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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Рабочие программы / TO GLORIOUS VICTORY IS DEVOTED ВЕЛИКОЙ ПОБЕДЕ ПОСВЯЩАЕТСЯ…

TO GLORIOUS VICTORY IS DEVOTED ВЕЛИКОЙ ПОБЕДЕ ПОСВЯЩАЕТСЯ…

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Сведения об авторе


Ф.И.О.

Егошина Надежда Гермогеновна

Ученая степень

кандидат педагогических наук

Должность

преподаватель английского языка, доцент

Организация

МБОУ «Гимназия № 14 г. Йошкар-Олы;

ФГБОУ ВПО «Марийский государственный университет», кафедра английской филологии

Домашний адрес

424031, Йошкар-Ола, Машиностроителей 5 – 67

Домашний телефон

(8362) 414162

E-mail

egoshina.nadezhda@mail.ru




N.G. EGOSHINA



TO GLORIOUS VICTORY


IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR IS DEVOTED…



Program of the elective course

for students of 10-11 forms

of secondary schools, lyceums, gymnasiums








Н.Г. ЕГОШИНА


ВЕЛИКОЙ ПОБЕДЕ ПОСВЯЩАЕТСЯ…



Программа элективного курса на английском языке

для учащихся 10-11 классов

общеобразовательных школ, лицеев, гимназий


CONTENTS



1. Introductory


2. Thematic plan


3. Materials for lessons


3.1 Module 1. Hero-cities


3.2 Module 2. Outstanding commanders


3.3 Module 3. Brave defenders


3.4 Module 4. Children at war


3.5 Module 5. Heroic pages of war in the literary works


3.6 Module 6. The theme of war on the canvases of the prominent painters


3.7 Module 7. Music and war time


3.8 Module 8. Nobody is forgotten



4. Word List


5. Answer Key


6. Intellectual quizzes

6.1 The Great patriotic war: year by year


6.2 War quiz


6.3 There is no land behind the Volga River for us!

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ



1. Пояснительная записка


2. Тематическое планирование


3. Учебные материалы для проведения занятий


3.1 Модуль 1. Города-герои


3.2 Модуль 2. Выдающиеся командиры и военачальники


3.3 Модуль 3. Храбрые защитники


3.4 Модуль 4. Дети на войне


3.5 Модуль 5. Героические страницы войны в произведениях литературы


3.6 Модуль 6. Тема Великой отечественной войны на полотнах выдающихся художников


3.7 Модуль 7. Музыка времен войны


3.8. Модуль 8. Никто не забыт



4. Список слов


5. Ключи к упражнениям


6. Интеллектуальные игры, викторины по военно-героической тематике


6.1 Великая отечественная война: год за годом


6.2 Хроника Великой войны


6.3 За Волгой для нас земли нет!


INTRODUCTORY


The term “modernization” determines today the main line of state policy in all the spheres of society. In the area of education the radical changes are fixed in the new official document – The Federal State Educational Standards of general education.

The principal innovation of the document puts to the focus of attention the tasks which were earlier only partly in the sphere of responsibility of teachers and school.

For the first time of the last 20 years the problems of moral and spiritual education of students are given the prior significance.

The new document is human-aimed. We can easily see the outlines of a new image of a person and a citizen who must be brought up, developed and socialized. The Standard defines the personal characteristics that are important for the society and that are in the field of pedagogical concern.

New Russian reality encourages the revival of the patriotic idea as the spiritual base of our society, one of the most significant integral parts of the national ideology. The new educational document points out as the central such basic national values as patriotism, social solidarity, sense of citizenship.

The formation of the qualities, mentioned above, is carried out in the process of patriotic education of students. One of its directions is represented by the process of heroically-patriotic education.

Heroically-patriotic education is a constituent part of patriotic education, aimed at propaganda of heroic professions and momentous evens/dates of our history; stimulation of national pride and sense of co-participation to our fore-fathers’ deeds.

School should promote careful and tactful attitude of students to the historical past of our country in the process of patriotic education. It has become evident we can’t ignore the heroes of the past. Heroes, legendary people are a particular world of moral purity and they set an example of right behaviour in situations that demand bravery, willpower, self-sacrifice for the sake of other people, for the sake of motherland. Images of heroes in whom patience and courage are interwoven with nobleness and faith in people, don’t lose their high significance today.

Heroic pages of history possess a huge inspiring effect; the victory in the Great patriotic war occupies a special place among other historic events. It fulfills the function of social memory, it contains the axiological, value-oriented base of the process of education of the young generation.

According to some researchers, current Russia needs a set of text-books whose purpose is to form patriotic consciousness, as well as positive attitude to our country and its history. “The country needs the apologetics of the Russian history, creation of the universal and Russia-focused system of scientific knowledge. It accentuates the actual character of the programme.

The goal of the proposed elective course “To Glorious Victory in the Great patriotic war is devoted” is to widen and broaden the process of heroically-patriotic education of students by means of a foreign language and to promote the formation of the national idol of a student – a highly-moral, creative competent citizen of Russia who treats the fortune of the country as his or her own and who realizes the responsibility for the country’s present and future; who is rooted in the spiritual and cultural traditions of the multinational people of the Russian Federation.

To reach the goal it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

  1. To enlarge students’ knowledge about the Great patriotic war by means of the foreign language;

  2. To build up the elements of historical consciousness by means of objective estimation of the past events; to develop emotional experience to the facts of the last war in the coarse of work at texts and exercises.

  3. To develop active position towards the war events and war participants by means of transformation of knowledge into the corresponding valuable attitudes. It’s become possible my means of writing projects, research works, essays, etc.


The programme is based on the axiological principle. It combines the number of values kept in the religious, ethnic, cultural-historical, social traditions. As these values are the essence of life, the acceptance of these values gives sense to human life.

The programme has integral character and consists of nine modules. The first eight modules include texts and exercises on war theme. The ninth module presents some materials to conduct intellectual quizzes on the war topic that implies the definite knowledge on history and the ability to express the ideas of their own in the context of the topic in English.

Educational materials can be used both in the classroom and in the process of independent work of students. The course is supplied with the key answers and list of topical vocabulary.


The expected results are as follows:

  • development of national self-consciousness of students in the frames of the national citizenship;

  • return to the foundations of the patriotic feelings, revival of its active character;

  • resistance to the anti-national ideas;

  • increase of the level of teachers’ qualification in the process of patriotic education of students.

The course is approbated by the author in the educational process of Gymnasium # 14, Republic of Mari El, Yoshkar-Ola.


ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Термин «модернизация» определяет сегодня главный вектор государственной политики во всех областях жизни общества. В сфере образования кардинальные изменения учебно-воспитательного процесса зафиксированы в новом документе – Федеральных государственных образовательных стандартах общего образования (ФГОС).

«Принципиальная новизна образовательных стандартов выводит на первый план те проблемы, которые раньше лишь частично входили в сферу ответственности школы и учителя. Впервые за последние 20 лет в качестве ключевых рассматриваются задачи духовно-нравственного воспитания российских школьников».1

«Новый стандарт челеовекосообразен. В нем четко виден образ человека и гражданина, который должен быть воспитан, развит и социализирован. В стандарте выделены те качества личности, которые важны для общества и находятся в сфере педагогической ответственности». 2

Новые российские реалии стимулируют возрождение патриотической идеи как духовной опоры общества, важнейшей составляющей общенациональной идеологии. Без чувства нравственной ответственности граждан-патриотов невозможно качественное функционирование ни одной общественной системы.

Новые ФГОС определили в качестве базовых национальных ценностей, которые подлежат интериоризации в первую очередь, следующие:

  • патриотизм (любовь к России, к своему народу, к своей малой родине, служение Отечеству);

  • социальная солидарность (свобода личная и национальная; доверие к людям, институтам государства и гражданского общества; справедливость, милосердие, честь, достоинство);

  • гражданственность (правовое государство, гражданское общество, долг перед Отечеством, старшим поколением и семьей, закон и правопорядок, межэтнический мир, свобода совести и вероисповедания). 3

Формирование выше перечисленных характеристик осуществляется в процессе патриотического воспитания юных граждан. Одним из его направлений является героико-патриотическое воспитание.

Героико-патриотическое воспитание – составная часть патриотического воспитания, ориентированная на пропаганду героических профессий и знаменательных исторических дат нашей истории, воспитание гордости за сопричастность к деяниям предков и их традициям.4

В процессе формирования патриотического сознания у молодежи должно быть достигнуто бережное и внимательное отношение к историческому прошлому своей страны. Сегодня стало очевидным, что никоим образом нельзя отрекаться от имен своих героев, как далекого прошлого, так и сегодняшних дней. Герои, люди-легенды – это особый мир ориентиров нравственности и поведения человека в особых обстоятельствах, требующих мужества, воли, самопожертвования ради других людей, ради своего Отечества. Сохранение имен героев – это одно из важнейших условий развития нашего государства и общества. «Образы героев, в которых терпеливость и отвага переплелись с благородством и верой в человека, не теряют сегодня своего высокого значения».5

Героические страницы истории обладают большим воспитательным потенциалом, Победа в Великой отечественной войне 1941-45 гг. среди других исторических событий занимает особое место. «Победа в Великой отечественной войне выполняет функцию социальной памяти, в ней содержится ценностная основа содержания воспитания подрастающих поколений».6

Как отмечают многие авторы, «сегодняшней России нужна целая «линейка» из разных учебных пособий, ориентированных на формирование ценностного патриотического сознания, позитивного отношения к своей стране и ее истории».7 «В стране необходимы апология российской истории, создание универсалистской и в то же время россиецентричной системы научного знания».8 Это обусловливает несомненную актуальность разработанной программы.

Цель предлагаемого элективного курса «Великой Победе посвящается» (на английском языке) – расширение и углубление процесса героико-патриотического воспитания обучающихся средствами иностранного языка, что в свою очередь, должно содействовать формированию национального воспитательного идеала. Данный идеал подразумевает воспитание «высоконравственного, творческого компетентного гражданина России, принимающего судьбу Отечества как свою личную; осознающего ответственность за настоящее и будущее своей страны; укорененного в духовных и культурных традициях многонационального народа Российской Федерации». 9

Достижение поставленной цели предусматривает решение следующих задач:

  1. Углублять знаний учащихся о Великой отечественной войне средствами английского языка;

  2. Формировать элементы исторического сознания посредством объективной оценки событий прошлого и развивать эмоционально-сопереживающее отношение к фактам минувшей войны в процессе работы с текстами и упражнениями курса;

  3. Развивать деятельностное проявление своей позиции по отношению к прошедшей войне и ее участникам путем перевода знаний о войне в соответствующие ценностные установки, идеалы, мировоззрение посредством участия в проектной, исследовательской работе на иностранном языке, написания рефератов, сочинений-рассуждений и пр.

В основе программы лежит аксиологический подход. Он изначально определяет основу воспитания – совокупность ценностей, хранимых в религиозных, этнических, культурно-исторических, социальных традициях. Поскольку ценности – это смыслы, их принятие вносит смыслы в жизнь человека.

Программа элективного курса носит интегративный характер и состоит из девяти модулей. Первые восемь модулей включают в себя тексты и упражнения по военной тематике, девятый модуль предусматривает проведение викторин (интеллектуальных) игр, предполагающих знания по военной истории и умения выражать свои мысли в контексте изученных тем на английском языке.

Материалы курса могут использоваться как в ходе аудиторной, так и в процессе самостоятельной работы учеников. Пособие снабжено ключами-ответами ко всем заданиям. Каждый модуль сопровождается списком тематической лексики.

Ожидаемые результаты реализации программы:

  • развитие национального самосознания детей и молодежи в контексте общероссийской гражданственности;

  • возвращение к отечественным основам патриотического чувства, возрождение его активного характера;

  • противостояние идеям, чуждым национально-патриотической устойчивости;

  • повышение уровня квалификации преподавателей английского языка в реализации патриотического воспитания подрастающего поколения республики.

Апробация внедрения элективного курса «Великой Победе посвящается» осуществляется автором в ходе учебно-воспитательного процесса в МБОУ «Гимназия № 14 г. Йошкар-Олы».



THEMATIC PLAN


Theme

Number of hours

1.

Module 1. Hero-cities

1.1 Sevastopol

1.2 Novorossiysk

1.3 The city of Kerch

1.4 The Battle for Stalingrad

1.5 The Fortress of Brest

1.6 Mari Republic during the war years

4

2.

Module 2. Outstanding commanders

2.1 From soldier to Marshal (I.S. Konev)

2.2 A person with decisive character (K. K. Rokossovsky)

2.3 The Commanders of the Great Victory (G.K. Zhukov, K.K. Rokosovsky)

2.4 Partisan Commander (S. A. Kovpak)

2.5 The heroic fortune (K.I. Serov)

4

3.

Module 3. Brave defenders

3.1 Heroic death in the air (about Nikolay Gastello)

3.2 Immortal name (A.M. Matrosov)

3.3 Death for the sake of life (General Panfilov and his Regiment)

3.4 Olga Tikhomirova

3.5 Zinon Prokhorov

3.6 The life story of a hero (V. Bulygin)

4

4.

Module 4. Children at war

4.1 A courageous girl (Z. Kosmodemyanskaya)

4.2 Heroes from Krasnodon

4.3 A girl with little plaits (Z. M. Portnova)

4.4 A young partisan (L. Golikov)

4.5 Horrifying artifact (T. Savicheva’s diary)

4.6 The son of the regiment (after V. Kataev)

4.7 Mari children in the years of the Great patriotic war

4

5.

Module 5. Heroic pages of war in the literary works

5.1 Here we are, my Lord! (after K. Vorobyov)

5.2 Michael Sholokhov. They fought for the Motherland

5.3 The dawns are quiet here… (after B. Vasilyev)

5.4 A story about a real man (after B. Polevoy)

5.5 The hot snow (after Yury Bondarev)

5.6 V. Elmar – a poet-hero

4

6.

Module 6. The theme of war on the canvases of the prominent painters

6.1 Artistic chronicles of those terrible war years

6.2 Mother of a partisan (S. Gerasimov)

6.3 A letter from the front line (A.I. Laktionov)

6.4 A canvas – prosecutor of fascism (“Gernika”)

6.5 Picasso and his masterpiece

6.6 The war-canvases by the Mari painters

6.7 The image of a Russian soldier

6.8 Famous Mari artists about the war

6.9 The Art Gallery in the country house

4

7.

Module 7. Music and war time

7.1 One night musical masterpiece (“The dark night”)

7.2 Shostakovich and his heroic symphony

7.3 Unofficial war hymn (“Sacred war”)

7.4 There were only four steps till death…( “In the earth-house”)

7.5 Fire, War and Brass Band

7.6 Sergey Makov – a composer with a civil position

4

8.

Module 8. Nobody is forgotten

8.1 War monuments in St. Petersburg

8.2 Piskarevsky Memorial Complex

8.3 Park of Victory in Moscow

8.4 The Tomb to the Unknown Soldier in Moscow

8.5 The Soviet warrior-liberator in Treptov Park

8.6 The Mari Republic: Some facts about the Great patriotic war

8.7“Demos” – the reconnaissance group

8.8 War monuments and sculptures in the Mari Streets

8.9 “Immortal Regiment” marches along the streets…

4

9.

Intellectual quizzes on war-heroic theme

1. The Great patriotic war: year by year

2. War quiz

3. There is no land behind the Volga River for us!

1

Total:

33






ТЕМАТИЧЕСКОЕ ПЛАНИРОВАНИЕ


п/п

Тема

Количество часов

1.

Модуль 1. Города-герои

1.1 Севастополь

1.2 Новороссийск

1.3 Керч

1.4 Битва за Сталинград

1.5 Брестская крепость

1.6 Республика Марий Эл в годы войны

4

2.

Модуль 2. Выдающиеся командиры и военачальники

2.1 От солдата до маршала (И.С. Конев)

2.2 Человек с решительным характером (К.К. Рокоссовский)

2.3 Командиры Великой победы (Г.К. Жуков, К.К. Рокоссовский)

2.4 Партизанский командир (С.А. Ковпак)

2.5 Героическая судьба (К.И. Серов)

4

3.

Модуль 3. Храбрые защитники

3.1 Героическая смерть в воздухе (Н. Гастелло)

3.2 Бессмертное имя (А.М. Матросов)

3.3 Смерть ради жизни (подвиг 28 панфиловцев)

3.4 Ольга Тихомирова

3.5 Зинон Прохоров

3.6 История жизни героя (В. Булыгин)

4

4.

Модуль 4. Дети на войне

4.1 Храбрая девушка (З. Космодемьянская)

4.2 Герои Краснодона

4.3 Девочка с косичками (З. Портнова)

4.4 Юный партизан (Л. Голиков)

4.5 Страшный артефакт (Дневник Т. Савичевой)

4.6 Сын полка (по В. Катаеву)

4.7 Марийские дети в годы войны

4

5.

Модуль 5. Героические страницы войны в произведениях литературы:

5.1 Это мы, Господи (К. Воробьев)

5.2 Они сражались за Родину (М. Шолохов)

5.3 А зори здесь тихие… (Б. Васильев)

5.4 Повесть о настоящем человеке (Б. Полевой)

5.5 Горячий снег (Ю. Бондарев)

5.6 В. Элмар – поэт-герой

4

6.

Модуль 6. Тема Великой отечественной войны на полотнах выдающихся художников

6.1Художественная хроника военных лет

6.2 Мать партизана (С. Герасимов)

6.3Письмо с фронта (А. Лактионов)

6.4 Картинаобвинитель фашизмаГерника»)

6.5 П. Пикассо и его шедевр

6.6 Полотна о войне марийских художников

6.7 Образ русского солдата

6.8 Известные марийские художники о войне

6.9 Художественная галерея в сельском доме

4

7.

Модуль 7. Музыка времен войны

7.1 «Темная ночь»

7.2 Шостакович и его героическая симфония

7.3 Неофициальный гимн («Священная война»)

7.4 «В землянке»

7.5 Огонь, война и духовой оркестр

7.6 С. Маков – композитор с гражданской позицией

4

8.

Модуль 8. Никто не забыт

8.1 Военные памятники в Петербурге

8.2 Пискаревское кладбище

8.3 Парк Победы в Москве

8.4 Могила Неизвестного солдата в Москве

8.5 Советский воин-освободитель в Трептов парке

8.6 Марийская республика: некоторые факты о Великой отечественной войне

8.7 Поисковый отряд «Демос»

8.8 Военные памятники на марийских улицах

8.9 Операция «Бессмертный полк»

4

9.

Интеллектуальные игры, викторины по военно-героической тематике

1.Великая отечественная война: год за годом

2. Хроника Великой войны

3. За Волгой для нас земли нет!

1

Итого:

33

Module 1.

Hero cities


Read the text and do the tasks after it.


City-Hero” is the highest title that was given to 12 cities of the USSR which became famous due to their heroic defense during the Great patriotic war. Among the first city-heroes were Leningrad, Stalingrad, Sevastopol, Odessa. The city of Brest was awarded with the title “Fortress-Hero”.

On 9 May 2006 the Federal Law № 68 about the Honoured Title of the Russian Federation “City of Military Glory” was signed. It was accepted in order to immortalize the memory of those who lost their lives while defending the country. This title is given to the cities “on the territory of which during the fierce battles the country’s defenders showed bravery, steadfastness and heroism of mass character”. 27 cities in Russia are awarded with this Title nowadays. Among them are Belgorod, Kursk, Orel (2007); Rzhev, Voronezh, Rostov upon Don (2008); Archangelsk, Kozelsk, Pskov (2009); Bryansk, Volokolamsk, Vyborg, Nalchik (2010).


Sevastopol

Sevastopol is an ancient city situated in the south-west of the Crimean Peninsular, on the Black Sea coast. The Crimea was of great strategic importance as one of the roads to the oil-rich areas of the Caucasus. In addition to it, it had particular significance as the home base for aviation. The Soviet government realized how crucial was to hold this territory and concentrated here all the Armed forces, rejecting the idea of retaining the city of Odessa.

In the period from 30 October to 11 November the military actions were taking place on the distant approaches to Sevastopol. On 12 November the attacks on the outer frontiers started. The city defense was carried out by the forces of the Black Sea Navy, coastal batteries combined with the fire support from the men-of-war.

After the fascist invasion into the Crimea the defense of Sevastopol started. It lasted for 250 days (since 30 October 1941 till 4 July 1942). In June-July 1942 the garrison of Sevastopol protected the city from the overwhelming enemy forces. The Soviet troops retreated and left the city only when all the available opportunities for its defense were exhausted. It happened on 9 July 1942.

On 7 May 1944 the Soviet formations of the 4th Ukrainian Front began the storm of the occupied fortification on Mount Sapun, and on 9 May 1944 liberated the city. On 12 May the remains of the German troops were cleared away from the Cope of Chersonese.


Read the text and answer the questions:


  1. Where is Sevastopol situated?

  2. Why was the Crimea of great strategic importance during the war?

  3. Why did the Soviet government give up the idea of retaining the city of Odessa in favor of Sevastopol?

  4. Who carried out the city defense?

  5. How long did the siege of Sevastopol last?

  6. When was Sevastopol liberated by the Soviet troops?

  7. Did the liberation of the city started with the battles for Mount Sapun or from the Cope of Chersonese?

  8. Sevastopol was awarded with the Title of the Hero-City, wasn’t it?



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


Novorossiysk

One of the most heroic pages of the Great patriotic war was the defense of Novorossiysk. It lasted for 393 days. During that terrible war only the siege of Leningrad was longer). The enemy couldn’t occupy the whole city – a tiny area of Novorossiysk near the cement factories, close to the strategically important motorway to the town of Sokhumi, was kept by the Soviet Army.

Another heroic milestone in the defense of Novorossiysk was a landing operation aimed at seizing the strategic place of arms that got the name “Malaya Zemlya” (“Tiny Land”). Whereas the main forces of the Soviet paratroopers were fettered by the fascist Army, a group of sailors consisted of 274 people under the command of Major Kunikov, could capture a springboard for attack with the total area of 30 km².

During the five days (4-9 February 1943) to this strip of land were transported considerable parts of the Soviet troops comprising 17 thousand soldiers, 21 heavy guns, 74 mortars, 86 machine guns, 440 tons of food and ammunition. The Soviet soldiers retained this plat under their control for 225 days, till the complete liberation of the city on 16 September 1943. On 7 May 1966 the city of Novorossiysk got its first award – the Order of Lenin.

A number of monuments were built in order to glorify the feat of the Soviet soldiers. Among them the Common Grave, the monument to Major Kunikov, the monument called “The Fire of Eternal Glory”, Memorial Complex “Malaya Zemlya”, the monuments “To the Unknown Soldier” and “To the heroic sailors of the Black Sea”.


  • Match the questions and the sort answers:

1. Were a great number of monuments built to honour the heroes of the city?

A. Yes, they did.

2. Was the defense of Novorossiysk one of the heroic pages of the Great patriotic war?

B. No, it didn’t.

3. The Soviet soldiers retained this plat under their control for 225 days, didn’t they?

C. Yes, for 393 days.

4. The enemy troops could occupy the whole city, couldn’t they?

D. Yes, they were.

5. Did the defense last for more than a year?

E. Yes, it did.

6. A group of sailors consisted of 374 people under the command of Major Kunikov, didn’t it?

F. Yes, it was.

7. The complete liberation of the city happened on 16 September 1943, didn’t it?

G. No, they couldn’t.

8. Did the city of Novorossiysk get its first award in 1966?

H. Yes, about 30 km².

9. Was Malaya Zemlya really rather tiny in size?

I. Yes, the Order of Lenin.



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


The city of Kerch

The city of Kerch was occupied by the fascist troops on 16 November 1941 for the first time. However, one and a half month later the city was liberated by the Soviet Army (30 December) and was under its control for almost 5 months till 19 May 1942. On that day Hitler Army after the bloody battles managed to retrieve the situation: the fascist occupation of the city began.

That terrible period lasted for nearly two years. The Soviet citizens faced the unprecedented avalanche of terror: about14 thousand city-dwellers lost their lives; the same number of people was moved to Germany for forced labour. 15 thousand of Soviet prisoners of war were ruthlessly liquidated.

Despite the constant repressive actions the city residents found personal courage to stand up to the enemy. Many of them joined the remains of the Soviet troops that had found shelter in Adgimushkaisky stone quarry. This composite partisan detachment heroically struggled against the occupants from May till October 1942. In 1943 during the Kerchensko-Eltigensk landing operation, the Soviet Army managed to capture a little sector on the outskirts of Kerch. On 11 April 1944 the city was completely liberated by the Soviet Army.

We can judge about the terrific violence of those battles by the following fact: 146 Soviet soldiers and officers, participants of the liberating operation were honoured with the highest State Award – Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. On 14 September 1973 the city of Kerch was awarded with the Title of the City-Hero.

The feat of the city defenders is immortalized in the “Obelisk of Glory” (1945), in the Memorial Complex with the Eternal Fire (1959) and monument “To the Heroes of Adgimushkay” (1982).


  • Make up sentences using the key-words:


1. The city of Kerch / to occupy/ the fascist troops/ for the first time/ 16 November 1941.

2. The fascist occupation of the city / to begin/ 19 May 1942.

3. That terrible period/ occupation/ to last/ nearly two years.

4. About 14 thousand city-dwellers/ to lose their lives/ for forced labour/ the same number/ people/ to move/ Germany.

5. Ruthlessly/ 15 thousand/ Soviet prisoners of war/ to be liquidated.

6. Despite/ personal courage/ the constant repressive actions/ the city residents/ to find / to stand up/ the enemy.

7. Many/ city residents/ found/ to join/Adgimushkaisky stone quarry/ the remains of the Soviet troops/ that had/shelter /in.

8. Completely/on 11 April 1944/ the city/by/ was liberated / the Soviet Army.

9. On / the Title of / 14 September 1973/ the city of/ was awarded/ with/ the City-Hero/ Kerch.

10. Complexes/the feat/ defenders/of the city/ in/ /is immortalized/ numerous monuments /and memorial.



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


The Battle for Stalingrad

It was in summer of 1942. The enemy focused huge forces in the oriental direction; broke through the front line and rushed towards the cities of Voronezh and Stalingrad. On 17 July 1942 on the rivers Chir and Tsilma, tributaries of the river Don, the advanced detachments of the 62 Soviet Army met with the fascist troops. The Battle for Stalingrad began.

According to Hitler’s plan, the 6 Army under the command of General Paulyus had to reach the Volga River at once. But the unparallel courage of the Soviet soldiers foiled the occupants’ plans and made them come to defense.

The selfless defenders of Stalingrad fought for each meter of native land, for each building, for each and every floor. 90% of the houses were completely obliterated.

In his novel “Days and nights” (1943-44) Konstantin Simonov showed the chronicles of the events of that great battle: “The city was on fire. It was burning at night, for the next day and for the following night. On the third day, when the fire started to fade, Stalingrad was filled in with the painful smell of charred ruins that didn’t blow away for the whole period of the siege… On the tenth day fascists approached the city so closely that the shells and mines started to explode in the city centre… On the 20-th day came the moment when a person who believed only in war theory, thought it was pointless and impossible to protect the city any more. But it was not the theory but the Soviet people who presented the crucial secret of our victory. The battle for Stalingrad was not only death, blood, sufferings. It was also the upward flights of the human spirit; soldiers’ brotherhood, unselfishness and selflessness in the struggle against the enemy who expected it was a step from there both to the Volga River and to their victory”.

A great number of essays, stories, poems and novels were written by the Soviet authors where they immortalized the heroic deeds of the Russian officers and soldiers. We can read about this battle in such books as: “The direction of the fatal blow” (1943) and “Life and fate” (1943) by V. Grossman; “Days and nights” (1943) by K. Simonov; “They fought for their Motherland” (1943) by M. Sholokhov; “In the trenches of Stalingrad” (1946) by V. Nekrasov; “Hot snow” (1969) by Yury Bondarev; “My Stalingrad” (1993-1997) by M. Alekseev.


  • Read the text and the statements that follow it. Some statements can be inferred from the text, others can not. Put a check mark next to the statements that can be inferred from the text.


----- 1. The fascist Army prepared thoroughly for the Battle in Stalingrad.

----- 2. The Soviet Army was exhausted by the previous bloody battles.

----- 3. German military leaders were going to capture Stalingrad by one blow.

----- 4. Hitler’s plans failed because of the bad weather conditions.

----- 5. The Battle for Stalingrad was violent as the city defenders were ready to lose their lives for the sake of their city and country.

----- 6. The consequents of the battle were disastrous both for people and for the city.

----- 7. The historians still can’t understand the key reasons for the Soviet victory in that battle.

----- 8. Many Soviet writers described heroism of the Soviet Army men in their literary works in order to set an example of courageous behaviour, incredible selflessness and boundless devotion to the country.

----- 9. All the writers – authors of the war stories were participants of the Great patriotic war.

----- 10. The Battle for Stalingrad is included into many textbooks on military science as an example of excellent strategy and tactics.

----- 11. The Battle for Stalingrad is described in all textbooks on Soviet history as an unprecedented example of heroism of the Soviet soldiers who fell in the battlefield for the sake of the peaceful future of the coming generations.


  • Divide the given vocabulary in each category into subclasses:

Category: Horrors of war

Vocabulary: fire, obliterate, burning, explode, die, death, fighting, ruins, siege, painful, surrender, shells, mines, crucial, fatal, blood, suffer, blow, suffering, disastrous, fight back, battlefield, burn

Noun

Verb

Adjective





Category: Bravery of the Soviet soldiers

Vocabulary: battle, immortalize, defend, great, heroic, secret, flight, upward, impossible, crucial, rush, protect, brotherhood, approach, selflessness, victory, spirit, example, heroism, bravery, courageous, immortal, peaceful

Noun

Verb

Adjective




Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.


