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Учебное пособие для студентов, обучающихся по специальности"Юриспруденция"

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LAW AND LEGAL PROFESSIONS

CONTENTS



PART 1. LAW AND LEGAL PROFESSIONS

UNIT 1. Introduction to Law

UNIT 2 Why do we need law?

UNIT 3 Law and Society

UNIT 4 Legal professions

UNIT 5 Legal skills













































PART 1. LAW AND LEGAL PROFESSIONS

1. INTRODUCTION TO LAW



1. Прочитайте данные ниже определения слова «law», которое переводится на русский язык как «право, закон». Как Вы думаете, какое из определений этого слова больше всего отражает значение данного слова?

A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.

A set of rules or principles dealing with a specific area of a legal system.

A way of life.

A statement describing a relationship observed to be invariable between or among phenomena for all cases in which the specified conditions are met.

A principle of organization, procedure, or technique.

A generalization based on consistent experience or results.

2. Ответьте на вопросы, начиная ответ с одного из выражений.

In my opinion - по моему мнению

I cant make up my mind, but - не могу принять решение

I am keeping an open mind for the moment - пока у меня нет никакого мнения на этот счет Im (not) sure that - я (не) уверен, что

Firstly, (secondly) - во-первых, (во-вторых)

Finally – наконец



Can we live without laws?

Why do we need the law?

What spheres of life are regulated by law?

Must people obey laws?

What rules of behavior are accepted in the society?

Do you share the idea that people should look only after themselves and take no care about others?

What rules do you obey willingly?

What rules would you abolish if you could?

Do laws limit your personal freedom?

Must all people study law at school?

Do you feel that laws protect you?

What law would you suggest if you were a Member of Parliament?









3. Прочитайте и выучите идиоматические выражения со словом «law». Составьте предложения с каждым из них. (Идиомы - это устойчивые по составу и структуре лексически неделимые и целостные по значению словосочетания или предложения, выполняющие функцию словарной единицы).

law and order - правопорядок

the law of the jungle - закон джунглей

to lay down the law- a) устанавливать правовые нормы, формулировать закон; б) говорить безапелляционным тоном, не допускать возражений

Necessity knows no law - нужда не знает закона.

4. Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу глаголами из упражнения

to make laws - издавать, принимать законы

to repeal laws - отменять законы

to break laws - нарушать законы

to obey laws - соблюдать законы

to enforce laws - обеспечить (принудительно) исполнение закона

to apply laws - применять законы

to be against the law - быть противозаконным

to study law - изучать право

to amend the law - вносить поправки в закон

The State Duma of the Russian Federation ____ laws.

The government ___ laws and ___ them if they are bad.

The police ___ laws.

Courts and judges ___ laws.

Law-abiding people ___ laws.

Criminals ___ laws.

The students of universities ___ law.









2. WHY DO WE NEED THE LAW?

1.Повторение грамматики: система времен английских глаголов в активном залоге

1. Прочитайте

а) 1-ю форму глагола

б) 2-ю форму глагола

в) 3-ю форму глагола.

made, make, begun, begin, began, was, is, been, were, being, drive, driven, driving, drove, kept, keep, arisen, arise, arose, dealt, deal, dealing, have, had, has, protected, protect, taken, take, took, feel, felt, flaw, flawed, spoken, spoke, speak, seek, sought, choose, chosen, chose.

2. Прочитайте формы сказуемого, которые переводятся на русский язык а) настоящим временем б) прошедшим временем в) будущим временем.

will begin, have protected, is speaking, had taken, made, seek to do, shall have, are driving, has felt, were keeping, ensured, is going to take, will be necessary, deals with, am doing, flaws, was regulating, had chosen, have resolved, are arising, are going to do, will settle, drive, keeps, are applying, rejected, shall respect, imposed.

