Международный конкурс "Мириады открытий"
(конкурс сразу по 24 предметам за один оргвзнос)
TEST ON READING (THE 6TH FORM)
Elizabeth Enright “The Lucky Thimble”
THE CORAL BRACELET
One afternoon it was raining fast when Garnet went to get the letters.
She wore an old raincoat that was too short for her, and Jay’s boots that were too big. In the letterbox there was a business letter for father, two letters for mother and a letter for Jay. There were no letters for Garnet, but then there never were except on her birthday.
She put the letters into the raincoat pocket and went back to Citronella’s house. Near the door she shouted, “Citronella!” No answer. “Citronella!” she shouted again. This time Citronella answered and came downstairs.
“I was in my great-grandmother’s room”, she said. “Come, Garnet. Great-grandma is telling me about when she was little”.
Garnet took off her raincoat, left her boots near the door and went up the stairs behind Citronella.
Citronella’s great-grandmother was very, very old. She had a little room in the house. There were many photographs on the walls. Great-grandmother was sitting in a chair with a red blanket on her knees. When the children came in, they sat down, and she began to tell them about her life when she was a little girl.
“Oh, this part of the country was wild in those days,” she said. “The nearest town was three miles away. We worked much, we did everything ourselves. There were eleven children in the family. I was the tenth. The boys worked with father in the fields. The girls helped in the house. Even when we were five years old we helped. We frightened the cows from the corn. Sometimes deer came and we frightened them away too. But often we saw how the deer came down to the river when they wanted to drink. Beautiful animals they were; but I haven’t seen a deer for the last thirty years. Yes, it was a wild country then, only woods and open fields and very few roads. There were Indians too in those days.”
“I slept in a little bed with my sister Matty. In the daytime we put it under the big bed that mother and father slept in. At night we put it in the corner. From our bed we could see into the next room where the fire was burning. There were very cold winters then and much snow. Then the fires were burning day and night. Well, on those cold nights we could often see how the front door opened. In came Indians, quite as cats, sometimes one or two, sometimes as many as ten. They wore clothes made of deer skin. We could see how they lay down in front of the fire. We never knew when thy left, because we were asleep. They went out early before in was light, but we found a present near the fireside. Sometimes it was some deer meat, sometimes a rabbit a two.”
“Tell us about the time when you were a bad girl, great-grandma,” said Citronella. “You know, on your tenth birthday.”
The old woman laughed. “Again” she said. “Well, Garnet has not heard this story, has she? You know, Garnet, I was a very headstrong child. Well, in Blaiseville at that time there was only one store”.
“It was Elly Gensler’s store,” said Citronella, who knew the story by heart.
“Yes, so it was. Elly Gensler was a tall thin man. We all liked him because he was good to us, and gave us sweets whenever we came in. He had everything in his store that you could think of: food, boots, books, toys, clothes. It was a wonderful place."
Answer the questions.
What was the weather like when Garnet went to receive letters?
Did her clothes fit her perfectly?
Were there always letters for Garnet?
Citronella’s great-grandmother made up a story about her childhood, didn’t she?
What activities were children involved in?
Was it a highly-developed industrial country?
Indians made much noise when they entered the house at night, didn’t they?
What did Indians leave in the house?
Could Citronella repeat the great-grandmother’s word for word?
Was great-grandmother an obedient child or not?
TEST ON READING (THE 7TH FORM)
Walter Scott “Ivanhoe”
In that pleasant district of marry England which lies on both sides of the river Don, in old times there was a large forest. Parts of this forest still exist. It was the home of the brave outlaws, who were so popular.
Our story describe the time towards the end of the reign of
Richard I, when he was abroad. The barons, in the king’s absence, strengthened their castles and acted like little kings. Prince John, the king’s brother, with the help of the barons, tried to seize the throne. Common people were cruelly oppressed.
