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The article "Reading aloud"

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Reading aloud as an efficient way to develop listening skills.

Кабакова Асель Кабдоллаевна

Калиева Асель Болатовна

Евразийский национальный университет имени Л.Н. Гумилева.

 

 

 

Abstract

 

The article proves the possibility of solving the problems of listening skills development using the reading aloud technique. It considers the features of the auditory perception of the text in the structure of speech activity. The main conclusion is made about the relationship and influence of the development of listening skills with such a type of speech activity as reading aloud.

The analysis of pedagogical practice demonstrated insufficient listening competence among students, the presence of difficulties associated with audio perception of a foreign language text among students with different levels of foreign language proficiency.

That gave us grounds to formulate the problem of the absence of a clear methodically grounded model of the listening skills formation.

Listening, being the most complex skill of speech, is characterized as a meaningful perception of a foreign language by ear, and requires the use of special means and teaching methods.

The modern understanding of the speech-thinking activity structure developing is based on the allocation of semantic analysis-synthesis unit. Thus, speech-thinking activity at the stage of analysis is based on the allocation of elementary meanings of the speech text, and their combination and access to the general meaning at the stage of synthesis.

The accumulation of multiple experience in certain activities contributes to the formation of competencies. Therefore, special role in the formation of the competence of meaningful listening belongs to the reading aloud methods used in the educational process.

The problem of developing listening skills in the educational process should be solved in a complex, which required the development of methods of reading aloud as an effective way to upgrade listening skills.

 

Аннотация

 

В статье обосновывается возможность решения проблемы развития навыка аудирования с помощью методики чтения вслух. Рассмотрены особенности аудиального восприятия текста в структуре речевой деятельности, сделан вывод о взаимосвязи и влиянии развития навыков аудирования с таким видом ревой деятельности, как чтение вслух.

Анализ педагогической практики показал недостаточную компетентность к аудированию у студентов, наличие трудностей, связанных с осмысленным восприятием иноязычного текста на слух у студентов с разным уровнем владения иностранным языком.

Это дает нам основания сформулировать проблему отсутствия четкой методически обоснованной модели формирования навыков аудирования.

Аудирование, являясь сложнейшим навыком речевой деятельности характеризуется как осмысленное восприятие иноязычной речи на слух, требует использования специальных средств и методов обучения.

Современное понимание структуры развития речемыслительной деятельности основано на выделении единицы смыслового анализа-синтеза. Таким образом, речемыслительная деятельность на этапе анализа строится на выделении элементарных смыслов речевого текста, и их объединение и выход на генеральный смысл на этапе синтеза.

Накопление множественного опыта в определенных видах деятельности способствует формированию компетенций. Особая роль в формировании компетентности осмысленного восприятия на слух принадлежит использованию в образовательном процессе метода чтения вслух.

Проблема развития навыков аудирования в образовательном процессе должна решаться в комплексе,  что потребовало разработки методики использования чтения вслух как эффективного способа развития навыков аудирования.

 

Keywords: Listening; development of listening skills, peculiarities of auditory text perception; mechanisms for the listening skills; reading aloud.

 

 

The relevance of the study is due to the need to find means and methods of teaching a foreign language that contribute to the effective development of auditory skills, i.e. skills of meaningful perception of foreign language speech by ear.

The modern multicultural, multilingual environment, as well as the global spread of the Internet and a huge number of freely moving streams of information, require certain skills in today's youth for successful and effective functioning. In particular, special requirements are imposed on the acquisition of foreign languages ​​in higher educational institutions. Thus, it is necessary to master a foreign language as a means of communication, as a means of achieving the professional realization of an individual in the future.

As the review of the methodological literature shows, the problem of professional training of a modern specialist, his knowledge, skills and abilities is widely considered.

State educational standards define the requirements for the level of training of a modern specialist, the level of proficiency in a foreign language.

A modern university graduate must know the language at a level sufficient for successful communication in oral and written forms to solve the problems of interpersonal and intercultural interaction.

However, as the analysis of pedagogical practice has shown, students have insufficiently developed listening skills, which complicates the meaningful perception of a foreign language text by ear. An insufficient level of proficiency in listening skills and the requirements of foreign language training standards is found among students of all courses, among students with different levels of foreign language proficiency.

Considering the close relationship between the listening comprehension of a foreign language text and reading aloud as a type of speech activity, an assumption was made about the possibility of developing listening skills using the reading aloud method:

The aim of the research was to identify and theoretically substantiate the possibility of effective development of listening skills through reading aloud.