3. Прочитайте только те словосочетания, которые могут выступать в качестве сказуемого в предложении.

will have finished, alter, in favor of, unlike rules, should not do, to pay, may be forced, would not be necessary, did not live, so special, to drive on, help to safeguard, claims to, ensuring, do not want, applies to, might not be able to go, to speak out publicly, has kept, are regulating, a great deal of order, like, do not use, will choose, is speaking.

4. Переведите словосочетания, обращая внимание на обстоятельства времени

1. … now (at the moment of speech) we are telling, laws are keeping the society together, he is driving on the left side of the road, they are seeking to change the law;

. … already, by now (by the moment of speech) they have formulated the law, government has authorized the court to complete the investigation, the criminal has broken the law, he has taken unfair advantage of the weaker, the life has changed.

. … last …, … ago, in 1997 (date) people began to create laws long ago, last week the parliament amended the law, yesterday he testified under oath at the trial, in 1985 the Law Society relaxed the rules.

5. Выберите правильную форму глагола.

. Students (are studying, study) law at the University. 2. He already (graduated, has graduated) from the university. 3, Last year he (graduated, has graduated) from the university. 4. The police (didnt find, havent found) the killer yet. 5. For about 10 years legislators (discussed, have been discussing) the bill. 6. Every year the State Duma of the RF (is passing, passes) a lot of laws. 7. In 1992 our country (ratified, had ratified) the treaty. 8. Lawyers (came, have come) to the agreement by the end of the present session. 9. You (are looking, look) very thoughtful. What (do you think, are you thinking) about? - I (think, am thinking) about retirement. - But you are only 25. You only just (started, have started) your career. - I (know, am knowing), but I (read, have read) an article which (says, is saying) that a sensible man (started, starts) thinking about retirement at 25.

6. Переведите текст

Тысячи английских слов свободно используются в функциях нескольких частей речи. Наиболее широко распространена способность выступать в двух функциях у существительного и глагола, например: state - государство, состояние и заявлять, излагать, judge - судья и судить, claim - требование, судебный иск и претендовать, заявлять, force - сила и заставлять, rule - правило, норма и управлять, постановлять. Правильный первый шаг к пониманию смысла английского высказывания - не поиск в словаре русских соответствий английским словам, а определение грамматической роли слова в предложении. К пониманию смысла английского высказывания можно прийти лишь после того, как выявлена его грамматическая структура, при этом необходимо руководствоваться формальными показателями слова и твердым порядком слов в английском предложении.

1. A judge is a court officer authorized to decide legal cases. But who are they to judge us? <#"justify">Almost everything we do is governed by some set of rules. There are rules for games, for social clubs, for sports and for adults in the workplace. There are also rules imposed by morality and custom that play an important role in telling us what we should and should not do. However, some rules -- those made by the state or the courts -- are called "laws". Laws resemble morality because they are designed to control or alter our behavior. But unlike rules of morality, laws are enforced by the courts; if you break a law -- whether you like that law or not -- you may be forced to pay a fine, pay damages, or go to prison.are some rules so special that they are made into laws? Why do we need rules that everyone must obey? In short, what is the purpose of law?we did not live in a structured society with other people, laws would not be necessary. We would simply do as we please, with little regard for others. But ever since individuals began to associate with other people -- to live in society --laws have been the glue that has kept society together. For example, the law in our country states that we must drive our cars on the right-hand side of a two-way street. If people were allowed to choose at random which side of the street to drive on, driving would be dangerous and chaotic. Laws regulating our business affairs help to ensure that people keep their promises. Laws against criminal conduct help to safeguard our personal property and our lives.in a well-ordered society, people have disagreements and conflicts arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully. If two people claim to own the same piece of property, we do not want the matter settled by a duel: we turn to the law and to institutions like the courts to decide who is the real owner and to make sure that the real owner's rights are respected.need law, then, to ensure a safe and peaceful society in which individuals' rights are respected. But we expect even more from our law. Some totalitarian governments have cruel and arbitrary laws, enforced by police forces free to arrest and punish people without trial. Strong-arm tactics may provide a great deal of order, but we reject this form of control. The legal system should respect individual rights while, at the same time, ensuring that society operates in an orderly manner. And society should believe in the Rule of Law, which means that the law applies to every person, including members of the police and other public officials, who must carry out their public duties in accordance with the law.our society, laws are not only designed to govern our conduct: they are also intended to give effect to social policies. For example, some laws provide for benefits when workers are injured on the job, for health care, as well as for loans to students who otherwise might not be able to go to university.goal of the law is fairness. This means that the law should recognize and protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty and equality. The law also serves to ensure that strong groups and individuals do not use their powerful positions in society to take unfair advantage of weaker individuals., despite the best intentions, laws are sometimes created that people later recognize as being unjust or unfair. In a democratic society, laws are not carved in stone, but must reflect the changing needs of society. In a democracy, anyone who feels that a particular law is flawed has the right to speak out publicly and to seek to change the law by lawful means.

