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Ток-шоу "Влияние человека на окружающую среду" английский язык
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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
No living thing or group of living things can live and grow in isolation. All organisms, both plants and animals, need energy to develop and all species of living things influence the lives of others. Ecology is a science. It studies how plants, animals and other living things live in relation to each other and to their environment. Ecology is one of the most important sciences nowadays. It teaches us how to survive in the modern world.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (12 March [ 28 February] 1863 – 6 January 1945)
Air Pollution Water Pollution Acid Rains Toxic Pollution of Atmosphere Disappearance of Forests Global Warming Ozone Layer
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 40 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its work on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling and anti-nuclear issues. Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, relying on more than 2.8 million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace Type Non-governmental organization Founded 1971 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Location Amsterdam, Netherlands (international) Key people Kumi Naidoo, Executive Director Lalita Ramdas, Chairman Area served Worldwide Focus Environmentalism, peace Method Direct action, lobbying, research, innovation Revenue €196.6 million (2008) Members 2.86 million(2008) Website www.greenpeace.org www.greenpeace.mobi
«Arrest us: we protect whales too»
100 000 3200
Chernobyl disaster The nuclear reactor after the disaster. Reactor 4 (center). Turbine building (lower left). Reactor 3 (center right). Date 26 April 1986 (1986-04-26) Time 01:23 a.m. (UTC+3) Location Pripyat, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet Union Casualties 56 direct deaths
We pollute the air We throw away plastic bottles. We leave litter in the forest. We don’t recycle paper. We break trees. We throw litter in the river. We leave glass bottles in the forest.
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“Human Impact on the Earth”
(for 10-11 forms)
Учитель английского языка
с углубленным изучением
отдельных предметов №52»
к разработке В.В. Сазонкиной
на тему «Влияние человека на окружающую среду»
(Human Impact on the Earth)
Автор рецензируемой работы решает несколько задач, направленных на развитие коммуникативных компетенций, с помощью ролевой игры, выбрав для этого очень актуальную тему. Ценность данной разработки заключается в сочетании традиционных методов в виде монологических высказываний и мультимедийных средств в представлении и освоении отобранного материала, который содержит много нужной, полезной информации и богатый специализированный лексический массив, связанный с обозначенной темой. Заслуживает похвалы как широта, так и глубина охвата проблем, подпадающих под заявленную общую тему (экология, экосистема, загрязнение окружающей среды, сохранение растительного и животного мира, глобальное потепление и т.д.), а также использование видеофильма о форуме в Петербурге, на котором шла речь о сохранении популяции Амурских тигров.
Необходимо отметить, что объем, представленного в разработке материала, позволяет использовать его не только в форме ролевой игры, но и как дополнительный материал в течение длительного учебного времени в старших классах, а методика работы над ним может варьироваться по желанию.
- Формирование лексических и грамматических навыков говорения.
-Формирование речевой инициативы учащихся в ситуациях, предполагающих творческие монологические и диалогические высказывания.
-Формирование навыков самостоятельного решения коммуникативных задач на английском языке.
- Формирование интеллектуальных и речевых способностей.
- Расширение представления учащихся о странах изучаемого языка.
- Углубление лингвострановедческих знаний.
- Развитие способности осуществлять продуктивные речевые действия.
- Содействие совершенствованию мыслительной деятельности (анализ, обобщение, вывод).
- Формирование у учащихся активной жизненной позиции.
- Воспитание сопричастности к спасению окружающей среды.
-Воспитание чувства толерантного отношения к мнению других людей.
мультимедийный проектор и экран,
презентация по теме,
Epigraph to the talk-show.
«The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself».
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Dear guests, welcome to our talk-show.
It is devoted to a very important problem, the problem of the pollution of the environment and the impact of people on the Earth. I think that the words of Franklin Delano Roosevelt can be the epigraph to our talk-show.
We have invited people who are greatly interested in the solution of the problem. They are:
Members of “Greenpeace”
Members of “The WWF”
A member of nature protection organization
A member of the Government
An Emergency Services Ministry representative
To start with I would like to remind you of the meaning of the word “Ecology”.Please, read the definition of the word.
WHAT IS ECOLOGY?
No living thing or group of living things can live and grow in isolation. All organisms, both plants and animals, need energy to develop and all species of living things influence the lives of others. Ecology is a science. It studies how plants, animals and other living things live in relation to each other and to their environment.