Research objectives:

1.                 To assess the state of the problem of effective development of listening comprehension skills in the works of researchers (based on the analysis of psychological and pedagogical works).

2.                 Consider the specifics of the reading and listening process, identify the relationship between the development of listening skills and reading aloud,

3.                 Justify the possibility of using the method of reading aloud for the effective development of foreign language listening comprehension.

 

We assume that the method of reading aloud is one of the most effective and most accessible ways of developing language comprehension skills among students studying a foreign language outside the language environment.

In the process of communication, a person creates speech - such types of speech activity are called productive, or perceives speech - then this is a receptive activity.

There are four types of speech activity in total. Oral productive speech activity is speaking, oral receptive - listening, written productive - writing, and written receptive - reading. Speaking, listening, reading and writing form the basis of language proficiency - native or foreign.

Therefore, it is necessary to develop listening skills. However, with all the obviousness of the demand for the ability to perceive a foreign language by ear, this type of speech activity remains a weak link among university graduates. This is due to a number of reasons, but, above all, a small number of academic hours devoted to foreign language classes, the lack of a language environment and, as a consequence, a lack of motivation to learn a foreign language.

These provisions determine the relevance of the research at the social and practical levels.

 

Many Russian researches in their studies (Zhinkin, Zimnyaya, Ilyina, Kochkina, etc.) as well as foreign scholars (Brown, Richards, Briggs, Harmer, etc.) paid attention to the development of listening skills and abilities.

The scientists listed above have researched the issues of targeted listening teaching. They noted that certain features of this type of speech activity determine the specifics of teaching listening and refer to it as one of the most difficult.

Such scientists as N. D. Galskova, N. I. Gez, N. V. Elukhina, E. N. Solovova, I. I. Khaleeva dealt with the consideration of the practical aspects of teaching foreign language listening

In general, after studying the works of these authors, we noted that the term "listening" came to the domestic methodological literature relatively recently, under the influence of foreign linguistic studies. The term “listening” is not equivalent but rather opposed to the term “hearing”. Because hearing  means only acoustic reception of the scale, and listening, as research shows, is a process of perception of sounding speech, in addition to listening, it also presupposes understanding and interpretation of information perceived by ear [1].

N.D. Galskova, who studied the development of distance listening skills, indicated that “listening includes the perception and understanding of audio texts in the context of mediated communication” [2, p. 175].

I.A. Zimnyaya considered listening as one of the types of speech activity and gave the following definition to this term "this is a complex perceptual-mental-mnemic internal human activity" [3, p.117].

N.I. Gez also believed that listening is a complex receptive mental-mnemonic activity associated with perception, understanding and active processing of information contained in an oral speech communication [4, p.161].

By G.V. Rogova in her "English Teaching Methods" it was emphasized that listening, being a receptive type of speech activity, is the simultaneous perception and understanding of speech by ear. Along with speaking, it provides an opportunity for productive communication in a foreign language [5].

The researches of G.V. Rogova, E.N. Solovova and N.I. Gez [5] [6] [7] were used as the main basis for this article. In our further research, we rely on them and interpret the concept of listening as follows:

Listening is a dynamic mental activity. This is a complex process of perceiving and understanding sounding speech by ear. Learning the semantic perception of speech by ear involves the implementation of exercises by students to form general auditory skills and speech exercises.

To date, domestic scientists have determined the specificity of listening as a type of speech activity (N.I. Gez, I.D. Morozova, E.G. Pogosyan, etc.), identified difficulties arising in the process of perceiving and understanding a foreign language by ear and methods overcoming them (N.V. Elukhina, I.D. Morozova, etc.), in addition, various exercises for teaching listening (N.I. Gez, N.V. Elukhina, etc.) and methods of controlling the formation of this skill were developed (M.E.Breigina, P.V. Sysoev and others).

Listening is an integral part of oral communication in a foreign language, ensuring the adequacy of speech in various situations of intercultural communication on a daily and professional level.

As it was noted by many Russian scientists the level of listening skills was always significantly inferior to the degree of skills formation in other types of speech activity. Therefore, it is necessary to pay close attention to its development and find the most effective way to achieve results in the learning process.

Listening can act as an independent type of speech activity or enter into dialogical communication as its receptive component, i.e. be one of the sides of speaking [8].

Despite the fact that the listening process can take place without external manifestations, it is an active process that requires a lot of intellectual effort. During listening, the listener performs complex perceptual-mnemonic activities and mental operations of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, comparison, opposition, abstraction, concretization, etc.

