Thousands of visitors come to Great Britain every year. Some come on business, others simply as tourists, but none misses the opportunity to see the capital of Great Britain. London is grand and attractive, it is certainly very old and full of historic associations, it has strong links with the past. Its old customs and traditions have survived and even the types of people. They are a strange mixture of past and present, of old-fashioned and very modern.
London consists of many parts and they are all very different from each other. There is the West End and the East End, Westminster and the City. The City is not only the centre of business, it is the birthplace of London.
In 43 A.D. the Romans conquered Britain and for 400 years it remained a Roman province. The Romans built long straight roads along which the Roman soldiers marched. Many of them met at the point where London bridge now stands. The Romans made London, which they called Londinum, a large and rich city with good streets, beautiful palaces, shops and villas. Trade was growing. A lot of goods such as skins, copper and iron ore, silver and gold were sent to Rome. And many strong blue-eyed boys were sent to Rome, too, to be sold as slaves.
In the fifth century the Romans left Britain, but other invaders came to the British shores. They almost ruined the city and it remained in this poor state for almost 400 years.
Only in the 9th century the Saxon kings began to rebuild the city. They started the building of Westminster Abbey.
In 1066 came William the Duke of Normandy or William the Conqueror who settled in London which became the capital of Norman Britain.
For 500 years the Normans were masters of Britain. They brought with them Latin and French civilization, the laws and the organization of the land. Many Latin and French words penetrated into the Old English (Germanic) language. They did their best to make the city beautiful. The Westminster Abbey was finished and William was the first king to be crowned there. Since then, all English kings have been crowned in the Abbey. At that time the Tower of London was built on the Thames and it stands there still unchanged. Commerce and trade grew very quickly, but the population grew even faster. London became a busy, rich and crowded city. The old city looked very picturesque with its tall houses of wood and plaster and its narrow streets.
But then London suffered two awful tragedies, at first - the Great Plague and then the Great Fire. In a few months nearly 100,000 people, that is one fifth of the population died because of the Plague. Sorrow and sadness sat upon every Londoner. And only winter and its cold saved the city and the people.
The Great Fire happened through carelessness of a young baker who left a small bundle of wood near a very hot oven. In a few hours all the houses made of wood were burning like paper. This fire destroyed 3000 houses and at least 97 churches.
Fortunately the wind soon stopped and then heavy rain fell. Thus London was saved.
Bit by bit London was being reconstructed until it has become the city, which is now one of the most beautiful and attractive places of the world.
The oldest part of it is the City which is the business and financial centre of London. During the day it is full of people, but at the end of the day, businessmen, clerks and secretaries go home and it becomes silent and almost empty.
Besides the City there are many other attractions such as Trafalgar Square with the Nelson column in the centre, the Houses of Parliament with the famous Big Ben, a lot of beautiful parks and gardens among which Hyde Park is well known all over the world. There is a lot more to tell about London. But if you have a chance better visit it and see everything yourself.
Modern yet historical, cosmopolitan and also traditional, intensely busy but elsewhere deeply tranquil, today`s London is a city of contrasts that has something different to offer everyone who visits this famous capital. The royal palaces and the pageantry (великолепие) are among the main attractions of London. Buckingham Palace has been the London residence of the royal family since the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. Built by the Duke of Buckingham, this splendid palace has 661 rooms, including the state rooms, which are open to the public each year throughout August and September. The palace is also the starting point for the famous Trooping the Colour ceremony.
Kensington Palace was built in the early 17th century for the Earl of Nottingham and was converted into a palace by Sir Christopher Wren for William of Orange. In more recent times it has been the residence of Princess Margaret and the late (недавно умершей) Diana, Princess of Wales. The state apartments are open to the public from May to October.
St James` s Park in The Mall is one of the royal parks and offers fine views of Buckingham Palace, St James`s Palace and Horse Guards Parade. This beautiful space contains a delighted array of flowers, shrubbery and trees, and a large lake that attracts many varieties of bird, including pelicans.
The Royal Albert Hall in Kensington Gardens was erected as a monument to Queen Victoria` s consort (супруг) and was opened in 1871. This huge concert hall now hosts many events, including the world-famous “Proms”.