A hundred years had passed since the Conquest of England by Duke William of Normandy. But in these hundred years the language and the interests of the Normans and Anglo-Saxons were not yet united. These two peoples remained enemies. Only a few of the Saxon princes remained masters of the land which had belonged to their fathers. After the Conquest William the Conqueror had taken the greater part of the land from its Saxon owners and given it to the Norman barons. At court and at the castles of the great nobles Norman-French was the only language spoken. Anglo-Saxon was spoken only by common people and few remaining Saxon nobles who had not yet bent under the Norman rule.
The sun was setting upon one of the glades of that forest which we have spoken about. There were two men in the glade. The elder of these men had a serious look. He was wearing a long shirt made of the skin of some animal, and reaching down to his knees. On his feet he had sandals. Round his neck there was a metal ring, like a dog’s collar; on the ring there were such words: “Gurth, the born slave of Cedric of Rotherwood.” Gurth was a swineherd.
The other man was sitting on the ground besides Gurth. He looked about ten years younger. His clothes, in form, were like those of his companion, but his shirt was of better materials and of brighter colours. Over his shirt he was wearing a short red cloak. Round his neck there was a collar of the same metal, with these words: “Wamba, the born slave of Cedric of Rotherwood.” On his head he had a cap with bells round it. This cap, and his bright clothes, showed that he was a domestic jester.
The swineherd looked serious and sad. Wamba’s eyes were merry. The two men were talking in Anglo-Saxon, which, as we said before, was spoken by all common people, except the Norman soldiers. Gurth, with the help of his dog, was truing to gather his swine together, but could not.
Answer the Questions to the Text.
Parts of the forests in Merry England disappeared now, didn’t they?
Were common people very fond of barons?
Did Prince John, king’s brother, want to be the king himself?
The Normans and Anglo-Saxons were friendly towards each other, were not they?
What language did people speak in the times of William the Conqueror?
Gurth was a rich person, wasn’t he?
Why did Gurth have a metal ring round his neck?
Wamba’s clothes were colourful, were not they?
What occupation did Wamba have? Who is the domestic jester?
Were the two men in one and the same mood?
TEST ON READING (THE 8TH FORM)
Leif Eiriksson, the Discoverer of America.
After the famous voyage made by Christopher Columbus in 1492
he had been known as the discoverer of America during a few centuries. In was common knowledge that Columbus had found the way to the New World. Americans annually celebrated Discovery Day on October 12, which was also called Columbus Day.
However, some scientists didn’t think that Columbus had been the first white man to reach America. They read ancient Icelandic sagas which told about the Vikings, brave warriors and sailors from northern Europe. These sagas say that the Vikings had sailed to America long before Columbus. The Vikings had traded with the natives and even made their settlements on American coast.
Certainly, Icelandic sagas were not enough evidence to question the priority of Columbus. There was no any reliable proof.
Such a proof came to light in the twentieth century. In 1957 in London there was found an old map, dated 1440, that is fifty years before the voyage of Columbus.
The map is made after the sailing instructions left by the ancient Vikings. It shows Western Europe, the British Isles and Norway. It also shows Iceland and Greenland, and to the west of Greenland there is the coast of a great country which is marked “Vinland” on the map. The outline of Vinland’s coast corresponds exactly to those of North America today. So, the old Icelandic sagas tell the truth.
Authenticity of the map (which was called the Vinland map) didn’t arouse suspicion, and the scientists got every reason to believe that the hero of many Icelandic sagas, Leif Eiriksson, the son of Eiric the Red, was a real person.
Eiriksson was a Norseman, a chieftain of the Vikings who made many voyages to Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland.
Once his ship run into heavy weather and Eiriksson lost his way. For a while they were sailing at random, and after a few days their ship reached an unknown land. The Vikings saw a low coast covered with big trees and wild vines. The warm air was sweet with the smell of grapes. That is why Eiriksson called the new country Vinland, which means “the land of wine”.
The new land was not an uninhabited area. Many tribes of redskin hunters lived in it, who met Eiriksson and his men in a friendly way. The Norsemen lived there peacefully beside the natives for a few months.