7. Подберите к английским словосочетаниям из текста русские эквиваленты



1. the purpose of law a) уважать права отдельного человека

2. to live in society b) отражать изменяющиеся потребности общества

3. to choose at random c) иметь разногласия и конфликты

4. to safeguard our personal property and our lives d) верить в верховенство закона

5. to have disagreements and conflicts e) защищать основные права и свободы

6. to resolve disputes peacefully f) назначение (цель) права

7. to turn to the law g) иметь право открыто высказать свое мнение

8. to respect individual rights h) жить в обществе

9. to arrest and punish people without trial i) выбирать что-либо наугад

10. to believe in the Rule of Law j) стремиться изменить закон мирными средствами

11. in accordance with the law k) арестовывать и наказывать людей без суда и следствия

12. to protect basic individual rights and freedoms l) охранять нашу собственность и жизнь

13. to reflect the changing needs of society m) в соответствии с законом

14. to have the right to speak out publicly n) обращаться к закону

15. to seek to change the law by lawful means o) разрешать споры мирными средствами







8. Закончите предложения в соответствии с текстом.

1. Almost everything we do is governed by ) rules imposed by morality) the courts) some set of rules

2. If we didnt live in a structured society with other people ) we would simply do as we please) we would simply do with little regard for others) laws would not be necessary

3. Laws against criminal conduct help ) to protect our property) to take advantage of other individuals) to safeguard our personal property and our lives.

4. We turn to the law ) to resolve the dispute peacefully) to decide who is the real owner) to force people keep their promises

5. Another goal of the law is ) to protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms) fairness) to provide for benefits.

9. Выразите согласие/несогласие со следующими утверждениями, используя ту или иную речевую модель.

Model: a) I fully agree with the statement.) I am afraid, I cant agree with it.

Not everything we do is governed by some set of rules.

We need rules that everyone must obey.

Laws against criminal conduct dont help to safeguard our personal property and our lives.

In well-ordered society conflicts never arise.

It is impossible to resolve disputes peacefully.

If individuals rights are respected it means that we live in a safe and peaceful society.

Totalitarian governments have cruel and arbitrary laws.

Strong-arm tactics may provide a great deal of order ensuring the society operates in an orderly manner.

Laws should be applied to every person in the society.

The only goal of the law is fairness.

10. Замените русские слова в скобках английскими эквивалентами из текста

The aim of (права) is to regulate the conduct of human beings in society. The aim of (правовой) theory is (рассмотреть) the nature, origin and classification of law. The theory of natural law is based on the belief that there is a set of perfect (юридических норм) for human conduct and (законы) devised by men must be induced by these rules. (Закон) is a term which is used in many different senses. To (юриста) law has far narrower meaning - the principle recognized and applied by the state in (суде). The English (правовая система) has still been copied by many nations. (Судебный процесс) becomes the center of a contest between both parties in which one emerges the winner. By the time of (судебного разбирательства) each (сторона дела) should gain as much information as possible.

11. Соотнесите английские предложения с соответствующими русскими предложениями.