There are four main mechanisms for the success of listening in the domestic methodology by Solovova E.N.: verbal hearing, memory, probabilistic forecasting, articulation mechanism. According to the scientist, if students master these mechanisms, this leads to the development of skills of general perception of foreign language speech in conversation [6, p.125].

Revealing the features of teaching listening comprehension, N.D. Galskova and N.I. Gez note that the listener in the listening process relies on sufficiently developed psychological mechanisms and his alternative experience.

The authors prove that listening is a strictly personal process, complex, depending on the following factors:

 

1.     on the development of the student's speech hearing and memory;

2.     his ability to use probabilistic forecasting;

3.     and his attention and interest [4].

 

N.V. Elukhina identifies the following six skills as the main listening skills:

 

• to separate the main from the secondary;

• to define the subject of the message;

• to divide the text into semantic pieces;

• to establish logical connections;

• to highlight the main idea;

• to perceive messages at a certain pace and duration, to the end without gaps [9] [10].

 

Therefore, an effective listening development methodology should pay attention to the development of each of the above skills.

At the same time, listening is both a goal and also one of teaching means, since through work with listening, other skills of speech perception in a foreign language are also developed.

Researchers such as I.A. Dehert and I.A. Zimnyaya researched specifically the issues of interaction between listening and other types of speech activity, in particular listening and speaking, listening and reading (and others).

I.A. Dehert in his work "Teaching listening with reliance on speaking and reading in secondary school" suggests that teaching listening with reliance on reading is more consistent, therefore the phased development of listening skills, taking into account the formation of its different types, will help to increase the effectiveness of teaching the semantic perception of a foreign language hearing [11]

Psycholinguist I.A. Zimnyaya, studying understanding of speech, notes that it is carried out simultaneously through different channels of mental activity. From the very first word of address, in the consciousness of the perceiver there is a decoding of linguistic signs. At the same time, the consciousness of the perceiver seeks to anticipate the intention of the interlocutor, modeling the integral concept of his speech [12].

“Semantic perception of a text is a multifaceted speech-thinking process that involves complex operations to fold and unfold the original concept, to recode someone else's speech into a code of individual meanings, etc. Understanding of an integral speech work is a reconstruction of meaning, its translation into the figurative-schematic language of the internal speech of the perceiving subject”[13, p. 108].

Understanding a holistic speech work is the process of revealing the main meaning of the text, the hidden messages of the speaker. As a result, a new text appears in the mind of the addressee, which is not identical to the original one. Moreover, accurate reproduction of someone else's utterance does not mean understanding it.

N.I. Zhinkin writes about this:

“If our partner reproduces the literally accepted sequence of sentences, we will not know whether he understood what was said” [14, p. 33].

Therefore, we cannot call a simple mechanical reproduction of speech meaningful.

In his works A.I. Novikov points out that understanding is a mediated analytical-synthetic process, which is based on the intellectual and active processing of the perceived text. This revision includes dividing the text into semantic segments, highlighting various kinds of "contextual combiners", as well as combining them into a common sense [15, p.92].

In Kazakhstan, the founder of the concept of the development of foreign language education is S. S. Kunanbaeva, who developed scientific, practical and methodological documents guiding the development of foreign language education in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

In her work, general strategies, goals and objectives, and the general content of the educational process in relation to teaching foreign languages ​​were identified [16].

According to the scientist, the development of language competences should take place in a complex, and the ultimate goal of training should be free communication in a foreign language [16, p.103].

The basis for the implementation of foreign language education in Kazakhstan is a competence-based approach. This approach assumes a focus on the formation of key professional competencies of students. That is, in foreign language lessons, students should receive knowledge, skills and experience of all speech skills.

Foreign linguists and teachers note the paramount importance of developing listening comprehension skills, since it is listening skills that make it possible to receive and understand a communication message in the process of interaction using a foreign language [17] [18].

Harmer, J. in the methodological manual for educators “How to Teach English. An introduction to the practice of English language teaching” pays special attention to the fact that learning a foreign language from the first lessons should take place in an integrated manner - with the development of all types of speech activity [19].

American methodologists build a method of teaching a foreign language on the ideas of direct language teaching.

In contrast to the Kazakh and Russian methodology, the natural methodology of teaching foreign languages is still being developed by famous American linguists and is being applied in teaching practice.

Thus, a specialist in applied linguistics, Stephen Krashen, a professor at the University of Southern California, a linguist in his research insists that the natural process of a person's acquisition of a foreign language is the most effective. It relies on a natural approach aimed at immersing students in the language environment through reading aloud and listening in a foreign language, prior to actually speaking it. The scientist presented theoretical principles that had a great influence on the development of the European theory of mastering a second foreign language at the initial stage.