The Fortress of Brest

On 22 June 1941 (1. ---) at 4.15 a.m. the fortress was exposed to fascist (2. ---). Soon after the dawn there was another round of heavy shelling in all the parts of the town. That shelling caught the garrison of the fort (3. ---). The fire destroyed the central water pipe, the (4. ---) storehouses, the communication cable. The garrison suffered heavy (5. ---).

At 4.45 a.m. the enemy assault began. The (6. ---) of the attack caused the lack of co-coordinated (7. ---) of the Soviet troops; the garrison was split into several separate parts.

Fascist (8. ---) confronted the (9. ---) resistance at Volynsky and Kobrinsky fortifications where the Russian soldiers charged with bayonets when no more means of fighting were left.

By 7 a.m. on 22 June the 42 and 6 Riffle Divisions left the fortress and the town of Brest. The main line of defense was (10. ---) at Kobrinsky fortification and Citadel. The number of the (11. ---) was about 400 people under the command of Major Peter Michailovich Gavrilov. The Russian soldiers had to fight back 7-8 attacks (12. ---). The enemy batteries put up a heavy barrage of machine-gun fire from all the sides.

On 26 June the last link of the defense line near the 3-Arch Gates of the Citadel stopped its (13. ---). That was the end of the organized defense. One of the (14. ---) on the walls of the fortress said: “I’m dying but not surrendering. Farewell, my Motherland. 20.07.41”

The (15. ---) of the (16. ---) Forces on 22 June 1941 on the approaches to the fort was as follows:

In the fort there were about 9 thousand people. On the opposite bank of the river Hitler concentrated about 17 thousand soldiers (the 45 Infantry (17. ---)). The fascist losses during this battle made up 5% of the total losses of the German Army during the (18. ---) week of the war (1121 killed and 453 wounded).

Since that time the name of the fortress has become the symbol of (19. ---) (20. ---) of the Soviet people. The feat of the defenders of the fort was depicted by the Soviet painter Peter Krivonogov in his (21. ---) canvas “The protectors of the Brest Fortress”. In 1955 came out a (22. ---) drama “Fortress above the river Bug” by S.S. Smirnov. In 1956 the same author published the (23. ---) novel “The fortress of Brest”. In 1956 was released a feature film “(24. ---) Garrison”, the film script was written by K. Simonov.

A great number of films were devoted to that (25. ---) page of the Soviet history. Among them were:

Battle for Moscow” (1985); “I am a Russian soldier” (1995); joint Russian-Belorussian film “The Fortress of Brest” (2010); the documentary “The Brest Fortress. Intersection of the troops” (2009). In 2010 the Channel Independent TV released the Alexey Pivovarov film “Brest. Its heroes”.

1. Exact

2. Bomb


3. Aware

4. Number


5. To lose

6. To expect

7. Opposite



8. To invade

9. Strong





10. Center

11. To defend



12. Day



13. To resist

14. To inscribe



15.Proportional

16. Army




17. To divide


18. One



19. To flag

20. Steadfast


21. To stand out

22. Hero


23. Document

24. Mortal


25. Tragedy


  • Read the text again and answer the questions:

1. Name at least two things that made the defense of the fort bloody and with no-win chance.

2. Prove that the descendants of the fortress defenders do remember their heroic feat.

3. What tone does the author take in writing this text?

a. amused b. neutral c. worried d. admirable

4. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

a. to describe the events of the battle

b. to inform the readers

c. to summarize the heavy losses of the battle

d. to make the readers remember and take pride in their feat

5. What conclusions can be drawn from the text?



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


Our Republic during the war years

The feat is always accomplished by the man who is inwardly ready for it; who has been preparing for it for all his life. For more than 60 years our country has been living in peace. But we mustn’t forget those who gave their lives in the fight against fascism. The Great patriotic war is one of the most tragic pages in the history of our country. It lasted for 1418 days and nights and cost 27 mln. people’s lives. The Book of Memory shows the terrible statistics of those years.

74. 821 men and women were called up to the Army

26.704 – perished in the battles;

38.764 – were missing;

9.352 – died from wounds and diseases.

Hundreds of the Mari soldiers were buried in different countries: Poland (1040 people), Germany (767), Rumania (86), etc.

36 soldiers were awarded the highest title – the Hero of the Soviet Union. Thousands of soldiers were awarded the orders and medals for unexampled heroism.

The heroic examples of the whole-hearted service to their Motherland showed those young men who took part in the local wars in Afghanistan and Chechnya: Igor Shestakov saved the lives of his friends at the price of his life. He was awarded the Order of Red Star. Valery Ivanov was awarded the Star of Hero of Russia for performing the feat of valour in Chechnya. Monuments to them are situated in the alley of Heroes in Volzhsk. Each epoch gives birth to its heroes and their names should never be forgotten.


  • Do you agree that heroic deeds are performed on the spot? (without thinking twice)? Report your ideas to the class.

Module 2.

Outstanding war commanders


Read the text and do the tasks after it.


From soldier to Marshal

I.S. Konev was born on 28 December 1897 in the village of Lodeino (Kirov Region) He came from the family of a peasant. He studied at school in the neighbouring hamlet of Tshetkino till the year 1912. Since the age of 15 he helped his father to support the family and worked in the logging areas near Archangelsk. Konev was the participant of I World War. In 1916 he was called up to the Russian Emperor’s Army. He served in the Artillery Brigade, in 1917 junior non-commissioned officer Konev was sent to the South-Western front-line where he served in the 2-nd Artillery Division.

In 1918 Konev joined the Bolsheviks’ Party and was elected the military commissar in the city of Nikolsk. He was also the commissar of the armoured train, the commissar of the 2-nd Riffle Division, the commissar of the Headquarters of the Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic. Among the other delegates of X Congress of the Communist Party took part in the suppression of Kronshtadt Rebellion in 1921.

I.S. Konev was considered to be an expert in military strategy and tactics; could see an implement everything advanced in the military art; he rejected banal stereotyped approaches. He was active energetic, didn’t like to waste time. All his spare minutes and hours he devoted to reading books.

In 1935 he was promoted to the rank of the Chief Commander of the Army that was dislocated on the territory of the Mongolian People’s Republic. Since June 1940 he was sat the head of the Soviet troops of the Zabaikalsky Military Detachment. At the end of June 1940 General-Lieutenant I.S. Konev got the post of the Commander of the 19-th Army (Northern-Caucasus Military District). In the course of the battle near Smolensk several formations of the 19-th Army were surrounded but Konev avoided captivity.

Konev’s activities as the Army Commander were highly appreciated by I.V. Stalin. On 11 September 1941 Konev was appointed the Commander of the Western Army; on 12 September 1941 he got the rank of Colonel-General.

In July 1943 he was at the head of the troops at the Stepnoy Front which was later re-named into the 2-nd Ukrainian Front. In August 1943 the formations of this Army liberated Belgorod and Kharkov; in September 1943 – the cities of Poltava and Kremenchug. As a military leader I.S. Konev had tremendous success in Korsun-Shevchenkovskaya operation during which a huge fascist detachment was encircled and destroyed. For the skillful organization and excellent supervision in this battle I.S. Konev got the rank of Marshal.

According to the opinion of A.M. Vasilevsky, I.S. Konev was as persistent and strong as G.K. Zhukov. He possessed good intuition and the art of anticipation. He could skillfully combine the power of the Artillery together with the fast onslaught and unexpected blow of the Air Forces. He was a man of the straight character; always said what he thought denying any hypocrisy or diplomacy. He got used to dealing with ordinary soldiers since the years of the Civil War. Among the ordinary army men he was called “the soldiers’ Marshal”.

On 29 July 1944 Ivan Stepanovich Konev was awarded with the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union and Medal “Gold Star”. The second Medal of the Hero Marshal Konev was given on 1 June 1945 for the excellent guidance of the Soviet troops in the final military operations.

After the Great patriotic war, in the period of 1956-1960 Konev was the first deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR. Since 1955 he was the commander-in-Chief of the United Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty countries. In 1961-1962 during Berlin crisis Konev headed the Group of the Soviet troops in Germany.

I.S. Konev died on 21 May 1973 and was buried in Red Square near the Kremlin wall. There are many monuments to Marshal Konev in Russia and abroad. One of them is in Prague. It shows the image of an Army man in the unbuttoned coat with a bunch of lilac in his hand. Lilac was his favourite flower. May be it so because in spring of 1945 everywhere in Europe lilac was in blossom and it accidentally transformed in his head into the symbol of freedom and triumph of victory for the sake of which he had spent all his life forces and vital energy.


The outline shows how the information is organized in the text. Cross out the detail that IS NOT mentioned in the reading.


I. I.S. Konev was born at the end of the XIX century.

A. He originated from a common family.

B. He got good education in his childhood.

C. He had to work hard since the early years.

II. Many years of his youth I.S. Konev devoted to the military service.

  1. He used to be a soldier in the Tsar Army.

  2. He took part in X Bolsheviks’ Party Congress.

  3. He participated in Kronshtad rebellion.

III. I.S. Konev was a broad-minded person.

  1. He was fond of reading.

  2. He was good at the Art of War.

  3. He was an expert in stereotyped approaches.

IV. Konev’s military career developed rapidly.

  1. He became the Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Army in Mongolia in 1938.

  2. He was at the head of the Mongolian Army in 1940.

  3. He got the post of the Commander of the 19-th Army in June 1940.

V. I.S. Konev was awarded not once for his skills of a commander and for personal bravery.

A. He got the rank of the soldiers’ Marshal in 1942.

B. He got the Gold Medal of a Hero in 1944.

C. He became the Hero of the Soviet Union for the second time in 1945.

VI. After the war I.S. Konev remained in the Armed Forces and occupied different military posts.

  1. He was Minister of Defense of the USSR in 1960.

  2. He served on the territory of Germany during Berlin crisis.

  3. He was the Head of the United Armed Forces of the socialist countries.



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


A person with decisive character

Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky originated from an ancient Polish family. His ancestors belonged to a well-to-do noble clan from Warsaw. His father Ksavery Joseph Rokossovsky worked as a chief inspector at the city railway. He was a resolute person with a decisive character. His son Konstantin was a carbon copy of him. Konstantin preferred to keep himself to himself. No wonder he was a bit secretive and always had his feet on the ground.

As the boy’s parents died very early, when the boy was very young, Konstantin couldn’t put his feet up. He had to support himself by working hard. At first he worked as a confectioner’s helper, then – a dentist’s assistant, later he made his living as a stone-mason.

At the age of 24 he decided to temp his fate and to turn over a new leaf in his life. He studied at the Military College that he passed with flying colours, and took up the career of an officer. He came on in leaps and bounds in the professional sphere. On the eve of the Great patriotic war he was a commander of the 9th Mechanized Corps.

In June-July 1941, despite the lack of tanks and other kinds of transport, the troops of the 9th Formation exhausted the enemy by persistent defense. On 11 July 1941 Rokossovsky became the Chief Commander of the Western Front, the main goal of which was to control the situation in the suburbs of Moscow. It was a tall order. Some of the officers hesitated and didn’t believe in success saying that the soldiers were on their last legs. But Rokosovsky knew his own mind and nipped all the doubts in the bud. Being in a fix, he didn’t lose his head. Due to his firmness and persistence, the defense line near Moscow was restored and fascist offensive was interrupted.

At that time his name was on everyone’s lips as the troops under his supervision laid the foundations for the final victory in Moscow Battle and promoted further counter-attack of the Soviet Army. For great success in Moscow Battle Rokossovsky was awarded with the Order of Lenin.

On 30 September 1942 General-Lieutenant Rokossovsky was appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the Donskoy Front. He was a true expert and he knew secrets of strategy and tactics like the back of his hand. That’s why I.V. Stalin gave him the go-ahead. Under his close supervision was worked out a secret plan of the war operation “Uranus”, aimed at the complete destruction of the enemy formations that were dashing towards Stalingrad. When it came to the crunch, everything and everybody were ready. On 19 November 1942 the military campaign “Uranus” started and on 23 November 1942 the circle around the 6th Army under the leadership of General F. Paulyus was closed. On 31 January 1943 Marshal Paulyus, 24 German Generals, 2500 German officers, 90 thousand soldiers were held prisoners.

On 28 January 1943 Rokossovsky was awarded with the Order of Suvorov. On 29 June 1944, after the victory in Kursk Battle Rokosovsky became a Marshal: he was given the brilliant Star of a Marshal, on 30 July – the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union.


  • Choose the best interpretation of the underlined phrases:

1. His son Konstantin was a carbon copy of him.

a. He liked to copy different things.

b. He studied carbon like his Dad.

c. He took after his father very much in appearance and character.

2. Konstantin preferred to keep himself to himself.

a. was not eager to get in contact

b. was ready to communicate only with himself

c. had no friends to talk

3. No wonder he was a bit secretive and always had his feet on the ground.

a. He was cunning.

b. He was practical.

c. He didn’t have a dream.

4. As the boy’s parents died very early, when the boy was very young, Konstantin couldn’t put his feet up.

a. relax

b. cope with it

c. reconcile with grief

5. Later he made his living as a stone-mason.

a. took up stone-carving as a hobby

b. earned money as a stone-mason

c. joined the group of masons

6. At the age of 24 he decided to temp his fate.

a. to alter the fate

b. to make some changes slowly

c. to push his luck

7. At the age of 24 he decided to turn over a new leaf in his life.

a. to begin from the very beginning

b. to forget previous failures

c. to get rid of former mates

8. He studied at the Military College that he passed with flying colours.

a. He studied the flying machines.

b. He studied the influence of different colours.

c. He passed the exams with extremely high marks.

9. He came on in leaps and bounds in the professional sphere.

a. made progress rapidly

b. made progress by chance

c. made no progress

10. It was a tall order.

a. It was a complicated task.

b. He was rather tall.

c. He couldn’t do it because he was not tall.

11. Some of the officers hesitated and didn’t believe in success saying that the soldiers were on their last legs.

a. suffered from pain in the legs

b. were exhausted

c. were wounded in the legs

12. Rokosovsky knew his own mind.

a. was very stubborn

b. was confident in his decisions

c. was ambitious

13. Rokosovsky nipped all the doubts in the bud.

a. rejected all the other ideas

b. stopped the situation from getting worse at once

c. took the command to himself

14. Being in a fix, he didn’t lose his head.

a. being injured

b. being left all by himself

c. being in a difficulty

15. At that time his name was on everyone’s lips.

a. He became famous.

b. People around him used to talk a lot.

c. He became proud of himself.

16. The troops under his supervision laid the foundations for the final victory in Moscow Battle.

a. built defensive constructions

b. provided the conditions

c. foresaw the final victory

17. He was a true expert and he knew secrets of strategy and tactics like the back of his hand.

a. He knew it theoretically.

b. He knew it from his own experience.

c. He knew it very well.

18. That’s why I.V. Stalin gave him the go-ahead.

a. gave him advice to think carefully

b. gave him official permission

c. gave him financial support

19. When it came to the crunch, everything and everybody were ready.

a. When the time was over

b. They were pressed for time

c. When the time for important action came

The Commanders of the Great Victory

(G.K. Zhukov, K.K. Rokosovsky)

Student 1: How severe and at the same time magnificent the fate of our country is! There were a lot of heroic and tragic pages in its history. Today we are going to remember some events of the Great patriotic war and to recollect the names of those who drew the victory closer and shortened the time of suffering for the country.

On the screen – portraits of G.K. Zhukov and K.K. Rokosovsky

We are going to speak about two military leaders who played a particular role in the history of our state during the hardest and the most dangerous period.


Round I. “The Chronicle of the Events”

Your task is to match the dates and the events.

Date

Event

1. 22 June, 1941

A. Stalingrad Battle

2. 5 December, 1941 – 7 January, 1942

B. Kursk Battle

3. 17 July, 1942 – 2 February 1943

C. The Soviet Army launched a counter-offensive near Moscow

4. 5 July – 23 August, 1943

D. The beginning of the Great patriotic war

5. 16 April – 8 May 1945

E. Victory Day

6. 8 May 1945

F. The military operation in Berlin

7. 9 May 1945

G. The Victory military Parade in Moscow

8. 24 June 1945

H. Germany signed the Act about its capitulation in Karlhorst.

(Answer key: 1D, 2 C, 3 A, 4 B, 5 F, 6 H, 7 E, 8 G).


Student 2: Generations of people who don’t know the horrors of war can restore the picture of the past with the help of the war newsreels, documentary films, photos, letters… (on the screen – the fighting machines are moving, the soldiers are rushing to the attack…)

Both military leaders went a long road from the private to the Marshal. Each of them followed his own way with honour and dignity and reached Great Victory.

They were very different in character. G.K. Zhukov was strict, strong-willed, exigent, even severe; he couldn’t bear any objections; always resolutely headed for his goal. K.K. Rokosovsky also always managed to reach his aim, but he used to be tactful, polite and tolerant. These two commanders presented two different styles of management. During the war they both were awarded the high military rank – Marshal of the Soviet Union.


Round II. From the soldier to the Marshal

Team I has to answer questions about G.K. Zhukov, Team II – about K.K. Rokosovsky.

Questions for Team I:

1. What quality, in Zhukov’s opinion, must have a military leader? (He must have bravery/ courage).

2. What was his social background? (He was from a peasant’s family).

3. Battle for what Russian city was the first test for Zhukov as the military commander? (It was Elnya).

4. What is the name of the river in Mongolia that gave the name to the battle for which he got the title of the Hero of the USSR? (Its name was Khalkhin-Gol).

5. What tactics of the Soviet troops was proposed by Zhukov while preparing for Kursk Battle? (This tactics was defense).

6. What was the first military rank of Zhukov? (He was a private).

7. What military order was he awarded with? (He was awarded with the Order of Suvorov).


Questions for Team II:

1. When and where was he born? (He was born in 1896 in the city of Velikie Luki).

2. What was his father? (He was an engine driver).

3. Did he take part in any other war? (He participated in World War I).

4. What Front did he head during Stalingrad operation? (He was at the head of the Donskoy Front-Line).

5. Where did he work in the period from 1949 to 1956? (He was the Minister of National Defense of Poland).

6. What book about the war did he write? (It was called “Soldier’s duty”).

7. What title was he awarded with by the citizens of the two Polish towns of Gdansk and Gdynya in 1949? (It was the title of the Honoured Citizen).

A musical break. Children listen to some war songs, songs devoted to that time.

Student 1: In one of the songs there are such words: “Front-line soldiers, put on your orders!” When you look at the portraits of the Marshals, the first thing you are impressed by, is the huge amount of orders and medals. Each of them was preceded by a heroic deed…


Round III. “A reward for the feat of arms”

On the screen – different military orders and medals

The teams are received cards with numbers 1 – 6. They are to listen to the statement and to raise the appropriate card.

1. This is the first Order which both commanders got in the red Army (2).

2. Zhukov was awarded this title 4 times, Rokosovsky was awarded twice (4).

3. On 10 October 1936 they both were awarded with this Order (3).

4. They both got this soldier’s medal (1).

5. This is the first Order which Zhukov got as a commander (2).

6. It is the highest commander’s Order with which Rokosovsky was awarded once, Zhukov – twice (6).

7. This Order was given to the military commanders of the highest rank. Zhukov has this Order № 1 (5, 6).

8. This reward Zhukov got for the capture of a German officer (1).

9. Both commanders were awarded with this Order for military operations due to which the situation on the front-line became favourable for the Soviet Army (6).


Student 1: On the last day of the war, 8 May 1945, in Karl horst, Marshal G.K. Zhukov. On behalf of the Soviet Union, signed the Act of the unconditional capitulation of fascist Germany. On 24 June 1945 Rokosovsky led the Victory Parade in Red Square. The Parade was taken by Zhukov. They both appeared in Red Square on horsebacks. Zhukov was riding a white horse, Rokosovsky – a black one.

Student 2: In order to stress the great services of Zhukov to the country during the years of the war, the President of Russia signed a Decree (9 May. 1994) to institute the Order named after Zhukov and in May 1995 – Medal in his honour.


Children recite poems about the war. The Jury tells the students the results of the contest.




Read each sentence and identify the part of it – A, B, C or D – that must be changed in order to correct the sentence.


Partisan Commander

1. Sidor Artemyevich Kovpak (1887-1967) was a commander of the Putivlsky

A B

Partisan Detachment (later – the First Ukrainian Partisan Division); a member of the

C

Bolsheviks’ Party; Major-General, hero of Soviet Union.

D

2. Sidor was born in 26 May 1887 in the settlement of Kotelva (Poltavsky Region).

A B C D

3. He came from a poor peasant family that lived from hand till mouth.

A B C D

4. The family was large: Sidor had the five brothers and four sisters.

A B C D

5. When time came, Sidor called up for military service in the Tsar Army.

A B C D

6. He had served in Alexandersky Regiment in the city of Saratov.

A B C

7. Sidor took a part in the I World War and Civil War.

A B C D

8. In April 1915 as a member of the Honoured Guards, he was awarded by St.

A B C

George’s Cross by Tsar Nicolas II in person.

D

9. For September 1941 Kovpak participated in the Great patriotic war.

A B C

10. He was one of the organizers of the rebellion movement in Ukraine.

A B C D

11. The famous Partisan Brigade comprised of about 2 000 people, 130 machine-

A B C

guns, 380 automatic machines, 30 mortars, 30 anti-tank rifles.

D

12. By the year 1942 the Brigade destroyed enemy’s garrison in thirty-nine

A B C D

settlements.


13. In April 1943 S.A. Kovpak had got the military rank of Major General.

A B C D


14. In January 1944 this partisan detachment was transformed into the First

A B C

Ukrainian Partisan Division, was named after S.A. Kovpak.

D


Read the text and do the task after it.


Konstantin Ivanovich Serov came from a poor peasant family. His careless childhood finished very early as his father died and his mother, Klavdiya Vasiljevna, couldn’t support five children all by herself. As a teenager Kostya worked at the sawmill, chopped woods for two years. At the age of twenty he passed exams for the course of secondary school, taking an external degree. Then he was called up for the military service in the Armed Forces. He was sent to the southern boarder of the country – the fortress called Kushka. It was the farthest southern spot in the country. In 1930 he finished Military College and became a junior commander in the Artillery Battalion. Soon he was accepted as a student by Military-Political College named after F. Engels in Leningrad. Two years of studiers here determined his future fate – he, a son of a poor peasant from the remote Mari hamlet Marjino became the regular officer, later he was promoted to the post of the political instructor. On the eve of the war outbreak he was appointed as a commissar of the regiment.

Konstantin got his first war experience in October 1941 when Moscow was in death danger and Hitler’s troops were pressing the Soviet Army. K. I. Serov participated in those violent battles and was awarded with the Order of Red Star for heroism and bravery. In summer 1942 Konstantin was severely wounded. After recovery he again went to the front line; defended Leningrad, participated in the battles for Pulkovo Heights, in Avtovo and other places.

In 1944 Lieutenant-Colonel K.I. Serov took the command of 873 Anti-tank Artillery Regiment. In June-August 1944 the Regiment took an active part in military operations near the rivers Pronya and Neman. They supported with constant fire the forced crossing of the rivers Dnieper and Berezina. On 23 January 1945 near the settlement of Menska Volya the Regiment assumed a new bloody battle. The enemy’s columns came into the rear of 339 Riffle Division and threatened it with encirclement. Being completely isolated the Regiment under K.I. Serov’s commandment was engaged in 8-hour-long battle, distracting the main enemy’s forces. Due to it the Division was saved and crossed the river Varta.

On 27 February 1945 K.I. Serov, commander of the Artillery Regiment was awarded with the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union. On 30 April 1945 The Banner of Victory was lifted over Reichstag in Berlin symbolizing the complete defeat of fascists. K.I. Serov was a witness and participant of this historic event. For the participation in the assault of Berlin K.I. Serov was awarded with the second Order of the Great patriotic war. All in all he became the holder of 7 Orders and Gold Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union. Only in September 1952 K.I. Serov was placed on the retired list and left the military service.


  • Read the text and choose the most suitable title for the text. More than one variant is possible:


  1. The road to Berlin

  2. The unconquered Army

  3. The heroic fortune

  4. The war-hero from our Republic

  5. The man who glorified our land

  6. The reckless political instructor

  7. How to become a hero


  • Look through the words and cross the odd one out in each line:


1. a. Force b. Power c. Strength d. Battalion

2. a. To defend b. To circle c. To guard d. To protect

3. a. To obliterate b. To devastate c. To restore d. To destroy

4. a. Riffle b. Machine-gun c. Weapon d. Sward

5. a. Private b. General c. Colonel d. Leader

6. a. Front b. Regiment c. Division d. Platoon

7. a. Artillery b. Infantry c. Sailor d. Aviation

8. a. Bold b. Brave c. Courageous d. Ruthless

9. a. Clash b. Fight c. Struggle d. Battle

10. a. Violent b. Fierce c. Vicious d. Rough

11. a. Shell b. Ammunition c. Trench d. Cartridge

12. a. Injured b. Wounded c. Knocked down d. Damaged

13. a. To persuade b. To threaten c. To warn…off d. To intimidate

14. a. Enemy b. Foe c. Opponent d. Adversary

15. a. Danger b. Peril c. Dead d. Hazard

16. a. Hamlet b. Sawmill c. Village d. Settlement

17. a. To chop b. To cut c. To grate d. To fell

18. a. To support b. To bring up c. To neglect d. To raise


Module 3.

Brave defenders


Read the text and fill in the gaps with right phrasal verb.


Heroic death in the air

Nikolay Gastello was born in 1907 in Moscow. He was (1. ---) in an ordinary family. His father – Frants Pavlovich, a Russian German came from a village of Pluzhiny (Belorussia). In 1900 he came to Moscow to earn his leaving. He worked at Kazan railway station. His mother – Anastasia Semenovna Kutuzova was a dress-maker.

In the period 0f 1914-1918 Nikolay studied at the Sokolnichesky Male School named after A.S. Pushkin where he (2. ---) without any trouble. In 1918 because of terrible famine he and his classmates were evacuated to Bashkiriya. In 1919 the boy returned to Moscow and was keen (3. ---) his family and friends. In 1923 Nikolay started constant working as a joiner’s assistant. He was a new trainee, who (4. ---) the job fresh, but soon he could teach the experienced workers something too.

In 1924 Nikolay’s family moved to the town of Murom where he went to the steam-engine-building enterprise and worked there as a locksmith. In 1928 the young man joined the Communist Party. In 1932 Nikolay was called up for military service. And in a few months he was sent to Pilot School in Lugansk. In the years of 1933-1938 Nikolay served in 21 Heavy Bombardment Aviation Regiment in Rostov-upon-Don. On the war eve the Soviet Air Forces (5. ---) for the launch of a new type of air machines. Nikolay (6. ---) piloting this new kind of planes. By and by Gastello (7. ---) an excellent reputation for speed and efficiency. He (8. ---) training till he became a specialist of high qualification. Since November 1934 he piloted the bomber TB-3 independently. Operating the same type of the plane Nikolay Gastello performed his immortal feat.

On 26 June 1941 the crew including lieutenant A.A. Burdenyuk, lieutenant G.N. Skorobogatov and seniour sergeant A.A. Kallinin under the command of captain N. Gastello, piloting the bomber TB-3F, made a bomb-dropping down the fascist mechanized column on the highway Molodechno – Radoshkovichi. The bomber was shot down by the anti-aircraft artillery. The enemy shell damaged the fuel tank. The plane (9. ---) flames at once. Gastello (10. ---) into first gear and made a fire ram-attack.

On the highway a great number of enemy transport means (11. ---) the place that day to provide the fascist detachments with fuel.

He directed his burning plane on the enemy machines. All the members of the crew died. But dozens of enemies got (12. ---) in that crash as well.

According to the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (26.07.1941) N.F. Gastello was honoured with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union. The feat of Gastello was widely elucidated in the press. On 5 July 1941 it was mentioned in the report of the Soviet Informative Bureau: “The bomber in fire was thrown directly into the crowd of the German lorries and tank-cars with petrol. Dozens enemy cisterns were (13. ---) together with the air-machine of the Hero”. War correspondents P. Pavlenko and P. Krylov wrote an essay devoted to Gastello that was published in the newspaper “Pravda” on 10 July 1941. The authors underlined that the feat of Gastello (14. ---) the Soviet people (---) selfless struggle against the occupants. Hundreds of enterprises, collective farms, ships, planes, Pioneer groups and schools were named in his honour. Obviously heroes (15. ---) long after their physical death. The deeds of such kind strengthened people spiritually and (16. ---) them (---) more heroic activities.

No doubt, it is a legendary name for our country. Nikolay Gastello (17. ---) his life and by performing the heroic deed, he opened the road to immortality.


1. a. brought up b. brought out c. brought on

2. a. got in b. got by c. got into

3. a. to catch up on b. to catch up with c. to catch out

4. a. came at b. came along c. came around

5. a. were gearing to b. were gearing up c. were gearing towards

6. a. broke off b. broke into c. broke for

7. a. built in b. built up c. built on

8. a. carried on b. carried out c. carried over

9. a. burst with b. burst out c. burst into

10. a. changed into b. changed up c. changed over

11. a. crammed into b. crammed on c. crammed in

12. a. bumped off b. bumped into c. bumped up against

13. a. blown over b. blown in c. blown up

14. a. called …for b. called …off c. called …in

15. a. live out b. live on c. live up

16. a. pushed for b. pushed forward c. pushed along

17. a. finished with b. finished off c. finished up


Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.