But it so happened that Eiriksson once quarrelled with the of a big tribe. The incident turned all the tribesmen against the newcomers. In spite of the oncoming winter, the Vikings had to leave Vinland.
Actually we know very little about Leif Eiriksson’s life, but we know enough to say that he had been to North America long before Columbus. In 1966 the United States Congress officially declared Leif Eiriksson to be the discoverer of America. Discovery Day was shifted from October 12 to October 9, and now it is called Leif Eiriksson’s Day.
But what about Columbus then? Does all that mean that we can simply cancel his discovery and forget his name? Certainly not! One should bear in mind that Columbus knew nothing about the voyage of Eiriksson. Eventually people forgot abut the western land found by the Vikings. Columbus himself didn’t try to find the forgotten way to the New World. When his three ships put in on the shore of North America on October 12, 1492, Columbus was sure that he found a new part of India. He called the new land West Indies, and the redskin natives got the name of Indians.
What is more, till the end of his life Columbus had no idea that he rediscovered a new continent. But at any rate, the voyage of Christopher Columbus initiated active exploration of the New World.
Thus we can say that America was discovered twice. As a matter of fact, the Congress of the United States didn’t cancel Columbus Day in 1966 altogether. Such a celebration Day still exists in the United States, but now it is devoted to the rediscovery of America and to the beginning of its exploration.
Answer the Questions to the Text.
How could people reveal that ancient manuscripts contained the real information about earlier discoveries? (before Columbus).
What activities were the Vikings involved in after having reached the unknown land?
What was the reason which made Leif Eiriksson give the name Vinland to the new territories?
Was Eiriksson’s Ship wrecked?
People inhabited the new country were hostile towards the newcomers, weren’t they?
Were the boundaries of Vinland the exact copy of those of North America nowadays?
Did the government of the USA make up an agreement to reverse Columbus’ discovery?
What was the main achievement of Columbus’ voyages?
Is the 9th of October sure to be a holiday for all Americans?
What is Columbus day dedicated to now?
TEST ON READING (THE 9TH FORM).
LOOKING BACK ON EIGHTY YEARS
In my long life I have seen many changes in our habits and customs.
The world I entered when at the age of eighteen I became a medical student was a world that knew nothing of planes, motor-cars, movies, radio or telephone. When I was still at school a lecturer came to Canterbury and showed us boys a new machine which reproduced the human voice. It was the first gramophone. The world I entered was a world that warmed itself with coal fires, lit itself by gas and paraffin lamps, and looked upon a bathroom as a luxury out of the reach.
On Sundays the muffin man made his rounds ringing his melancholy bell and people came out of their door to buy muffins and crumpets for afternoon tea.
It was a very cheap world. When I entered St Thomas’s Hospital I took a couple of furnished rooms for which I paid 18s a week. My landlady provided me with a solid breakfast before I went to the hospital and high tea when I came back at half-past six, and the two meals cost me about 12s a week. I was able to live very comfortably, pay my fees, buy my necessary instruments, and clothe myself.
I had enough money to go to the theatre at least once a week. The pit, to which I went, was not the orderly thing it is now. There were no queues. The crowd collected at the doors, and when they were opened there was a struggle, with a lot of pushing and elbowing and shouting to get a good place. But that was part of the fun.
Travelling was cheap, too, in those days. When I was twenty I went to Italy by myself for the six weeks of the Easter vacation. I went to Pisa and spend a wonderful month in Florence; then I went to Venice and Milan and so back to London.
I spent five years at St Thomas’s Hospital. I was an unsatisfactory medical student, for my heart was not in it. I wanted, I had always wanted, to be a writer, and in the evening, after my tea, I wrote and read.