Ecology is one of the most important sciences nowadays. It teaches us how to survive in the modern world.
I think that Mr. Evdokimov will start our debate. Please, take the floor.
Ladies and gentlemen, let me tell you a few words about an ecosystem.
An ecosystem (EK-oh-sis-tuhm) is made up of groups of living things, and the environment in which they live. In an ecosystem, the living things are able to get the things that they need in order to survive. Healthy ecosystems are in balance. In other words, there is enough food, water, and shelter for all of the species that live within the ecosystem.
Plant and animal populations interact with one another in many different ways. Animals tend to use plants for food and shelter. Animals carry seeds from place to place, and help to fertilize the soil. Insects find their food while hiding in or around plants. Insects also help pollinate plants so that they can grow and produce fruit. When plant and animal populations work together, they function as communities. A community is made up of all the populations found in a specific area.
Does it mean that in different specific areas there are different ecosystems?
You are right. There are many different types of ecosystems. Ecosystems can be found in tropical rain forests, saltwater marshes, coral reefs, kelp forests, and deep in the ocean. Each ecosystem is unique, but each also requires a delicate balance between the plant and animal species in order for the ecosystem to remain healthy. Pollution, rapid deforestation, natural disasters, and slow environmental changes over time can all threaten the health of our earth's ecosystems. We should do everything we can to preserve nature's delicate balance so that its wonders can be enjoyed by generations to come.
Can you say anything about Vernadsky’ s prediction of the new nature of our planet?
Of course I can. Nearly 70 years ago, the Soviet government made a surprising observation; through technology and great human numbers, he wrote, people were becoming a geological force, shaping the planet’s future just as rivers and earthquakes had shaped its past. Eventually, the scientist, Vladimir Vernadsky, wrote that global society, guided by science, would soften the human environmental impact, and the Earth would become a “noosphere”- a planet of the mind, “life’s domain ruled by reason”.
And what is your personal attitude to this prediction? Will it come true?
Today, a broad range of scientists say that part of Vernadsky’s thinking has already been proved correct: people have significantly altered the atmosphere and are the dominant influence on ecosystems and natural selection. The question now is whether the rest of his vision will come true.
How is it possible to maintain the balance of the Earth, I wonder?
The human beings have realized the environmental damage of the last century. With the aid of satellites and supercomputers, they now have a real chance to balance economic development beginning with sustaining the Earth’s ecological systems
Human activity has such a great influence on the planet’s ecology that it is no longer possible to separate people from nature. Emissions of carbon dioxide, whether from Ohio power plant or Bangkok taxicab, contribute to global warming. Shoppers in Tokyo seeking inexpensive picture frames send people deep into Indonesian forests.
Ведущий: Thank you for your information.
I can' t but agree with you that “it is no longer possible to separate people from nature”. But people forget that they are part of our environment as any other living things.
Let me show you what we have in reality.
The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life. If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful our planet is. You will see blue seas and oceans, rivers and lakes, high snow-capped mountains, green forests and fields. For centuries man lived in harmony with nature until industrialization brought human society into conflict with the natural environment.
I ask one of you to read the names the environmental we face nowadays.
Among the most urgent problems are:
Toxic Pollution of Atmosphere
Air pollution is a very important problem.
Cars and factories pollute the air we use. Their fume also destroys the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. Aerosols create large “holes” in the ozone layer round the Earth. Burning coal and oil leads to global warming which may bring about a change in the world’s climate.
The other problem is that our forests are dying from acid rains. Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the balance of nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate and ecosystem in the world.
Another important pollution problem is the oceans.
Many ships sail in the ocean water- fishing ships, some ships carrying people, some carrying oil. If a ship loses some of the oil in the water, or waste from the ships in put into the ocean, the water becomes dirty. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. Many fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which may be sold in markets, and people may get sick from eating them. Lakes and rivers are becoming polluted, too.
Can you add anything?
Some beaches are dangerous for swimming.
The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.
Let me remind you of the recent accident in the Mexican Bay.
As a result of the explosion about 840 million gallons of oil poured into the bay. It spread all over the bay and even farther. Fish die, animals die, birds die. If nothing is done in the near future all fauna and flora of the bay will perish.
The company “British Petroleum” uses chemical reagents breaking-up oil. However it causes poisoning of water. Fish die because of heavy haemorrage.