Immortal name

Alexander Matveevich Matrosov (5 February 1924 – 27 February 1943) – the Hero of the Soviet Union (19.06.1943), a Red Army man, a rifle-man of the 2-nd (1. ---) Battalion of the 91st Siberian (2.---) Brigade named after I.V. Stalin of the 6-th (3. ---) Voluntary Army Corps of the Kalinin Front; a Komsomol member.

He is (4. ---) (5. ---) and honoured due to his heroic deed when he closed the gun-port (embrazure) of the German machine-gun slot with his own body. His (6. ---) (7. ---) was much written about in the newspapers, magazines; shown in films and his name became a set-(8. ---) (conveying the idea of (9. ---) (10. ---)) in the Russian language.

27 February 1943 the 2-nd Battalion was given the task to attack the (11. ---) point in the village of Chernushki (Pskov Region). As soon as the Soviet soldiers past through the forest and came out into the forest edge, they were covered by the (12. ---) fire of the enemy – three heavy machine-guns shielded the approaches to the (13. ---).

To neutralize the weapon (14. ---) were sent assault groups consisting of two men each. The first and the second machine-guns were suppressed by the group of the anti-tank riffle-men; but the (15. ---) one kept on shooting through the hollow in front of the village. Then in the (16. ---) of the (17. ---) hazard crept a private Peter Ogurtsov and a private Alexander Matrosov. Peter Ogurtsov was (18. ---) wounded and Alexander jumped to the (19. ---) to bring the task to an end alone. He reached the machine-gun slot in the flank and threw two grenades into it. The enemy machine-gun stopped firing. But at the moment the soldiers rose to their (20. ---) into the new attack, the weapon started “spitting with lead” again. A. Matrosov stood upright, dashed (21. ---) to the slot and plugged it with his own body. He sacrificed his life but promoted the (22. ---) of the urgent task of the sub-unit. On 19 June 1943 he was honoured with the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously).

The name of Alexander Matrosov was awarded to the 254-th Guards’ Riffle Regiment; he himself was put on the list of the 1-st Company for ever. The (23. ---) feat during the Great patriotic war was performed by (24. ---) 400 people. Among them were:


Yakov Paderin, Abraham Levin (the battle in Tver Region);

I.S. Gerasimenko, A.S. Krasilov, L.A. Cheremnov (the battle for Novgorod);

Cholponbay Tuleberdiev (he swam across the river Don, climbed the rock and after unsuccessful attempts to destroy the enemy machine-gun with grenades, he pushed his body to the firing slot);

N.S. Golovnya (the battle for Rzhev);

N.M. Novitsky (the battle in the Krasnodar Region);

P.I. Shershneva (the partisan attack in Minsk Region);

N.F. Serdyukov (the settlement of Stary Rogachik) and many other people dedicated to their Motherland who were eager to ruin fascism even at the (25. ---) of their lives. We, their descendants should always remember their courage and (26. ---) and be thankful for our (27. ---).



1. To separate

2. Volunteer

3.Siberia


4. Wide

5. To know

6. Courage

7. To act

8. To express

9. Bound

10. Brave


11. Strength



12. Density

13. To settle

14. To place



15. Three

16. To direct

17. To die

18. Bad

19. To conclude




20. Foot


21. Impetuous

22. To complete






23. Analog

24. Approximate















25. To cost

26. To devote

27. To exist



Read the text and do the task after it.


Death for the sake of life

The 316 Riffle Division under the command of General Panfilov represented the main force that had to defend Moscow, repulse fascist attacks and not let them past to the capital. They kept tight defense in Volokolamsk direction. Only in the period from 20 to 27 October 1941 the Division destroyed 80 enemy’s tanks, more than 9 thousand German soldiers and officers. Hitler’s Army suffered heavy losses at this part of the front line. Brought up the new troops, replaced the crashed divisions by the new ones, concentrated here 350 tanks (they were aimed at General Panfilov’ Formation), by the end of November the enemy was ready for the decisive offense. Fascists expected “to have breakfast in Volokolamsk; to have supper in Moscow”.

On 16 November 1941 the enemy started the offensive operation. The battle near the passing-track of Dubosekovo that was given by Battalion 2 Regiment 1075 with the political instructor Vasily Georgievich Klochkov at the head entered all the textbooks on Soviet history. During four hours the Soviet soldiers held back the enemy’s infantry and tanks; they burnt down 18 of the iron machines. The fight is known as the feat of 28 heroes from the Regiment under the command of General Panfilov. The majority of them fell in that action and died a hero’s death. In 1942 they all were awarded with the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

This detachment became a terrible curse for the enemy; 36 days and nights the Division fought against fascists, protecting the capital-city on the main line of advance. During fierce battles were obliterated more than 50 thousand fascist soldiers and officers; about 1500 tanks. Not scoring quick success in Volokolamsk direction, the chief forces of the Hitler’s Army turned to the town of Solnechnogorsk where they were going to reach Leningrad motorway first, then – Dimitrovsky Highway and due to it enter Moscow from the north-west.

In 1967 in the village of Nelidovo, that is situated near the halt of Dubosekovo, was opened a museum. In 1975 on the site of the battle was erected a Memorial Ensemble “The Feat of 28” made from granite (sculptors N.S. Lyubimov, A.G. Postol, V.A. Fyodorov). It consists of six monumental figures that personify soldiers of six nationalities who were among the heroes.


  • Match the words and the definitions:

1. To defend

A. A person who did something extraordinary; who people admire and are proud of because he/she is brave, strong, etc.

2. To destroy

B. To deliberately use physical violence to enter an enemy’s country

3. Feat

C. To build a public structure

4. Army

D. To take action in order to prevent a place or a country from being attacked

5. Hero

E. A large organized group of people trained to fight together on land in a war

6. Battlefield

F. The place where two opposing armies fight each other

7. To attack

G. A person or country that wants to attack and defeat you or your country

8. Fierce

H. A very large number of soldiers died while fighting

9. Memorial

I. Something that someone does that is admired because it is very difficult and you need a lot of bravery/ strength/ skills, etc. to do it

10. Foe/ enemy

J. To move forward in a determined way in order to attack

11. The front line

K. To cause much damage to people or an area/ place

12. Heavy losses

L. The place where an army is closest

13. Soldier

M. A member of the army

14. To advance

N. To be the best possible example of a particular type of a person

15. To erect

O. Ready to attack, very frightening to look at

16. To personify

P. Done to show respect for someone who died, especially someone who was important so that that person will not be forgotten


  • Explain how you understand the title of the text in your own words. Use words and phrases from the text to give reasoning.



Read the text and do the task after it.


Olga Tikhomirova

Olga Tikhomirova was born on 6 July 1923. She was a very cheerful girl. At the age of 7 she went to school № 8 (now school № 2). She was a diligent pupil. An active pioneer and a great help to her mother. She liked to help her Mum about the house, especially good she was at cooking. After finishing school she joined the Komsomol.

In June 1940 Olga finished school № 8 in Yoshkar-Ola. She joined the medical courses and in July 1942 she went to Moscow as a nurse, later she was sent to Belarussia where she joined the detachment of Nikolay Petrovich Rastoguev and became one of his brave and resolute partisans. In her letters home she wrote about the victory over the German aggressors.

In February 1943 the fascists encircled the area of the detachment. There was almost no ammunition, no food. There were only two ways out of the situation - risk or inevitable death. At night a group of courageous people including Olga decided to break through the ring. The commander was wounded; Olga bandaged the wound, rose and shouted “Follow me!” The shells and the mines exploded just near her, but Olga led the detachment with great confidence. Her left arm was wounded then a shell torn away her right arm but she kept on going. She fell down only when her both legs were wounded. She set an example of brave behavior. These were the last steps to immortality. Thus the life of our country-woman Olga Tikhomirova came to an abrupt end. That happened on March 7, 1943.

One of the streets of Yoshkar-Ola is named after the heroine, a monument to Olga was erected in front of school № 2 and a composer Luppov created a heroic ballet “The interrupted holiday” in memory of the Mari partisan Olga Tikhomirova whose life was so short but so bright. She was an ordinary girl but she did extraordinary deeds.


  • Look through the text and for every statement choose the ending which is NOT correct (more than one variant is possible):

  1. Olga was a good student at school because she was

  1. diligent and responsible;

  2. active and energetic;

  3. lazy and arrogant;

2. She went to the front because she

  1. wanted to defeat the fascists as soon as possible;

  2. was very ambitious and wanted to become well-known;

  3. wanted to defend her Motherland against aggressors;

3. She was highly respected in the detachment because she was

  1. good at cooking;

  2. resolute;

  3. brave;

4. The Mari people are proud of Olga and they

  1. made a film about her;

  2. named a street after her;

  3. erected a monument to her;

5. To perpetuate the memory of Olga the Mari composer Luppov created

  1. a heroic opera “The interrupted holiday;

  2. a heroic ballet “The interrupted holiday”;

  3. a collection of poems “The interrupted holiday”.


  • Tell us about the feat of O. Tikhomirova. Remember the names of other country-men who took part in the Great patriotic war.



Read the text and do the tasks after it.

Zinon Prokhorov

Getting in touch with history the young generation learns about the heroic deeds of their fore-fathers. The young boys and girls are given unprecedented examples of devotion and great love to Motherland.

Zinon Philipovich Prokhorov was born on 11 September 1909 in the village of Olykyaly in Volzhsky region of the Mari Republic. He came from an ordinary family of the Mari peasants. He was the youngest - the 11-th child in the family.

In autumn 1937 he was called up to the Red Army. In 1940 he was sent to special courses and was given the rank of a juniour lieutenant.

On 23 June 1941 (on the second day of the war) he and his soldiers joined the battle against fascists. On 15 September 1941 Z. Prokhorov was badly wounded and sent to hospital. Later he took part in Stalingrad and Kursk battles. In August 1943 the 81st Glorified Guards’ Division (where Z. Prokhorov was serving) liberated the city of Belgorod.

The former division commander Major-General I. K. Morozov described the last moments of Z. Prokhorov’s life in his book: “On 19 September 1944 our guardsmen began to fight for the village Khodosh. They started to attack the enemy but were stopped by the machine-gun fire. Z. Prokhorov crept to the machine-gun with a bunch of grenades but couldn’t throw it: the bullet shot his right arm. Then he rose to his full height, threw himself on the enemy’s pill-box and made it stop firing”. He was buried in the common grave in Rumania. On 24 March 1945 he was awarded with the highest title – the Hero of the Soviet Union.

The streets in Yoshkar-Ola, Volzhsk, in his native village Olykyaly are named after him. The busts to the hero are put in the alley of Glory in Yoshkar-Ola, Volzhsk and in Olykyaly. The memorial boards are placed in the school where he used to study, in his museum in Olykyaly, in Prokhorov Street in Yoshkar-Ola.


  • Choose the right translation:

  1. heroic deed

a. важное дело

b.подвиг

c. геройский поступок

  1. fore-fathers

a. отцы b. родители c. предки

  1. devotion

a. преданность b. любовь c. преклонение

  1. was given the rank of…

a. был возведен в ранг

b. было присвоено звание

c. был повышен по службе

  1. joined the battle

a. присоединились к воюющим

b. начали битву

c. вступили в бой

  1. crept

a.пробрался b. пробежал c.прополз

  1. a bunch of grenades

a. много снарядов

b. много патронов

c. связка гранат

  1. rose to his full height

a. встал в полный рост

b. был высокого роста

c. был невысокого роста

  1. the bullet shot

a. пуля задела

b. пуля ранила

c. пуля прострелила

  1. enemy’s pill-box

a. вражеский окоп

b. вражеский дзот

c. вражеский разведчик


  • Say whether the statements are True (T) or False (F):

1. Zinon Philipovich Prokhorov is a brave son of his native Mari Land, a bright example of deep love and devotion to his country.

2. He was born in a small village at the beginning of the XX century.

3. Zinon had ten elder brothers and sisters.

4. At the age of 28 he was called up to the Red Army.

5. He studied at special courses for three years and was given the rank of a juniour lieutenant.

6. Z. Prokhorov was badly wounded and sent to hospital when the war was almost over.

7. He took part in Stalingrad and Kursk battles, in the battles for Belgorod, Budapest and Berlin.

8. On 19 September 1944 in the fight for the village Khodosh (Rumania), Z. Prokhorov threw himself on the enemy’s pill-box and made it stop firing.

9. On 24 March 1945 he was awarded with the Order of Bravery for his heroic deed.

10. The streets, parks, schools in Moscow, Yoshkar-Ola, Volzhsk, in his native village Olykyal are named after him.

11. People will always remember his heroism and faithfulness to Motherland.


  • Make up questions beginning with: when, where, who, what, why, how, did, was.

  • Work out a plan and prepare a 2-minute talk about the brave hero.



The life story of a hero

Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense-form.

Vikenty Phillimonovich Bulygin (1. to be born) in the village of Vasli-Sola (Toryalsky Region, Mari El). It (2. to be situated) 80 km away from Yoshkar-Ola. The local inhabitants (3. to be) always hardworking, here; the women used (4. to weave), to spin the yarn, to sew shirts, to bring up children. The men were busy with feeding the cattle, with tanning sheep’s skins and basting special shoes called lapti.

Once father (5. to take) little Vikenty to the forest o bark lime trees. On coming home Dad made the boy (6. to sit) next to him and do what he himself was going (7. to do). In four hours the new shoes from bass were ready.

After leaving school, Vitaly (8. to enter) the Pedagogical College in the settlement of Toryal. Later he (9. to work) as a teacher of Maths and P.E. in the secondary school. Then a young man joined the Soviet Army, he had (10. to serve) on the airfield of Shatalovo near Smolensk.

At that time the international situation was alarming as the II World War (11. to begin). The country defense needed radical modernization. Radio as a means of connection with planes (12. to come) to the Military Air Forces. Vikenty (13. to become) a radio operator, soon he (14. to appoint) the head of the radio station at the airfield. He was under 20 at that time. The crew at the station was multinational: Sergey Kozlov from Moscow, Grisha Borisov from Kazan, Kolya Kordun from the Ukraine and the Azerbaijanian Allaz Mamedov. The team (15. to head) by the Mari fellow Vikenty Bulygin.

The work of the radio operator was very important. He (16. to have) to foresee everything and to provide the planes with a safe landing under any conditions. Bulygin was soon a skilled expert and (17. to begin) to teach others. His radio station (18. to call) Bulygin’s University in the air regiment.

The planes with black fascist crosses (19. to appear) in the sky over Smolensk on the first day of the war. Vikenty (20. to serve) in the Army for all 5 long war years. In 1949 he (21. to start) his career in the Navy. He (22. to graduate) from the Military Political College and (23. to send) to the cruiser as a warrant officer. In 1955 he studied in the Military Political Academy named after V.I. Lenin in Moscow. Having graduated from it with honours, he came to the Northern Navy.

By January 1974 he (24. to serve) in the Armed Forces for 33 years. In 1974 he (25. to retire) but continued his work as the head of the Civil Defense Committee at one of the enterprises in Novgorod.

It goes without saying, the feeling of Motherland (26. to start) at the place where a man was born and (27. to grow up). But id develops in the person on those life roads where he (28. to investigate) his country. During all his life Vikenty Phillimonovich (29. to build) the road to peace: during the war, and later, in various cities of our big country. And during all his life he (30. to try) to bring up the feeling of Motherland in those people who were near him.




Module 4

Children at war


Read the text and do the tasks after it.

A courageous girl

In the early December of 1941 in the settlement of Petritshevo the fascists executed an 18-year-old girl who called herself Tatyana. It was a schoolgirl from Moscow Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya.

Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya was born in 1923 in the village called Osinovy Gai (Aspen Wood) in Tambov Region in the family of the teachers. In 1925 her younger brother Alexander was born. The childhood of Zoya and Shura fell on the period of restoration after the long Civil War. The family – like many people at that time – lived in poverty, they experienced the lack of food, clothes, fuel. The kids’ parents were highly respected by their village fellows; they were among those who struggled for the formation of the Soviet power.

In 1930 the family moved to Moscow. A year later Zoya went to school where she positioned her as a very capable student and excelled at sciences. Thoughtful and attentive, Zoya was fond of reading. She imagined herself in the main character’s shoes, trying to understand these or those deeds. In 1938 Zoya joined the All-Union Communist Youth Organization named after V.I. Lenin (Komsomol). The year of 1941 was of big importance for the family: Shura was going to be 16 years old – the age when a Soviet citizen got his passport; and Zoya was going to be 18 – the age that gave the right to take part in the elections.

On 22 June 1941 Zoya was still walking along Moscow boulevards together with her classmates after the school-leaving party, when the first battles on the state border had already started. At dawn fascist Germany attacked the Soviet Union. The outbreak of war followed.

Since the first days of the war Zoya tried to help the country. She sewed tabs and kit-bags for soldiers, heading for the front line. Later, together with her brother she started working at the machine-building plant “Borets” (“Fighter”) were they were busy since morning till night. In her free time, late in the evening she was on duty at the houses’ garrets during air-raids. Many times Zoya applied to the local authorities with the request to send her to the front line. At last she was enrolled into the Military Reconnaissance School as a cadet, and a few months later she was a member of the partisan detachment.

Her first urgent task was to blow off a few bridges and mine the roads not far from the village of Shakhovskaya, so that the fascists couldn’t deliver fuel, ammunition and weapons to their troops. Zoya’s group destroyed several bridges, 7 cars and motorcycles, burnt down 2 warehouses with petrol and ammunition. They made an ambush and caught a German motorcyclist – currier with the official papers of great importance for the Soviet Headquarters.

In late November of 1941 a group of partisans (Zoya was among them) crossed secretly the front line to ruin some military fascists objects, located on the occupied territory. In the village of Petritshevo Zoya and her group-fellows set fire to four houses which were inhabited by the fascist officers. The old wooden buildings caught fire easily and the place was a total chaos. Zoya jumped to the conclusion to set stables on fire. She slunk to the barn but was imprisoned by the enemies. It was a death trap.

The young partisan was severely beaten and tormented but she didn’t answer any questions. In the morning the fascists hung the label “Incendiary” on the girl’s neck and pushed her out to the place of execution. The central square was full of local dwellers who Zoya addressed her ardent speech calling for struggle against occupants. The girl’s body was hanging on the gallows till the Soviet troops liberated the settlement.

Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya died like a hero and was awarded with the highest title – Hero of the Soviet Union. Near the village of Petritshevo (it was re-named after the young heroine and is called Kosmodemyanskoe today), on the 86 km of Minsk highway was erected a monument to the courageous partisan. On the grey granite were carved out the words: “To Zoya, immortal heroine of the Soviet people”. The monument was built on the initiative of the Komsomol members and the inauguration of the memorial was timed to the VI World Festival of students in Moscow in 1957. The figure of a girl going to the place of execution with the hands, tied up tightly behind her back was put on the high pedestal next to the entrance to the park which was laid out by the local pioneers and schoolchildren.

Margaret Aliger, a famous Soviet poetess wrote a poem called “Zoya”. The poem was created in 1942, a few months after Zoya’s death, following the “hot track” of her short life and heroic untimely decease. The author conveyed all the tragic events by simple easy-readable poetic language. She reminded people that they “should know the truth of the past to realize the truth of the present to the full extent”. These words of M. Aliger must be remembered by everybody.


  • Read the text and say whether the statements are True (T), False (F) or Not Stated (NS):

  1. Zoya was the only child in the family.

  2. Zoya’s Mum was a teacher of Literature.

  3. Zoya’s childhood wasn’t easy due to the post-war situation in the country.

  4. Zoya was keen on writing stories about fairy characters.

  5. Zoya lived not far from the State border when war broke out.

  6. Zoya fought against fascists in the partisan brigade.

  7. Zoay was caught by fascists while she was setting a house on fire.

  8. Before execution Zoya managed to deliver a speech, calling the local people for irreconcilable struggle against fascists.

  9. Zoya’s heroic deeds are remembered by her country fellows and are honoured by several monuments.

  10. M. Aliger created a novel based on Zoya’s life.

  11. The poem “Zoya” was written in 1957.

  12. The poetess wrote the poem after her visit to the settlement of Petritshevo.

  13. People shouldn’t forget their terrible past in order to build up bright future.


Read the text and do the tasks after it.


Heroes from Krasnodon

A. She was well-built, tall and slim, with lithe waist of a peasant girl who used to hard physical work in the field. The first thing everyone noticed about her appearance was her black expressive eyes and thick wavy hair. Her face was on the one hand plain and ordinary, this simplicity was lying somewhere in her plump lips and soft chin, but on the other hand it conveyed the spirit of strength, challenge, passion. It was hidden somewhere in her straight eyebrows, in her large dark eyes with frank and open look.


B. Since his childhood he was keen on reading books, a sort of a bookworm, who was always happy to look through some pages. At school he got the nickname “professor”. He had only one smart suit, grey with brownish stripes, which he chose on any solemn or official occasion. The jacket was a bit short for him, like everything that he was wearing, but when the suit was accompanied with a white shirt, a brown tie and black horn-rimmed spectacles on his nose, he really looked like a respectable scholar. He was walking along the school corridors always being on a different wavelength in comparison to other children; his pockets were full of newspapers; in his hand he was carrying a book, by which he was gently patting his own shoulder. He was strolling calm and silent with hidden inner inspiration that was burning brightly in his soul, casting a distant reflected light to his pale face, and all his schoolmates, from primary classes in particular, made way for him with involuntary distinction as if he was a prominent professor.


C. He came from a poor family. His Dad Gavrila Petrovich (all the children called him Grandpa) was in his late 60-s. He suffered from a lung disease and was retired. He had worked as a miner for about 40 years and was desperately proud of his profession. He was the youngest child in the family. His 2 elder brothers and 8 sisters were already grown up people with their own families and children. He was still a kid. He had a heart of an eagle, full of courage and impudence. He had been dreaming of heroic deeds since he remembered himself. He was the best diver and swimmer among local boys; he could catch tenches without a fishing rod; he could run a long distance without stopping and even jump out of a window of a two-storey building. When the war broke out, he tried to enter a military college to become a pilot but he was rejected. His age was a real setback. In summer while all the schoolchildren were working in the fields, pulling out the weeds or gathering the harvest, he boy went to the local mine. Two weeks afterwards he was in the coal-face, cutting coal equally with adults. In winter after school he rushed to one of his mates – an artilleryman, mine-layer, sapper or a pilot who taught him to shoot, to throw grenades, to load and unload mines. He was bursting with energy. He was sure his time would come and he would be ready for something heroic.


D. He was young, broad-shouldered, fair-haired. His sun-tanned face, tall slender figure, even his clothes, well-pressed with an elegant maroon tie, his manner of speaking with a slight stammering produced a strong feeling of kindness, inner purity and freshness, emotional and physical forces, that everybody nearby began to believe him. His dignity and sincerity enhanced his best features. He gained people’s respect at once – they were prepared to confide in him, especially the younger ones.


E. She enjoyed the constant change of activity. When she was a little girl, she imagined herself as a doctor, playing this rile properly. She was carrying a big bag with a red cross on its cover. It was filled with bandage, cotton wool and gauze. She was a fair-haired plump girl with blue eyes and dimples in her cheeks. She bandaged her Mum and Dad, her neighbours, all the dogs and cats nearby. When she entered school, she was studying easily and merrily as if she was not studying but playing the part of a schoolgirl. At that time she wanted to be neither a doctor nor a teacher. She wanted to be a housewife. She did all the work about the house (washed the floor or cooked soup) quicker, smarter, more dexterous in comparison to her Mum. Sometimes she played the part of Chapaev. She drew moustache with the help of a burnt cork and fought against local guys till final victory. But when she grew a bit older, she got crazy about dancing. In addition, it turned out that she had nice vocal abilities. It was clear for everybody – she would be an actress. She participated in various concerts and performances. When war began, she finished special courses and was ready to go to the front line as a military nurse, but she was ordered to get the qualification of a wireless operator in order to work on the occupied territory. It was fraught with danger and she was proud of it.

Something courageous, daring, even reckless didn’t leave her in peace. She experienced the thirst for glory and boundless self-sacrifice. The feeling of childish naughty and piercing happiness was constantly calling her forward, higher and farther; was calling for something new that was worth striving for.


  • Read the short extracts from the book “The young guard” by A. Fadeev. Match the descriptions of the characters with their names and their key-features:

Name, surname

Description (A, B …)

Key-feature

1. Oleg Koshevoy


trustworthy and open

2. Ulyana Gromova


industrious and sincere

3. Ivan Zemnukhov


intelligent and serious

4. Sergey Tyulenin


daring and persistent

5. Lyubov Shevstova


multi-talented, bright and generous


Read the text and do the tasks after it.

A girl with little plaits

Zinaida Martynovna Portnova was born on 20 February 1926 in Leningrad in the family of a worker. In June 1941 she came to the village of Zuy near the railway station of Obol, Vitebsk region to spend summer holidays. When fascists attacked the western borders of the Soviet Union, Zina found herself on the occupied territory. In 1942 she joined the underground organization ”Young avengers”, later in 1943 she worked as a secret agent of the partisan detachment named after K. Voroshilov. She spread the anti-fascist leaflets among the local population, participated in subversive activity against the occupants. Working in the canteen for the enemy officers, she added some poison into the cooked dishes. As a result more than 140 fascists died. At the next trial she tried to prove her not being privy to the cause, she ate the poisoned soup and remained alive only by a lucky chance.

In November 1943 the anti-fascist secret organization “Young avengers” was revealed. As the reasons for the failure were shrouded in mystery, Zina got the task to throw light on all the particulars of the case. In December 1943 on the way back to the partisan brigade, Zina was caught in the village of Mostitshe. At one of the interrogations the girl plucked up the heart, grabbed the officer’s pistol off the table and shot 3 fascists, tried to escape, but was snatched again. After terrible tortures which seemed to be never-ending, she was murdered in prison of the city of Polotsk (Belorussia). She was cut off in her prime and it was inhuman and ruthless.

In conformity with the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Zinaida Potnova was conferred the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously).

On the highway A215 near the town of Obol (Belorussia) there is a memorable stele on which are enumerated the names of the members of the underground organization. The name of Zina is among them. In the town of Obol there is a street named in Zina’s honour; the local school is called after her. In the school foyer there is a bust to Zina Portnova and a memorable plaque.

In 1975 came out a book under the title “A girl with little plaits”. The author of this documentary story A.S. Solodov narrated about a short but very bright and heroic life of a Soviet schoolgirl, Zina Portnova by name. Her life undoubtedly is a vivid example of the selfless service to Motherland, her country and its people. Here is the extract from the book where Zina’s mother came to the prison in Polotsk, the place of Zina’s execution.

The noise from the street died down gradually. Her legs became weak in knees. Just a few steps and she will be there in the place where her daughter had spent the last hours. The basement… wet slippery steps… a long narrow and hollow corridor – the former Gestapo prison in Polotsk. The two women descended to the gloomy torture-chamber. One of them in her 50-s with grey hair was Zina’s mother; the other, who was accompanying Anna Isaakovna on that horrible excursion, had been here at that time.

The women stopped near one of the solid doors. The heavy metal door creaked with its rusty hinges and opened slowly. “We were sitting in this cell. I saw your daughter last here”, said the woman. “It was a year ago. I survived by miracle, Zina was taken to shooting…” Anna Isaakovna pressed her trembling hand to the heart and entered the badly-lit ward. There came a cold and damp blast of a deserted house. Through a small narrow iron-barred window was struggling a sun ray. The woman approached the wall opposite the door and stared at it as if trying to find something. “There was a drawing here… It’s dark… I can’t see… Here it is. It was Zina who scrawled it with a nail – a girl with little plaits. There was an inscription under it. Anna Isaakovna ran her hand over the wall, brushed the dust off. On the grey plaster appeared a child’s picture of a girl with plaits, below it – uneven letters: “Sentenced to shooting”. Anna Isaakovna touched the picture, the tears started to her eyes…


  • Read the text and choose the right variant:


1. Zina Portnova was a daughter of a

a. farmer b. teacher c. tool-maker

2. Zina lived in

a. Vitebsk b. Leningrad c. Moscow

3. On the occupied territory Zina joined the secret group in

a. 1926 b. 1941 c. 1942

4. Being a member of the partisan detachment Zina

a. participated in the battles

b. cooked food for the German soldiers

c. worked as a nurse in hospital

5. Zina was arrested by fascists when she

a. was spreading the leaflets

b. was blowing off the bridge

c. was returning to the forest from the secret task

6. At one of the interrogations the girl managed

a. to steal a grenade

b. to peep secret information

c. to kill several fascists

7. Zina Portnova was awarded with

a. the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union

b. the Order of Victory

c. the Medal “For Bravery”

8. The school in … bears Zina’s name.

a. Leningrad b. Obol c. Polotsk

9. Zina’s heroic deed was described by A Solodov in a well-known

a. story b. poem c. ballad

10. The book was written

a. soon after the war b. 30 years after the great victory c. in the 1970-s


Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.


A young partisan

Leonid Alexadrovich Golikov, a teenager-partisan, pioneer-hero was (1. …) on 17 June 1926 in the village of Lukino, Novgorod Region in the family of a (2. …). He left school after the 7th form and began to work at the plywood factory in the (3. …) of Parfino.

During war time he was a scout of detachment № 67 of the (4. …) Leningrad Partisan Brigade which was acting on the territory of Novgorod and Pskov Region.

He participated in 27 battles; especially distinguished (5. …) in action near the villages of Aprosovo, Sosnitsy, Sever where partisans (6. …) defeated German garrisons. All in all he annihilated 78 German soldiers, 2 railroad and 12 highway bridges, 2 (7. …) warehouses and 10 lorries with ammunition.

