Choosing the future profession
Choosing a career and getting a job are two of the most important things any person does in his life. Young people start thinking about their future profession before they finish school. Choosing a future career is not an easy task. But teachers, parents and friends often can give you a professional advice and offer suggestions. Future job must be prestigious, well-paid and interesting. Nowadays there is a great variety of jobs to any taste. Today the most popular professions are lawyers and economists. One of the most fashionable and prestigious professions today is computer operator, because modern technologies play an important role in the XXI century.
Nowadays our life is getting more and more tense. People constantly suffer from stress, noise and dust in big cities, diseases. Healthy way of life which includes keeping fit, balanced meals, and giving up unhealthy habits like smoking, drinking alcohol, and, of course, drugs.There are several ways to keep fit. They are: doing regular morning exercises, cycling, roller-skating, walking in the park, jogging, swimming, ice-skating, attending fitness centers. Children also have numerous opportunities to keep fit. Every school offers physical education as a compulsory subject. Healthy food is also a very important factor. The daily menu should include meat, fruit and vegetables, milk product, which are rich in vitamins, fat, proteins and etc. People have to reduce the amount of cholesterol, sugar and salt in their daily ration. To be healthy, people should get rid of their bad habits. It's necessary to stop smoking and drinking much.
Kazakh national cuisine
Every nation has its own specific national cuisine. Kazakhstan is not an exception. Hospitability has always been a main character trait of Kazakh nation. The traditional low round table where the meal is served is called dastarkhan. Cooking meat is the main meal of every Kazakh dastarkhan. Boiled meat is served in large uncut pieces. The host was cutting the meat himself and treat every guest. Kazakh people usually drink kumys and shubat, made of mare’s and camel’s milk. Also there are such traditional dishes as baursaks, irimshik, kurt, kuirdak, besbarmak, sorpa, kazi, shuzhuk, zhal, zhaya, karta, kabyrga. Tea ceremony completes the meal.
British national cuisine
Traditional British cuisine includes fish- and-chips, roast beef, steak with egg, mash, different pies and probably famous pudding. The English are very particular about their meals. The usual meals in England are breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner. A traditional English breakfast is a very big meal. It consists of juice, porridge, a rasher or two of bacon and eggs, toast, butter, jam or marmalade, tea or coffee. At lunch people visit cafes or bring a few sandwiches, a pack of juice with them to their working place. At 5 o’clock there is tradition English tea-time. They drink tea, eat cookies and cakes with jam. Tea is very popular among the English. It may almost be called their national drink. Tea is welcome in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening. The English like it strong and fresh made. In most cities in Britain you can also find Indian, Chinese, French, Italian, Mexican restaurants.
The role of Sport in Our Life
Sport is very important in our life. It is popular among people of all ages because it helps them to keep fit, makes them healthy and stronger, more organized and better disciplined. People can go in for sport in different ways. Some people prefer running and jogging in the morning, some people go in for swimming, cycling, skiing, skating, table tennis, volleyball, football, and the other people train themselves in clubs and take part in sport competitions. Sport is everywhere. Physical education (P.E.) is a compulsory subject at schools and colleges. The Government of our country paid much attention to professional sport. There are some popular kinds of sport in our country: football, ice hockey, gymnastics and figure skating. Such modern kinds of sport as fitness and bodybuilding are very popular among teenagers. As for me, I go in for swimming. It needs mobility, liveliness and much energy. It keeps a person in a good form.
Good table manners avoid ugliness. There are some good rules how to behave yourself at the table:
- You should sit up straight.
- You shouldn’t eat with your fingers. You should always use knife, fork or spoon during the meal.
- You shouldn’t put your elbows on the table.
- You shouldn’t read while eating.
- You should put your dirty knife, spoon and fork on your plate.
- You shouldn’t talk with your mouth full.
- You shouldn’t lick your fingers.
- You should make as little noise as possible when eating.
Don’t forget to say “Thank you” after the meal.
Good health is better than the best medicine. If you are healthy you are always in a good mood. It’s a pity that we start to value our health only when it is necessary to take medicine. If you have a cold, a headache, a toothache or stomach ache, you should take some medicine (tablets, mixture, syrups).
