA There are a number of places which tourists want to visit arriving in the USA. This list includes the White House, Manhattan, Las Vegas, Golden Gate Bridge, Niagara Falls, Grand Canyon, Yellowstone National Park, and of course Hollywood. The White House is situated in the capital of the USA. Since its foundation it has served as the official residence of the President. The building was first used by John Adams. Manhattan is the place which people picture thinking of New York. It is one of its five boroughs with plenty of skyscrapers. The image of Manhattan has been featured thousands times on screen. The sights of the area include Times Square, Broadway Theatre, Rockefeller University, New York City Hall, etc. Manhattan is also one of the most expensive places to live and to shop.Las Vegas is the gambling mecca of the world. This resort city is the leading financial and cultural center of southern Nevada. Casinos and mega-casino hotels with lavish decorations can be found throughout the city. All in all, the city is built to create a fantasy-like atmosphere.
An internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge. It spans the Golden Gate strait – a channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It was built in 1937 and for almost thirty years remained the world’s longest suspension bridge. The red-orange colour of the bridge was chosen to make it more visible through thick fog. The bridge is frequently featured in movies. One of the most spectacular natural wonders of North America is Niagara Falls. It is situated between the state of New York and the province of Ontario. It actually contains three different waterfalls. The largest one, the Horseshoe Falls, is situated on the Canadian side. Grand Canyon is an extremely attractive tourist destination. The site is situated in Northern Arizona by the Colorado River. It is over several millions year. Although it’s not the largest canyon in the world, the view if this landmark is impressive with its colourful landscapes and spectacular vistas. Yellowstone National Park is another remarkable natural sight. It is situated in the state of Wyoming, although it stretches to Montana and Idaho. It was the first national park in the world established to preserve natural geysers and wildlife. The park lies on top of a gigantic hotspot, which has a light molten rock on the surface. Tourists can find geysers and hot springs there. In addition, they can see grizzly bears and bison, deer and elk and many other wondrous things within the park borders. One of the most desired tourist destinations in the USA is Hollywood – the home of American film industry and entertainment. It is located in central Los Angeles and features several historic studios. The area of Hollywood also includes the Grauman’s Chinese Theatre, Paramount Pictures, Walk of Fame, Rodeo Drive shopping opportunities and many other interesting places.
Yellowstone National Park Grand Canyon Niagara Falls
the Golden Gate Bridge. Las Vegas
Manhattan The White House
National Symbols Of United States Of America National Symbols represent pride and values of the country. United States of America is third largest country by land area and world’s largest economy. It is also one of the most powerful countries of the world and one of the five permanent members of United Nations Security Council. United States of America has varied National symbols representing its culture, values and pride.
National Flag of USA The current version of National Flag of USA was adopted on July 4, 1960. The National Flag of USA has thirteen equal horizontal stripes with alternate colours red and white. It has a blue rectangle in the top left corner of the flag with 50 white pointed five-stars arranged in nine horizontal rows. The stars are six and five in numbers alternately and 50 in number representing different states. A book “Our Flag” published in 1989 by House of Representatives explains the significance of colors and stars as:- "The colors of the pales (the vertical stripes) are those used in the flag of the United States of America; White signifies purity and innocence, Red, hardiness & valour, and Blue, the color of the Chief (the broad band above the stripes) signifies vigilance, perseverance & justice." "The star is a symbol of the heavens and the divine goal to which man has aspired from time immemorial; the stripe is symbolic of the rays of light emanating from the sun."
The Bald Eagle The Bald Eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus) is the National Bird of USA. The Bald Eagle was adopted as the National Bird of United States in 1782. The Bald Eagle symbolizes strength, courage, freedom and immortality. The Bald Eagle is represented in many important places including Great Seal, One-dollar bill, Federal agency seals and President’s flag
National Flower of USA Rose is the National Flower of United States of America. The Congress, by Senate Joint Resolution 159 accepted Rose as the National Floral Emblem of United States of America. On November 20, 1986 President Ronald Reagan proclaimed Rose as National Floral Emblem of United States of America.
National Tree of USA Oak Tree is the National Tree of United States of America. Oak Tree was adopted as the National Tree of United States in November 2004.
National Anthem of USA “The Star-Spangled Banner” is the National Anthem of United States of America. The lyrics of the National Anthem are taken from “Defence of Fort McHenry”, a poem written by Francis Scott Key in 1914 and music is given by John Stafford Smith. “The Star-Spangled Banner” was adopted as the National Anthem on Mar 3, 1931. National Anthem
Great Seal The Great Seal of United States of America was adopted in June 20,1782. The Great Seal is used for various documents, treaties, commissions, United States passports, military insignia, embassy placards and many other places. The centre of the Seal has Bald Eagle (National Bird), in the beak of the bird is a scroll with “E pluribus unum” inscribed meaning “out of many, one”. The two claws of Eagle holds a bundle of olive branch and thirteen arrows respectively. The front of the Eagle contains a shield of red and white stripes. Above the Eagle is cloud with blue field having thirteen stars in it. The reverse of thee Seal contains 13 step Pyramid with 1776 inscribed (in Roman Numerals). Below the Pyramid is a scroll “Novus Ordo Seclorum” meaning “New Order of the Ages”. Above the Pyramid is the Eye of Providence and motto “Annuit Coeptis”.