On 13 August 1942, coming back to the partisan detachment, on the road “Luga-Pskov” he blew off a car where was German General Richard fon Virts. The car was a complete (8. …), but the general had a narrow escape. The (9. …) scout brought a file with secret official papers to the Headquarters of the Partisan Brigade. Among them there were (10. …) drafts and the (11. …) of new samples of fascist mines; (12. …) dispatches and other important documents of military character.

On 24 January 1943 L. Golikov lost his life in the (13. …) battle on the outskirts of the settlement of Ostraya Luka, Pskov Region. He was awarded with the Order of Lenin, Order of the Great patriotic war, Medal “For (14. …)”. On 2 April 1944 he was awarded with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.


1. Birth

2. To work


3. To settle


4. Four


5. He


6. Complete


7. To feed





8. To write

9. Youth


10. Number

11. To describe

12. Inspector

13. Equal



14. Brave


Open the brackets and put the verb in the right tense-form.


Horrifying artifact

A 12-year-old girl Tanya Savicheva started making notes in her diary a bit earlier than Anna Frank, victim of Holocaust. They were almost peers and wrote about one and the same thing – about the horrors of fascism. Both Tanya and Anna (1. to die) before fascism (2. to defeat): Tanya – in July 1944, Anna – in March 1945. Anna’s diary was published after the war, Tanya’s diary didn’t come out. It (3. to contain) only nine notes but rather terrible: notes about the death of all the members in Tanya’s family during Leningrad blockade. This little note-book was demonstrated at Nuremberg trial as a document (4. to blame) Nazism. Tanya’s diary (5. to display) in the History Museum (St. Petersburg), its copy – in the Memorial at the Piskarevsky Cemetery where (6. to be buried) 570 thousand people – citizens of Leningrad who died during 900-day fascist blockade (1941-1943). A child’s hand, loosing strength from constant undernourishment and even famine, (7. to write) unevenly and briefly. A fragile soul, (8. to strike) by unbearable sufferings, was unable for any emotions. Tanya just fixed the facts of her being – tragic “visits of death” to her native house. While reading these lines you can’t help (9. to grow) torpid:

28 December 1941. Zhenya died at 12 a.m..

Granny died on 25 January 1942 at 3 p.m.

Leka died on 17 March 1942 at 5 p.m.

Uncle Vasya died on 13 April 1942 at 2 a.m.

Uncle Alex – on 10 May 1942 at 4 p.m.

Mum – on 13 May 1942 at 7.30 a.m.

Everybody died. Tanya alone remains alive”.

Tanya (10. to be born) in the family of a baker and a dress-maker. She was the youngest and the most loved child in the family. Large grey eyes under the fair fringe, pure “angelic” voice that promised a career of a singer. All the members of the family were musically-gifted. Their mother, Maria Ignatyevna, even organized a family band: two brothers, Leka and Misha, played the guitar, mandolin and banjo; Tanya was a soloist, all the rest (11. to sing) in a choir.

Tanya’s father, Nikolay Radionovich, died very early, and her Mum had (12. to work) from morning till night to make both ends (13. to meet), to bring up and support 5 children. The family (14. to be going) to spend that summer in the village near Gdov, on the shore of the Chudskoye Lake but morning of 22 June (15. to bring) war and changed all their plans drastically.

They decided to stay in Leningrad and to do their best to help those who were at the front line. Mother sewed military uniform for the fighting men; Leka (16. not/ can) join the Army because of his poor eyesight, so he worked at the Admiralty plant; sister Zhenya turned the bodies for mines; Nina (17. to mobilize) for defensive work. Uncles Vasily and Alex served in the Army in the anti-air-craft defense. Tanya helped the adults to put out incendiary bombs and dig out trenches.

By and by the blockade circle (18. to shrink) tighter and tighter. According to Hitler’s plan people in Leningrad had to be strangled by starvation and the city was to be razed to the ground. One day Nina (19. not/ return) home from work. She died during the heavy bombardment that occurred while she (20. to stagger) home. Sister Zhenya died right at her working place at the factory because of complete exhaustion. Soon Granny (21. to pass) away from heart attack. Tanya opened her copy-book more and more often – one by one her relatives left this world. One day the girl made a dreadful conclusion: The Savichevs died. Everybody in the family died.

Tanya didn’t happen to know that not all the member of her family died. Sister Nina (22. to rescue) and transported to the rear. Brother Michael recovered after a heavy wound at the front. Tanya, together with 140 other weak and famished Leningrad children was evacuated to the settlement of Shatki (Gorkov Region). The local dwellers (23. to supply) children with everything they could find: potatoes and carrots, cabbage and turnips, rye and barley porridge. Many of the children (24. to grow) stronger; (25. to rise) to their feet but Tanya didn’t manage to survive. For a fortnight doctors (26 to struggle) for her life but the destroying process in her body turned out to be irreversible. On 1 July 1944 Tanya was buried at the village cemetery.

Tanya was born on 25 January, on St. Tatiana’s Day. On this mournful day all the members of the family, their children and grandchildren (27. to get together) at table for funeral repast and perform “Ballad about Tanya Savicheva” (lyrics by V. Gin, music by E. Doga). Like a prayer they (28. to repeat) the words: “Tanya… Tanya… your name (29. to sound) like an alarm bell in all the languages and dialects. Our hearts can’t stop (30. to remember), otherwise – the human race (31. to stop) existing”.


Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.


The son of the regiment

Valentin Petrovich Kataev wrote his story “The son of the regiment” in 1944 in the days of the Great patriotic war (1. …) fascist invaders. The war caused a lot of grief, sorrow and misfortune. It ruined hundreds of cities, towns, villages. It killed millions of people. It (2. …) thousands of kids of their mothers and fathers. The Soviet people won a victory in that war because they were (3. …) to their Motherland, because they displayed unbelievable courage and self-control, bravery and tenacity. They won because they couldn’t win: it was a just war for the (4. …) of happiness and peace worldwide.

The story brings the readers (5. …) to those difficult but heroic events of war years. The author tells us a story about an ordinary village boy Vanya Solntsev that was typical for those days. The boy lost everything: his nearest and dearest, his house, his childhood itself. He (6. …) a great number of ordeals and experienced the joy of heroic deeds, performed in the name of victory over the hated enemy. Here is a passage from the book when Vanya appeared among the Soviet soldiers.

The situation needs careful handling. The boy is an orphan… His father lost his (7. …) in the battlefield, the village was (8. …) by fascists and obliterated. His mother didn’t want to give away the cow and was shot, Granny and little sister starved to death. He remained alone. Nearly for two years he was (9. …) and hiding in the woods, tried to cross the front line but it was too far… He got completely wild, angry; was overgrown with hair. He looked like a real wolf-cub. He used to carry a sharp nail in his bag. It was his weapon.

  • How old is he?

  • According to him, he is 12, but he doesn’t look his age, about 10 years old. Very (10. …) …

  • A good boy?

  • Rather. Very smart, - (11. …) Egorov. – We are going to let him stay in our platoon. He is very quick-thinking, a born scout.

  • It’s all your fantasy, - said captain Enakiev with (12. …).

  • Nothing of the kind! A very independent and self-organized boy. He finds his bearings on the ground like a grown up, even better. He (13. …) himself to be left here: “Teach me to be a scout. I’ll help you. I know here each and every blade of grass”, - he repeated. He gives us full assurance of not being a (14. …) to the soldiers.

At that time Vanya Solntsev was sitting cross-legged on the fir branches in the tent and was eating amazingly tasty (15. …) potatoes with onion, garlic, pepper and even tinned meat. He was (16. …) everything from (17. …) with a large wooden spoon. Being brought up in a peasant family, he clearly realized that he was eating (18. …) improperly. He knew it but couldn’t do anything with himself. Hunger was (19. …) than all the rules and regulations. Holding (20. …) the pot with one hand, Vanya handled quickly the spoon with the other; at the same time he couldn’t take his eyes off from the thick long pieces of rye bread which were lying in front of him and which he couldn’t (21. …) because of the lack of hands…

Then morning came. The day passed by without any accidents. Vanya proved that he indeed knew the surroundings well. He performed the task of a guide exactly and seriously. He had a head on his shoulders.

While Bidenko and Gorbunov were (22. …) somewhere in the bushes, Vanya together with his jade moved forward and (23. …) the territory. Then he returned and quacked, showing that the road was empty. To work in this way was faster and more comfortable. Waiting for the boy, the adults didn’t waste time. They kept themselves occupied with topographic work. They marked on the map all the details they had discovered. That time the (24. …) was extremely rich. The plot where the battery of captain Enakiev was located had been thoroughly examined; till the fascists’ defense line. At the map they noted the spots where they could secretly take the field-guns across the (25. …) river to the opposite bank. It was of great importance as it gave captain an opportunity to move his cannons forward rather unexpectedly and beat the retreated German troops almost in the rear.


  • Fill in the gap with the right variant:

1. a. against b. opposite c. with

2. a. arrived b. deprived c. contrived

3. a. delivered b. devoted c. decoded

4. a. name b. soul c. sake

5. a. back b. up c. about

6. a. overdid b. overmade c. overcome

7. a. life b. alive c. live

8. a. busy b. engaged c. occupied

9. a. wondering b. walking c. wandering

10. a. slender b. skinny c. slim

11. a. exclaimed b. wondered c. asked

12. a. surprise b. irritation c. kindness

13. a. insists b. persists c. pleads

14. a. obstacle b. hardship c. burden

15. a. roasted b. grilled c. boiled

16. a. nipping b. devouring c. sipping

17. a. saucepan b. pot c. casserole

18. a. absolutely b. obviously c. evidently

19. a. the strongest b. stronger c. more stronger

20. a. slightly b. tightly c. gently

21. a. grab b. take c. touch

22. a. seeking b. searching c. hiding

23. a. examined b. watched c. observed

24. a. pray b. prayer c. prey

25. a. shallow b. swampy c. narrow


Read the text and do the tasks after it.

Mari children in the years of the Great patriotic war

Everybody, who survived the Great patriotic war, has his own memory. That war touched everyone in our country; touched both adults and children. All their actions were subordinated to the achievement of victory over fascists.

War children grew very quickly; they felt responsibility for the fate of their Motherland, for their nearest and dearest – parents, brothers and sisters. What could a little person do for the sake of victory? What was his weapon? The answer was announced on the tenth day of the war in the Appeal of the pupils of the secondary school in the settlement of Medvedevo to all the schoolchildren of our republic. It was titled “Let’s help our fathers and brothers to win the enemy”.

In Pektubaevsky Region about 600 school students together with their teachers worked in the collective farms in summer. In Paranginsky Region about 2 thousand school students worked side by side with adults. In Sernursky Region almost all the pupils from 5-10 forms took part in the field work. Children looked after vegetables, gathered hay, repaired buildings. They ploughed the fields, picked up the ears of rye, pulled flax.

In June 1941 the country learned about the heroic deed of the pilot N. Gastello. Students from school № 6 (now school № 11) in Yoshkar-Ola put forward the initiative to raise money for building a plane named after Gastello. This initiative was supported all over the republic. It was not the only gift of the Mari schoolchildren to the Soviet soldiers. They also collected money to build a tank called “The Mari Pioneer”.

Children sent 109 thousand of tobacco-pouches and handkerchiefs to the Soviet Army. They also collected berries and mushrooms, various healing herbs. Some boys and girls attended courses in order to become drivers and tractor-drivers. Many girls took medical courses to become nurses and to be able to provide the wounded with medical aid. Children also collected ashes and birds’ excrements to make the soil in the fields more fertile.

So, everybody had his own war childhood, with his own private recollections, and at the same time how similar were the lives of the Soviet children in the war time.


  • Match the two parts of the sentences.

A. What could a little person do

1. about the heroic deed of the pilot N. Gastello.

B. In June 1941 the country learned

2. called “The Mari Pioneer”.

C. That war touched everyone in our country;

3. schoolchildren to the Soviet soldiers.

D. Many girls took medical courses

4. handkerchiefs to the Soviet Army.

E. Children sent 109 thousand of tobacco-pouches and

5. the achievement of victory over fascists.

F. They also collected money to build a tank

6. to become nurses and to be able to provide the wounded with medical aid.

G. All their actions were subordinated to

7. for the sake of victory?

H. So, everybody had his own war childhood

8. and at the same time how similar were the lives of the Soviet children in the war time.

I. It was not the only gift of the Mari

9. touched both adults and children


  • Read the text “Mari children in the years of the Great patriotic war” again and Make up questions beginning with: when, where, who, what, why, how, did, was.




Module 5.

Heroic pages of war in the literary works


Read the text and do the tasks after it.

Here we are, my Lord!

The autobiographical novel was being written by Konstantin Vorobyov in 1943, when a group of Russian partisans, consisted of the former prisoners of war, had to go underground. Exactly for 30 days and nights in a Lithuanian town of Shaulyai was describing K. Vorobyov the dreadful events that he had gone through and endured in fascist captivity.

In 1946 the manuscript entered the editorial office of the journal “New World”. As the author presented only the first part of the book, the question of its publication was delayed till the ending appeared.

However, the second part of the book had never come into being. It happened so that for long-lasting 40 years the manuscript disappeared from the field of vision of both editors and readers. Only in 1985 it was discovered in the Central State Achieves of Literature and Arts.

Here is an abstract from the book:

The convoy soldiers took the imprisoned beyond the territory of the concentrated camp to work. Sergey and his companion Vanyushka, quite a young fellow, tried to escape. They thought the plan would work, but it all went pear-shaped. They were chased for miles, finally caught and punished severely. In a few days they were on the way to a remote part of Germany.

Knocking down the metal bars on the carriage window, at full speed of the train, Sergey and Vanyushka leapt out of the window and ran for their life. They had a narrow escape. Their wanderings through the Lithuanian forests started. Even in isolated places they were moving only at night time, heading for the east…

As soon as the dusk of the night spread over the wood, Sergey and Vanyushka came out of the depth of the forest and set out. It was the second night of freedom and hope! Quite different seemed to be this unfathomable black sky and the blue flame of the stars shimmering in it. Quite differently, not like at the fascist camp, the wet autumn wind was stroking the dry, burning from excitement cheeks and uncovered heads. The tired tormented bodies didn’t feel the cold while wading the silty creek. The bed, made of damp alder leaves in a stagnant marsh seemed cozy and soft.

Soon after midnight, Sergey and Vanyushka saw a little village. They staggered to the nearest house and knocked at the door. The host let them come in. They entered a dark room, the bunches of home-grown tobacco were hanging everywhere. The right corner of the room was occupied with a roughly-made bed; a cradle, attached to the ceiling, was swinging slowly to and fro.

The man shoved a loaf of bread, two lumps of pork fat, a bundle of tobacco and a box of matches into the escapees’ bag. The host saw them off till the house date, showed where the policemen were staying and how to swerve those houses, where to cross the nearby river safely. Sergey and Vanyushka thanked the man heartedly and vanished into the thin night air…

On the fourth night, crossing a forest glade, they saw a grazing cow, tied up to the tree, and a tiny calf next to it. Sergey, with a pot in his hands, started stealing to the udder. The udder was wet and hot: the calf had just sucked it. Sergey pushed the teat and the strong jet of milk struck the bottom of the pot. The cow stepped backward, continuously mooing. Sergey gave the cow a piece of stale bread. Chewing the crumbs, the cow allowed them to manipulate near the udder… It was a time-consuming process but it had beneficial effect: at the end of it they were full and satisfied …

The days of the late September were warm and sunny. Light quiet nights gave the escapees a chance to move forward for 20-25 km. They passed by a large city of Shaulyai, were approaching Dauglavpils, but in their thoughts they were already on the native land, which was not very far. Sometimes in the forests they encountered woodcutters. The latter treated the way-farers with bread, potatoes, milk, even meat; informed about the latest news.

First autumn morning frosts made almost naked escapees rather cold. The feet became numb and the men could hardly drag them along. At one of such dawns the mates got into a shed that was standing at the forest edge. Soft oat straw warmed their shivering bodies and soon they were sleeping the sleep of the just men and martyrs. But they disturbed the hens that made a noise and general alarm in the house. The cock began crowing and the dog started barking. The hostess came up to the barn to investigate the cause of the general commotion. She attached the ladder and climbed the second floor of the barn. When she caught a glimpse of the two men, wildly looking, who were sleeping in the hay, there was a high-pitched scream first, then the woman rolled down, bewailing and moaning. The door of the shed slammed.

Sergey jumped to his feet, ready to quick retreat. But at that very moment the door of the house opened and an old man, still hale and hearty, came into view. He headed bravely for the shed… Before saying something, he stood completely motionless, eyeing the escapees warily, then twice coughed…

The escapees drank a jug of fresh milk; the forester presented Vanyushka with a pair of clogs (wooden boots) that was a tremendous boon and was sad that the two men didn’t have a Berdan rifle…


  • The escapees were helped by local inhabitants on their way home. Fill in the table using the details from the text:

Person

Kind of help


  • Look at the vocabulary items. There are some categories. Put each word into the category you think is the best.

Vocabulary:

way-farer, creek, hope, forester, woodcutter, satisfied, policemen, calf, punished, to swerve, udder, a narrow escape, cock, hen, to wade, tormented, morning frost, to moo, to stagger, to suck, warily, sad, alarm, martyrs, heartedly, shimmering, went pear-shaped, alder leaves, wind, chew, grazing, host


Categories:

Nature

Difficulties

Feelings

People

Domestic animals


  • Make up a dialogue between

a. Sergey and a woodcutter

b. Vanyushka and a forester

Act the dialogue out with your partner.



Read the text and do the tasks after it.


Michael Sholokhov. They fought for the Motherland

It was last afternoon but the heat was still unbearable. The sun was scorching the ground unmercifully. The bitter smell of fading wormwood was awakening unconscious sadness and even mourning. Being rather tired, Nikolay Lopakhin bent against the earth wall of the trench. He was peering into the brown burnt steppe, here and there covered with the hillocks of old marmots’ holes. In the clear spaces between the blades of the dried grass he could see the impenetrably thick blue of the sky and in some distance in the mist he could notice the outlines of the wood which seemed to be airy and weightless as if soaring above the earth. It all created the illusion of calmness and pacification.

In half an hour Nikolay heard the distant din of the tank engines. It grew up, broadened and sounded more distinct and formidable with every minute: this rolling, pressing peal. Along the countryside road were crawling fascist tanks. They were being followed by a long grey train of dust. The tanks (14 all in all) hid in the ravine, disconcentrating and getting ready for the attack. After the tanks, fascist infantry was strolling. The soldiers were marching up straight as if taking part in a parade. “They’ve become so insolent”, thought Lopakhin. – “Come on, move closer! We’ll arrange a welcome meeting for you”, thought Nikolay looking at the approaching enemies with hard gripping hatred, which took his breath away.

The tanks started shooting. At first the shells lay down not reaching the fortified latitude, mainly near the surrounding bushes, but gradually the black fountains of explosions started moving towards the trenches and Nikolay pressed his chest against the wall, being ready to bow at any moment.

The fascist infantry, still trying to keep up with the tanks, was slowly going forward, but then it had to lie down under the violent fire. The shots of the anti-tank rifle-men became more frequent. The first tank stopped not reaching the blackthorn bushes; the second burst into flames, tried to turn round and finally stopped, emitting a column of coal-tar smoke into the sky. Two more tanks began to burn on the flanks. The fifth tank managed to approach the defense-line, but towards it corporal Kochetygov was creeping. Small and brisk, Kochetygov was sliding between the marmots’ holes and only a stripe of slightly trembling feather grass betrayed his movements. Kochetygov half-rose quickly, jerked up his arm and fell down immediately. An anti-tank bomb flew into the huge iron monster. On the left side of the tank lifted to the sky (like a giant unknown bird) a fire-pole, mixed with black soil. It looked as though this bird waved its black wing. The tank shuddered convulsively, turned round on the caterpillar track and stood stiffen on the spot, putting its side with a cross under the fire.

Lopakhin breathed deeply and sipped some water from the flask, anticipating a new attack. But at that very moment the fascist tanks swang around abruptly and dashed backwards, leaving six burning machines behind…

Twelve enemy planes appeared in the sky. The deafening roar of the engines was accompanied by the disgusting squeal of the falling bombs. Nikolay didn’t hear the terrible thunder of the explosion, which rocked the earth to its foundation; he didn’t see the enormous pile of soil that reared up near him. The tight wave of the hot air swept the man to the bottom of the trench. Nikolay hit his head against the wall so fiercely that the belt of the helmet under his chin broke and the man lost consciousness. When he came around, the battle was at its height. Nikolay looked around with turbid running eyes. His hands and legs were trembling from weakness, he felt sick and dizzy. Trying not to pay attention to all this, he kneeled in the trench, focused the machine-gun and started to fire. He clearly understood it was a matter of life and death. He was shooting, deaf and indifferent to everything that was going on around him. He was led and inspired by two, the most powerful wishes: to live and to fight till victory. He reached the point where nothing more mattered…


  • Match the questions on the left with answers on the ; border-; border-; border-;">

    Question about

    Action

    Purpose

    1. Why did Nikolay bend against the earth wall of the trench?

    A. He threw an anti-tank bomb at the iron “monster” to stop it.

    2. Why was the distant din growing and broadening?

    B. They did it to disconcentrate and get ready for the attack.

    3. Why did the tanks hide in the ravine?

    C. He hit his head heavily against the wall of the trench.

    4. Why did the infantry have to lie down?

    D. To have some rest.

    5. Why did corporal Kochetygov throw himself forward?

    E. He was swept down to the bottom of the trench by the tight wave of the hot air and lost consciousness.

    6. Why was the roar of the planes deafening?

    F. He was led by two urgent wishes: to live and to fight till victory.

    7. Why didn’t Nikolay hear the sunder of explosion?

    G. It was moving under the violent fire.

    8. Why did Nikolay feel dizzy?

    H. It is so because the Soviet people did everything they could to protect their Motherland.

    9. Why was Nikolay so persistent in his actions?

    I. The tanks were coming closer to the trenches.

    10. Why do you think the author admires the soldier’s behaviour?

    J. It was accompanied with the squeal of the falling bombs.


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    The dawns are quiet here…

    The novel, written by Boris Vasilyev, narrates about the fates of five young girls (they had just left school) and their commander Fedot Vaskov during the Great patriotic war.

    The action of the book takes place in 1942 in Kareliya. The platoon of girls – anti-aircraft gunners were on duty near the railway passing track. The chief member of the group Rita Osyanina noticed two German soldiers, secretly roaming in the wood. Coming back to the place of dislocation, Osyanina informed the sergeant-mayor Vaskov about the incident. Vaskov made up his mind to stop the enemies’ group. It was a tall order but they hit the road. They arranged an ambush but the number of the fascists appeared to be much more numerous: they were sixteen, strong trained males, armed to the teeth.

    Vaskov’s group started the unequal battle. The girls died one after another. Only Vaskov remained alive. Wounded and almost unarmed, he captured the remained occupants. He convoyed them to the rear. He diced with death and did the impossible. After the war Vaskov adopted Rita’s son. Thirteen years later in the place of the girls’ death, they put a memorable board where Vaskov wrote their names: Zhenya Komelkova, Rita Osyanina, Liza Brichkina, Galina Chetvertak, and Sonya Gurvich.

    Here is one of the final episodes from the book:

    Swinging and stumbling, he was walking with unsteady steps. He was staggering through the dense forest towards the enemies. In his hand he was gripping tightly the gun with the last cartridge. His only desire was to meet the fascists as soon as possible so that he could kill one more. He was in a hurry because he was completely exhausted: there were no forces left. His face was pale and haggard with dark circles of fatigue under the eyes.

    White twilights were floating slowly above the warmed stones. The fog was thickening in the lowlands; swarms of mosquitoes were hanging over Vaskov’s head. He was like in a heavy dream: in his delirium he saw his girls-soldiers alive; he was whispering something to them and was sadly shaking his head. Dazed and slightly disoriented, he kept on walking.

    He was seeking for the enemies openly and sternly. It was time to finish the battle, to put the final full stop, which was still hiding in the bore of his revolver. His hunter’s intuition was leading him and he obeyed this instinct. Suddenly he slowed down and slid into the nearest bushes. In the distance of one hundred meters he noticed a glade with a rotten well and a low squat hut. Vackov realized that the fascists were there; he knew it exactly and inexplicably like a wolf always knew where a hare was hiding.

    He got stock-still, watching the house and waiting patiently. When at the far corner something vague swayed slightly, he wasn’t surprised. He got full assurance that it was a sentry. Vaskov was approaching him slowly, like in a dream, he raised his foot, put it weightlessly on the ground – not a branch creaked, not a leaf rustled. In this strange bird’s dance he went round the glade and found himself behind the back of the motionless guard-soldier. Even slower he moved towards that broad dark back. He wasn’t going – he was floating. In his right hand he was holding a knife, ready for the last decisive stab…

    Then Vaskov plunged into the hut. … They were sleeping like logs before the last march to the railroad. Only one wasn’t sleeping; he threw himself to the corner to his gun; Vaskov picked up that lightning movement and sent a bullet through his head on the spot. Vaskov made them lie down on the floor and tied their hands behind their backs. The enemies were not afraid of his cries or his grenade. They simply couldn’t believe that he was alone, alone for hundreds of miles and that’s why they obeyed. Fedot Efgrafovich was shaking like in fever; the tears were rolling down his dirty unshaven cheeks and he was laughing and crying simultaneously through these tears…


    • Read the ideas from the story. They are all false in some way. Rewrite each idea so that it is correct.

    1. The book tells us about the fortunes of five young girls, former University students during the Great patriotic war.

    2. The anti-aircraft gunners were on duty near the provision warehouse.

    3. Rita noticed two German soldiers near the railway passing track.

    4. The sergeant-mayor made up his mind to encircle the enemies.

    5. The girls died one after another. Only Vaskov remained safe and sound.

    6. Vaskov captured the fascists by chance.

    7. The fascists were having a rest in a deep ravine in the wood.

    8. Vaskov made the fascists lie down because they got afraid of the grenade in his hand.

    9. Vaskov was laughing because he was proud of his clever trick.

    10. Fedot Efgrafovich convoyed the enemies to the nearest village.


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    A story about a real man

    The book was written by Boris Polevoy in 1946. The story tells about a Soviet pilot Alexey Maresyev, who was severely injured in the battle and lost his both feet. Due to his willpower he recovered and returned to the Armed Forces. The book was re-published 80 times in the Russian language; 39 times – in the foreign languages.

    A military pilot fell down right in the middle of the Black Wood. The branches of the pine-trees partly softened the terrible crash that’s why he could survive though badly wounded. By the time he regained his senses, he realized he was on the hostile territory. Coping with excruciating pain from his broken legs, he moved towards the front line. The sounds of war became louder from day to day. 18 days he suffered from hunger and dehydration but didn’t give up. He ate moss and dried plant seeds but it was a drop in the ocean. He was on the brink of collapse when partisans found him and rescued his life. He was evacuated to the rear and was put into hospital.

    When it became obvious that amputation of the feet was unavoidable, the pilot burst into tears. He felt in tight corner. Alexey couldn’t reconcile himself with the idea of being handicapped. The thought of committing a suicide stuck in his head. Fortunately Alexey came across a good man Semen Vorobyov by name, who inspired him and awoke in his soul the desire to live. Especially for Alexey, Semen cut out a newspaper article that contained a piece of information about a pilot who went on operating a flying machine despite the loss of both feet. This fact could spark further struggle for life.

    After the complicated operation, Alexey could pull himself together and he was said to be making a rapid recovery. The situation was fueling the fears that Alexey would have to retire and reject the idea of returning to the Army. It triggered even more persistent training. Alexey set himself rigorous time limits for getting well; he was inclined to continue his pilot career. Needless to say, he was getting through a hard time-period. It was extremely painful to walk for Alexey, but he clenched his teeth and kept on training. The dogged persistence finally paid off when he learnt to dance, to run, to jump…

    Doctors from Medical Commission couldn’t believe that he was an invalid. They were flabbergasted to such extend that were unable to utter a word. They gave Alexey a unique chance to rise into the sky again. During that flight Alexey couldn’t help crying…


    • Choose the right variant:

    1. How can you prove that the book was a real best-seller?

    a. It was about the Great patriotic war.

    b. It was written by a famous writer.

    c. It was re-printed many times.

    2. According to the first passage, Alexey’s plane crashed in a

    a. rye field

    b. swampy area

    c. dense wood

    3. It can be inferred from the second passage that Alexey survived due to

    a. the pine trees

    b. his parachute

    c. his strength of character

    4. The word “dehydration” in paragraph 2 means

    a. the lack of food

    b. the lack of water

    c. the lack of help

    5. The word “handicapped” in paragraph 3 can be replaced by the word

    a. disabled

    b. injured

    c. paralyzed

    6. According to the passage the process of recovery was

    a. quick and calm

    b. stressful and painful

    c. long-lasting and unsuccessful

    7. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text: Alexey was rescued by

    a. skillful doctors at hospital

    b. his friend, a pilot-invalid

    c. Soviet partisans

    8. The author’s main purpose in the extract is to

    a. compare Alexey Maresyev and Semen Vorobyov

    b. highlight the fact that a person’s willpower can help to overcome all the obstacles

    c. show how difficult is to operate a flying machine

    9. Which of the following statements would the author agree?

    a. This story should be treated as an example of physical and moral strength.

    b. This story sounds obsolete in today’s world.

    c. This story contains some details which seem to be unrealistic.

    10. The author’s opinion of Alexey is

    a. supportive

    b. highly-respectful

    c. ambivalent


    • Imagine that you are interviewing Alexey. What questions would you ask him? Write them down. Make your partner answer them taking into account details from the book.


    Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.

    The hot snow

    The hot snow” (1970) – the novel, written by a famous Soviet author Jury Bondarev, tells us about the (1. …) events that happened in December 1942. The fighting, described in the book, (2. …) to the victory in Stalingrad Battle. Only four people and one heavy gun were left in the platoon of Kuznetsov. The soldiers had been repulsing a tank attack for the entire day. They were (3. …). But the artillery-men managed to hold the fascists’ onslaught till the Soviet troops launched the counter-offensive.

    The only heavy gun, came off (4. …) and escaped (5. …)by miracle, was standing a kilometer away from the bridge, burnt and (6. …) by the numerous shells. It stopped its active life when they spent all the ammunition.

    Neither Kuznetsov nor Ukhanov could know for sure that the tanks of the military group under the command of Colonel-General Gott (7. …) forced a crossing over the river Myshkova on the right flank of the Soviet Army and without stopping, (8. …) into the defensive position of General Deev’s (9. …).

    However, they were aware of the terrible fact that at the end of the day a great number of the tanks oppressed the (10. …) of the neighbouring batteries; smashed the defense line of captain Drozdovsky’s battery and crossed the river to the opposite bank; after it the bridge was set to fire and was semi-ruined.

    Gradually the heavy fire was beginning to flag; the deafening sounds of fighting were getting (11. …) somewhere in the distance. Above the northern bank, which had recently been the rear, they could see the raising glow of a fire. Here, on the (12. …) bank the battle was dying down as well; although the ground remained fiery-red – here and there was burning synthetic petrol, the carcasses of the warped tanks; the flame was licking the iron skeletons of the trucks which remained (13. …) during the battle, as they were following the tanks. The three iron “monsters” with crosses on the sides, were smoking just in front of the battery fire position. The wind was blowing from the east making the blaze (14. …). Dense puffs of smoke were hanging close to the ground. The soldiers were suffocating from the smells of burning-hot iron and (15. …) sweet rubber.

    They four were awarded with a lucky chance to survive in this never-lasting battle; to outlive the others but Kuznetsov didn’t feel the joy of the (16. …). After everything he had endured on that day, he stepped over something – and this feeling of something new, almost (17. …) – pushed him to that destructive (18. …) state of hatred and enjoyment of his (19. …) which he had experienced shooting at the tanks during the battle. He knew for sure they were (20. …) to withstand the “invincible” fascist army and were going to vanquish in the long run…


    1. Tragedy


    1. Contribution



    1. Circle



    1. Hurt

    2. To destruct

    3. Figure




    1. Success


    1. Deep

    2. To divide


    1. To resist






    1. Quit



    1. South




    1. Vision




    1. Bad


    1. Stick




    1. To be


    1. Conscious

    2. Toxic

    3. Strong

    20. Ability


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    V. Elmar – a poet-hero

    During the years of the Great patriotic war the Mari literature kept on developing. This process was especially fruitful in the genre of poetry. In his verses the Mari poets reflected the thoughts and feelings of the people, their endless love for Motherland and their desire to do everything possible and impossible for the victory over fascist Germany.

    In the image of the soldier-hero they accumulated the typical features of the Soviet people: bravery, humanism, love for Motherland. They devoted their verses to our country, its heroic past; to the soldiers-defenders, who performed miracles of courage at the front and displayed labour heroism in the home front.

    One of the Mari poets who was working during the Great patriotic war was Vasily Elmar (the real name Kozyrev Vasily Sergeevich). He was born on 22 January 1910 in a small village of Kozhmasola (Zvenigovsky region) in the family of a peasant. After graduating from the Aircraft Institute in Kazan in 1932 he was the member of the editorial board of the republican newspaper “Mari Kommuna”.

    Since 1942 he took part in the Great patriotic war and was seriously wounded several times. In 1943 he died heroically in one of the battles.

    He began creating his verses in 1933 and published them in the magazine “U Viy”. In his poems he wrote about deep love to the country, glorified civic labour and patriotism of the soviet people; exposed the crimes of fascism. Based on the personal impressions his poems create the bright and emotional images of the common soldiers; they are the hymn to the outstanding heroism and unparalleled feat of the Soviet people during the war.

    One of his best poems is “My Motherland” (“Rodina-Ava”) written in October 1941. Here the poet describes the achievements of the country during the years of the Soviet power and he solemnly swears to stop the fascists who were going to ruin everything so dear to the heart of the soviet people.

    The image of his Motherland the poet also depicted in the poems “Moscow” (1942), “To my son” (1942), “Leningrad” (1943), “Captain Gastello” (1942), “Heroes” (1942), “We will never forget you” (1943). They all sound rather optimistic because the poet believes in the strength of the soviet people and their unbending will. His poetry was a kind of ideological weapon in the fight against the fascist soldiers.

    V. Elmar was one of the favourite Mari poets and his whole life was an example of utter devotion and selfless service to his Motherland. In his poem “The oath of a warrior” (1942) he wrote:

    Ты слушай мой голос, родной мой народ

    С сердечной радостью тебе я клянусь:

    За Родину не пожалею свою жизнь

    До последней капли крови ее отдаю.

    (word for word translation from the Mari language).

    My dear people, listen to my voice.

    I swear joyfully to you:

    I will give away my life without any hesitation

    Till the last drop

    For my Motherland.

    (word for word translation into the English language).

    In these lines he expressed his ideal and he was faithful to his oath up to the last minute of his life.


    • Say if these sentences are True (T), False (F) or Not State (NS):


    1. Vasily Elmar is the poet's pen-name.

    2. Vasily was born in the family of a farmer.

    3. His mother worked in the editorial board of a newspaper.

    4. Vasily didn’t manage to get a higher education.

    5. The poet got married very early and had two children.

    6. He participated in the war from the very beginning.

    7. He began creating poems before the war but he didn’t publish them.

    8. All his verses are ideologically-oriented.

    9. He devoted his poems to the history of his country and the beauty of the local landscape.

    10. The poet proved his patriotism now only with his works but with his heroic feat.

    11. The collection of the poet’s poems was published after the war and became a best-seller at once.


    • Have you ever read the poems by this poet before? Try to predict what his poems are about.

    Match the titles and the main ideas:


    1. “Moscow”

    A. Gives instructions to his child concerning his future life;

    2. “Leningrad”

    B. Describes the heroic flights of this brave man;

    3. “My Motherland”

    C. Speaks about the heroic past of the country;

    4. “To my son”

    D. Remembers those who died during the war;

    5. “We will never forget you”

    E. Depicts the terrible blockade which lasted for almost a year;

    6. “Captain Gastello”

    F. Describes the wide avenues, high buildings and magnificent monuments.



    • .Go to the local library, take a collection of poems by V. Elmar and check up your predictions.

    • Read the poem ''The long-expected day” and try to translate it word for word.

    И готов я, как прежде,

    За грядущую радость,

    Свою голову в битве сложить!

    Чести выше не знаю,

    Нет мне большей награды,

    Чем Отчизне любимой служить!

    Glossary:

    to give away one’s life – отдавать свою жизнь

    without any hesitation – без колебаний

    the highest honour – высшая честь

    the biggest award – самая большая награда

    to serve selflessly – беззаветно служить


    • What feelings did the author try to express in his poem?

    • Can we feel that he is very proud of his country?

    • Do you think the poem encourage the author’s compatriots for heroic deeds?

    • Was the poet an active patriot? Did he prove his devotion to Motherland by his heroic life?

    • Did your great-grandparents take part in the Great patriotic war?

    • Did they tell you anything about the war?

    • Do you think the previous generations were more devoted to the country? Why/ why not?

    • The modern teenagers are often called “the lost generation”, “the generations of the lost or forgotten ideals”. Do you agree with this point of view? Why/why not? Try to illustrate your words with examples.





    Module 6.

    The theme of war on the canvases of the prominent painters


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    Artistic chronicles of those terrible war years

    Soviet artists conveyed the terrible chronicles of the Great patriotic war by means of their paintings. The ideas for the canvases were on the surface and inevitably came to mind: fascist threat, severe war days, sorry and grief for the fallen, hatred for the enemy, then – joy of the great victory; the feeling of participating in one common feat. Especially valuable (from the emotional point of view) are the pictures which appeared during the war years; the ones that were created under the immediate impression of the war.

    One of such paintings is called “Moscow outskirts. November 1941” (1941) which belongs to the brush of Deineka. The picture doesn’t have a particular plot; the artist gives a general fixed evidence of the unusual atmosphere in the city and the whole epoch as well.

    During the first period of the war Arkady Plastov created a famous painting “The fascist has flown over” (1941). An outstanding painting “The defense of Sevastopol” (1942) was created by Deineka. It is characterized by the deep expression of the experienced events as the author starts to perceive the life around more widely. To some extent, it’s a kind of historical epopee.

    Konstantin Yun painted an exceptional picture – “The Parade in Red Square on November 7, 1941” (1942) where he restored the historically truthful image of the parade from which the troops went immediately to the front. In 1942 Pavel Korin created the central part of the triptych “Alexander Nevsky”, embodying the heroic base and unbending willpower in the image of the Prince. Sometimes the artists applied to the historical plots, following the traditions of Vasnetsov and Surikov.

    Alexander Bubnov did a picture under the title “Morning in the Kulikov field” (1943-1947). Even landscapes got patriotic character. It was interpreted in this way by Nikolay Romadin in a number of pictures under the common title “The Russian River Volga” (1944).

    In 1944 M.V. Kupriyanov, P.N. Krylov, N.A. Sokolov arrived in Novgorod that had just been liberated by the Soviet Army. A terrible panorama of devastating destruction came to their view. Novgorod’s Temple of St. Sophiya - the symbol of the national glory – was half-ruined, its walls were riddled with bullet holes. In deep snow were scattered the parts of the Monument “Millennium of Russia” which was sawn up by the occupants.

    To confirm the firmness and stability of the Russian architecture, to show the immortality of the Russian culture – these were the goals that the artists set up before themselves when they took up painting the canvas “The run away of fascists from Novgorod” (1944). It’s one of the most significant canvases of the war time according to the fullness of the plot and brightness of the embodiment of the images.

    I. M. Toidze is the author of the famous placard of the war time “Motherland is calling!” It was painted at the end of June 1941. The idea of creation of the collective image of Mother who is calling her sons for help flashed in his mind quite unexpectedly. Having heard the news about the outbreak of war over the radio, the painter’s spouse rushed into his room with a loud cry “War has started!” Struck by her face expression the artist asked her to stand still and began to do the first sketches of the future masterpiece. The image of the Motherland later became one of the most widespread means of the Soviet propaganda.

    The painting “The Last Grenade” was created by Yury Neprintsev in 1948. The artist set to work in 1947. With the help of his canvas the master wanted to answer a question: “Why did the Soviet people win the bloody battle against fascism?” In the depicted characters the author underlines their selfless courage, moral inner purity. He also highlights the firm desire of the soldiers, defending Sevastopol, not to step backwards, not to retreat.

    M.I. Samsonov painted a picture “A medical nurse” in 1948. In his canvas he showed the alongside the men, Soviet women and girls fought bravely against the enemy. The author created a bright image of a girl – a medical nurse who is helping a wounded soldier with a bandage on his head to get away from the hell of the battle and is carrying his weapon. Around her is a tense war landscape: a destroyed cannon is burning, the ground is scattered with the fired cartridge cases, in the distance – the contours of the “hedgehogs” – the anti-tank devices of barbered wire entangled with stakes or iron bars. The landscape enhances the dramatic character of the situation. Despite all the hardships the girl’s eyes are full of hope for the coming victory.


    • Say what picture


    1. Isn’t devoted to the concrete war event

    2. Is devoted to the incredible courage of the sailors

    3. Shows some facts from the defense of our capital

    4. Was created for five years

    5. Was a result of collective artistic work

    6. Treated nature as a motive to inspire patriotic feelings into the audience

    7. Helped to speculate on the causes of the Soviet people’s victory in the war

    8. Is devoted to the courage of women at war

    9. Was created with the help of the relatives

    10. Refers to the events of ancient history


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    Mother of a partisan”

    To the great number of paintings that convey the idea of heroism and steadfastness of the Russian people in the struggle against fascism is referred the masterpiece under the title “Mother of a partisan” by Sergey Gerasimov (1943-1950). The central figure in the painting – a Soviet woman. Fascist scums of the earth can’t intimidate her. She knows that behind her is her native land, burnt and defiled by the enemies but not conquered or crushed. In the episode of the dramatic conflict between a woman-patriot and an invader the artist shows bravery and staunchness in fighting, characteristic to the Soviet people.

    In 1958 the canvas was exposed in the international Exhibition in Brussels and was awarded with a gold medal. Today it is displayed in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow.

    When the Great patriotic war began, S.V. Gerasimov was already a famous painter. Most of his canvases were devoted to the life of the Russian village. The painting “Mother of a partisan” wasn’t an exception. In the focus of attention with a proudly raised head is standing a partisan’s mother. As the painter pointed out he wanted to create a generalized image of all mothers who sent their sons to war.

    The picture undoubtedly shows the force of the people’s rage and anger that are experienced by the occupants. In comparison to the woman the fascist looks miserable and presents a sorry spectacle. The woman, light and strong, is standing upright against the smoky scorched ruins. Her face keeps a stern seal of enormous suffering but this is the pain of a powerful and self-sufficient person who is sure to overcome all the obstacles. The figure of the German soldier deprived of any bright individual feature, contrasts the image of a woman. The viewer can only notice his low forehead and heavy jaw that add something brutish and savage to his appearance.

    The painting “Mother of a partisan” by Sergey Gerasimov is considered to be one of the most impressive and dramatic in the author’s artistic heritage.


    • Divide the offered vocabulary into two parts: the words that characterize the woman – mother of a partisan and the words suitable to describe a fascist soldier.

    Impressive, low, brave, angry, heavy, miserable, light, strong, powerful, savage, self-sufficient, unpleasant, brutish, a sorry spectacle, generalized image of mothers, proud, unattractive, repulsive, disgusting, admirable, courageous, selfless, heroic, unconquered, straight, challenging, inexpressive




    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    A letter from the front line”

    The canvas “A letter from the front line” was painted by A.I. Laktionov in 1947. The picture is marvelous in its simplicity. The plot is rather ordinary: the boy is holding a letter in his hand – it’s his Dad’s account about his life and struggle at war. The boy is surrounded by numerous neighbours and relatives to whom he is reading loudly the latest news. The artist managed to express the light optimistic start in life and in people. The painting has not a complicated but very trustworthy content which is depicted in a very easy-to understand manner. In 1948 the artist was awarded with the State Prize for this brilliant painting.

    The picture was created in Zagorsk, a small town not far from Moscow, where the artist and the members of his family came back from evacuation. One day the artist was picking his way home when he faced a soldier with a bandaged arm. The soldier was looking for a particular address to pass a letter. Laktionov helped him to find the wanted house and accidentally witnessed a touching scene of receiving a long-waited message in which a fighter apparently dropped a few lines to his nearest and dearest. The episode finally defined the plot of the future picture.

    The process was effort and time consuming. It took the painter two years to bring the canvas to an end. Laktionov asked his mate a painter V.I. Nikiforov to be a model. The latter had just returned from the front line and his dashing look was asking to be painted. A woman with an envelop is Laktionov’s mother’s sister Evdokya Nikiforovna. A pioneer reading a letter is a 7-year-old son of the painter Sergey by name; a girl with plaits, standing nearby – his younger daughter. A girl in a blouse with a red sleeve-band is a neighbouring girl. She is completely lit by the sunlight and her smile adds warmth to the picture.


    • Say whether these statements are True (T) or False (F):


    1. The painting was created for a couple of years.

    2. The picture was painted in Moscow.

    3. The picture makes an impression due to the complicated plot.

    4. The painting depicts a concrete historic event.

    5. The canvas was born thanks to an accidental meeting.

    6. Laktionov’s friend Nikiforov assisted the painter in the process of choosing the plot.

    7. The painter’s relatives helped the artist to embody the characters on the canvas.

    8. The canvas was highly appreciated.

    9. The prototype of the character-solder took part in the war himself.

    10. The picture conveys light feelings and cheerful mood.


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    A canvas – prosecutor of fascism

    A. In April 1937 a town of Gernika, a settlement of the Basque people in Spain was ruined practically to the ground by the fascist squadron “Condor”. 22 tons of bombs were dropped on that site from the planes. As a result 70% of the buildings were obliterated; about two thousand people were under the blockages. This bloody event became in the focus of public attention thanks to the English journalist John Steer who visited the place of the tragedy, got in touch with local residents, found bomb splinters with fascist brands.

    B. After that barbaric bombardment Pablo Picasso painted his canvas “Gernika”. He brought it to an end in record-breaking time period – less than a month. The main images of the picture – mother with a dead child in her hands, a tattered horse, a fallen horse rider, an ox – were clearly seen on the first days of work. The master stood beside the easel for more than 12 hours a day. It seemed that the idea of creating such a canvas had appeared in his mind long before; that’s why he painted so impetuously. Creation of the canvas of such enormous size (3,5 x 7,8 m) reflects Picasso’s reaction to the death of the innocent peaceful people. The theme and the image of an ox are interpreted as an evil devastating force, death, war, chaos. “Gernica” becomes the apogee of the development of this topic; it exposes all the horrors of fascism, unmasking the enemy.

    C. The canvas is painted in oil in black and white hues. It represents the scenes of violence, death, helplessness and suffering. The evil isn’t personified in the picture. The viewer can’t see the cause of this horror and bedlam. There are neither bombs nor shelling. Only somewhere in the distance there are the flames of fire. The black and white palette accentuates our attention on the absence of life. The manner of painting is close to the genre of newspaper photos of those times – the documental evidences of the fascists’ crime. He picture demonstrates to full extent grief and despair of people and animals; buildings that were disfigured by brute ruthless force and total chaos.

    D. In the middle of 1937 the canvas was displayed at the World Exhibition in Paris but it didn’t impress the spectators. “Gernika” saw only the backs of the visitors. In 1939 the canvas arrived in New York. Picasso promised that the picture would be returned to Spain only when the country had a democratic political regime. In 1967 The Spanish Government tried to return the canvas but the artist denied the request. In 2003 when the painting was displayed in the building of the UNO, it was covered with a piece of cloth. No one knows if it was done purposely or accidentally, but at that time the question of US invasion to Iraq was being under discussion.

    E. Later P. Picasso speaking about his creation noticed: “I could hear different comment from my friends and foes. But the number of friend was much bigger”.

    Dolores Ibarrury highly appreciated the picture: “The canvas accuses fascism and the political regime of Franco. It mobilized the nations, all men and women of good will for struggle. If Picasso created nothing but “Gernika” he would be considered as one of the best painters of our epoch”.

    Danish painter Herluf Bedstrup treated “Gernika” as the most impressive anti-war masterpiece. He wrote: “Picasso showed the savage face of war, the reflection of that appalling reality in abstract forms and this canvas is still in our anti-war arsenal”.


    • Match the paragraphs and the headings. There are two extra headings.


    1. The quick work of a genius

    2. The historic background of the canvas

    3. Awards and medals

    4. Artistic peculiarities of the canvas

    5. The difficult fate of the masterpiece

    6. A gifted painter

    7. Experts’ comment on the talented cubism creation


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    Picasso and his masterpiece

    Gernika” was painted in the style of cubism in 1937. In 1981 it was displayed in the famous museum “Prado”; since 1992 it has been exposing in the Museum of Queen Sophia in Madrid.

    All the scenes depicted in the canvas are taking place within one room.

    In the left part you can see a woman sobbing over her dead child. Above her there is an ox with widely opened eyes.

    The center of the canvas is occupied by the figure of a horse convulsing in agony as if it had just been transpierced with a spear or a dart. The horse’s nose and upper teeth are made up by the form of a human skull.

    Under the horse – a dead soldier whose chopped off hand is still gripping a splinter of a sword.

    Transparent lamp (from the chamber of tortures) in the form of an eye is giving some light above the head of the suffering horse.

    On the right above the horse there is an antique mask that seems to be a witness of all the happening events; it looks as if the mask is floating into the room through the window. Its hand holding a lit lamp is also penetrating inside.

    The daggers personify the piercing cry and they substitute the tongues of the ox, the mournful woman and the horse.

    Behind the ox on the shelf is a dove, apparently in panic.

    On the right edge you can see a figure with arms raised in horror. It is trapped in a fire both above and beneath.

    The dark wall with an open door completes the right wing of the canvas.

    On the arms of the killed soldier a viewer can notice stigmata (painful bleeding wounds) like those on the body of the crucified Christ. It reflects the idea of sufferings without any grounds.

    The head of the ox in the upper left corner of the picture was the reason for much disagreement among critics and art experts. It is the character that is looking indifferently at everything; its black eyes are directing to nowhere. It doesn’t sympathize with the characters of the picture; it can’t realize the absolute terror of the situation. Some experts are of the opinion that it is the personification of fascism and total world evil. Others think that the ox is the symbol of deafness, ignorance, lack of understanding.


    • Read the text and say what the main idea of the text is:

    1. P. Picasso’s painting contains a lot of images.

    2. P. Picasso painted a lot of images to horrify the viewer.

    3. P. Picasso’s canvas causes a lot of interpretations.

    4. P. Picasso is a symbolic painter.

    5. It’s difficult to see images in Picasso’s canvas.


    • Fill in the chart:

    Verb

    Noun

    Adjective

    1. To die

    1. Death

    1. Dead

    2. To pierce

    2. -----

    2. Piercing

    3. -----

    3. Sympathy

    3. -----

    4. -----

    4. -----

    4. Symbolic

    5. To characterize

    5. -----

    5. -----

    6. -----

    6. Indifference

    6. Indifferent

    7. To ignore

    7. -----

    7. -----

    8. -----

    8. Terror

    8. -----

    9. -----

    9. Reason

    9. -----

    10.-----

    10. Critic

    10.-----

    11. To substitute

    11. -----

    11. -----

    12. -----

    12. Panic

    12. -----

    13. -----

    13. -----

    13. Horrible

    14. -----

    14. Center

    14.-----

    15. -----

    15. -----

    15. Wide

    16.-----

    16. Agony

    16.-----


    Read the text and fill in the gaps with the necessary word-forms.


    The war-canvases by the Mari painters

    Many Mari painters devoted their masterpieces to the theme of the Great patriotic war. B. I. Osipov made an important … (1) to the … (2) of the Mari Art during the years of the war. In his painting “the Mari women are giving out their silver decorations to the … (3) Fund” he depicted the … (4) level of patriotism of the ordinary people. In his other canvas “The women-patriots from Sernur” we can see the soldiers marching … (5) the street of Sernur, the … (6) center. In the foreground - the young Mari girls (7) … in military uniform with rifles in their hands. The painter … (8) depicted the atmosphere of the hard war-time which demanded … (9) both from men and … (10). The topic of war also … (11) in the canvases painted by another Mari artist B. M. Kozmin. In his pictures “Lieutenant Enkin”, “The soldiers’ bathhouse”, “The earth-house”, “The soldiers at rest” we can … (12) feel the author’s desire to convey the … (13) of every day way life.


    1. To contribute

    2. To develop


    3. To defend

    4. Height


    5. Long

    6. To locate

    7. A dress

    8. Skill

    9. Hero

    10. A woman

    11. Dominant



    12. Easy

    13. To imagine

    Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words.


    The image of a Russian soldier

    A. I. Butov was a five-year-old boy … (1) the war began. It went through his childhood leaving terrible reminiscence for… (2). That’s … (3) his first picture “Heavy thoughts” (1962) seems … (4) autobiographical. In the foreground we see a boy and a man sitting … (5) on a bench. The man lost his right leg at war. But it’s clear … (6) his personal drama didn’t break his will to live. In this or … (7) way he resembles Andrey Sokolov, the main character in Sholokhov’s story “The fortune of a man”. The author wants to underline the strength of the hero who has come back to his native land and who feels responsibility ... (8) the future life of this single boy and the ... (9) country. The artist tries to depict the main idea of the canvas not through the direct action … (10) through the inner world of the man. Feeling great sympathy … (11) the characters, creating the definite psychological mood, the painter portrays the sincere image… (12) a Russian soldier.


    Read the text and open the brackets using the appropriate form of the verb.


    Famous Mari artists about the war

    Z. F. Lavrentyev … (1.to create) a big portrait-gallery of his fellow-countrymen – veterans of the Great patriotic war.

    The impressive images of women … (2. to depict) in the paintings “Twice a widow” (1961), “Gloves for the soldiers” (1975). The most emotional (3. to be) his picture “Here the soldiers died” (1970). One can’t help … (4. to cry) looking at the pictures “The sacred land” and “The monument to the war” (1967).

    I. V. Efimov… (5. to be born) after the war in 1946. Before he … (6. to take up) the military theme, he … (7. to study) a lot of official documents, articles, private letters. In 1979 he … (8. to finish) the picture “They are seeing a man off to the front”. In the hall where it was exhibited the large canvases … (9. to cry) by the voices of the wounded or dying soldiers; the mines and shells … (10. to explode) loudly, the bullets … (11. to whistle) terribly. But the painting of the young Mari artist … (12. to attract) the viewers by the piercing silence. No death, no blood, no moans … (13. to depict) there. Near the village fence the relatives are seeing off a young man to the front. On their sorrowful faces we can … (14. to see) both pain and hope, grief and belief in the victory. In harmony with their feelings … (15. to paint) the dead sky, the stunted grass, the broken country-road. Everything … (16. to unite) into one strict solemn melody – the hymn to the future victory.


    • Try to find the reproductions of the pictures mentioned above. Describe one of them in detail.

    • Find some more pictures devoted to the theme of the Great patriotic war. Organize a class art exhibition. Try to be a guide in this gallery.



    Read the text and fill in the verbs in the necessary form.


    The Art Gallery in the country house

    The daughter of the amateur painter, the veteran of the Great patriotic war Nikolay Fyodorovich Zykov … (1. to open) the museum of her father’s paintings in his house in the village of Yulendur, Kuzhener region. There are so many pictures that they … (2. to display) everywhere: in the rooms, in the kitchen, in the verandah: all in all 54 canvases.

    Nikolay was a very talented craftsman. All the furniture in his house was hand-made and … (3. to decorate) with illustrations to the Russian folk fairy-tales and ballads. There used … (4. to be) a chest of drawers the front of which was painted with the scenes from the tale about Ivan Tsarevich; the back part – the copy of the painting “The morning of the Strelets’ Execution”.

    When he was at war he sent home together with the letters incredibly bright and merry pictures and sketches: the hare playing the drum, the birds of paradise, animals, children, nature.

    Nikolay was lucky: wounded but alive he came back home. Till the end of his life he didn’t give up… (5. to paint). Practically each family in Yulendur … (6. to have) canvases created by N. Zykov.

    Once his daughter visited Leningrad and (7. to bring) home a suitcase full of the reproductions of the world-famous canvases.

    Still today for almost 50 years from the walls of Nikolay’s house … (8. to look) Maria-Magdalina and Sixtinskaya Madonna, Zaporozhskie Kasaks and Boyarynya Morozova.

    It was his daughter Margaret who organized the museum of her father’s paintings. It … (9. not/have) the official status but a lot of visitors come here. A few boys who are good at painting come here every day to work. The aura here is so unusual that the house … (10. to turn) into the working shop.

    Margaret herself works as a guide now; she (11. to tell) the guests about her father, the history of the paintings, about people and events depicted there. It’s rather interesting especially for village children who never… (12. to be) to a real museum. That’s why they are so grateful to Margaret and her efforts to preserve a little part of our common history.



    Module 7.

    Music and war time


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    One night musical masterpiece

    The dark night” is one of the most lyrical songs of the war period. It was written for the film “Two soldiers” by the poet Vladimir Agatov and composer Nikita Bogoslovsky in 1943.

    The idea of adding a touching love song to the composition of the film flashed across the director Leonid Lukov’s mind. As the composer recollected, one evening Lukov called on him and during the friendly chat he gave the game away: the absence of a tender melody put him in a tight spot. He admitted that the scene in the earth-house without a proper song didn’t produce the necessary effect. He asked Bogoslovsky to help with the melody. They set to work together as the director mentioned that two heads were better than one.

    The composer was at his best and hit the right nail from the first try. Then they both set a general alarm and woke their mate Agatov who almost immediately wrote the necessary words on a sheet of paper. Later he remembered: “I was so taken aback and stuck dumb that wrote the text of the song without thinking twice.”

    That night Mark Bernes couldn’t grab a chance to sleep well either. The exited trio simply dragged him out of bed to perform the new hit. Not beating about the bush, they made Mark Bernes sing the song on the spot. The last “victim” of the creative process was a guitarist who was set to his feet at the crack of dawn.

    Almost the entire night the film crew was humoring the muse and the result in the form of a song that conquered the hearts of millions of Soviet people came into being by the morning.

    When the film was released and the audience saw it on the screen, the popularity of the song was enormous. The records with the song were much sought after. They were sold like hot cakes.


    • Change the underlined phrases into those which have similar meaning:

    were in great demand, was greatly surprised, two people can achieve more, was puzzled, tried hard, were sold very quickly, use an opportunity, very early, in a difficulty, not wasting time, told the truth, pleasing the fortune, did it right, occurred to him




    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    Shostakovich and his heroic symphony

    The famous theme of the first part of the symphony was composed by Shostakovich before the beginning of the Great patriotic war. (A ---). Rather simple tune, at first quite, ordinary, developing against a background of stern abrupt sounds of a drum, finally grew into a total symbol of suppression.

    In 1940 Shostakovich demonstrated this musical piece to his friends and colleges but didn’t perform it in public. (B ---). On 1 October Shostakovich and the members of his family were evacuated to the city of Kuibyshev where the symphony was completed up to the end on 27 December 1941.