London is steeped in history. Magnificent churches such as Westminster Abbey and St Paul` s Cathedral, along with landmarks like the Tower of London, Tower Bridge and the Houses of Parliament, are famous the world over.
Westminster Abbey embodies much of British history and is the burial place of kings, queens, eminent politicians, scientists and clergy. The present abbey was built on the site of an earlier church established by the Saxons. It was consecrated (освящена) by Edward the Confessor in 1065 and since that date nearly every British monarch has been crowned here. Among the abbey`s many attractions are Poets` Corner, where some of England` s finest writers are buried, the Memorial to William Shakespeare, and the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, which commemorates the many soldiers who died in World War One. Opposite the east end of Westminster Abbey lies Parliament Square, which, along with the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Hall, comprises the Palace of Westminster. In Parliament Square the statues of famous statesmen can be seen. The ornate Victorian building of the Houses of Parliament accommodates both the House of Lords and the House of Commons, while Westminster Hall remains the oldest surviving part of the original Palace of Westminster, dating from the late 14th century. The clocktower, known popularly as Big Ben, is undoubtedly the most recognizable feature of the Houses of Parliament. The unusual nickname was originally given to its enormous bell.
London is a byword for fashion and culture, and no London tour is complete without a visit to the famous shops of Oxford Street, followed perhaps by a drink at a street café before taking in a West End show. London`s West End is the centre for shopping and entertainment. In the West End theatres, clubs, cafes, bars, restaurants, famous department stores, designer shops and specialist stores, and even market stalls are all within easy reach of one another.
Piccadilly Circus lies at the heart of the area between Soho and Mayfair and bustles with activity throughout the day and night. Stretching east from the square is Shaftsbury Avenue along which many of London`s famous theatres can be found. Famous department stores such as Harrods, Harvey Nichols, Fortnum and Mason and Liberty`s can be found to the west of Piccadilly Square, while High Street stores abound on Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road.
Covent Garden, with its elegant piazzas and mix of shops and market stalls, is always busy and popular. The Royal Opera House, London Transport Museum and the Theatre Museum add to the cultural atmosphere. London is one of the cultural capitals of the world and the wealth and diversity of its museums and galleries continue to delight visitors year after year. While here you might want to visit one of London`s museums and galleries, which range from the fascinating Science Museum to the Tate Britain gallery, home of many of Britain`s finest works of art. The British Museum is Britain's oldest museum and attracts millions of visitors each year. The enormous collection includes treasures from the Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilisations through to medieval European art and Japanese and Asian antiquities. Highlights include the Rosetta Stone, the Egyptian mummies and the Sutton Hoo treasure. The Natural History Museum has a fine collection of dinosaurs, birds, mammals and plant life, as well as geology and ecology displays. The Science Museum has five floors packed with imaginative displays about science and technology from the Industrial Revolution through to space exploration, and even the digital age in the Wellcome Wing, opened in 2000.
The Museum of London at the Barbican takes a look at the fascinating history of the city and its people from prehistoric times to the present day. At the London Transport Museum trams, buses and even underground trains are among the colourful displays. The National Gallery, overlooking Trafalgar Square, has over 2000 paintings in its collection covering more than 700 years of art. Popular paintings include The Haywain by Constable and Sunflowers by Vincent Van Gogh. Famous names in British history and culture from Tudor times to the 21st century are represented at the National Portrait Gallery. The national art collection can be found at the Tate Britain (a branch of the national Tate galleries), while the Tate Modern houses an exciting collection of 20th century art.
Away from the galleries and museums visitors to London will find much to do at the city`s many other attractions – from the pleasure of feeding an elephant at one of the world`s oldest zoos to mixing with the rich and famous at Madame Tussaud`s. Madame Tussaud`s is one of the London`s most popular attractions, has been open since 1835 and has delighted visitors ever since with its waxwork models of the famous and infamous. At the Planetarium, next door to Madame Tussaud's, the displays are altogether more celestial with spectacular presentations on the night sky and a gallery that charts the history of astronomical discovery. Below ground, the London Dungeon vividly recreates grisly episodes from London's past, including executions, murders and the Great Fire of 1666. In Regent's Park the exotic animals and birds of London Zoo continue to attract the crowds, while fish and marine life fascinate and delight visitors to the London Aquarium, beside Westminster Bridge.