I wrote a novel, called Liza of Lambeth, sent it to a publisher, and it was accepted. It appeared during my last year at the hospital and had something of a success. It was of course an accident, but naturally I did not know that. I felt I could afford to chuck medicine and make writing my profession; so three days after passing the final examinations which gave me my medical qualifications, I set out for Spain to learn Spanish and write another book. Looking back now, after these years, and knowing as I do the terrible difficulties of making a living by writing, I realize that I was taking a fearful risk. It never occurred to me. I abandoned the medical profession with relief, but I do not regret the five years I spend at the hospital, far from it.
They taught me pretty well all I know about human nature, for in a hospital you see it in the raw. People in pain, people in fear of death, do not try to hide anything from their doctor, and if they do he can generally guess what they are hiding.
The next ten years were very hard. I did not follow up my first success with another. I wrote several novels, only one of which had any merit, and I wrote a number of plays which managers more or less promptly returned to me.
Then I had a bit of luck. The manager of the Court Theatre, Sloane Square, put on a play that failed. He read a play of mine, called Lady Frederick, and thought he did not much like it, thought it might just run for the six weeks. It ran for fifteen months.
I had four plays running in London at the same time.
Nothing of the kind had ever happened before, and the papers made a great to-do about it. If I may say it without immodesty, I was the talk of the town. One of the students at St Thomas’s Hospital asked the eminent surgeon with whom I had worked as a “dresser” whether he remembered me.
“Yes, I remember him quite well,” he sad. “Very sad. Very sad. One of our failures I’m afraid.”
Choose the only right answer to the questions.
What was the world like when the boy practically came of age?
It was the time when the service industries, especially banking and retailing, expended.
Manufacturing industries has gone down.
Scientists and well-educated people have just made different inventions the result of which we use nowadays.
Airplane engine and pharmaceuticals appeared.
What does it mean – “My landlady provided me with a solid breakfast”.
She bought meal in the nearest shop.
She cooked meal for the main character.
The landlady tried to get all products that the main character needed.
The landlady always treated him to breakfast.
To pay fees is
to pay for the education;
to pay for furniture;
to pay for the mistakes;
to pay debts.
Why wasn’t the main character an excellent medical student?
He enjoyed spending his time travelling to different countries.
Knowledge meant very little for him.
He had an intention to devote his life to literary activities.
He was fond of theatre.
What was the main character’s reaction after his first novel had been published?
He was out of sorts and lost his heart.
He felt a guilty conscience.
He felt like learning mathematics.
He made up his mind to give up medicine and soul into another profession.
To make a living by writing is
to earn money by creating works;
to live by himself reading books;
to have an immense capacity for work;
to devote his life to science.
Why did the main character attach great importance to his medical knowledge?
His medical practice made nothing for him.
He became a surgeon.
All his books were devoted to medicine.
Psychology helped him to describe his characters.
Why was the next decade a great trial for the main character?
He didn’t write anything.
His works were not a success.
He was taken to prison.
He could not get rid of admirers.
“Papers made a great to-do about it” means
to carry much information about something;
to publish nothing about something;
to devote the whole newspaper to something;
papers were sold everywhere.
What was the main character’s occupation during his medical practice with a prominent surgeon?
a surgical nurse;
TEST ON READING (THE 10TH FORM)
YOU CAN ALWAYS SPOT A TYPICAL AMERICAN.
You can always spot Americans abroad by their toughness. It comes from their sense of individual freedom – their first value and belief.
Americans realize however that individuals must rely on themselves, otherwise they risk to lose their freedom. They must come to both financial and emotional independence from their parents as early as possible, usually by age 18 or 21. So, self-reliance usually is the second trait and moral value supposed to be obligatory to a true American.
It designates the ability of succeeding on one’s own. “Pull yourself up by the bootstraps” is their saying as well as “Life is what you make it” and “Actions speak louder than words”.
The third national value accounts for their confident and unaffected manners. It’s the old belief that everyone in America has equal opportunity to succeed, and equal chance of success. This value is said to be particularly true at the times of settlers’ moving west to make a new beginning, from 1600s to 1890s. The differences in wealth between rich and poor were little at that time, so one’s fortune depended only on one’s industry. But if everybody had chance to better his living conditions, then everybody’s duty was to try, which led to the overall competitions with one another. And up and now people who compete successfully are honored and called “winners”. Those who do not like to compete and are failures are dishonored and called “losers”.