I agree that pollution damages the Earth but we can’t do without it. Automobiles are polluting the air but they provide transportation for the people. Factories pollute the air and the water but they provide jobs for people and produce necessary goods. Fertilizers and pesticides are important for growing crops but they can ruin soil.
People would have to stop using many useful things if they want to put an end to pollution immediately. Most people do not want to do that of course. But pollution can be reduced gradually. Scientists and engineers can find the ways to reduce pollution from automobiles and factories. The Government can adopt laws that will make enterprises take measures for reducing pollution. Individuals and groups of people can work together to persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities.
We all understand the necessity of keeping our environment clean. But in reality people who take active measures to save the planet are not numerous. Fortunately two of them are the participants of our talk-show. They are members of “Greenpeace”.
Представитель группы «Гринпис»:
First of all let me give you some official information about our organization. Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 40 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its work on world wide issues such as global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whaling and anti-nuclear issues. Greenpeace uses direct action, lobbying and research to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, relying on more than 2.8 million individual supporters and foundation grants.
Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world.
“Greenpeace” acts against nuclear tests, radiating threat, pollution of the environment by waste industrial products, to protect the animal world, etc. This organization influences public opinion through mass media, under its aegis manifestations and protest actions are carried for solution of concrete ecological problems.
For example, the “Greenpeace” has sent its boats to protect whales, and today commercial whaling is banned. In the North Sea Greenpeace swimmers turned back dump ships carrying chemical waste, and new laws to protect the North Sea have been considered.
Nowadays we can give an explanation of many things in the life of animals. But even scientists are puzzled over some events. Take for example perishing of birds. It has become known that a great number of birds in many countries have perished.
(Watching the video “Perishing of Birds”)
Who is guilty of it? Why don’t scientists study this phenomenon? May be it witnesses of some coming catastrophe for people?
Представитель фонда дикой природы:
I am a member of the WWF. Frankly speaking I share your anxiety as far as our efforts are concerned.
First of all I’d like to tell you a few words about our organization.
In 1961, the World Wildlife Fund was founded – a small group of people who wanted to raise money to save animals and plants. Today, the World Wildlife Fund is a large international organization. It has raised over 35 million pounds for conservation projects, and has created or given support to National Parks in five continents. If more people give more money – and if more governments think of what is happening – perhaps the World Wildlife Fund will be able to help us to protect the natural world and all of us with it.
Watching the video “WWF about forests”.
We study the animal world and more than other people understand the terrible situation in which several species of animals find themselves.
Take for example elephants.
Giants in danger.
Today, many elephants in Africa are dying because they do not have enough to eat or to drink and because they do not have enough space to live in.
Hunters kill thousands of elephants every year. Some kill them for meat. But most kill elephants for their ivory tusks. (бивни)
Most of elephants have gone to national parks. There are too many animals there. As a result, the elephants do not have enough grass and leaves to eat.
All these problems have greatly reduced the number of elephants in Africa. Specialists think that only two million elephants live on the planet today.
15,000,000 big cats: tigers, snow leopards, jaguars and lynxes are killed every year for their skins.
Skins are used to make fur coats and jackets which sell at very high prices: a quality lynx coat, for example, costs at least 10,000 pounds. The main exporter of cat skins is South America, and they are imported by the European Community, the United States and Japan.
Why do you try to frighten us? For centuries people have been wearing fur-coats, and they will always do it. Don’t tell me that it may result in a decrease of animals.
I think there is one person here, who has something interesting to tell you as far as tigers are concerned.
Ladies and gentleman, on the 23rd of November famous politicians from 13 countries came to St. Petersburg to take part in the summit to discuss the problem of disappearance of tigers. Among the participants of the forum there were some world famous people, such as the Prime Minister of the Russian Feleration Vladimir Putin, the actor Leonardo Di Caprio and the model Naomy Campbell.
It was necessary to organize this forum because tigers are among disappearing species nowadays. Some people kill them to save their livestock and their lives. But some people have hunted tigers for fun and for their beautiful skin. Scientists have been aware and anxious about the problem for a long time.
The population of tigers has reduced from 100000 to 3200 during the last century. Three out of eight species have died out. The situation is catastrophic. The cost of saving these animals is between 350 million and 370 million dollars.