The Rock Circus in Piccadilly Circus provides an opportunity to enter into the world of rock and pop music. Madonna, Bob Marley and the Spice Girls feature among the waxwork exhibits of video shoots, recording studios and celebrity parties. Nearby the Trocadero is a huge indoor entertainment complex with the emphasis on hi-tech computer games and extravaganzas.
Краткое описание документа:
ABOUT MYSELF AND MY FAMILY
Relations by birth
immediate (near) relatives– близкиеродственники mother (father etc.)
distant relatives– дальниеродственники
uncle/aunt – тетя/дядя
nephew – племянник
niece – племянница
cousin – двоюродныйбрат (сестра)
to marry – жениться
to be/get married – бытьженатым
tobe/getdivorced– быть разведенным, развестись
to be single – бытьнеженатым
bachelor – холостяк
Relations by marriage
husband/wife – жена/муж
in-laws– родня со стороны мужа/жены
mother-in-law – теща, свекровь
father-in-law – тесть/свекор
daughter-in-law – невестка, сноха
son-in-law – зять
sister-in-law – золовка, свояченица
brother-in-law – шурин, деверь, свояк
half-sister– сестра по одному из родителей
half-brother– брат по одному из родителей
step-mother – мачеха
step-father – отчим
step-daughter – падчерица
step-son – пасынок
Speaking aboutpeople's age
Heisateenager– он подросток (от 13 до 19)
Не is in his teens – онподросток
He is in his early teens – емулет 13 - 14
He is in his mid teens – емулет 15 - 16
He is in his late teens – емулет 18 –
He is over sixteen – емубольше 16-ти
He is under sixteen – емуещенет 16-ти
Не isofage– он совершеннолетний
Не isjustoutofhisteens – он только что стал совершеннолетним
Не is in his early thirties – емунемногоза 30
Не is in his mid forties – емулет 45
He is in his late fifties – емупод 60
tokeephouse – вести домашнее хозяйство
to help about the house – помогатьподому
to retire on pension – уйтинапенсию
to work as – работатькем-либо
totakeaftersmb – быть похожим на кого-либо
toresemblesmb – быть похожим на кого-либо
tobefondof– увлекаться чем-либо
1. Выберите русский эквивалент для каждого английского слова
2. Выберите слово, противоположное по значению подчёркнутому
to marry: a) to resemble b) to divorce c) to be fond of
3. Выберите слово, которое надо поставить в предложение
1. Ted Wilson, 32 years of age, is the only … in all the Wilsons family. He says a life of a married man is not for him.
2. AliceisengagedtoPeter. In the near future they are getting ….
d) in touch
3. The Smiths used to be a childless family but recently they’ve taken a boy from the orphanage. The boy is supposed to be their ….
4. Образуйте из следующих слов пары антонимов
1) to life
4) a small family
5) to be alive
6) to die
7) to be unlike
8) to be dead
9) a large family
10) to be alike
12) a distant relative
14) a close relative
5. Выберите правильный перевод глаголов и словосочетаний
1) to take after
2) to be fond of
3) to get divorced
4) to retire
5) to help about the house
a) уйти на пенсию
c) помогать по дому
d) быть похожим
e) быть неженатым
f) увлекаться чем-либо
6. Подберите к каждому слову правильное определение
4) to marry
5) to retire on pension
7) to be single
a) a man who a woman is married to
b) not married
c) to take (a person) as a husband or wife
d) an unmarried man
e) the wife of one’s uncle
f) the child of one’s uncle or aunt
g) to give up work, a position
7. Выберите правильный вариант перевода предложения
Ей далеко за 40.
a) She is in her late forties.
b) She is over forty.
c) She is under forty.
d) She is in her mid forties.
8. Закончите предложения, выбрав подходящее название профессии
1. A person who designs machines, bridges ets. Is an ….
2. One who makes installs or repairs locks is a ….
3. A person who drives a motor vehicle is a ….
4. One whose job is to look after people’s health is a ….
5. A person who writes for newspapers/magazines is a ….
9. Прочтите текст А
Let me introduce myself. My name is Irene, Ira for short. My full name is Irina Petrovna Ivanova. My family is not very large: my father, my mother and me. My mother's name is Marina Petrovna, she is in her late thirties. My mother is a good-natured and a cheerful woman. She works as a teacher of French at school. She is very fond of her work - one may say she is devoted to it. My mother also keeps house. Even though we all try to help her she still has got a lot of work to do about the house.