Here we come to the fourth American value – competition. 60% of the Americans believe competition and desire to win are healthy and desirable. So you can hardly see a person wishing to look incapable or a “loser”. But you shouldn’t think their optimistic look is but make believe. In spite of the fact that society can’t consist only of “winners” the Americans are optimistic. That trait proceeded from a “can-do” spirit of earlier settlers which had to be inventive experimentors and had come to believe that every problem has a solution: a difficult problem can be solved immediately – an impossible one can take a little longer. This “can-do” spirit was for all that strengthened by natural abundance and unmeasured territory.
It greatly reduced the conflict between the rich and the poor too. “If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again,” they say here.
As for the greater American dream “from rags to riches” it is still alive by far! It goes on attracting immigrants from all over the world.
The fifth national value is material wealth. Well, wealth but ought to become measure of social status and success in the society which rejected aristocracy with all its privileges. Most Americans believe wealth is a reward for hard work and that it is possible to have a good standard of living if a person works hard. This conviction is believed to stem from the Protestant religion, which holds that gaining wealth goes along with self-improvement of a person. “God helps those who help themselves,” says the proverb.
The sense of humour is the most revealing aspect of a culture. Surely, humour has never been valued more highly in any civilization than in this one.
Humour is the great reliever of tension, the counterbalance to the dash and roar of our fastpaced industrialized life with its whirring machines, traffic snarls and frayed tempers.
American humour, in short, confirms the importance of mating and the family, the high status of women and children, the pace and tension of life.
Americans carry with them an appearance which is more a result of attitude than of clothing.
They love children, animals, gadgets, mother, work, excitement, noise, nature, television, shows, comedy, installment buying, fast motion sports, the flag, Christ jazz, shapely women and muscular men, crowds, beefsteak, coffee, ice-cream, do-it-yourself.
There is of course no typical American. But if you added them all together and the divided by 226000000 they would look something like what this chapter tried to portray.
Choose the only right answer to the questions.
You can always sport the American abroad because
they are very rough towards other people;
they are keen on investigating stereotypes;
they are always firm in their deeds and actions;
they are very conspicuous persons.
Americans are eager to leave people who had brought them up by age 18 or 21, because
they believe that a person must earn his living on his own. Where is the will there is a way;
alike every day makes a clout on Sunday;
their parents are believed to be arrogant and aggressive towards them;
he that dares not venture must not complain ill-luck.
“Pull yourself up by the bootstraps” means
to pull ones chestnuts out of the fire;
who chatters with you, will chatter of you;
in trouble to be troubled is to have your trouble;
to pull yourself up by the hair.
Who are the “winners”?
they are rich people who, by fair means or foul, tried to be on the winning side;
they are people who call a spade a spade;
they had a stroke of luck;
people, having got the opportunity to make a success in business, have improved their level of life.
Who are the “losers”
they are cold-blooded, prescient, ruthless opportunists;
these are people who do not feel like making themselves apply all their strengths to fulfil their plans;
they are people who live beyond their means;
these are the members of a prudent middle-class nation, always anxious to meet their liabilities.
“Can-do” spirit means
every person no matter if he has lost or won finds the way to solve even a puzzle;
to assert something confidently;
a pompous showing-off way of speaking;
it’s easy for a person, being plunged in despair, to win a prize.
“From rags to riches” is
poverty is not a shame;
much gold, much care;
from poverty to wealth;
big fish in a little pond.