The author pays great attention to the possibilities of reading, as a type of speech activity that has preferential opportunities in teaching a second foreign language. It is especially recommended to use the method of "voluntary reading" in the educational process [20].

The theoretical principles of S. Krashen's natural approach influenced the development of the British method of teaching foreign languages.

For example, the British methodologist Joan Marvin Brown, in the work on teaching listening, “Listening Approach,” adheres to the ideas of the natural method put forward by S. Krashen.

The scientist shares his many years of methodological experience and notes the primary role of listening as a type of speech activity in teaching foreign languages ​​Brown recommends using an auditive approach to teaching languages. The auditive approach, among other things, provides for the organization of the educational process as a constant listening to the texts read aloud. In addition, the methodologist emphasizes the paramount importance of the motivational aspect of teaching [17].

Foreign German scientists have also devoted a lot of attention to the relationship of such types of speech activity as listening and reading aloud. The problem of developing listening skills using the method of reading aloud was written by: M. Arendt, U. Klagge, J. Lohergang, S. Maruniak, I.S. Schwetrdtfeger, H.J. Stummhofer, A. Vilau.

An analysis of the works of the researchers mentioned above allows us to conclude that reading aloud is essential for learning a foreign language. The presence of loud external speech makes reading aloud a valuable exercise in developing the ability to speak: it makes it possible to work on the expressiveness and appeal of speech, gradually increase its tempo, while maintaining correctness, etc. In addition, reading aloud texts in a foreign language also has a positive effect and listening skills, as it allows you to master the sound system of the language.

Reading is the process of perceiving and understanding the content of the previously graphically recorded text. Being a receptive form of verbal communication, reading can be both technical and informative. Trough the reading, the phonetic structure of the word is formed, and thus a person reading in a foreign language masters the ability to divide a sentence into syntagmas, the skills of continuous pronunciation of phrases and reproduction of intonational structures.

The reading process begins when the reader visually perceives graphic signs. At this time, visual memory stores images - more reliably and efficiently than auditory memory. Also, during reading, the text is not only seen and considered but also pronounced by the reader to himself. Thus, the graphic image is superimposed on the auditory image. Due to this, involuntary memorization is provided with multiple repetition of language units. The use of already correctly pronounced, worked out words, phrases, sentences makes it possible to develop automatism in the use of the knowledge and skills acquired.

Many linguists note that the reading process is not always an end in itself, but often plays a means of developing other skills of perceiving a foreign language text.

For example, E.N. Solovova points out the following features of reading as a means of developing language skills:

 “Reading is a means of forming and controlling related speech skills and language skills, for example, the use of reading allows you to optimize the process of mastering language material, and reading aloud is an exercise in the formation and development of all language and speech skills and abilities ”[21, p. 172].

The position of the linguist G.V. Rogovoy is absolutely fair, which emphasizes that reading as a means of teaching foreign language provides for its use to assimilate linguistic and speech material and expand knowledge of the studied language [22].

Indeed, the process of reading a foreign language contributes to an increase in the level of proficiency in foreign language, an increase in vocabulary, develops a student's language guess and helps to increase students' motivation to study foreign language. [23].

It is necessary to specially emphasize the importance of educational reading, and particularly reading aloud, which is used in the educational process for the other speech activities formation and development: such as equally receptive, based on the perception (reception) of linguistic signs – listening.

Further, the connection between listening and uninterrupted reading was considered in detail.

Reading is a two-way process: reading technique and understanding the meaning of what is being read. Just as hearing with lack of understanding is not yet listening, visual perception of letters with no understanding of the words’ meaning is only voicing the text, but not reading in the full sense of the term.

There are not only similarities between listening and reading, but also interaction. Thus, mastery of oral speech makes it easier to understand what is being read: listening perception and comprehension, as a rule, is superior in productivity to reading, therefore, language material is better understood and consolidated not through the reading but oral speech.

Reading makes listening easier only if the readable text is spoken to oneself with the correct pronunciation and a fluent tempo.

Therefore, only correct, uninterrupted reading contributes most to listening. And it’s most effective when reading aloud.

Speech perception is based on listening comprehension. Its improvement is carried out due to the gradual increase in the unit of perception with the transition from individual words to semantic complexes, united by a sound form [24, p.185].

In this regard, the main problem is to switch the student's attention from individual words to the text. So the perception will go not so much from word to text, i.e. linearly, but vertically, i.e. from the text, mastering the general content of which, the student is able to navigate in the actual meaning, including individual words that go beyond the linguistic competence of the student [25, p.33].

