Verbal Phraseologisms in the Mari Language
The main aim of the paper is to show structural and semantic features of verbal phraseologisms borrowed from ten-volume dictionary of the Mari language. All in all there are 1895 verbal phraseological units.
Structurally they represent:
phrases (◊умшам почаш lit. ‘to open one's mouth; to start talking’);
sentences (◊йылме яклештеш lit. ‘tongue slides’, i.e. ‘to speak freely and without strain’(an impersonal sentence); ◊умшашке парнятым ит пыште lit. ‘don’t stick a finger in his mouth’, i.e. one should be careful with him (a definite-personal sentence)).
In their meaning verbal phraseologisms can be:
monosemantic (majority of the analyzed phraseologisms);
polysemantic (◊йол ӱмбак шогалташ lit. ‘to raise, put somebody on feet’: 1) to cure the disease; 2) to become independent in life; 3) to make somebody stronger, more independent; 4) to excite, create confusion);
synonymic (the following phrases are used in the meaning of ‘to die’ in the Mari language: ◊ӱмыр лугыч лияш lit. ‘life finishes’ in the meaning of “to die prematurely” – ◊ӱмырым кошарташ lit. ‘to arrive at the end of one’s life’ – ◊ӱмырым шукташ lit. ‘to finish the life’ – ◊чон лектеш lit. ‘the soul gets out’ – ◊вес тӱняшке каяш ‘to go to the other world’);
opposite in their meaning (◊ош тӱняш лекташ lit. ‘to get into the world, to be born’ – ◊ош тӱня дене чеверласаш lit. ‘to say goodbye to the world, to die’).
From the point of view of the semantic fusion of the components verbal phraseologisms are divided into four groups the most widespread of which are:
phraseological fusions (◊шикшым пышташ lit. ‘to put a smoke’, i.e. to run away, to show a clean pair of heels; ◊чон шолеш lit. ‘a soul boils’ in the meaning of “to demonstrate intense anxiety and worry”);
phraseological unities (◊шум шогалташ lit. ‘to raise the bristle’ in the meaning of “to be angry, to get angry”, ◊точкым шындаш lit. ‘to finish, to come to an end, to place a full stop’);
phraseological collocations (◊шинчам пашкарташ -(ем) lit. ‘to open eyes widely (with fear, in surprise)’, i.e. to be surprised, perplexed, to wonder);
There are some shortcomings in the compilation of the mentioned Mari language dictionary. The authors-compilers included some phrases, which do not correspond to basic criteria of phraseologisms. But these small drawbacks do not belittle the merits of this lexicographic edition.