Vladimir Putin had suggested that a summit devoted to saving of tigers should take place. The heads of the countries where tigers still exist got together in St. Petersburg to discuss this problem and to adopt a declaration. The debates were friendly. Vladimir Putin pointed out that saving of tigers is not a trifle. He said: “We think about future generations. We should keep nature for them. If tigers feel safe, people are sure to be safe, too. It was agreed that the number of these big cats should be doubled by 2022.
Part of necessary 350 million dollars was raised at the charity concert. Leonardo Di Caprio promised to give one million dollars to the World Wild Fund to save tigers.
Watching the video “V.Putin at the forum in St.Petersburg”.
The destructive activity of people, their constant desire to penetrate into remote areas of the planet has caused a lot of disasters. The reaction of nature to people’s doings can be terrible.
The population of our planet more and more often becomes the victim of disasters.
They are volcanic eruptions, avalanching, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes (tornadoes, typhoons). More and more lands suffer from draught, flood. More and more people die of famine and epidemic.
An even greater environmental threat is nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, took place on April 26, 1986. It seriously aggravated the ecological situation in Belorussia. That catastrophe can be considered as the largest disaster of the 20th century. As a result of that accident 18% of territories of our republic were contaminated by radioactive elements. The agriculture of our country suffered great losses. More than 20% of the population has also suffered. A death rate among children has increased considerably.
I have a question. And what are the attempts of scientists in order to help people after the accident?
The wide researches are carried out, but health state of the people living in polluted areas, is worsened. The level of thyroid gland cancer has increased, the immunity of children and women is weakened, a lot of diseases appear out only a few years later. Everyone understands that this catastrophe is a threat to health of our nation, and though years have already passed, the results will become obvious to the future generations.
Everybody has heard about an accident at the nuclear power station “Fucusima-1” in Japan. Nobody knows for sure how many people will be victims of this catastrophe, but it is clear that they will be numerous.
You have poured out so much terrifying information that I’ve got really frightened.
Isn’t there anybody to defend us?
Let me say. People are careless. But we, people working at the Emergency Services Ministry, do everything possible to save people and animals.
Are there any tourists among you?
Обыватель: I am.
Do you like to make a campfire in the forest?
Of course, I do. I believe there is no rest without a campfire.
And that was the main reason for forest fires last year. Just think, what happened!
The summer of 2010 was extremely hot. Almost all vegetation dried. There was a complicated fire situation in many places of our country. Fires started mostly in forests. A single spark was enough to start a fire. Fire moved at a speed of 30 kilometres an hour. During that summer fires spread over the territory of more than 500000 hectares.
There were a lot of peat fires that caused heavy smoke screens in Moscow and many other towns.
About 250000 people extinguished fires.
As a result of this disaster more than 1200 houses burned down and more than 50 people perished.
About 20 countries offered their help in the struggle against fires.
Big cities face the environmental catastrophe. Constant carbon dioxide emissions is a characteristic feature of big cities. Pollution of water by both industrial and domestic users creates the problem of water deficit. One form of pollution that is characteristic of large urban cities is noise that has destructive influence on a person's mind. Litter is another issue that people face in big cities. As a result of it big industrial centres today look more like garbage dumps.
And what about the pollution of the countryside?
When I look around I realize that not all people understand the importance of nature protection. On fine summer days a lot of people go out of town. They have picnics on the shores of lakes and the banks of rivers or on beautiful forest glades and they often leave behind a lot of rubbish- plastic bags and bottles, tins and paper. It makes me feel sad.
I’m very worried about people throwing away litter. Just think of all the litter around. Soon there won’t be any more places free of it. People should do something about litter, before it’s too late!
I find the situation in our countryside worrisome. Near my house there is a pond. It is badly polluted by the builders. Empty paint containers, bits of wood, crisp packets are thrown into the pond. The pollution killed lots of fish and baby ducks. What’s more, the builders refused to help us clear the pond. They are the ones that caused pollution and they must eliminate it.
I’m sure you realize that all of us should make a contribution to keeping our environmental clean. We should remember that each of our steps has consequences.
Guess what happens when we pollute the environment.
We pollute the air. - We change the climate.
We throw away plastic bottles . - We damage nature.
We leave litter in the forest. - We hurt animals.
We don’t recycle paper. - We cut down trees to make new paper
We break trees. - We disturb birds.
We throw litter into the river. - We cause water pollution.
We leave glass bottles in the - We hurt animals and people.