1. Не каждый может работать для общего блага. 2. Юрист - это лицо, чья профессия заключается в том, чтобы подавать судебные иски или консультировать клиентов и действовать от их имени по различным юридическим вопросам. 3. Право - это нормы поведения, установленные государством и применяемые в обществе в форме закона или обычая. 4. Закон - это любая норма или предписание, которым надо следовать. 5. Мы следуем определённым нормам поведения, если принадлежим определённым социальным институтам. 6. Я посоветуюсь с юристом. 7. Она обратилась в суд. 8. Судья отправляет правосудие. 9. Какие факторы повлияли на Ваше решение?1. The law is the rule of conduct established by a government and applicable to people, whether in the form of legislation or custom. 2. Law is any rule or injunction that must be obeyed. 3. Not everybody can work for the goods of society. 4. A lawyer is a person whose profession is to conduct lawsuit for clients or to advise or act for them in other legal matters. 5. We accept some rules if we belong to particular social institutions. 6. Ill take legal advice. 7. She brought a case to court. 8. What factors influenced your decision? 9. A judge administers justice.

12. Замените русские слова в скобках английскими эквивалентами. Переведите текст на русский язык



1. to investigate crimes 2. civil offences 3. to punish the guilty 4. law and order 5. is breaking the law 6. obey the law 7. ignorance of the law is almost never a defense for breaking it 8. were prosecuted 9. legal codeshave many ways of making sure that citizens (подчиняются закону).



They make the public aware of what the law is and try to encourage social support for (правопорядку). They use police forces (расследовать преступления) and catch criminals. They authorize courts to complete the investigation of criminal and (гражданских правонарушений) and to pass sentences to (наказать виновного) and deter others. And they make efforts to re-educate and reform people who have broken the law.laws of all countries are to be found in written records - (правовые кодексы) of countries with continental systems, the statutes and case-judgments of common law countries, warning on official forms, and notice in public buildings. Many people do not know where to find these records and do not find it easy to read them. But (незнание законов не освобождает от ответственности). Governments usually expect citizens to be aware of the laws which affect their lives. Sometimes this seems very harsh, for example, when the law is very technical. Shopkeepers in England (преследовались по закону в уголовном порядке) for selling books on Sunday, although they were allowed to sell magazines. However, there are many laws, such as those prohibiting theft, assault and dangerous driving which simply reflect social and moral attitudes to everyday behavior. In such cases a person knows he (нарушает закон), even if he doesnt know exactly which law it is.

13. Ответьте на вопросы

1.What kind of society do we live in?

2.What is the society governed by?

3.What is the difference between laws and rules of morality?

4.Why do rules of morality and custom play an important role in our life?

5.Why are laws designed to control our behavior?

6.What are the goals of law?

7.When do people turn to law?

8.Why do we need the law?





3. LAW AND SOCIETY



1. Прочитайте текст



LAW AND SOCIETY

The world was at a very primitive stage of development there were no laws to regulate life of people. If a man chose to kill his wife or if a woman succeeded in killing her husband that was their own business and no one interfered officially. things never stay the same. The life has changed. We live in a complicated world. Scientific and social developments increase the tempo of our daily living activities, make them more involved. Now we need rules and regulations which govern our every social move and action. We have made laws of community living. laws are based on the reasonable needs at the community we often don’t notice them. If our neighbor plays loud music late at night, we probably try to discuss the matter with him rather than consulting the police, the lawyer or the courts. When we buy a TV set, or a train ticket or loan money to somebody a lawyer may tell us it represents a contract with legal obligations. But to most of us it is just a ticket that gets us on a train or a TV set to watch when a neighbor refuses to behave reasonably or when we are injured in a train accident, the money wasn’t repaid, the TV set fails to work and the owner of the shop didn’t return money or replace it, we do start thinking about the legal implications of everyday activities may wish to take legal action to recover your loss. You may sue against Bert who didn’t pay his debt. Thus you become a plaintiff and Bert is a defendant. At the trial you testified under oath about the loan. Bert, in his turn, claimed that it was a gift to him, which was not to be returned. The court after the listening to the testimony of both sides and considering the law decided that it was a loan and directed that judgment be entered in favor of you against Bert. transactions in modern society are so complex that few of us would risk making them without first seeking legal advice. For example, buying or selling a house, setting up a business, or deciding whom to give our property to when we die the whole it seems that people all over the world are becoming more and more accustomed to using legal means to regulate their relations with each other. Multinational companies employ lawyers to ensure that their contracts are valid whenever they do business.