In Americans’ opinion wealth is
a prise given to elite for the efficiency in every sphere of life;
an unrealizable thing for a person who doesn’t make any efforts to make his fortune;
sticking to a principle “fools have fortune”;
going over the people’s heads to be wealthy.
to express your opinion in a inappropriate manner;
to a master of diplomatic wiles;
to make a person become cold-blooded and ruthless;
a great vehicle to take the person out of despair.
to cut a long story short, proves the value of marriage and the necessity of the family’s hearth;
expresses so much emotion upon slight an occasion;
teaches to pour the emotions out on any occasion;
always hurts other people’s feelings.
TEST ON READING (THE 11TH FORM)
A Stockbroker Is an Honorable Business
Our brokerage firm was founded in 1931 by my father, Reed Glover. He was a banker. I’m 40 years old. I started in the securities business in 1954. I believed we were in a new era: there could no longer be a severe collapse in stock prices.
In 1968 and 1969 a great many large firms overexpanded. Worse than that, they recommended stocks which were unsound. The downturn occurred in 1969 and 1970, many of these firms went out of business. They forgot that there really isn’t a new era. The business cycle is not going to vanish. You must be prepared for adversity as well as prosperity.
When you’re dealing with an individual’s money it’s a terrific responsibility. The individual is exposed to so many people in the brokerage business that it’s quite a compliment to have him turn to you for investment service. The rule I’ve always gone by is that I expect to have my brother-in-law’s account and my roommate in college. But it seems everybody has a roommate in college or a brother-in-law who’s in this business. So I don’t really use my social acquaintances for purposes of business. My closest friends are with many of the brokerage firms. At social gatherings we don’t discuss the market, other than in an amusing way.
I’m amazed how rarely the individual customer will find fault with the broker. Along with that, there’s no written contract in our business. If the stock goes down, the customer’s word is his pledge. They all pay. This is an honorable business.
When you’re dealing with a person’s money and investments, you deal with his hopes and ambitions and dreams.
It’s quite easy to look around and say this is a parasitical business. All you’re doing is raking off your cut from the productivity of others. That is, I think, an erroneous view. Frankly, I’ve wrestled with that. It comes down to this: the basis of the country’s strength and prosperity is the finest economic system that’s ever been devised, with all its imperfections.
Our system depends on a free exchange of publicly owned assets, and we’re part of the picture. If there were no stock market, I think the economy would be stifled. It would prevent the growth of our conpanies. Without a stock market, the companies wouldn’t be able to invest their capital and grow. This is my life and I count myself very fortunate to be in this work. It’s fulfilling.
Choose the only right answer to the following questions.
The main character believe that
he had to mortgage his house to survive in this world.
the economic situation would remain stable.
his starting in the securities business would be a failure.
he had to find one more brokerage firm to control his father’s business.
2. Large firms recommended stocks
which did not coordinate with principles of policy.
Which were of great importance.
Which were not reliable and trustworthy.
Which sounded not properly.
What does it mean “to be prepared for adversity as well as prosperity”?
You must be ready to make an advertising of your goods at any moment.
To be responsible for everything that you have done.
You must be always alert.
You must be prepared to failures as well as flourishing.
4. When you are dealing with an individual’s money it is
a great responsibility.
When you are afraid of any responsibility.
A terrible responsibility.
No responsibility at all.
5.If the individual is exposed to so many people in the brokerage business,
he may be put in a situation in which this business might harm him.
he is thankful to these people.
he may be given some pieces of advice.
he is under the protection of these people.
6. The customer word is his
his bank account.
7. Give the explanation of the phrase “how rarely the individual customer will find fault with the broker”.
he will not pay the bills.
He will seldom accuse him of something.
He will always praise broker for everything he has done.
He will find a large crack in brokerage business.
8. “A parasitical business” means
an amusing imitation of business.
a business which exists inside other business.
to destroy everything.
They get money or other things from people without doing anything in return.
9. If you have an erroneous view
your beliefs and opinions are incorrect.
you are on the right way.
you are in two minds.
you are accepting other people’s opinions.
10.If there were no stock market
the economy would prosper.
The economy would be suppressed stopped from continuing.
The free movement of the goods would be rejected.
New companies would appear all over the world.
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