Taking medicine is an unpleasant thing, that’s why we should go in for sport and keeps ourselves fit. Physical exercises are necessary. Here some rules of good health: 1.Take long walks in the open air as often as you can. 2. Keep your body clean. 3. Keep your teeth clean. 4. Wear clean clothes. 5. Sleep with your window open. 6. When you are reading or writing let the light come from your left shoulder. 7. Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables every day: "An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
National symbols of the United Kingdom
The UK flag is called the “Union Jack”. It has red, white and blue colours. The Union Jack consists of the flags of three countries: England, Scotland and Ireland (1801). The national animals are lion and bulldog. The motto is "God and my right”. The Anthem is called “God Save The Queen ”.
The Flag of England is called The Saint George's Cross. National flower – Tudor Rose.
The flag of Wales is The Red Dragon. National flowers are leek and daffodil.
The Flag of Scotland is Saint Andrew's Cross (The Saltire). National flower is thistle.
The Flag of Northern Ireland - The Saint Patrick’s Saltire. National flower is shamrock.
The official language of the United Kingdom is English.
London’s places of interest
There are a lot of places of interest in London. Among them there are: Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace, St Paul’s Cathedral, London Bridge, the Tower of London. London stands on the river Thames. The Tower of London is one of the oldest buildings of the city. Many centuries ago it was a fortress, a royal palace and then a prison. Now it is a museum of arms. Westminster Palace, or the Houses of Parliament is the seat of the British government and it is one of the most beautiful buildings in London. In one of its towers there is famous Big Ben, the largest clock of England. Buckingham Palace is the Queen’s official London residence. Trafalgar Square is the central square of the city. To the right of the square there is the National Gallery which has a fine collection of European paintings. St Paul’s Cathedral is the biggest English church. Another famous church is Westminster Abbey where kings, queens, and many famous people are buried. Hyde Park is the most democratic park in the world, as anyone can say anything he likes there. Regent’s Park is the home of London Zoo.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It's one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than 11 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, the West End, the East End and Westminster. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange. The West End has the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. Picadilly Circus is the heart of West End. The East End is an industrial district of the capital. Most of the plants and factories are situated here. The Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It is the administrative centre. The House of Parliament, the seat of British Government, Westminster Abbey are situated here.
The political system of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. Great Britain is governed by the Parliament and Queen is the Head of the State. Queen Elizabeth II is the sixth sovereign queen of Great Britain. Official residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace, in London. Great Britain doesn’t have any written constitution, but has only a set of laws made by the Parliament. The constitution has three branches: Parliament (legislature), which makes laws, the Government, which «executes» laws (puts them into effect) and the courts (judiciary), which interpret laws. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament (MP), they are elected. The House of Lords consists of hereditary peers. The House of Lords has no real power. The party which wins the most seats in Parliament forms the Government. Its leader becomes the Prime Minister.10 Downing Street is a residence of the British Prime Minister. The current Prime Minister is David Cameron.
The geographical position of Kazakhstan
I want to tell you about my homeland. My homeland is Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is an independent and democratic Republic. It is situated in the Central Asia. Its population is 16 million. Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. The territory of Kazakhstan is huge. It borders on China in the East and the Caspian Sea in the West, Russian in the North and the states of Asia in the South. Kazakhstan has 14 regions and 84 cities.
. Kazakhstan is rich in mineral resources such as iron and gold, coal, nickel and raw materials. Kazakh is the official language of the country, Russian is the language of international communication. Kazakhstan is a multinational country. Such nationalities as Russian, Ukranian, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz, Uzbek live here in peace. The capital of Kazakhstan is Astana city. It is its political, economic and cultural centre. Almaty is the former capital and is the largest city. There are many big industrial centers in Kazakhstan such as Karaganda, Almaty, Semey, and Shymkent. Our president now is Nursultan Nazarbayev. The president is elected every seven years.
The climate is strongly continental. KZ- has its own flag, anthem and national traditions and holidays.
The geographical position of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the country. The country is situated on the British Isles. The largest island is called Great Britain. The smaller one is called Ireland. The country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. The total area of Great Britain is 244,000 square km. The United Kingdom includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The territory of Great Britain is divided into three parts: England, Scotland, Wales. The capital of the UK is London. The population of the United Kingdom is almost 56 million. The official language of the United Kingdom is English. There are mountains in the north and in the west of England. Scotland is a land of mountains. The highest peak in Scotland is Ben Nevis. The British Isles have many rivers. The longest of them is the Severn. The well-known lake in the UK is Loch Ness. It is situated in Scotland and famous for the Loch Ness Monster ( "Nessie"). The climate of the British Isles is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer. There are a lot of rain on the British Isles all year round.