2. Ответьте на вопросы

1. Were there any laws when the world was at a very primitive stage of development?

2. Why do we need rules and regulations nowadays?

3. Do we notice laws? Why?

4. When do we start thinking about the legal implications of our everyday activities?

5. In what case may we sue against Berth?

6. Where do we testify under oath?

7. Did Berth win or lose the case?

8. In what cases do people seek legal advice?

9. Why do companies employ lawyers?

3. Выразите согласие/несогласие со следующими утверждениями, используя ту или иную речевую модель

Model:

a) I think it is true. The text tells us that ………

b) To my mind, it is false because …………

We usually think about the legal implications of everyday activities.

Few of us would risk making transactions without first seeking legal advice.

People all over the world are becoming more and more accustomed to using legal means to regulate their relations with each other.

Even though the TV set fails to work and the owner of the shop didn’t return your money or replace the TV set, we don’t start thinking of taking legal advice.

When you buy a train ticket a lawyer may tell you it represents a contract with legal obligations.

You may not sue against the person who didn’t pay his debt.

You can testify at the doctors.

A defendant can accuse a plaintiff.

The court may listen to testimony of one side.

All transactions in modern society are very complex.

Nobody should have basic knowledge of law.

4. Прочитайте определения слов и догадайтесь, о каких словах из текста идет речь

1. _____ is the party that is accused in court of a crime or a civil offence.

2. _____ is the party that starts or carries out civil proceedings. It is usually a private citizen or a company.

3. _____ is a civil legal proceeding against someone.

4. _____ is an official court decision on the case.

5. _____ are an official body whose job is to make sure that people obey the law, to catch, and to protect people and property.

6. _____ is someone whose job is to advise people about laws, write formal documents or represent people in court.

7. ______ is a house or a room where all the information about the crime is given so that it can be judged.

8. ______ is a sum of money that you owe somebody.

9. _____ is a formal statement that something is true, such as the one a witness makes in court of law.

10. ______ is money that has been lost by a business, a person or a government.

11. ______ is legal means (documents) regulating relations between companies.

5. Подберите подходящий по смыслу ответ из предложенных вариантов и обоснуйте свой выбор двумя - тремя предложениями. Начните свой ответ одним из следующих выражений.: 1) I quite agree with the statement that ___ because …2) Just what I think …. because

1. Relations between people are regulated by ) government) prescriptive laws) peoples experience) customs and traditions

2. If we always break the rules, other members of society may ) refuse to have anything to do with us) carry precise penalties) use a system of courts) consult the police

3. When governments make laws for their citizens ) they use the power of the police to enforce them) they use justice) they observe public opinion) they try to implement common sense.

6. Прочитайте текст и найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским предложениям.

1. Они используют судебную систему, опирающуюся на право полиции принудительно обеспечивать соблюдение закона.

2. Отношения между людьми регулируются сочетанием всех этих правил (норм).

3. … понесет наказание в виде штрафа или временного отстранения от участия в игре.

4. Рефери может подать гражданский иск против игрока и потребовать материального возмещения за нанесенные ему телесные увечья …

5.…. так как государство рассматривает антиобщественное поведение не как вопрос взаимоотношений между людьми, а как угрозу благосостоянию и порядку в обществе.