    Symphony № 7 was first performed on 5 March 1942 in Kuibyshev where at that was the troupe of the Bolshoy Theatre. The orchestra was conducted by Samuil Samosud. A bit later the symphony was performed by the orchestra of Leningrad Philharmonic that was in evacuation in Novosibirsk at that time. (C ---). On 19 July 1942 the symphony was performed in New York by the Symphonic Orchestra of New York radio. The conductor was Arthur Toskanini. In March the symphony was rehearsed by the Grand Orchestra of Leningrad. During the blockade some of the musicians had died, only 15 weak and exhausted performers could play their musical instruments. To make up a deficiency, a number of military musicians were recalled.

    The concert and the symphony were attached great importance to. On the day of the premiere all the artillery was aimed at the neutralizing of the fascist bombardments. In spite of the bombs and shelling, all the chandeliers in the building of the Philharmonic were lit-up. (D ---). The audience was various: here came the sailors, armed soldiers from the front line, soldiers of the air defense, former philharmonic goers.

    The new musical masterpiece by Shostakovich impressed the listeners very much: many of them were crying, even not trying to conceal the tears. The great music expressed everything that united people at that time: their strong belief in final victory, self-sacrifice, unlimited deep love for the country and the city. (E---). It was clearly heard not only by the city dwellers but by the fascist soldiers. Much later one of the military men from Germany confessed: “On 9 August we realized that we would lose the war. We felt your immense power that could overcome fear, famine, even death”. They say having heard those tremendous sounds, fascists went mad: they were sure that the city was dead.

    The main idea of the symphony is the Soviet people’s struggle against the occupants; their faith in the coming victory”, wrote Shostakovich in the newspaper “Pravda” on 29 March 1942. (F---). The first one narrates how the peaceful life of the Soviet people was interrupted by the evil force – a war. The first theme conveys the idea of joyful creation and work. Then you hear the melodies which symbolize the images of nature. They sound so gently as though melting and fading eventually. A warm summer night covers the ground. Both people and nature around fall asleep.

    (G---). At first the sounds of the drums are hardly heard. The wind instruments are playing insinuatingly, as if purposely are muffled. It seems that mechanical wind-up toys are marching. By and by the sounds of the orchestra are becoming louder and more massive. The theme of the enemy’s intervention is growing and approaching us. The melody is getting more and more frenzied and furious. The monster takes off the buffoon mask and we see its savage grin. Here starts the total chaos of destruction.

    In the episode of invasion the composer depicts brutal violence and blind lifelessly sinister automatism which are inseparably linked with the outlook of the fascist military clique. The theme of invasion is developing deliberately as obtuse and square. It resembles a Prussian military march. The orchestration changes but the melody remains the same – it is repeated 11 times in some variations. The rhythm of the march (performed by the drummers) is repeatedly heard and is growing gradually to the deafening sounds of thunder. The music depicts something terrible and gloomy: an awful monster is moving forward impetuously.

    At the moment when everything alive fades and droops being unable to withstand the onslaught of this terrifying all-shattering creature-robot, the miracle occurs: on its way emerges a new force that can not only resist but over fight and vanquish it. Here begins the theme of opposition. Solemn and tragic, this theme of resistance is full of anger and passion at the same time. (H ---). After this collision the theme of invasion loses its monolithic character. All attempts to liven up are in vain – the death of the monster is unavoidable.

    All Russian people performed heroic deeds during that terrible war: at the front line, in partisan detachments, in underground organizations, in hospitals, at the factories and in the fields in the deep rear. (I ---). Due to their activity we know a lot about the war. Symphony №7 is not only a musical but a military heroic deed, performed by Dmitry Shostakovich. With the help of this genius music he struggled in the name of triumph of intellect over obscurantism, triumph of justice over barbarity and vandalism.

    • Read through the following text and then choose the best sentence given below it (1 – 10) to fill in each of the blanks (A – I). One of the suggested answers does not fit at all.


    1. The moment of its appearance is a kind of a climax, the point of the highest tension.

    2. Then begins the invasion of the enemy.

    3. The house was full.

    4. Musicians also accomplished feats – they composed music and performed it.

    5. It presented several variations on the constant love topic similar to “Bolero” (Spanish dance) by Moris Ravel in the original author’s conception.

    6. The concert was broadcast over the radio.

    7. The symphony comprises four parts.

    8. It was under the guidance of Eugene Mravinsky.

    9. The fascist troops kept the city in severe blockade.

    10. In September 1941 the composer finished the second part of the symphony in Leningrad that was already under siege.



    • Read the text below. Some of the lines are correct; some have the word which shouldn’t be there. If a line is correct, put a tick √ next to it. If a line has a word which shouldn’t be there, write the word at the end of the line.


    Unofficial war hymn

    Rise to your feet the enormous country,

    Rise to the death battle with the evil dark force,

    With the fascist horde…”

    These are the lines from the patriotic war song a “Sacred war” that became a kind of a hymn for about all the defenders of our Motherland during the Great patriotic war.

    On June 24, 1941 the Soviet newspaper “Red star” published the poem “Sacred war” by V.I. Lebedev-Kumach. Soon and after the publication a Soviet composer A.V. Alexandrov put the poetic lines to the music. Because of the lack of to time the words and notes were not published out. Alexandrov wrote them on the blackboard with a piece of chalk; for the musicians copied them into the their note-books. They had only one day for rehearsal.

    On June 26, 1941 the song was performed at the platform of the Belorussia Railway station for the first a time. The atmosphere in the hall of the station was had unusual: all the premises were crammed with people. All the soldiers were wearing newly-made uniform, not sometimes badly fit; they were being holding guns, machine guns, sapper spades…

    At first the musicians hesitated and were a bit at a loss: it seemed impossible in that chaos of loud voices, abrupt commands… The words of the announcer about a new song drowned in the complete fuss and was loud hum. But at the moment when Alexandrov raised his hand if with a baton, the people grew more quitter. There was not a sound heard while the second couplet was being performed. The song had caught everybody’s mind and soul. The audience was fully overawed with solemn tragic words and impressive melody by. All the people stood up to their feet as if though the State Anthem was being played. Many of the listeners had a lump in the throat and the musicians were fighting back tears as well as.

    The ensemble sang the song five times in the succession. Since that very day the song began its long and glorious the way. The author of the song A. Alexandrov later confessed: “I had never been a military expert but I did had a powerful weapon in my hands – a great inspiring song. Songs of such a kind could also to defeat the enemy like any other armour”.




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    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    There were only four steps till death…

    A. “In the earth-house” (lyrics by Alex Surkov, music by K. Listov) is a Soviet song which was born in the severe years of the Great patriotic war. It was the first war song that was unreservedly accepted by the hearts of the soldiers at the front lines and by the hearts of those who were waiting for them at home. A moving heartfelt and sincere voice of the poet merged together with the voices of all the people who were separated by the war.

    B. A. Surkov wrote in his reminiscence: “A poem was born by chance. It wasn’t going to be a song; it even wasn’t going to be published. It was a set of 16 lines – piercing words addressed my wife Sofiya Antonovna who I missed greatly. The letter was written at the end of November, after a rather difficult day at the front line near the river of Istra when at night we had to break out the encirclement after a bloody battle…”

    C. Since the outbreak of war a journalist and a poet A. Surkov became the military correspondent of the newspaper “Krasnoarmeyskaya Pravda” (“The Red Army men’s Truth”). On November 27, 1941 the war journalist came to the place of dislocation of 78th division that was protecting the river Istra in the suburbs of Moscow. First the guests visited the Headquarters of the regiment, then headed for the village of Kashino where was the command post of the 258th regiment.

    D. On arrival it turned out that the enemy’s infantry was approaching the village. The sudden firing forced the journalists and the officers to hide in the dug-out shelter. The fascist soldiers occupied the nearby houses. Captain I.K. Velichkin crept towards the building pelting the enemy with grenades. It made the fascists weakened the fire and gave an opportunity to arrange the break through. A. Surkov as an experienced soldier got down to fighting and dashed into the very hell of the battle. Having passed the mined field safely, they all retreated to the river and crossed it moving carefully on the thin ice under the resuming mortar fire.

    E. When Surkov was having a rest after those events in the village of Ulyashino he noticed that his bag was riddled with bullet holes. With a sad smile he said: “I didn’t do any step farther the Headquarters of the Regiment. No one… But there were four steps till death…” Later he added the line “It’s difficult for me to reach you” thinking about his wife. The same evening he returned to Moscow and brought the poem to an end.

    F. In February 1942 a famous composer K. Listov came across the poem and it seemed inspiring and touching to him. In a week he came back to the editorial office of the newspaper where Surkov was working and performed a new song. The listeners liked it very much and the text soon was published in the newspaper issue on March 25, 1942. In this way the song “In the earth-house” entered the folk memory as an integral concomitant of the Great patriotic war.


    • In which section of the article the following is mentioned:


    1. The poet participated in the bloody battle.

    2. The poet wrote about the birth of the poetic lines.

    3. The poet put his life at risk but safely withstood the ordeal.

    4. The poet speculated about the hardships of the war time.

    5. The melody to the verses appeared due to a lucky chance.

    6. The poet didn’t intend to publish the poem.

    7. The poet underlined the warm tender attitude to his family members.

    8. The poet and journalist described the defense of the suburbs of Moscow in 1941.

    9. The article explains the reasons for immense popularity of the song.

    10. The song was performed during all the war years.



    Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense-form.

    Fire, War and Brass Band

    A 79-year-old dweller of the Mari Republic Vladimir Gorodnichev (1. to keep on) doing his favourite hobby – playing in the brass band. He (2. to play) the wind instruments for already 69 years. Today he willingly (3. to remember) how his music career (4. to begin). In 1943, when he was 10 years old, he (5. to run) away from home to the front line to defend his Motherland from the fascist aggressors. The boy joined the Army as a military bugler. The bugler’s duties were to give the soldiers’ life the definite order: he was to make the soldiers (6. to get up) and go to bed; he (7. to play) when it was time to start and finish shooting trainings, to go o the canteen, etc. Vladimir was so little that the soldiers and officers of the detachment adopted him; he (8. to become) “The son of the regiment”.

    When the war was over, Vladimir (9. to award) with the medal “For Victory over Germany”. Together with his friend Volodya returned to the place where he (10. to start) his military service. But the kids (11. to allow) to stay in the Army any longer as their task was to continue their education. So in September Volodya found himself behind the school desk again. He had (12. to go on) studies which (13. to interrupt) by the war. Post war years were rather difficult: cold and hungry but Volodya felt happy: he was the only schoolboy who (14. to wear) proudly the war medals. Although he was rather busy at school, the boy (15. not/ to give up) studying and practicing music. He played in the orchestra under the guidance of a famous Mari musician George Varenov.

    After graduating from the Mari Technical College, Vladimir came to work at the biggest plant in the Republic – the Mari machine-building factory. He (16. to work) there as a chief engineer for a long period of time. Simultaneously he headed the factory orchestra. The musicians there were amateur, but they performed rather skillfully. Vladimir Petrovich is very proud of the fact that in 1993 the collective (17. to win) the 3-rd place in All-Russia competition of the brass bands. Despite his age, Vladimir Petrovich is still energetic, active and cheerful. He is sure that it is the music that (18. to help) him to be in good physical and moral form.


    Sergey Makov – a composer with a civil position

    Read the text and do the task after it.

    In 1984 Sergey Makov became O. Ipai Prize winner. He became the Laureate of the Mari Komsomol Prize due to the number of songs about young people, our Motherland. His first song about Yoshkar-Ola he composed being a student of the musical college.

    Sergey Nikolaevich was born on 8 January 1954 in Kuzhenersky Region. He was seven when his parents brought him to Yoshkar-Ola, to the President Boarding School for gifted children. He was an expert in Mari folk music. He used to pick up children to organize a competition and to find out who knew more folk songs than others.

    His first song Sergey composed at the age of 14 and it was very successful. It still lives in the repertoire of many singers and is often on air. His most outstanding songs about the native land are: “Near the family house”, “Native Land”, “What is it – Mari El?” and “Window to the World”. In spite of the similar names, the composer found for each of them its own harmonious and melodious solution, allotting them with inimitable image.

    The second group of songs is devoted to the theme of a country life. They are the songs about milk women, about country landscape, about environmental problems. Some songs are about love to a woman – everlasting topic of all times and peoples. The composer is also faithful to the civil theme, creating songs about severe weekdays of our warriors, e.g. in Afghanistan. The composer rose to the new step of his talent in the collection of works under the title “Damn that war!” These songs – the hard reminiscence about the last war, pain from irreplaceable loses, dream of all mothers about the happy childhood for their kids; praise of the spring holiday – Victory Day. The author proclaims triumph of humanism, love, friendship, people’s unification.

    The civil character of the composer was vividly displayed in the new cycle of works “Nobody is forgotten”. S. Makov’s eight new songs about native land and the anthems of four regions were included into this cycle. The composer was awarded the State Prize named after I.S. Palantai, the Prize of the Composers’ Union of Russia named after D. Shostakovich and it goes without saying, all these rewards were given according to his deserts, due to his tireless work, his kind soul and the aspiration for the musical education of his people.


    Choose the right answer:


    1. Why did the composer become the Laureate of the Mari Komsomol Prize?

    a. It was his 50-th anniversary.

    b. Due to the fact that he was an expert in Mari folk music.

    c. Due to the fact that he composed a lot of songs about youth and their heroic deeds.

    2. Why did his parents bring him to Yoshkar-Ola at the age of seven?

    a. To organize a competition.

    b. To develop his musical abilities.

    c. To find out who knew more folk songs.

    3. When did he compose his first song?

    a. Being a student of the President Boarding School for gifted children.

    b. Being a teacher of the President Boarding School for gifted children.

    c. After graduating the President Boarding School for gifted children.

    4. Was the first musical experience a success?

    a. Yes, it was; but soon it was forgotten.

    b. Yes, it was; it is still included into the repertoire of many singers.

    c. No, it was not.

    5. What are his most outstanding songs about?

    a. About his parents and teachers.

    b. About his native village.

    c. About the native land and the country life.

    6. Why can we say that the composer is faithful to the civil theme?

    a. Because he is a deputy of the City Council.

    b. Because he took part in the war in Afghanistan.

    c. Because he is faithful to the ideas of patriotism and humanism in his works.

    7. What musical works were included into the new cycle “Nobody is forgotten”?

    a. Eighteen new songs about his native land and the anthems of four regions.

    b. Eight new songs about Mari El and the anthems of five regions.

    c. Eight new songs about native land and the anthems of four regions.

    8. What prizes was the composer awarded for his work?

    a. He is Olyk Ipai Prize winner.

    b. He is I.S. Palantai Prize winner.

    c. He is I.S. Palantai, O. Ipai and D. Shostakovich Prizes winner.



    Module 8.

    Nobody is forgotten


    Read the text and do the task after it.

    War monuments in St. Petersburg

    For 900 fays and nights Leningrad was in the vice of an enemy blockade. They withstood the siege and emerged victorious from the battle – a feat unprecedented in history. Restoration work started in first post-war years when new architectural ensembles were shaped and new monuments appeared.

    The new Victory parks were started in that post-war autumn of 1945. It is an ancient tradition to celebrate the victory of the Russian arms by planting gardens and parks. The Moskovsky district’s Victory Park is situated in the southern part of St. Petersburg. The park with area of 68 hectares was designed by architects Y. Kastonin and V. Kirkhoglani. The Avenue of heroes – the central walk starts from the main entrance, adorned with propylaea. Ranged along the Avenue, on the left and right, are the busts of Leningraders who were twice awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union: pilots V. Golubev, V. Osipov, Y. Fyodorov, V. Rakov, N. Chelnokov, and Marshal S. Bogdanov. In the side avenues there are monuments to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya (sculptor M. Manizer) and Alexander Matrosov (sculptor L. Fidin). Further on, there is the Statue of Raymonde Dien, a courageous French woman (sculptor T. Diveyeva).

    On May 9, 1960 on the 15th anniversary of victory over Nazi Germany, a monument to the citizens and defenders of Leningrad who died or were killed in the war was unveiled at the Piskarevsky Memorial Cemetery where the common graves are. Here lie 470, 000 people who their lives in the struggle against fascism. This place is sacred to every Petersburger.

    A whole memorial was designed by architects Y. Levinson and A. Vasilyev. A straight path, paved with concrete slabs, leads from the gate to the centre of the monument dominated by the figure of a woman personifying Motherland (sculptors V. Isayeva and R. Taurit). Behind the monument is a wall with bars-reliefs dedicated to the memory of the dead. The inscription on this monument begins with the words of poetess Olga Bergholtz: “Here lie the Leningraders. Here lie its citizens – men, women, and children. Beside them lie Red Army soldiers. They defended you with their lives, Leningrad…” And it ends with the words: “Looking at these stones, remember: no one has been forgotten, nothing has been forgotten”.

    The majestic composition in the Piskarevsky Cemetery is the memorial of eternal glory of those thousands and thousands of heroes who had defended the city from enemy invasion in the grim years of war.

    Another monument to the defenders of Leningrad has been erected in the Serafimovsky Cemetery (sculptor Y. Likin). It was unveiled on January 27, 1965, on the 21st anniversary of the day when the Nazis were completely routed near Leningrad. The monument is stern and laconic. A sailor, an old worker, a woman, a young worker and a soldier, personifying the defenders of Leningrad, stand with bowed heads before the graves of the fallen. Grey granite pylons make the background for these figures which were designed by a group of young sculptors, headed by R. Taurit.


    • Mach the name of the author and the name of the monument:


    Author

    Monument

    1. Y. Likin

    A. The monument to Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya

    2. V. Isayeva and R. Taurit

    B. Grey granite pylons in the Serafimovsky Cemetery

    3. M. Manizer

    C. The monument to Alexander Matrosov

    4.Y. Kastonin and V. Kirkhoglani.

    D. The monument to the defenders of Leningrad in the Serafimovsky Cemetery

    5. Y. Levinson and A. Vasilyev

    E.The figure of a woman personifying Motherland

    6. T. Diveyeva

    F. The Piskarevsky Memorial Complex

    7. A group of young sculptors

    G. The Moskovsky district’s Victory Park

    8. L. Fidin

    H. the Statue of Raymonde Dien



    Read the text and do the task after it.


    Piskarevsky Memorial Complex

    The Piskarevsky Cemetery was laid out in 1939 on the northern outskirts of Leningrad and was named so as it was located not far from the hamlet called Piskarevka. In 1941-1944 the cemetery became the place of total burnings. The victims of the siege and warriors of the Leningrad front are buried here in the common graves.

    In February 1945 the city authorities launched a project for designing the best Memorial Complex in honour of the fallen. In 1956 on the area of over 26 hectares the construction of the memorial started (architects A.V. Vasiljev and E.A. Levinson). The Memorial Complex was opened on May 9, 1960, on the day of the 15th anniversary of the victory of the Soviet people in the Great patriotic war. The Eternal Fire was lit from the Fire in the Field of Mars.

    The centre of the architectural-sculptural ensemble is represented by a 6-metre high bronze sculpture “Mother – the native land” – a mourning stele with high-reliefs that depict some episodes of life and struggle of the Leningraders during the terrible days of the blockade (authors – architects A.V. Vasiljev and E.A. Levinson, sculptors V.V. Isaeva, R.K. Taurit, M.A. Vainman, B.E. Kaplyansky, A.L. Malakhin, M.M. Khrlamova).

    Near the central entrance to the Memorial Cemetery is put a memorable plaque with the inscription: “Since September 8, 1941 till January 22, 1944 107 158 air bombs were dropped on the city, 16 744 people were killed, 33 782 were wounded, 641 803 were starved to death”. The author of the inscriptions is the poet and participant of the Great patriotic war Michael Dudin.

    The two pavilions near the main entrance house the museum dedicated to the unprecedented feat of the inhabitants and defenders of the city. Among the exhibits here is the diary of Tanya Savicheva, a Leningrad schoolgirl who experienced the horrors of winter of 1941-1942. The words on the monument in front of the museum say: “The memory about soldiers, officers, political instructors who lost their lives in the battles defending the boarders of the Soviet Union and the City of Lenin will always remain in our hearts”.

    Following the granite steps that lead from the Eternal Fire, the visitors enter the Main Alley that is 480 m long. Along the eastern border of the Cemetery is situated the Memory Alley. In honour of Leningrad defenders here are placed the memorial plates – gifts from different cities and regions of our country and foreign states. On May 9, 2002 next to the cemetery was sanctified the Chapel of John the Baptist. The construction of the temple on this site is being planned nowadays.


    • Here are the answers. What were the questions?


    1. The Piskarevsky Cemetery was laid out in 1939.

    2. The victims of the siege and warriors of the Leningrad front are buried here.

    3. The Eternal Fire was lit from the Fire in the Field of Mars.

    4. The Memorial Complex was opened on May 9, 1960.

    5. The centre of the architectural-sculptural ensemble is represented by a 6-metre high bronze sculpture “Mother – the native land”.

    6. The authors of the Complex were architects A.V. Vasiljev and E.A. Levinson, sculptors V.V. Isaeva, R.K. Taurit, M.A. Vainman, B.E. Kaplyansky, A.L. Malakhin, M.M. Khrlamova.

    7. The author of the inscriptions is the poet and participant of the Great patriotic war Michael Dudin.

    8. The museum in the pavilions near the main entrance to the Cemetery is dedicated to the unprecedented feat of the inhabitants and defenders of the city.

    9. The Main Alley of the Complex is 480 m long.

    10. On May 9, 2002 next to the cemetery was sanctified the Chapel of John the Baptist.



    Read the text and do the task after it.


    Park of Victory in Moscow

    The Poklonnaya Mount was a sloping hill in the western part of Moscow, between the rivers Setun and Filka. It used to be located far beyond the boundaries of the city. Since its top was opened a spectacular panorama of Moscow and its outskirts. Travelers often stopped here to have a look at the city and to bow to Moscow churches. It explains the origin of the name of the hill.

    One more hill with the same name was located in the north-east of Moscow, in Sergiev (Yaroslavsky) highway. In 1966 the south-eastern part of this hill was made smooth and was leveled to the ground per three quarters. The remained height is occupied today by the eastern part of Victory Park – a Memorial Complex in honour of the Soviet people’s victory over fascism (1941-1945).

    First the idea of building a monument devoted to the people’s feat during the patriotic war of 1812 was offered by an architect Yakov Chernikovsky in 1942. But it was impossible to put it into life during war time. On February 23, 1958 on the Poklonnaya Hill was placed a granite sign with the inscription: “Here will be constructed the Monument of Victory of the Soviet people in the Great patriotic war (1941-1945). The surrounding territory was transformed into a park which was also called in the name of victory. A lot of trees were planted here, a great number of flowerbeds were arranged. In 1968 next to the park was restored the Triumph Arch that symbolized the victory of the Russian Army in the war against Napoleon in 1812. In 1970-80-s the citizens of Moscow raised 194 mln roubles for the construction work. Later the erection of the monument was also sponsored by the State and Moscow government.

    The whole Memorial Complex occupies 135 hectares. It consists of the Main Victory Monument (142 m high), the Central Museum of the Great patriotic war with adjoining Picture Gallery, the Temple of St. George the Victor, Memorial Mosque in honour of Muslim soldiers who lost their lives during the war, exhibitions of the armoury in the open air, the Fountain Alley with a great number of artificial water- pools with light installations.

    The central military-historical exposition of the Museum called “The feat and the victory of the great nation” was opened in 2008. The chief artist of the exposition is V.M. Glazkov, the chief architect – I.U. Minakov. The exposition contains more than 6 000 exhibits. To broaden the informative significance of the museum was introduced the computerized database.

    On the Poklonnaya Hill visitors can also see a monument “To a front dog” (sculptor A.S. Kirobtsov). It was erected in memory of the dogs that participated in the Great patriotic war. According to the statistics during the war years about 70 000 guard dogs served in the Army helping the soldiers to protect our Motherland from the fascist invaders. Draught dogs supplied the soldiers at the front lines with ammunition. Sanitary dogs carried out the wounded from the battle fields. Dogs-signalers delivered the urgent messages to the epicenters of fighting. Dogs-sappers examined thousands of kilometers of land both in the USSR and in foreign countries and discovered about 4 mln of mines and fougasses (high-explosive bombs). Dogs – tank-destroyers eliminated more than 350 tanks and armoured cars. Needless to say, dogs were the favourites of all the warriors as they reminded the people of their former peaceful life with its common joys, reminded of the relatives and native places.


    • Read the text and complete the table:


    The year/ number

    The event / information connected with it

    1966


    1942


    February 23, 1958


    1968


    194 mln roubles


    135 hectares


    142 m high


    2008


    70 000


    4 mln


    350


    1941-1945




    Read the text and fill in the words in the proper form.


    The Tomb to the Unknown Soldier in Moscow

    It is the Memorial (1. …) ensemble in Moscow in the Alexandrovsky Garden near the Kremlin wall. Here on the grave stone is installed a bronze (2. …) – a soldier’s helmet and a laurel branch that are lying on the military banner.

    On December 3, 1966, on the day of the 25th anniversary of the defeat of the fascist troops on the (3. …) to Moscow, the (4. …) of the Unknown Soldier were removed from the common grave on the 41st km of Leningrad highway and were (5. …) re-buried in the Alexandrovsky Garden. On May 8, 1967 on this site was opened the Memorial Complex.

    The Eternal Fire was lit up from the Eternal Fire in the Field of Mars. Since December 12, 1997 (6. …) to the Decree of the President of Russia Post № 1 of the Guard of Honour was shifted from Lenin Mausoleum to the Tomb of the (7. …) Soldier. The soldiers of the President Regiment are on duty here, the change of the Guards takes place (8. …) every hour. In 2009 the Monument was given the status of the (9. …) Memorial of Military Glory.

    In the centre of the (10. …) Complex is placed a bay with the (11. …): “Your name is unknown, your feat is (12. …)” and a five-pointed star with the Eternal Fire of Glory. To the left of the Tomb is the wall with the (13. …) words:

    To the (14. …) for the Motherland in 1941-1945”. On the right is the Granite Alley with the blocks made of dark red porphyry. On each block is written the name of the City-Hero and the (15. …) of the medal “The Gold Star”. Each block contains a capsule with the amount of soil brought from the (16. …) lines of the cities of Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Sevastopol, Minsk, Kerch, Novorossijsk, Brest, Tula, Murmansk, Smolensk. To the right of this Alley is erected a red granite stele in honour of the Cities of Military Glory (40 all in all).

    1. Architect


    2. To compose



    3. To approach

    4. To remain


    5. Solemn




    6. Accordance



    7. To know

    8. Exact


    9. Nation

    10. Memory

    11. To inscribe

    12. Mortality

    13. To follow

    14. To fall



    15. To depict


    16. Defender





    Read the text and do the task after it.


    The Soviet warrior-liberator in Treptov Park

    Treptov Park is a famous park located in the eastern part of Berlin on the river Shprey. The park contains one of the three memorials to the fallen Soviet soldiers in Berlin. About 7 000 Soviet warriors are buried here. In the focus of attention of the visitors is the Monument “Soldier the Liberator” (sculptor E.V. Vuchetich). The monument was unveiled on May 8, 1949. The monument is 12 m high; it weighs 70 tons. It represents a bronze figure of the Soviet soldier who is standing on the debris of Nazi swastika. In his one hand the soldier is holding a sward, pointing beneath; in the other hand – a saved German girl. The prototype for the sculptor was a Soviet private Nikolay Masalov from a little Russian village called Voznesenky (Kemerovo Region), who rescued a German girl during the assault of Berlin in 1945.

    The Monument stands on a high hill; a long granite staircase leads to its pedestal. Inside the pedestal there is a round Memorial Hall. The walls of the Hall are decorated with mosaic panels (author A.V. Gorpenko). In the inlaid pictures are shown the representatives of different nations who are putting the wreaths to the common grave of the Soviet soldiers. Above their heads there is an inscription in the two languages (Russian and German): “Today all nations admit that it was the Soviet people who saved the civilization of Europe from the tragedy of fascism by means of the selfless struggle. It is the greatest merit of the Soviet people in the history of the mankind”.

    In the middle of the Hall there is a cubic base made of black polished stone, on which stands a gold casket with a manuscript in the red morocco binding. The names of the fallen heroes are enumerated on the pages of this book. The dome of the Hall is decorated with a chandelier (2, 5 m in diameter) made of rubies and crystal. In its form the chandelier resembles the Soviet military Order of Victory.


    • Answer the questions:


    1. Where is Treptov Park situated?

    2. Who is the sculptor of the Monument “Soldier the Liberator”?

    3. What is the height of the monument?

    4. How much does the monument weigh?

    5. What is the composition of the monument?

    6. There is a common grave inside the pedestal, isn’t there?

    7. What are the walls in the Hall decorated with?

    8. What kind of book is located in the middle of the Hall?

    9. The book looks ancient and solid, doesn’t it?

    10. What does the central chandelier resemble?



    Read the text and try to remember as many facts as possible.


    The Mari Republic: Some facts about the Great patriotic war

    1. Vasily Stepanovich Arkhipov was the first in the Mari Republic who was awarded the honoured title of the Hero of the Soviet Union. He was born in the village of Knyazhna (now – Danilovo) in Medvedevsky Region. To the heroic deed of the junior sergeant was devoted the poem “The hero – machine-gunner” written by M. Kazakov, the famous Mari writer.

    2. 36 representatives of the Mari Republic were honoured with the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for courage and heroism.