My father's name is Pyotr Andreevech. He is a strong handsome man of middle age. My father is an architect and he works hard at his office. At home he helps my mother, he also takes care of his elderly parents who retired on pension several years ago. I love my parents and grandparents dearly and I'm glad we are on friendly terms.
And now a few words about me. I'm an only child in the family. On the 10th of September I'll be seventeen. So as you can see I'm still in my teens. Everybody says I take after my mother in appearance and resemble my father in character. This year I'm leaving school and going to enter the University at the Faculty of Foreign Languages. I am very fond of English and my dream is to know several foreign languages.
Besides my immediate relatives I have got many distant ones. On week-ends we try to get together and spend the Sunday as a family day. Our relatives join us for tea or sometimes we go to the cinema, visit the museum. Our family is very friendly, as you see.
10. Найдите эквиваленты русских фраз
2) работать усердно
3) единственный ребёнок
4) поступать в ВУЗ
5) близкие родственники
a) an only child
b) immediate relatives
c) to work hard
e) to enter
11. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
1. Irene is going to enter the University at the Faculty of ….
a) humanity education
b) economical management
c) foreign languages.
2. Pyotr Andreevech, is ….
a) a good natured man
b) a strong handsome man
c) a cheerful man.
12. Укажите, правильно ли утверждение или нет
1. Irene is of age.
2. Her grand parents retired on pension.
3. Her mother has no time to keep house.
13. Прочтите текст В
am Alex Sidorov. Alex is my first name and Sidorov is my surname. I am seventeen years old. I want to tell you a few words about my family. My family is large. I have got a mother, a father, a sister, a brother and a grandmother. There are six of us in the family.
First of all some words about my parents. My mother is a teacher of biology. She works in a college. She likes-her profession. She is agood-looking woman with brown hair. She is forty-four but she looks much younger. She is tall and slim.
My father is a computer programmer. He is very experienced, he is a broad-shouldered, tall man with fair hair and grey eyes. He is forty-six. My father often sings and when we are at home and have some free time, I play the guitar and we sing together. My father knows all about new radio sets and likes to repair old ones. He is also handy with many things. When he was small, he liked to take everything to pieces. My grandmother told me a story that once my father tried to "repair" their kitchen clock. He managed to put all the wheels and screws back again – but the clock did not work. They had to give it to a repairman. But that happened a long time ago. Now he can fix almost everything: a vacuum cleaner, a washing machine, a fridge and what not. He's got a few shelves where he keeps everything he needs. On the table there is always a radio in pieces.
My parents have been married for twenty-six years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, films, sports. For example, my father likes horror films and my mother likes “soap operas”. My father is fond of tennis. My mother doesn't go in for sports. But my parents have the same opinion about my education and upbringing.
My parents are hard-working people. My mother keeps house and takes care of me and my father. She is very good at cooking and she is clever with her hands. She is very practical. My father and I try to help her with the housework. I wash the dishes, go shopping andtidy our flat.
My grandmother is a pensioner. She lives with us and helps to run the house. She is fond of knitting.
My sister Helen is twenty-five. She is married and has a family of her own. She works as an accountant for a joint venture company. Her husband is a scientist. They have got twins: a daughter and a son. They go to a nursery school.
My brother Boris is eleven. He is a schoolboy. He wants to become a doctor but he is not sure yet. Three months ago he dreamed of being a cosmonaut.
I want to become a student. I’dlike to learn foreign languages. I think I take after my father. I'm tall, fair-haired and even-tempered. I always try to be in a good mood.
We have got a lot of relatives. We arе deeply attached to each other and we get on very well.
14. Подберите английский эквивалент для каждого русского слова
2) опытный, квалифицированный
a) vacuum cleaner
15. Закончите предложение, выбрав правильное продолжение
1. Alex’s mother works in ….
a) a school
b) a college