When governments make laws for their citizens, they use a system of courts backed by the power of the police to enforce these laws. Of course, there may be instances where the law is not enforced against someone-such as when young children commit crimes, when the police have to concentrate on certain crimes and therefore ignore others, or in countries where there is so much political corruption that certain people are able to escape justice by using their money or influence. But the general nature of the law is enforced equally against all members of the nation made laws are nevertheless often patterned upon informal rules of conduct already existing in society, and relations between people are regulated by a combination of all these rules. This relationship can be demonstrated using the example of a sports club a member of a rugby club is so angry with the referee during a club game that he hits him and breaks his nose. At the most informal level of social custom, it is probable that people seeing or hearing about the incident would criticize the player and try to persuade him to apologize and perhaps compensate the referee in some way. At a more formal level, the player would find he had broken the rules of his club, and perhaps of a wider institution governing the conduct of all people playing rugby, and would face punishment, such as a fine or a suspension before he would be allowed to play another game. Finally, the player might also face prosecution for attacking the referee under laws created by the government of his country. In many countries there might be two kinds of prosecution. First, the referee could conduct a civil action against the player, demanding compensation for his injury and getting his claim enforced by a court of law if the player failed to agree privately. Second, the police might also start an action against the player for a crime of violence. If found guilty, the player might be sent to prison, or he might be made to pay a fine to the court-that is, punishment for an offence against the state, since governments often consider anti-social behavior not simply as a matter between two individuals but as a danger to the well-being and order of society as a whole.

7. Расположите предложения в логической последовательности так, чтобы получился краткий пересказ текста

1. Government-made laws are often patterned upon informal rules of conduct already existing in society

2. The player might face prosecution for attacking the referee under law.

3. When governments make laws for their citizens, they use a system of courts.

4. Governments consider anti-social behavior as a danger to the well-being and order of society.

5. This relationship can be demonstrated using the example of a sports club.







8. Озаглавьте текст

9. Прочитайте начало диалога и придумайте его продолжение. Представьте получившийся диалог в аудитории

Pete Hi, Alice. How are you getting on?

Alice Fine, as usual, thanks, Pete. What about you?I'm O. K. It's nice to see you.Me too. I'm glad you are not in a hurry and we have time to talk today.Sure.Ive heard that youve entered the University, havent you?Thats right.My congratulations on you. But why did you make up your mind to become a lawyer?





4. LEGAL PROFESSIONS



LANGUAGE IN USE

В английском языке существует группа так называемой интернациональной лексики. К ней относится, например, слово legal. О значении слов этой группы нетрудно догадаться, так как в русском языке есть однокоренные аналоги. Однако в специализированной литературе интернациональные слова могут образовывать терминологические словосочетания (клишированные формы), отличные от их однокоренных аналогов.правовой ~ document - правовой документ ~ obligation - правовое обязательство ~ system - система правасудебный ~ action -судебный иск ~ costs - судебные издержки ~ decision -решение суда ~ procedure - судопроизводство ~ remedy - средство судебной защитыюридический ~ person - юридическое лицо ~ profession - профессия юриста ~ advisor - юрисконсульт ~ ethics - профессиональная этика юриста ~ department - юридический отдел ~ language - юридический язык, язык юристов ~ aid - бесплатная юридическая помощь малоимушимзаконный ~ government - законное правительство ~ foundation - законное основание ~ owner - законный владелец

1. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские предложения, обращая особое внимание на словосочетания со словом legal.



1. To the rest of the world the English legal profession is very strange because historically there were two types of lawyers: barristers and solicitors.

2. Every legal system has many shortcomings.

3. Criminal charges and divorce are normally seen as matters needing legal help and advice.

4. Not every accident victim has a legal remedy. Some accidents are nobodys fault.

5. There is a large information gap in peoples awareness of their legal rights.

6. Such legal knowledge as people had came largely from newspapers and television.

7. The new Community Legal Service aims to provide legal information as well as legal advice and representation.

8. Newspapers regularly carry frightening stories about losers in legal actions who face bills of tens of thousands of pounds.