    3. The Monument to Military Glory was erected in Yoshkar-Ola on 5 November 1973. It was designed by A. A. Shirin and N. I. Vedernikov. The monument was made of granite, concrete and copper. The 20-metre-high column is crowned with the figure of a soldier. His highly-raised hand with a sub-machine gun in it, the fluttering waterproof cape-tent behind his back give the image the more heroic character. Bravery and heroism of the Soviet people in the war-time are embodied in this monument.

    4. The Eternal Fire was set out in honour of those who had lost their lives in the battle-fields of the Great patriotic war.

    5. A lot of the streets in the cities and villages of our Republic are named after the fellow country-men who took part in the Great patriotic war. Among them are: Z. Prokhorov, S. Suvorov, M. Lebedev, N. Ryabinin, A. Yanalov, V. Solovyev, K. Kutrukhin, I. Antsiferov, O. Tikhomirova.


    • Complete the sentences:


    1. M. Kazakov, the famous Mari writer …

    2. The title of the Hero of the Soviet Union was given …

    3. The figure of a soldier crowns …

    4. A. A. Shirin and N. I. Vedernikov designed …

    5. The monument embodies …

    6. The well-known Mari war heroes are …

    7. The Memorial Complex includes the Eternal Fire that …

    8. A great number of the streets in the Mari capital bear …

    9. The heroic image of monument is enhanced by …

    10. A small village of Knyazhna (now – Danilovo) in Medvedevsky Region is famous for …


    Read the text and do the tasks after it.

    Demos” – the reconnaissance group

    A. To be a volunteer doesn’t have an official paper (a document) or to wear a special badge. (1. ---). It means to have a group of like-minded friends and to contribute to your city, region, country. It’s an unusual phenomenon in our materialistic, money-oriented society. But it does exist and unite people of different ages, professions and social backgrounds.

    B. In spring 1990 the Mari reconnaissance group “Demos” was organized. Since that time the young boys and girls from all the corners of our Republic have been working together during their spare time. (2. ---). They search for those who died unknown and re-bury them with honours. They work for those who still have been waiting for their non-returned fathers, grandfathers, sons, brothers, friends.

    C. “Who if not we?” is the main motto of this group. Since 1990 the members of this organization have conducted more than 32 expeditions to Smolensk, Leningrad region. (3. ---).

    D. In October 2002 in the town of Sychovka (Smolensk region) the memorial to the war-heroes was erected. Here we can read the names of the died soldiers from Mari El having been found and identified by “Demos”. (4. ---). The leader of this group Dmitry Shepunov is sure that they do very important work so that the future generations will always remember the heroic deed of their fore-fathers.

    • What paragraphs are these sentences from? There are two extra sentences.

    1. The construction of the monument was financially supported by the Fund of the President of Mari El.

    2. Dmitry Shepunov was awarded with the State Diploma for his work.

    3. They have re-buried more than 1900 fighting men and identified 128 surnames of the soldiers.

    4. It is a great responsibility to work in the Mari reconnaissance group.

    5. They work in the places – the battle fields of the Great patriotic war.

    6. Working in a voluntary organization doesn’t mean earning money.


    • Ask questions beginning with what, whom, when, where, how long, for what, how many, to whom, who, why.

    • Retell the text using the questions as a plan.



    Read the text and do the tasks after it.


    War monuments and sculptures in the Mari Streets

    The farther in the past are the events of the Great patriotic war the more we understand the significance of the heroic deeds of the Soviet people who saved the world from fascism.

    The battle fields have become the cornfields again. Time has ploughed the former trenches and ditches but it is impossible to reduce people’s memory about our brave and staunch compatriots. The names of the heroes of that war are immortalized in the monuments, memorial boards, in the names of the streets, villages, cities. In such a way people revere the memory of the Mari fallen heroes.

    In Yoshkar-Ola there are streets named after Z. Prokhorov, S. Suvorov, M. Lebedev, N. Ryabinin, A. Yanalov, K. Serov, A. Shumelev, V. Solovyov, Kh. Khasanov, K. Kutrukhin; in the city of Volzhsk – Z. Prokhorov; in Sernur - A. Yanalov; in Yurino – K. Kutrukhin; in Kokshaisk – M. Kologrivov; in Paranga – Kh. Khasanov, A. Gaisin.

    The streets are marked with memorial boards. In 1975 a memorial plaque was placed on the building where the Writers’ Council sits. Here you can read the names of 27 writers who lost their lives in the fronts of the Great patriotic war.

    On the building of the railway station you can watch the memorial plaque devoted to Kh. Khasanov; on the building of the Mari Teachers’ Training Institute – a memorial board in honour of V. Arkhipov.

    There are also a lot of monuments which glorify heroism of the Soviet warriors. On 17 July 1971 a war monument was unveiled in Zvenigovo, near School № 1. It is in honour of teachers and students who participated in the Great patriotic war. On the pedestal you can see a young soldier in a greatcoat and a field cap. In his hands he is holding a gun and a half-read book. He is staring at the Volga-River. He looks as if he has just stood up from behind the school desk; has taken the gun and is going to defend his Motherland.

    In Medvedevo there is a monument “Mother’s departure with her son” (the author – V. Kozmin). In the 4-metre figures of Mother and her son the architect expressed not only the sadness of the moment, but also the firm belief in our victory over fascism.

    In 1973 in Orshanka was opened a monument called “The monument to Mother in grief”. The architect V.M. Kozmin created the image of Mother who is crying over the dead sons. The sculpture “Widows” (architect G. Medvedeva) was erected in Kilemary in 1977. It is devoted to all women who lost their husbands during the war. In 1970 in Yoshkar-Ola was put the monument – bust to a courageous nurse Olga Tikhomirova. In Kozmodemyansk at the bottom of Pugachev’s Hill, high above the Volga is raised a 22-metre tall obelisk built in honour of those who sacrificed their lives for the sake of victory (1975, the author V. Ivanov). In Volzhsk in the central park you can see a 13-metre tall stele (1971, V. Druzhinin). The monument embodies the sorrow about the fallen heroes – fellow-countrymen.

    In 1980 in Morky the list of the fallen fellow village men and the letter to the descendents were placed into the pedestal of the monument. The capsule will be opened in 2045. On 5 November 1973 a Monument of Military Valour (author A. Shirnin) was unveiled in Yoshkar-Ola. The monument is carried out in granite, concrete and forged copper. The 20-metre-high pylon is crowned with the figure of a soldier. His highly-raised hand with a sub-machine gun in it, the fluttering water-proof cape-tent behind his back give the image the more heroic character. In this monument the author embodied the idea of heroism of the Soviet people, the high feeling of civic courage and pride for our Motherland.

    The monument “Eternal Fire” and the Alley of Heroes are attached to the Memorial Complex (author – N. Vedernikov). At all-Russia exhibition of war monuments in 1975, the Memorial Complex in Yoshkar-Ola was recognized among the best. The architects were awarded with gold and silver medals.

    The memory of the fallen soldiers is sacred. “It is necessary not for the dead, it is important for those who are alive”, wrote a famous poet R. Rozhdestvensky. And it is really so. Our duty is to pass the truth about that war to the succeeding generations.


    • Fill in the table:

    The name of the monument

    The author

    The description of the monument



    • Read the text below. Some of the lines are correct; some have the word which shouldn’t be there. If a line is correct, put a tick √ next to it. If a line has a word which shouldn’t be there, write the word at the end of the line.


    Immortal Regiment” marches along the streets…

    The civil campaign “Immortal Regiment” was devoted to the Great patriotic war was first held in the Tomsk in 2012. Five of thousand people participated in this march. They moved in a column along the main avenues of the city and carrying the photos of the heroes of the Great patriotic war – their ancestors: grandfathers and great-grandfathers.

    The initiator of the campaign Sergey Lapenkov explained it’s the main purpose in such a way: “The number of war veterans who are still be alive is reducing from year to year. The majority of the former warriors are getting on 90 or even 100; they become physically weak and frail. Many of them can’t take part in the parades because of age or poor health. Nowadays their next of kin stand in or for them. It’s crucial because the future generations must to know the bitter truth about the war; they must remember the heroic deeds of their forefathers”.

    The civil campaign has spreads rapidly over the country. In 2012 it was been launched in Tomsk; in 2013 “The Immortal Regiment” was marched along the streets of 120 cities; in 2014 it included about 400 cities and towns and more than half a million of participants. Among the latest cities that joined the action were Sevastopol, Odessa, Evpatoriya, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Nalchic, Podolsk, Orenburgh. Some time foreign countries are also involved in this Memory Action. Among them are a citizens of Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Israel. The organizers of the campaign hope then that “The Immortal Regiment” will have become a new tradition on Victory Day.

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    Word List

    Module 1. Hero cities

    Sevastopol

    Award - награда

    Be awarded with – быть награжденным

    Cope of Chersonese – Мыс Херсонес

    Crimean Peninsular – Крымский полуостров

    Fortification - укрепление

    Frontier - граница

    Garrison - гарнизон

    Invasion - вторжение

    Liberate - освобождать

    Liberation - освобождение

    Man-of-war – военный корабль

    Overwhelming – подавляющий, превосходящий по численности

    Reject – отвергать, бросать

    Retain - сохранять

    Retreat - отступать

    Significance – важность, значимость

    Significant – важный, значимый


    Novorossiysk

    Ammunition - боеприпасы

    Common Grave – Братская могила

    Defense - оборона

    Glorify - прославлять

    Landing operation - десант

    Plat – участок земли, плацдарм

    Paratrooper - десантник

    Siege – осада

    Springboard - плацдарм


    The city of Kerch

    Avalanche - лавина

    Forced labour – принудительный труд

    Eternal Fire – Вечный Огонь

    Feat - подвиг

    Immortalize – увековечить, сделать бессмертным

    Prisoners of war - военнопленные

    Remains - остатки

    Shelter – убежище, укрытие

    Stand up to – противостоять, сопротивляться

    Stone quarry - каменоломня

    Retrieve – отступать, уходить

    Ruthlessly - безжалостно

    Troops - войска

    Unprecedented - беспримерный


    The Battle for Stalingrad

    Charred ruins – дымящиеся руины, пепелище

    Fade – утихать, уменьшаться

    Mine - мина

    Obliterate - уничтожать

    Oriental - восточный

    Reach – достигать, добираться

    Selfless – самоотверженный, беззаветный

    Shell - снаряд

    Tributary - приток

    Upward flight of spirit – полет духа


    The Fortress of Brest

    Assault – атака, натиск

    Barrage – огневой вал, заградительный огонь

    Be exposed to – быть подвергнутым

    Charge with bayonet – броситься в штыковую атаку

    Losses - потери

    Means - средство

    Riffle Division – стрелковая дивизия

    Shelling – обстрел снарядами

    Split – разбить, разделить

    Steadfastness – упорство, стойкость

    Storehouse - склад

    Wounded - раненые


    Our Republic during the war years

    Be buried – быть похороненным

    Feat - подвиг

    Lose ones life – отдать жизнь, погибнуть

    Perish – погибать, умирать



    Module 2. Outstanding war commanders


    From soldier to Marshal (I.S. Konev)

    Anticipation - предчувствие

    Armoured train - бронепоезд

    Avoid - избегать

    Be called up to – быть призванным в

    Captivity - плен

    Deputy Minister – заместитель министра

    Lilac - сирень

    Logging area - лесоповал

    Rebellion - восстание

    Suppression - подавление

    Surround - окружать


    A person with decisive character (K. K. Rokossovsky)

    Ancestor - предок

    Counter attack - контратака

    Dash – ринуться, броситься

    Firmness - твердость

    Mechanized Corps – Механизированная колонна

    Stone mason - каменотес


    The Commanders of the Great Victory (G.K. Zhukov, K.K. Rokosovsky)

    Be impressed – быть под впечатлением

    Dignity - достоинство

    Private - рядовой

    Recollect - вспоминать

    Strict - строгий

    Tolerant – толерантный, терпимый


    Partisan Commander (S. A. Kovpak)

    Detachment - отряд

    Regiment - полк

    Machine gun - пулемет

    Mortar - миномет


    The heroic fortune (K.I. Serov)

    Banner - знамя

    Defeat - поражение

    Determine- определять

    Eve- канун

    Fate - судьба

    Hamlet – деревушка, поселение

    Holderзд. кавалер (орденов)

    Rear - тыл

    Retire – уйти в отставку

    Sawmill - лесопилка


    Module 3. Brave defenders


    Heroic death in the air (about Nikolay Gastello)

    Bomber - бомбардировщик

    Crew- экипаж

    Earn - зарабатывать

    Famine - голод

    Fuel tank - бензобак

    Locksmith - слесарь

    Male - мужской

    Ram-attack - таран


    Immortal name (A.M. Matrosov)

    Creep (crept, crept) - ползти

    Embrazure - амбразура

    Forest edge – опушка (леса)

    Grenade - граната

    Hazard - опасность

    Machine-gun slot – пулеметный дзот

    Posthumously - посмертно

    Sacrifice - жертвовать

    Weapon- оружие


    Death for the sake of life (General Panfilov and his Regiment)

    Curse - проклятие

    Granite - гранит

    Infantry - пехота

    Offensive - наступление

    Passing track - разъезд

    Personify – олицетворять, воплощать


    Olga Tikhomirova

    Bandage – перевязывать, бинтовать

    Cheerful - жизнерадостный

    Diligent – старательный, прилежный

    Inevitable - неизбежный

    Nurse - медсестра

    Set an example – показать пример


    Zinon Prokhorov

    Bullet - пуля

    Bust - бюст

    Devotion - преданность

    Fore-fathers – предки, праотцы

    Generation - поколение

    Shoot (shot, shot) - стрелять

    The life story of a hero (V. Bulygin)

    Airfield - аэродром

    Alarming - тревожный

    Inhabitant - житель

    Lime tree - липа

    Motherland - Родина

    Spin - прясть

    Tanning sheep’s skins – выделывать овечьи шкуры

    Yarn - пряжа


    Module 4. Children at war


    A courageous girl (Z. Kosmodemyanskaya)

    Air-raid – авиационный налет

    Ambush - засада

    Ardent - пламенный

    Citizen - гражданин

    Dawn - рассвет

    Dweller - житель

    Elections - выборы

    Execute - казнить

    Incendiary - поджигатель

    Kit-bag – вещевой мешок

    Poverty - бедность

    Stables - конюшня

    State boarder – государственная граница

    Untimely decease – безвременная смерть


    Heroes from Krasnodon

    Coal-face - забой

    Cork - пробка

    Frank - искренний

    Horn-rimmed – в роговой оправе

    Involuntary - невольный

    Load mines – заряжать мины

    Maroon – темно-красный

    Pat - похлопывать

    Plain - простой

    Plump - пухлый

    Purity - чистота

    Reckless - безрассудный

    Sapper - сапер

    Scholar - ученый

    Setback - трудность

    Solemn - торжественный

    Sun-tanned - загорелый

    Tench – линь (рыба)

    Thirst for - жажда


    A girl with little plaits (Z. M. Portnova)

    Be shrouded in mystery – быть покрытым тайной

    Cell - камера

    Creak - скрипеть

    Escape –спастись бегством

    Grab - схватить

    Hollow - гулкий

    Iron-barred – с железными решетками, зарешеченный

    Leaflet - листовка

    Memorable Plaque – мемориальная доска

    Scrawl - царапать

    Snatch – схватить, поймать

    Subversive activity – подрывная, диверсионная деятельность

    Torture chamber – камера пыток


    A young partisan (L. Golikov)

    Annihilate - уничтожать

    Blow off - взрывать

    Plywood factory - фанерная фабрика

    Sample – образец


    Horrifying artifact (T. Savicheva’s diary)

    Anti-air-craft - противовоздушный

    Be razed to the ground – быть стертым с лица земли

    Choir - хор

    Fragile - хрупкий

    Funeral repast – поминальный обед

    Irreversible - необратимый

    Mournful - скорбный

    Poor eyesight – плохое зрение

    Survive - выживать

    Unbearable - невыносимый

    Undernourishment - недоедание


    The son of the regiment (after V. Kataev)

    Grief - горе

    Orphan - сирота

    Sorrow - печаль

    Starve – умирать с голоду

    Tenacity – упорство, стойкость


    Mari children in the years of the Great patriotic war

    Aid - помощь

    Gift - дар

    Fertile - плодородный

    Hay - сено

    Responsibility - ответственность

    Raise money – собирать деньги



    Module 5. Heroic pages of war in the literary works


    Here we are, my Lord! (after K. Vorobyov)

    Chase – охотиться, вести погоню

    Editorial office - редакция

    Encounter - встречать

    Endure – терпеть, вытерпеть

    Marsh - болото

    Martyr - мученик

    Remote – удаленный, заброшенный

    Slam – хлопать (дверью)

    Straw - солома

    Swerve - свернуть

    Tremendous boon – огромная помощь

    Udder - вымя

    Unfathomable - бездонное

    Wade – переходить вброд

    Wanderings – странствия, скитания


    Michael Sholokhov. They fought for the Motherland

    Burst into flames - загореться

    Deafening -оглушающий

    Din – гул, шум, рев (машин)

    Feather grass – ковыль (трава)

    Hatred - ненависть

    Pacification - умиротворение

    Scorch – выжигать, палить

    Stand stiffen – замереть на месте

    Squeal - визг

    Trench - окоп

    Unmercifully – безжалостно, нещадно


    The dawns are quiet here… (after B. Vasilyev)

    Bore – ствол (оружия)

    Cartridge - патрон

    Convoy - конвоировать

    Dice with death – играть со смертью

    Fatigue - усталость

    Fever - лихорадка

    Platoon - взвод

    Plunge – входить, врываться

    Rotten – гнилой, сгнивший

    Sentry – часовой, солдат на посту

    Stab – удар (штыком, ножом)

    Stagger – идти (с трудом)


    A story about a real man (after B. Polevoy)

    Be flabbergasted – быть крайне удивленным, пораженным, изумленным

    Clench ones teeth – стискивать зубы

    Cope with – справиться с

    Crash - удар

    Due to – благодаря чему-то

    Excruciating - мучительный

    Hostile – враждебный, вражеский

    Moss - мох

    Recovery - выздоровление

    Regain ones senses – прийти в себя

    Rigorous – суровый, строгий

    Seed – семя, семечко

    Soften - смягчать

    Spark – зажигать, воодушевлять

    Trigger – начинать, вызывать, приводить в движение

    Willpower – сила воли


    The hot snow (after Yury Bondarev)

    Blaze – пламя, яркий свет, вспышка

    Burning-hot - раскаленный

    Die down – затихать, прекращаться

    Glow of a fire – свет, отблеск, зарево

    Flag – ослабевать, стихать

    Invincible - непобедимый

    Miracle - чудо

    Onslaught – натиск, атака

    Smash – смять, раздавить

    Suffocate – душить, задыхаться

    Vanquish – побеждать, покорять

    Withstand – противостоять, выстоять, сопротивляться


    V. Elmara poet-hero


    Accumulate – аккумулировать, накапливать

    Achievement - достижение

    Fruitful - плодотворный

    Oath - клятва

    Utter – полный, совершенный, абсолютный



    Module 6. The theme of war on the canvases of the prominent painters


    Artistic chronicles of those terrible war years

    Barbered wire – колючая проволока

    Be riddled with bullet holes – быть изрешеченным пулями

    Be scattered – быть разбросанным

    Canvas - полотно

    Devastating – опустошительный, разрушительный, огромный

    Epoch - эпоха

    Evidence – свидетельство, доказательство

    Flash in mind – прийти на ум (неожиданно)

    Hell of the battle – пекло боя

    Highlight – подчеркивать, обращать внимание

    Interpret – интерпретировать, толковать

    Perceive - воспринимать

    Plot - сюжет

    Threat - угроза

    Unbending - несгибаемый


    Mother of a partisan (S. Gerasimov)

    Defile - осквернять

    Deprived of - лишенный

    Heritage – наследство, наследие

    Intimidate – напугать, запугать

    Rage – ярость, гнев

    Savage – жестокий, звериный

    Seal - печать

    Steadfastness – упорство, стойкость

    Stern – суровый, строгий


    A letter from the front line (A.I. Laktionov)

    Dashing look – бравый вид

    Define - определять

    Drop a few lines – написать, черкнуть несколько строк

    Touching - трогательный

    Trustworthy – достоверный, заслуживающий доверия


    A canvas – prosecutor of fascism (“Gernika”)

    Appalling – ужасный, устрашающий

    Brute – жестокий, грубый

    Despair - отчаяние

    Easel - мольберт

    Evil - зло

    Foe - враг

    Palette - палитра

    Ruin to the ground – сравнять с землей, разрушить

    Splinter - осколок

    Unmask the enemy – срывать маску с врага


    Picasso and his masterpiece

    Be trapped – быть в ловушке

    Crucify - распять

    Cubism - кубизм

    Dаgger - кинжал

    Dart – дротик, стрела, метательное оружие

    Sob - рыдать

    Spear - копье

    Sword - меч

    Transpierce - пронзать


    The war-canvases by the Mari painters

    Convey - передавать

    Depict - изображать

    Earth-house - землянка

    In the foreground – на переднем плане

    Make contribution to – вносить вклад в

    Masterpiece - шедевр


    The image of a Russian soldier

    Definite - определенный

    Inner world – внутренний мир

    Mood - настроение

    Resemble - напоминать


    Famous Mari artists about the war

    Moan - стон

    Piercing - пронзительный

    Sacred – священный

    See … off - провожать

    Widow - вдова

    Whistle - свистеть


    The Art Gallery in the country house

    Amateur - любительский

    Craftsman – ремесленник, мастер

    Reproduction – репродукция, копия

    Shop - мастерская



    Module 7. Music and war time

    One night musical masterpiece (“The dark night”)

    Call on smb. – зайти к

    Conquer - покорять

    Drag….out - вытащить

    Enormous - огромный

    On the spot – немедленно, сразу же

    Tender - нежный

    Victim - жертва


    Shostakovich and his heroic symphony

    Buffoon mask – шутовская маска

    Chandelier - люстра

    Complete – заканчивать, завершать

    Conceal – скрывать, прятать

    Conductor - дирижер

    Drum - барабан

    Frenzied – безумный, взбешенный

    Impetuously - стремительно

    Intervention – интервенция, вторжение

    Muffle – заглушать (о звуке)

    Obscurantism - мракобесие

    Obtuse – тупой, приглушенный, глупый

    Sinister – зловещий, злой

    Wind instruments- духовые инструменты


    Unofficial war hymn (“Sacred war”)

    Be crammed with быть забитым, переполненным

    Fight back tears – прятать слезы

    Hum – гул, шум


    There were only four steps till death…( “In the earth-house”)

    Concomitant - сопутствующий

    Dug-out shelter - блиндаж

    Heartfelt – прочувствованный, искренний

    Hide (hid, hidden) – прятать

    Pelt - обстреливать


    Fire, War and Brass Band

    Brass band – духовой оркестр

    Bugler - горнист

    Postwar - послевоенный


    Sergey Makov – a composer with a civil position

    Allot – предназначать, придавать, раздавать

    Anthem - гимн

    Aspiration – стремление, сильное желание

    Damn - проклинать

    Everlasting – вечный, длительный, нескончаемый

    Laureate - лауреат

    Unification - единение



    Module 8. Nobody is forgotten


    War monuments in St. Petersburg

    Adorn with - украшать

    Arms - оружие

    Bar-relief - барельеф

    Bowed - склоненный

    Cemetery - кладбище

    Concrete - бетон

    Dedicated to – посвященный чему-либо

    Fallen – павшие, погибшие

    Grave - могила

    Grim – мрачный, суровый

    Majestic – величественный

    Propylaea – пропилеи

    Pylon - пилон

    Slab - плита

    Unveil – торжественно открывать (памятник)

    Vice – порок, зло; тиски


    Piskarevsky Memorial Complex

    Be laid out – быть расположенным, основанным

    Chapel of John the Baptist – Часовня Иоанна Крестителя

    Eternal Fire – Вечный огонь

    Field of Mars – Марсово поле

    Memory Alley – Аллея памяти

    Stele – стела, надгробный памятник


    Park of Victory in Moscow

    Be leveled to the ground – ровнять, делать ниже

    Boundary - граница

    Draught dog – ездовая собака

    Guard dog – служебная собака

    Mosque - мечеть

    Spectacular - зрелищный

    Temple - храм

    The Triumph Arch – Триумфальная Арка


    The Tomb to the Unknown Soldier in Moscow

    Banner – знамя, стяг

    Change of the Guards – смена караула

    Decree- указ

    Helmet – шлем, каска

    Laurel Branch – лавровая ветвь

    Porphyry - порфир

    Tomb – могила, надгробие


    The Soviet warrior-liberator in Treptov Park

    Casket – ларец, сундучок

    Crystal - хрусталь

    Dome - купол

    Debris – обломки, осколки

    Inlaid pictures – мозаичные картины

    Ruby - рубин

    Pedestal – основание, пьедестал

    Wreath - венок


    The Mari Republic: Some facts about the Great patriotic war

    Cape-tent – плащ-палатка

    Copper - медь

    Military glory – воинская слава


    Demos” – the reconnaissance group

    Identify – идентифицировать, определять

    Like-minded people - единомышленники

    Motto – девиз, лозунг

    Re-bury - перезахоронить


    War monuments and sculptures in the Mari Streets

    Compatriot - соотечественник

    Cornfield – поле, нива

    Field cap - пилотка

    Plough - пахать

    Staunch – стойкий, верный, прочный

    Valour - доблесть


    Immortal Regiment” marches along the streets…

    Ancestors - предки

    Be held – проходить, состояться

    Bitter - горький

    Frail – хрупкий, непрочный

    March- марш, маршировать

    Next of kin - родственник

    Reduce – уменьшаться, сокращаться

    Veteran - ветеран





    Answer key

    Module 1. Hero-cities

    1.2 Novorossiysk

    1D 2F 3A 4G 5C 6B 7E 8I 9H

    1.4 The Battle for Stalingrad

    Can be inferred from the text: 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11

    Category: Horrors of war

    Noun

    Verb

    Adjective

    Fire, death, fighting, ruins, siege, shells, mines, blood, blow, suffering, battlefield

    To obliterate, to burn, to explode, to die, to surrender, to suffer, to blow, to fight back

    Burning, painful, crucial, fatal, disastrous


    Category: Bravery of the Soviet soldiers

    Noun

    Verb

    Adjective

    Battle, secret, flight, brotherhood, approach, selflessness, victory, spirit, example, heroism, bravery

    To immortalize, to defend, to rush, to protect, to approach

    Great, heroic, upward, impossible, crucial, courageous, immortal, peaceful


    1.5 The Fortress of Brest

    1. exactly 2. bombardment 3. unawares 4. numerous 5. losses 6. unexpectedness 7. opposition 8. invaders 9. strongest 10. centered 11. defenders 12. daily 13. resistance 14. inscriptions 15. proportion 16. Armed 17. division 18. first 19. unflagging 20. steadfastness 21. outstanding 22. heroic 23. documentary 24. immortal 25. tragic


    Questions:

    1. Unexpectedness of the attack, the large number of fascist forces

    2. They depict pictures, write books and shoot films about heroes.

    3. d

    4. d

    5. Possible answer: The defenders lost their lives for the sake of the country.


    Module 2. Outstanding commanders:

    2.1 From soldier to Marshal (I.S. Konev)

    I B II C III C IV B V A VI A


    2.2 A person with decisive character (K. K. Rokossovsky)

    1c 2a 3b 4a b 6c 7a 8c 9a 10a 11b 12b 13b 14c 15a 16b 17c 18b 19c


    2.4 Partisan Commander (S. A. Kovpak)

    1 D (Hero of the Soviet Union); 2 B (on 26 May); 3 D (to mouth); 4 B (no article the); 5 B (was called up); 6 A (he served); 7 B (no article a); 8 C (was awarded with); 9 A (Since September); 10 D (the Ukraine); 11 B (comprised about); 12 C (garrisons); 13 C (Kovpak got); 14 D (named after Kovpak).