Cities of the United Kingdom
About 57 million people live in Great Britain. It has a very large population for its size. Nine people out of 10 live in towns and cities. Britain’s largest cities are: London, Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Sheffield, Edinburgh.
London is the capital of the United Kingdom and it was built on the river Thames. London is a world centre for business and money trading. It is also the country’s largest port and a cultural centre. There are numerous museums and theatres in London. Birmingham is Britain’s second largest city and its engineering centre. It produces iron and steel for making cars, ships, aeroplanes and machinery. Leeds is the third largest city in the UK and it produces woolen goods. Sheffield is a centre of producing steel goods. Glasgow is famous for heavy industry, architecture and art galleries. Edinburgh is the city of science. It is also famous for beautiful historic buildings and annual festival of arts.
My school day
I go to school six days a week. Our classes start at 8 o'clock a. m. and last till 2 o'clock p.m. We have 6 or 7 lessons a day.We study many different subjects: Russian, English, literatures, history, geography, biology, physics, mathematics, and computer sciences. Languages, literature and history are my favourite subjects. I get good marks in these subjects. The school year is divided into four terms, called quarters. It begins on the 1st of September known as a Day of knowledge and finishes in May. Each quarter is followed by holidays. Pupils usually do some exercises, learn new material and answer the teacher’s questions in the lessons. After every lesson the teachers give us homework. My classmates are very friendly. My classroom teacher (классный руководитель) is called ___________ (ФИО). She is very kind and attentive person.
Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II is the current Queen of the UK. She was born in Windsor on 21 April 1926. Her full name is Elizabeth-Mary-Alexander Windsor. Her pet name is Lilibet. She was educated at home, taught to read and write by her parents. She knew foreign languages. Elizabeth was made her speech on the radio in 1940. She was married Prince Philip in 1947. Her first son Prince Charles was born in 1948. She came to throne in 1952. Elizabeth was crowned in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953.
Now she plays an important role in the country. She travels a lot. The Queen has got four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. She has five official residences in Britain; Buckingham Palace and Windsor among them.
The most popular British writers
William Shakespeare was one of the greatest and most famous of English writers and playwrights. He was born on the 23rd of April, 1564, in Stratford-on-Avon. He went to London and there he became an actor. At that time he began to write plays too. Shakespeare was at the same time an actor and a playwright. In his works he reflected events of his contemporaries' life. His plays were staged in many theatres, translated into many foreign languages. Most famous of his plays are “Othello”, “King Lear”, “Hamlet”, and “Romeo and Juliet”. Shakespeare died in 1616.
Charles Dickens was a great English novelist, he was born on 7 February 1812, in Portsmouth. Dickens was 19 when he became a reporter. While he was working for the newspaper «Morning Chronicle» he began to write novels. He worked very hard and produced many novels. His masterpieces are: «Oliver Twist», «David Coperfield», «Little Dorrit». Dickens died in 1870 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
The educational system of the United Kingdom
Education is compulsory from 5 till 16 years in the UK. There are three stages of education: primary (from 5 till 11 years), secondary (from 11 till 16 years) and further education. Schools in Great Britain are divided into state schools and private schools. All state schools in Britain are free. State schools are divided into grammar schools, technical schools, modern schools and comprehensive schools. Some parents choose private schools for their children. Private schools are expensive, but they can give a better education and good job opportunities. Parents pay money for these schools. The most famous schools are called “public schools” and they have a long history and traditions. There are independent secondary schools. They include girls’ schools, boys’ schools and religious schools. At 16 students in England and Wales take GCSE examinations and then they can leave school and enter college.At 18 some students take A-level examinations. After that they can get a higher education. There are about 90 universities in Britain. The oldest and the best universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge.
The educational system of Kazakhstan
Education is compulsory from 7 till 16 years in Kazakhstan. Secondary education is free for all children. Children are taught in two languages - Kazakh and Russian. The educational system in Kazakhstan consists of three stages: elementary (or primary) school for grades 1 through 4, secondary school for middle grades from 5 through 9. After graduation secondary education some students leave school and go to colleges, technical or vocational schools. The other students stay at school and go to senior school (grades 10-11). At the end of 11 year education, all students pass UNT (Unified National test) exam. With the results of this exam they can enter universities of the Republic of Kazakhstan and get a higher education. There are also special schools, lyzeums and gymnasiums in big cities, such as Nazarbayev Intellectual School or Kazakh-Turkish lyzeum.
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