9. Legal costs of the lowest income group are paid by the state.

10. Legal aid is usually granted as long as financial test is satisfied.

2. Прочитайте интернациональные слова, обращая внимание на их правильное произношение по-английски, и переведите их на русский язык: а) словом с тем же корнем; б) в значении, в котором они встречаются в тексте.

advocate, licensed, clients, jurisdiction, specialization, profession, qualification, training, examinations, office, type, business, contracts, audience, normally, options, career, private, civil, criminal, faculty, college, dissertation, prosecutor, arbitrator, professor, politician

A lawyer is a person learned in the law. A lawyer, also known as an attorney, a counselor, a solicitor, a barrister or an advocate, is an individual licensed by the state to engage in the practice of law and advise clients on legal matters. Lawyers act as both advocates and advisors on behalf of their clients. The role of the lawyer varies significantly across legal jurisdictions, and therefore can be treated in only the most general terms. Lawyers roles vary greatly, depending upon their practice environment

3. Найдите в тексте английские слова и словосочетания, соответствующие следующим словосочетаниям

1. консультировать клиентов по вопросам права

2. выполнять все виды юридической работы

3. солиситоры и барристеры

4. сдавать квалификационные экзамены

5. право преподается на юридическом факультете

6. университетский колледж, готовящий бакалавров

7. степень магистра

8. добиваться получения степени бакалавра

9. присвоить ученую степень доктора юриспруденции (США)

10. защита диссертации

11. научно- исследовательская работа

12. учебная практика

13. ученичество, место начального практического обучения

14. штатный юрисконсульт компании

15. страны общего права (англо-саксонской системы права)

16. страны романо-германской (континентальной) системы права

4.. Найдите в тексте ответы на вопросы

What is a lawyer?

What is so special in legal profession in England?

What is the difference between solicitors and barristers?

What have you learned about educational requirements to those who want to become a lawyer?

What degrees can you obtain at the university?

What degree is awarded in the USA?

What have you learned about methods and quality of legal education in different countries?

What kind of options do lawyers have in common law countries?

Why is career mobility constrained in civil law countries?

5. Соотнесите слова из двух колонок так, чтобы получились устойчивые словосочетания из текста, переведите их на русский язык и составьте с ними свои предложения.

to take a. the clients

to deal with b. the practice of law

to draw up c. the right of audience

to make d. court

to have e. the practice environment

to go to f. legal matters

to engage in g. legal arrangements

to advise on h. contracts

to depend on i. legal advice

on behalf of j. a range of legal work

7. Прочитайте слова и найдите их в русском тексте

1. BACHELOR'S DEGREE (LLB)

2. MASTER'S DEGREE (LLM)

3. JURIST DOCTOR DEGREE (JD)

4. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (PH.D)

5. SOLICITOR

6. BARRISTER

7. COMMON LAW

8. CIVIL LAW

В Англии есть два типа юристов - солиситоры и барристеры. Барристер - это юрист, который ведет судебные дела, выступает в суде, готовит документы для суда и т.д. Солиситоры после 1990 года тоже получили право выступать в суде, если у них есть специальный сертификат.

В Англии (не в Британии) в 2008 году было 112,2 тысяч солиситоров и около 16,5 тысяч барристеров. С 1997 по 2008 год количество юристов в Англии увеличилось более чем на 50%.

Для того, чтобы стать солиситором нужно иметь юридическое образование. Это либо бакалавр права в Англии (3 года) (LLB), либо бакалавр в какой-либо другой области плюс годичный интенсивный курс профильного образования (называется GDL - Graduate Diploma in Law).

Кроме юридического образования надо получить контракт на прохождение практики в юридической фирме (training contract). В течение двух лет надо проработать в 4 разных департаментах по 6 месяцев в каждом. Получить образование в Англии относительно легко. Что действительно сложно, так это получение контракта на прохождение практики - в хорошие фирмы конкуренция составляет около 20-40 человек на место.

8. Ответьте на вопросы теста

CAN YOU BE A LAWYER?

1.Do you love to argue?

oYes.

oNot really.



2.Can you manipulate things for your benefit?

oYes, why not?

oNot sure.