This becomes possible due to the syntax, or rather the universal stereotyped syntactic models, which naturally encode a certain functionally stereotyped content element.

The analysis of the listening comprehension’s features allowed us to conclude that being closely related to all types of speech activity, its connection with reading aloud is evident above all. The following factors led us to this conclusion:

 

1)                Both reading and listening are based on the common speech perception model.

2)                During comprehension, there is a continuous comparison of incoming signals with those models and standards that are stored in students’ memory [24, p.186].

Firstly, these models and standards are formed through such speech activities as reading and speaking, and, secondly, they are further supported with listening, and speaking again.

3)                In the process of speech perception, the mechanism of internal pronunciation functions. The slower the internal pronunciation is carried out, the slower is the decoding of meanings during listening, up to a complete stop. On the other hand, reading, which involves both internal and external pronunciation, provides a certain automation of processes during perception.

4)                In both methods of perception, there is intonation design of a speech work in external speech, but through reading aloud in external speech it is given by the recipient who perceives the text.

5)                Reading aloud involves such speech mechanisms as the production of text in external speech with parallel visual perception from a written medium (perception is in the background format).

Listening brings to the fore such a speech mechanism as perception, while the speech mechanisms associated with external speech are replaced, as a rule, by the speech mechanisms of internal speech

6)                Correlation "form-meaning" takes place both in reading and in listening, with the only difference that in reading the form is graphic, and in listening - acoustic.

7)                Reading aloud and listening have two different, but interrelated processes with the same components: when reading aloud, the work of the organs of articulation during pronunciation is controlled and fixed through the ear, since the person reading aloud hears himself.

Internal pronunciation, which takes place during listening (although it is not even carried out in the full volume of the perceived text, but its individual components), also provides a kind of control when the auditory image is confirmed by the articulatory one.

 

Reading aloud as one of the ways to maintain and develop listening skills is connected with all four listening mechanisms: verbal hearing - listening to oneself; memory - tasks for reading with the perception of one or another information; articulation - pronouncing the text aloud according to all prosodic rules, i.e. with the correct intonation design - logical stresses, pauses, changes in the tempo of speech within the framework of semantic segments of a speech work; probabilistic forecasting - fixing syntactic models, both frame and intraframe, forecasting and keeping open semantic files in memory.

The direct connection between reading aloud and listening skills is manifested at the level of imitation of rhythmic speech. As it’s known, a person speaks not in separate words, but in syntagmas. When perceiving speech, he is also not aware of every word, but perceives a certain rhythmic (semantic) group.

The correct rhythmic design of the text during reading aloud process, when there is visual perception, ensures the consolidation through external sounding of the correct articulatory auditory image of the variants of rhythmic (semantic) groups with their subsequent recognition during auditory perception.

Recognition in graphic form of the encoded semantic organization of the text with the subsequent consolidation of the perceived model in external speech with adequate prosodic design of the oral speech work is an important component of the formation and consolidation of listening skills and semantic perception of a speech work by ear. At the same time, through intonation and pauses, a certain semantic model is recognized and correlated with a person's image.

Thus, at different levels of mastering a foreign language on the basis of reading mechanisms, the process of forming and developing listening skills is carried out.

There are many exercises that allow you to use reading aloud to develop auditory perception and auditory memory.

The following reading aloud exercises can be distinguished as the most efficiently applicable ones:

 

·       read and express the main idea in one / two phrases;

·       read and give an abstract translation;

·       read and retell abstracts; read and record and retain precision information as detailed as possible;

·       to read against the background of a sounding text of the same or a different content with the control of correct intonation;

·       reading with situational inclusions of stable cliché phrases;

·       reading phrases containing complex word-formation models with subsequent control of their perception;

·       reading aloud as part of a group with the gradual inclusion of the same text in reading with a lag of 5 seconds and uniform adherence to the reading speed with the parallel setting of tasks for the perception of one or another part of the text.

 

The use of the considered exercises is methodically substantiated at all stages of language training. Since reading aloud is an integral part of learning a foreign language.

Summing up the results of our analysis, we conclude that the method of reading aloud is one of the most effective and most accessible ways of developing language perception skills among students studying a foreign language in all linguistic environments. This is due to the features of auditory perception we have considered, which is most closely related to reading aloud.

Reading aloud provides a systematic approach that includes, directly or indirectly, all types of speech activity.

Thus, educational reading aloud is a relevant technique that should be introduced into the educational process when learning a foreign language.

 

 

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