    2.5 The heroic fortune (K.I. Serov)

    Possible titles: 3, 4, 5

    1d 2b 3c 4d 5d 6a 7c 8d 9a 10d 11c 12c 13a 14c 15c 16b 17c 18c


    Module 3. Brave defenders:

    3.1 Heroic death in the air (about Nikolay Gastello)

    1.a 2.c 3.b 4.a 5.b 6.b 7.b 8.a 9.c 10.b 11.a 12.a 13.c 14.a 15.b 16.a 17.b


    3.2 Immortal name (A.M. Matrosov)

    1. Separate 2. Voluntary 3. Siberian 4. widely 5. known 6. courageous 7. action 8. expression 9. boundless 10. bravery 11. strong 12. dense 13. settlement 14. emplacement 15. third 16. direction 17. death 18. badly 19. conclusion 20. feet 21. impetuously 22. completion 23. analogous 24. approximately 25. cost 26. devotion 27. existence


    3.3 Death for the sake of life (General Panfilov and his Regiment)

    1D 2K 3I 4E 5A 6F 7B 8O 9P 10G 11L 12H 13M 14J 15C 16N


    3.4 Olga Tikhomirova

    1a, b 2a, c 3b, c 4b, c 5b


    3.5 Zinon Prokhorov

    1c 2c 3a 4b 5c 6c 7c 8a 9c 10b

    1T, 2T, 3T, 4T, 5T, 6F, 7F, 8T, 9F, 10F, 11T


    3.6 The life story of a hero (V. Bulygin)

    1.was born 2. is situated 3. had been 4. to weave 5.took 6. sit 7. to do 8. entered 9.worked 10.to serve 11.began 12.came 13. became 14.was appointed 15. was headed 16. had 17. began 18.was called 19. appeared 20. had been serving 21. started 22. graduated 23. was sent 24. had served 25. retired 26.starts 27.grew up 28. investigates 29. had been building 30. had been trying


    Module 4. Children at war:

    4.1 A courageous girl (Z. Kosmodemyanskaya)

    1F 2NS 3T 4F 5F 6T 7F 8T 9T 10F 11F 12NS 13T


    4.2 Heroes from Krasnodon

    1D 2A 3B 4C 5E


    4.3 A girl with little plaits (Z. M. Portnova)

    1c 2b 3c 4b 5c 6c 7a 8b 9a 10b


    4.4 A young partisan (L. Golikov)

    1. born 2. worker 3. settlement 4. fourth 5. himself 6. completely 7. food 8. write-off 9. young 10. numerous 11. description 12. inspection 13. unequal 14. bravery


    4.5 Horrifying artifact (T. Savicheva’s diary)

    1. had died 2. was defeated 3. contained 4. to blame 5. is displayed 6. are buried 7. was writing 8. struck 9. growing 10. was born 11. sang 12. to work 13. meet 14. was going 15. brought 16. couldn’t 17. was mobilized 18. was shrinking 19. didn’t return 20. was staggering 21. passed 22. was rescued 23. supplied 24. grew 25. rose 26. had been struggling 27. get together 28. repeat 29. sounds 30. remembering 31. will stop


    4.6 The son of the regiment (after V. Kataev)

    1.a 2.b 3.b 4.c 5.a 6.c 7.a 8.c 9.c 10.b 11.a 12.b 13.c 14.c 15.c 16.b 17.b 18.a 19.b 20.b 21.a 22.c 23.a 24.c 25.b


    4.7 Mari children in the years of the Great patriotic war

    A7 B1 C9 D6 E4 F2 G5 H8 I 3


    Module 5. Heroic pages of war in the literary works:


    5.1 Here we are, my Lord! (after K. Vorobyov)

    Categories:

    Nature

    Difficulties

    Feelings

    People

    Domestic animals

    Creek, morning frost, shimmering, alder leaves, wind

    Punished, to swerve, a narrow escape, to wade, tormented, to stagger, alarm, martyrs, went pear-shaped

    Hope, satisfied, warily, sad, heartedly

    Way-farer, forester, woodcutter, policemen, host

    Calf, udder, cock, hen, to moo, to grazing, to suck, to chew


    5.2 Michael Sholokhov. They fought for the Motherland

    1 D, 2 I, 3 B, 4 G, 5 A , 6 J, 7 E , 8 C, 9 F, 10 H


    5.3 The dawns are quiet here… (after B. Vasilyev)

    1. The book tells us about the fortunes of five young girls, former school students during the Great patriotic war.

    2. The anti-aircraft gunners were on duty near the railway passing track.

    3. Rita noticed two German soldiers the in the wood.

    4. The sergeant-mayor made up his mind to stop the enemies’ group.

    5. The girls died one after another. Only Vaskov remained alive though wounded.

    6. Vaskov was seeking for the enemies openly and sternly.

    7. The fascists were having a rest in a deep ravine in the wood.

    8. Vaskov made the fascists lie down because they simply couldn’t believe that he was alone, alone for hundreds of miles and that’s why they obeyed.

    9. Vaskov was laughing because he diced with death and did the impossible

    10. Fedot Efgrafovich convoyed the enemies to the rear.


    5.4 A story about a real man (after B. Polevoy)

    1c 2c 3c 4b 5a 6b 7b 8b 9a 10b


    5.5 The hot snow (after Yury Bondarev)

    1. tragic 2. contributed 3. encircled 4. unhurt 5. destruction 6. disfigurated 7. successfully 8. deepened 9. division 10. resistance 11. quitter 12. southern 13. invisible 14. worse 15. sticky 16. being 17. subconscious 18. intoxicating 19. strength 20. able


    5.6 V. Elmar – a poet-hero

    1T 2T 3NS 4F 5NS 6F 7F 8T 9F 10T 11NS

    1F 2E 3C 4A 5D 6B


    Module 6. The theme of war on the canvases of the prominent painters:


    6.1 Artistic chronicles of those terrible war years

    1. “Moscow outskirts. November 1941” (by Deineka), “The Parade in Red Square on November 7, 1941” (by Konstantin Yun), “The defense of Sevastopol” (1942) (by Deineka), “The Last Grenade” (by Yury Neprintsev)

    2. “The defense of Sevastopol” (1942) (by Deineka), “The Last Grenade” (by Yury Neprintsev)

    3. “Moscow outskirts. November 1941” (by Deineka); “The Parade in Red Square on November 7, 1941” (by Konstantin Yun)

    4. “Morning in the Kulikov field” (by A. Bubnov)

    5. “The run away of fascists from Novgorod” (by M.V. Kupriyanov, P.N. Krylov, N.A. Sokolov)

    6. “The Russian River Volga” (by Nikolay Romadin)

    7. “The Last Grenade” (by Yury Neprintsev)

    8. “A medical nurse” (by M.I. Samsonov

    9. “Motherland is calling!” (by I.M. Toidze)

    10. Triptych “Alexander Nevsky” (by P. Korin), “Morning in the Kulikov field” (by A. Bubnov).


    6.2 Mother of a partisan (S. Gerasimov)

    Soviet woman

    German soldier

    Impressive, , brave, angry, light, strong, powerful, self-sufficient, generalized image of mothers, proud, admirable, courageous, selfless, heroic, unconquered, straight, challenging

    Low, heavy, miserable, savage, unpleasant, brutish, a sorry spectacle, unattractive, repulsive, disgusting, inexpressive


    6.3 A letter from the front line (A.I. Laktionov)

    1T 2F 3F 4F 5T 6F 7T 8T 9T 10T


    6.4 A canvas – prosecutor of fascism (“Gernika”)

    A2 B1 C4 D5 E7; extra – 3, 6


    6.5 Picasso and his masterpiece

    The main idea of the text – 3


    Verb

    Noun

    Adjective

    1. To die

    1. Death

    1. Dead

    2. To pierce

    2. Piercing/ piercer

    2. Piercing

    3. To sympathize

    3. Sympathy

    3. Sympathetic

    4. To symbolize

    4. Symbol/ symbolism

    4. Symbolic

    5. To characterize

    5. Character

    5. Characteristic

    6. To differ

    6. Indifference

    6. Indifferent

    7. To ignore

    7. Ignorance

    7. Ignorant

    8. To terrorize

    8. Terror

    8. Terrible

    9. To reason

    9. Reason

    9. Reasonable

    10. To criticize

    10. Critic/ criticism

    10. Critical

    11. To substitute

    11. Substitution

    11. Substituted

    12. To panic

    12. Panic

    12. Panic-stricken

    13. To horrify

    13. Horror

    13. Horrible

    14. To centre

    14. Center

    14. Central

    15. To widen

    15. Width

    15. Wide

    16. To agonize

    16. Agony

    16. Agonic


    6.6 The war-canvases by the Mari painters

    1. contribution 2. development 3. defense 4. high 5.along 6. local 7. dressed 8. skillfully 9.heroism 10 women 11. dominates 12. easily 13. imagination


    6.7 The image of a Russian soldier

    1. when 2. ever 3. why 4. to be 5. together 6. that 7. that 8. for 9. native 10. but 11. to/ towards 12. of


    6.8 Famous Mari artists about the war

    1. created/ has created 2. are depicted 3. is 4. crying 5. was born 6. took up 7. had studied 8. finished 9. were crying 10. were exploding 11.were whistling 12. attracted 13.are depicted 14. see 15. is painted 16. is united


    6.9 The Art Gallery in the country house

    1. has opened 2. are displayed 3. is decorated 4. to be 5. painting 6. has 7. brought 8. have been looking 9. does not/ doesn’t 10. turns 11. tells 12. have never been


    Module 7. Music and war time:

    7.1 One night musical masterpiece (“The dark night”)

    1. Flashed across the director Leonid Lukov’s mind – occurred to him

    2. Gave the game away – told the truth

    3. Put him in a tight spot – put him in a difficulty

    4. Two heads were better than onetwo people can achieve more

    5. Was at his best – tried hard

    6. Hit the right nail – did it right

    7. Was so taken aback – was greatly surprised

    8. Stuck dumb – was puzzled

    9. Grab a chance – use an opportunity

    10. Not beating about the bush – not wasting time

    11. At the crack of dawn – very early

    12. Was humoring the muse – were pleasing the fortune

    13. Were much sought after – were in great demand

    14. Were sold like hot cakes – were sold very quickly


    7.2 Shostakovich and his heroic symphony

    A-5 B-10 C-8 D-3 E-6 F-7 G-2 H-1 I-4; 9 is extra


    7.3 Unofficial war hymn (“Sacred war”)

    1-a, 2-about, 3-√, 4- √, 5- and, 6 - √, 7- to, 8- out, 9 - for, 10- the, 11-√ , 12 - √, 13 - a, 14 - had, 15 -√, 16 -not, 17 -being, 18 -√, 19 -√, 20 - √, 21- was, 22 - if, 23 - more, 24 - had, 25 -√, 26 - by, 27 – if/ though, 28 - √, 29 - as, 30 - the, 31 – the, 32 - √, 33 - did, 34 – a, 35 – to.


    7.4 There were only four steps till death…( “In the earth-house”)

    1D 2B 3D 4E 5F 6B 7B 8C 9A 10F


    7.5 Fire, War and Brass Band

    1. keeps on 2. has been playing 3. remembers 4. began 5. ran away 6. wake up 7. played 8. became 9. was awarded 10. had started 11. were not allowed 12. to go on 13. had been interrupted 14. was wearing 15. didn’t gave up/ did not give up 16. had been working/ had worked/ 17. won/ has won 18. helps


    7.6 Sergey Makov – a composer with a civil position

    1c 2b 3a 4b 5c 6c 7c 8c


    Module 8. Nobody is forgotten:


    8.1 War monuments in St. Petersburg

    1D 2E 3A 4G 5F 6H 7B 8C


    8.2 Piskarevsky Memorial Complex

    1. When was the Piskarevsky Cemetery laid out?

    2. Who is buried here?

    3. How/ in what way was The Eternal Fire lit here?

    4. When was the Memorial Complex opened?

    5. What is the centre of the architectural-sculptural ensemble represented by?

    6. Who were the authors of the Complex?

    7. Who is the author of the inscriptions?

    8. What is the museum in the pavilions near the main entrance to the Cemetery dedicated to?

    9. How long is the Main Alley of the Complex? (What’s the length of the Main Alley of the Complex?)

    10. When was the Chapel of John the Baptist sanctified?


    8.4 The Tomb to the Unknown Soldier in Moscow

    1. architectural 2. composition 3. approaches 4. remains 5. solemnly 6. according 7. Unknown 8. exactly 9. national 10. Memorial 11. inscription 12. immortal 13. following 14. fallen 15. depiction 16. defensive


    8.6 The Mari Republic: Some facts about the Great patriotic war

    1. M. Kazakov, the famous Mari writer who devoted his poem “The hero – machine-gunner” to Vasily Stepanovich Arkhipov.

    2. The title of the Hero of the Soviet Union was given to 36 representatives of the Mari Republic.

    3. The figure of a soldier crowns the Monument to Military Glory.

    4. A. A. Shirin and N. I. Vedernikov designed the Monument to Military Glory in Yoshkar-Ola.

    5. The monument embodies bravery and heroism of the Soviet people in the war-time.

    6. The well-known Mari war heroes are Z. Prokhorov, S. Suvorov, M. Lebedev, N. Ryabinin, A. Yanalov, V. Solovyev, K. Kutrukhin, I. Antsiferov, O. Tikhomirova.

    7. The Memorial Complex includes the Eternal Fire that was set out in honour of those who had lost their lives in the battle-fields of the Great patriotic war.

    8. A great number of the streets in the Mari capital bear the names of the fellow country-men who took part in the Great patriotic war.

    9. The heroic image of the monument is enhanced by the highly-raised soldier’s hand with a sub-machine gun in it, by the fluttering waterproof cape-tent behind his back.

    10. A small village of Knyazhna (now – Danilovo) in Medvedevsky Region is famous for the fact that Vasily Stepanovich Arkhipov, Hero of the Soviet Union was born here.


    8.7“Demos” – the reconnaissance group

    A6 B5 C3 D1; 2, 4 – extra


    8.9 “Immortal Regiment” marches along the streets…

    1-was, 2- the, 3-of, 4-and, 5-√, 6 -√, 7- √, 8- the, 9 - be, 10- √, 11-√ , 12 - √, 13 - or, 14 - to, 15 -√, 16 -√, 17 - has, 18 -been, 19 -was, 20 - √, 21- √, 22 - √, 23 -√, 24 - √, 25 -a, 26 - √, 27 - then, 28- have.


    Intellectual quizzes


    The Great patriotic war: year by year

    a historical cognitive game which is held in the form of a contest


    Goals: to enlarge knowledge of history of the war; to give students a chance to use a creative approach; to bring up responsibility, national pride, the feelings of patriotism and citizenship.

    The game consists of 5 rounds which correlate with the 5 periods of the war:

      1. 1941 – tragic beginning;

      2. 1942 – bitterness of the first defeats;

      3. 1943 – radical turn;

      4. Liberation;

      5. Victory.


    The plan of the game

    Round, time

    Content

    Points

    I. 30 c per question

    Warming up. Teams are asked questions.

    2 points for each right answer.

    II. 3 min

    Test. Teams are given the cards with 5 questions (questions are the same).

    1 point for each right answer.

    III. 3 min

    Captain’s duel. The same task.

    The winner brings 3 points.

    IV. 30 c for thinking over

    Brain ring. Who is quicker in answering the questions?

    2 points for each right answer.

    V. 2 min for each team

    Blitz. The teams should answer as many questions as they can.

    1 point for each right answer.


    Teacher: Our game is devoted to one of the tragic but simultaneously to one of the most glorified pages of our history – to the Great patriotic war. We are to remember its main periods, dramatic and heroic events which finally led to our victory.


    Round I. Tragic beginning. 1941.


    1. Fascist commanders worked out two plans for the actions in the Oriental direction. One of them was the Plan of Barbarous. What was the other? (It was called “Ost”).

    2. In June 1941 was written a poem which soon became a famous song devoted to the Great Patriotic War. What song was it? (It was called “Sacred war”).

    3. On the front border-lines both people and animals fought. Who were they? (They were tanks, planes called “Yaks”, “Tigers”, “Panthers”).

    4. In 1941 Army provision system was in crises. It was decided three things would save the warriors. What are they? (They were alcohol, fat, dried crusts).

    5. It was the first Soviet city that was surrounded by enemies but Hitler troops couldn’t conquer it. Hat city was it? (It was Leningrad).

    (It was Moscow Battle).


    Round II. These are the tasks written in the sheets of paper:

    1. Working out the plan of military actions for spring – summer 1942, the German commanders considered the main direction of their offensive:

    1). Central – towards Moscow;

    2). Northern – towards Archangelsk;

    3). Southern – towards the Caucasus;

    4). Total offensive along the whole front-line.

    2. The most dramatic situation for the Russian Army in summer – autumn 1942 was

    1). In the South;

    2). Near Leningrad;

    3). Near Moscow;

    4). All given answers are wrong.

    3. In tragic days of summer 1942 I. V. Stalin signed document # 227 which was unofficially called

    1). “Only forward”;

    2). “No step backwards”;

    3). “Russia is huge, but we can’t retreat”;

    4). “For our Motherland, for Stalin”.


    4. To organize this process the Central Headquarters was formed with P.K. Parkhomenko at the head. This committee guarded

    1). Evacuation;

    2). Camouflage of important objects;

    3). Stalingrad defense;

    4). Partisan warfare.


    Round III. It’s time for our captains to compete.


    The captains in turn call the names of the military leaders. The winner is the one who gives the last variant.


    Round IV. Liberation. Answer the questions:


    1. How long did the blockade of Leningrad last? (It lasted for 900 days and nights).

    2. In June 1944 was held the operation “Overlord”. What did it mean? (It meant the opening of the second front in Europe).

    3. In honour of this commander of 1812 was called the operation of Byelorussia liberation in 1944. Who was this commander? (He was Bagration).

    4. In Spanish it means “skull”. This thing saved the life of many soldiers. What was it? (It was a helmet).

    5. The second front was opened in 1944. But many Soviet soldiers “opened the second front” much earlier and they did it with great pleasure. What did they call in such a way? (They called so American tinned stew meat).

    6. It took the fascists 250 days to capture this Russian city. What city was it? (It was Sevastopol).

    7. What foreign country was the first that was liberated by the Soviet troops? (It was Romania).

    8. In warm seasons Soviet soldiers rolled it and carried it across the shoulder. At rest time it was used both as a blanket and a pillow. What was it? (It was “shinel” – soldier’s overcoat).


    Round V. Great Victory. In turn the teams answer the questions.


    1. What battle of 1945 was the largest in the Great patriotic war? (It was Berlin Battle).

    2. Who was the commander of the 1st Belarusian Front during the offensive to Berlin (G. Zhukov) and the 1st Ukrainian Front (I. Konev)?

    3. Before the war there were only 5 of them, during the war 11 more appeared, and they all found their heroes. What are they? (They are Orders).

    4. “A. Nevsky”, “Kutuzov”, “Suvorov” also took part in the Great patriotic war, but in the kind of what? (They were military awards).

    5. What is the full name of the Soviet tank “KV”? (Klimenty Voroshilov).

    6. Who was the first to be awarded with the military order “Victory”? (G.K. Zhukov).

    7. How ling did the Great Patriotic War last? (It lasted for 1418 days).

    8. What war was over earlier – the Great patriotic war or II World war? (The Great patriotic war).

    9. How long did the II World War last? (It lasted for 6 years).

    10. What country did the USSR declare a war in 1945? (It was Japan).

    11. Who of the Soviet chief commanders didn’t loose any battles during the war? (It was G.K. Zhukov).

    12. Who, besides W. Churchill and F. Roosevelt, represent “the Big Trinity” at the conference at the Crimea? (It was I. Stalin).

    13. What was the last country that was liberated by the Soviet troops (It was Czechoslovakia).

    14. Before the war this city was called Kennigsbergh and belonged to Germany. After the war it became a soviet city. What is its name? (Its name is Kaliningrad).



    War-Quiz

    The game resembles the TV intellectual show “Svoya Igra” (“Your own game”). The winner is a student who gets the largest number of points.


    Round I. Awards

    10 points

    Orders named after Kutuzov, Suvorov have three stages. Which one is the highest? (The first one).

    20 points

    What Order shpuld be worn on the chest next to the order of the Patriotic War (the Order of Alexander Nevsky).

    30 points

    The first person awarded with the Order of Suvorov was G. Zhukov. Who was the second? (General B.M. Bodalyov).

    40 points

    While designing the Order of A. Nevsky, a young architect I.Telyatnikov used a scene from the film where starred the actor N. Cherkasov. His profile in this image was reproduced on the Order. Name the film (“Alexander Nevsky”).

    50 points

    Who was depicted on the Medal “To the partisans of the Great Patriotic War” by the painter N.I. Moskalyov? (V.I. Lenin, I.V. Stalin).

    Round II. Outstanding personalities

    10 points

    Give the name of a commander, who headed the parade of Victory, which took place on 24 June 1945 in Moscow (Marshal K. Rokossovsky).

    20 points

    What military rank got P.A. Rotmistrov? (The Chief Marshal of the Armoured Forces).

    30 points

    Matvey Vasilievich Zakharov, Hero of the Soviet Union, the Head of the Military Academy of the Headquarters staff. What military college bears his name? (The Military school of communication in Ryazan).

    40 points

    Ivan Stepanovich Konev was awarded with the order of Victory in 1945. What did he get this award for? (For the liberation of Prague).

    50 points

    In what city was the monument to Peter Kirillovich Koshevoy, Marshal of the Soviet Union erected? (In the city of Alexandriya, in the Ukraine).


    Round III. Memorable dates

    10 points

    Name the last day of the blockade of Leningrad (27 January 1944).

    20 points

    On 2 February 1943 the Soviet troops won the most important battle of the Great Patriotic War. What battle is it? How long did it last? (Stalingrad Battle; it lasted for 200 days and nights).

    30 points

    Name the day when the German troops were defeated in Kursk Battle (23 August 1943).

    40 points

    All over the world this day is marked as the Day of Liberation of the imprisoners of the Nazi concentration camps (11 April).

    50 points

    Why is the date of the % of December 1941 became a decisive day in the coarse of the Great Patriotic War? (On this day the Soviet troops launched a counter-offensive against the fascists in the battle for Moscow).


    Round IV. The Road of Life

    10 points

    For how many days was the road across the Lake Ladoga being built? (20 days).

    20 points

    What happened on 22 November 1941 on the lake Ladoga? (The first automobile train, consisted of 60 trucks, crossed the Lake Ladoga).

    30 points

    What was the official name of the Road of life? (Military automobile road # 101).

    40 points

    What was the length of the oil-pipe-line, which ran parallel to the Road of Life to Leningrad? (35 km).

    50 points

    The icy road passed by the Finnish railway station. What was its name? (Osinovets).


    Round V. City-Hero

    10 points

    What honoured title was awarded to the Fortress of Brest on 8 May 1965? (Fortress- Hero).

    20 points

    The German troops circled this city into a tight ring. It was cut off from the rest of the country. What Hero-city was it? (Leningrad).

    30 points

    The fascists’ troops planned to destroy the ships of the northern Navy for 3 days. But they failed. In what city was the enemy stopped? (In Murmansk).

    40 points

    In what year was the Hero-City of Sevastopol completely restored from the ruins? (1953).

    50 points

    In what city were the German soldiers defeated for the first time? (Moscow).


    Round VI. In the world of books

    10 points

    What novel did A. Tolstoy finish on 22 June 1941? (“The Gloomy Morning”).

    20 points

    In spring 1946 M. Sholokhov came across a boy, who later became the main character of his book. What was its name? (“The Fortune of a man”).

    30 points

    In the book “The dawns are quiet here…” B.Vasilyev wrote that Galya Chetvertak was given her name in the orphanage. Why did she get it? (She was a quarter smaller in height than all the rest children).

    40 points

    The story “Son of the regiment”, written by V. Kataev, appeared first abridged in the annual journal. Which one? (“Friendly kids”).

    50 points

    In what work did A. Tvardovsky depict the tragic life of a soldier and his family driven away to Germany? (“The house near the road”).



    There is no land behind the Volga River for us!

    a quiz devoted to the Great patriotic war


    Unit I. Heroic deeds

    What heroic deeds are described here?

    1. During the Great patriotic war the number of such feats was about 300. This exploit was performed by A. Pankratov, A. Matrosov, P. Guzhvin, etc. 152 people were awarded with the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for this heroic deed.

    2. During the war years 220 Soviet patriots performed this heroic deed. 94 of them became the Hero of the USSR. Among them were I. Ivanov, N. Gastellloo, P. Kharitonov, V. Tallalikhin.

    3. These Soviet warriors demonstrated their heroism and bravery in the Battle of Moscow. They fought at the halt of Dubosekovo on Volokolamsk highway.

    4. With what feat is the name of Yakov Fedorovich Pavlov connected?

    5. What heroic action did the Leningrad scientists-agronomists carry out during the city blockade?

    6. What heroic deed did the Soviet pilot Michael Devyataev perform?

    7. What heroic deed did a 94-year-old peasant Matvey Kuzmin perform?

    8. With what exploit is the name of Yury Vasilievich Smirnov connected?

    9. What heroic deed is the name of Natalya Kachuevskaya connected?

    10. During the war years such heroic deed was done by 154 people. 93 of them became Heroes of the Soviet Union. Among them N. Filchenkov, the Hero of the Defense of Sevastopol.


    Unit II. Famous dates

    What events happened on these dates?

    1. 22 June 29141

    2. 27 January 1944

    3. 8 May 1945

    4. 26 March 1944

    5. 5 August 1943

    6. 5 December 1941

    7. 17 July 1944

    8. 2 February 1943

    9. 5 July – 23 August 1943

    10. 30 April 1945


    Unit III. Battles and military operations

    1. The code name of the operation of the liberation of Byelorussia

    2. The code name of the German troops’ capture at Stalingrad

    3. The code name of the fascist entry into the USSR

    4. The code name of the offensive operation of the German Army in Kursk Battle

    5. The code name of the military operation of the Soviet troops near Stalingrad

    6. The code name of fascist’ capture near Moscow

    7. The code name of the offensive operation of the Soviet troops to break the blockade of Leningrad

    8. The code name of the surrounding of the German troops in Stalingrad

    9. What military operations finished the Great Patriotic War?


    Unit IV. Quotations and sayings

    Who do they belong to? What do you know about the authors of these words?

    1. Our matter is right, the enemy will be defeated, the victory will be ours! (22 June, 1941).

    2. Russia is huge, but we have no space to retreat. Moscow is behind us! (Moscow Battle).

    3. I know that we’ll win. Your fate will be death and damnation of all nations (A Soviet scientist, professor, who was executed for the secret activity).

    4. I’m dying but I am not giving up! We’ll die but not leave the fortress!

    5. There is no land for us across the Volga River! (Stalingrad Battle).

    6. The danger for Russia is our danger and danger for the USA (the leader of anti-Hitler coalition; he was the first western leader who spoke about the absolute support of the USSR).

    7. Let the fascist leaders remember: it’s impossible to conquer the Russian people like it’s impossible to liquidate the Sun (a legendary Soviet secret serviceman, the Hero of the Soviet Union).

    8. Comrades! Citizens! Brothers and sisters! I appeal to you, dear friends! (the leader of the Soviet State).

    9. When I’m asked what events I remembered most, I always reply: Moscow Battle (an outstanding Russian military leader).

    10. Your name is unknown, your feat is immortal (the inscription on the tomb).


    Answer key:

    Unit I.

    1. They covered the gun-ports with their bodies.

    2. They performed the rams of the enemy tanks or planes.

    3. Soldiers of the division with General Panfilov at the head. They guarded the road to Moscow. They were 26 and they destroyed 18 tanks.

    4. Stalingrad Battle – the heroic defense of the house named after Pavlov. During 58 days the Soviet soldiers repulsed the enemy’s attacks. Some countries of Europe were conquered for a shorter period of time.

    5. During mass famine they completely preserved the valuable collection of rye, wheat, corn, potatoes that had been collected by N.I. Vavilov.

    6. The Soviet pilot was in fascist captivity. Together with 9 soldiers they he killed a convoy and captured a plane.

    7. He repeated the heroic deed of Ivan Susanin. He misled the enemy detachment in to the forest swamps.

    8. During the battle he was wounded and captured. He was tortured and crucified on the wall of the shelter when he was still alive.

    9. It is connected with the heroic deeds of doctors and nurses. She saved 20 wounded soldiers and lost her life. A small planet # 2015 was named after her.

    10. They sacrificed their lives for the victory. They threw themselves under tanks or blew themselves up when the ammunition came to an end.

    Unit II.

    1. Fascists’ entry into the USSR.

    2. The end of the blockade of Leningrad.

    3. The Soviet troops reached the State Boarder of the USSR on the River Prut.

    4. Germany accepted its defeat in the war.

    5. The first holiday salute in Moscow (Liberation of Orel and Kursk).

    6. The Soviet counter-offensive operation near Moscow began.

    7. 57 thousand German prisoners were led along Moscow streets.

    8. The end of Stalingrad Battle.

    9. The time of Kursk Battle.

    10. In Berlin, on the top of Reichstag was risen a Soviet flag – the banner of Victory.

    Unit III.

    1. Bagration

    2. Brownshweig.

    3. Plan of Barbarous.

    4. Citadel.

    5. Uran.

    6. Typhoon.

    7. Spark.

    8. Ring / Circle.

    9. Berlin/ Prague operations


    Unit IV.

    1. V.M. Molotov, the chairman of the Soviet Government.

    2. V.G. Klochkov, political instructor.

    3. D.M. Karbyshev, General-lieutenant, professor.

    4. Defenders of the Fortress in Brest.

    5. V. Zaitsev, sniper.

    6. W. Churchill.

    7. N.I. Kuznetsov.

    8. I. Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party.

    9. G. Zhukov, Marshal of the USSR.

    10. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Alexander Gardens in Moscow.



    1 Арламов, А.А. Методологические ориентиры воспитания личности гражданина России / А.А. Арламов//Педагогика. -2010. - № 6- С. 27.

    2 Кондаков, А.М. ФГОС общего образования и подготовка учителя/ А.М. Кондаков//Педагогика. – 2010. - № 5. – С. 18

    3 Фундаментальное ядро содержания общего образования / под ред. В.В. Козлова, А.М. Кондакова. – 2-е изд. – М.: Просвещение, 2010. – С. 11.

    4 Патриотически ориентированное образование: методология, теория, практика, под общ. ред. А.Н. Вырщикова. – Волгоград: Панорама, 2008. – С. 211.

    5 Замостьянов, А. Герои на все времена / А. Замостьянов // Воспитательная работа в школе. – 2005. - № 1. – С. 33.

    6 Быков, А.К. Воспитательный потенциал Великой Победы и пути его реализации в системе образования /А.К. Быков// Педагогика. – 2010. - № 3. – С. 41.

    7 Быков, А.К. Формирование патриотического сознания молодежи / А.К. Быков// Педагогика. – 2010. - № 9. – С. 14.

    8 Там же, с. 14.

    9 Фундаментальное ядро содержания общего образования / под ред. В.В. Козлова, А.М. Кондакова. – 2-е изд. – М.: Просвещение, 2010. – 59 с. – (Стандарты второго поколения).

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