Nowadays more and more people become aware of the ecological problems that humanity faces. Grown-ups try to involve children into saving the environment.
In fact there are hundreds of little things that an ecological conscious person can do. No matter how small the gesture is, it all adds to a better quality of life for you and your future children.
Can you say anything about your contribution to keeping our environment clean?
I personally try to avoid over-packaged products. They clog up the environment with waste. But generally I buy fruit and vegetables loose, not pre-packed in plastic, as foam plastic contains ozone-harming chlorofluorocarbons.
As every civilized person I can hardly do without sprays, soap, washing powders etc. Unfortunately, they are still making aerosols and sprays containing ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons. Most old brand aerosols from supermarkets or pump-action dispensers are safe buys.
I also try to use fewer batteries in my Walkman or CD player. Every teenager should keep in mind that batteries contain toxic chemical, and we buy millions of them a year. Burned, they pollute the air; buried, they poison the land. A good idea is to buy rechargeable ones.
My parents are gardeners. They grow their own products without synthetic fertilizers.
My friends keep a hedgehog in the country kitchen garden. It’s really a double take, as it helps them to fight slugs an snails and secondly their children are brought up in the spirit of love and respect to Nature.
Of course, everything we have heard here is very nice. But I’m sure you understand that it is not enough for solution of the problem we are discussing here. The main steps should be taken by the Government.
I suppose the member of a nature protection organization can share her opinion of this problem.
Член природоохранной организации:
Mankind has long believed that, whatever we did, the Earth would remain much the same. We know now that it is untrue. Nature is under threat. One country’s pollution can be every country’s problem. So we all need to work together to safeguard our environment.
We have a moral duty to look after our planet and hand it on in good order to future generation. That doesn’t mean trying to halt economic growth. We need growth to give us the means to live better and healthier lives. We must not sacrifice our future well-being for short-term gains, nor pile up environmental debts which will burden our children. Where there are real threats to our planet we have to take great care. Prevention can often be better and cheaper than cure.
Russia attaches particular importance to the environmental policy.
But not everything is still done in a proper way.
What particularly should be done?
Член природоохранной организации:
Our Government must:
preserve and enhance Russia’s natural and cultural inheritance; encourage the more prudent and efficient use of energy and other resources;
make sure that Russia’s air and water are clean and safe, and that controls over wastes and pollution are maintained and strengthened where necessary.
I want to add, that countries should have strict laws to control pollution, to protect animals and plants. Governments should be responsible for protecting nature. Today the law in some countries says: “The polluter must pay. If a person damages trees and animals, he must also pay”. But unfortunately such good laws don’t always work.
Nobody can deny now that to keep our environment clean is everybody’s duty. Let’s remember the words of Antuan de Sent Exupery:
Later the little Prince told me the following : “There exists a firm rule – When you get up in the morning and tidy yourself up, don’t forget to maintain order on the planet”.
Antuan de Sent Exupery
To finish our talk-show let's make an oath!
to use natural resources intelligently
not to litter the streets of our towns, the banks of rivers and lakes.
not to interfere in the life of wild animals.
to plant at least one tree during our life
not to endanger our selves and environment.
Our talk-show is coming to an end. Thank you for your participation. Good-bye.
1. М.З.Биболетова, Е.Е. Бабушис, Английский язык с удовольствием, 10 класс, Обнинск: Титул, 2010.
2. М.З. Биболетова, Н.Н.Трубанева, Английский язык с удовольствием, 8 класс, Обнинск: Титул,2008.
3. О.В. Афанасьева, И.В. Михеева, Английский язык, 8 класс. г.Москва, «Просвещение», 2009.
4. Т. Клементьева, Джим Шеннол, Счастливый английский, 7-9 класс, Обнинск; Титул, 2000.
1)Энциклопедия «Википедия» - http://ru.wikipedia.org
2)Сайт «Фонда защиты дикой природы» - http://www.wwf.ru/
3)Сайт, посвященный сохранности окружающей среды - http://eco.rian.ru/nature/
4)Сайт «Министерства чрезвычайных ситуаций» - http://www.mchs.gov.ru/
5)Сайт сообщества «Greenpeace» - http://www.greenpeace.org/russia/ru/
6)Сайт, посвященный «Красной книге России» - http://www.floranimal.ru
7)Сайт, посвященный экосистеме планеты - http://www.ecosystema.ru
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