3.Is your mind sharp like a knife?

oYes, it can cut even iron!

oIt is more like a butter knife.



4.How good are your lying abilities?

oWell honed.

oNot worth mentioning.



5.How good are you at convincing people?

oVery good.

oBarely ok.



6.Can you twist the truth in your favour?

oMaybe.

oNot sure.



7.What genres of movies/novels do you like most?

oDetective and crime thrillers.

oRomantic and comic stories.



Answers:

. a) 10; b) 0 2. a) 10; b) 0 3) a) 10; b) 0 4. a) 10; b) 0 5. a) 10; b) 0 6. a) 10; b) 0 7. a) 10; b) 0: 1. 0 -30. You can't become a lawyer, don't have the qualities of becoming a lawyer. Forget it! 40- 70. You can become a lawyer. Why not try to be one?











UNIT 5. LEGAL SKILLS



LANGUAGE IN USE

Повторение грамматики: степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий

1. Прочитайте прилагательные:

а) в положительной степени

б) в сравнительной степени

в) в превосходной степени.

1.Сформулируйте основное правило образования степеней сравнения прилагательных и наречий в английском языке.

many, more, the most, wise, wiser, the wisest, competitive, more competitive, the most competitive, clear, clearer, the clearest, concise, more concise, the most concise, bad, worse, the worst, simple, simpler, the simplest, complex, more complex, the most complex, little, less, the lest (least), persuasive, more persuasive, the most persuasive, good, better, the best, efficient, more efficient, the most efficient, far, farther (further), the farthest (furthest), effective, more effective, the most effective.

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие сравнительные обороты.

1. This method is as effective as the previous one. 2. The period is twice as long as a semester. 3. Inform us as soon as possible. 4. His job is not so efficient as his colleagues one. 5. The more you work, the better you study. 6. The document is as concise as possible. 7. Her resume is not so clear as required. 8. His career promotion is twice as quick as that of the friend. 9. The better you communicate with people, the more clients you will have.

3. Сравните ученые степени, которые присваиваются выпускникам высших учебных заведений. Используйте как можно больше сравнительных оборотов



University Degrees : high / low popular honorable Bachelors Degree, (LLB) Masters Degree (LLM) Doctor of Jurisprudence (JD) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст со словарем.

TOP TEN LEGAL SKILLS

While legal positions vary greatly in scope and responsibility, there are several core legal skills that are required in most legal functions. If you are considering a career in the law, it is wise to polish these top ten legal skills to excel in todays competitive legal market.

. Oral Communicationis one of the most fundamental tools of the legal professional. Legal professionals must:

·Convey information in a clear, concise, and logical manner.

·Communicate persuasively.

·Advocate a position or a cause.

·Master legal terminology.

·Develop keen listening skills.

2. Written Communication. From writing simple correspondence to drafting complex legal documents, writing is an integral function of nearly every legal position. Legal professionals must:

·Master the stylistic and mechanical aspects of writing.

·Master the fundamentals of grammar.

·Learn how to write organized, concise and persuasive prose.

·Draft effective legal documents such as motions, briefs, memos, resolutions and

·legal agreements.

3. Client Service. In the client-focused legal industry, serving the client honestly, capably and responsibly is crucial to success.

. Analytical and Logical Reasoning. Legal professionals must learn to review and assimilate large volumes of complex information in an efficient and effective manner. Legal analytical and logical reasoning skills include: reviewing complex written documents, drawing inferences and making connections among legal authorities; developing logical thinking, organization and problem-solving abilities; structuring and evaluating arguments; using inductive and deductive reasoning to draw inferences and reach conclusions.

. Legal Research. Researching legal concepts, case law, judicial opinions, statutes, regulations and other information is an important legal skill.

. Technology. Technology is changing the legal landscape and is an integral part of every legal function. To remain effective in their jobs, legal professionals must master communications technology including e-mails, voice messaging systems, videoconferencing and related technology.

. Knowledge of Substantive Law and Legal Procedure. All legal professionals, even those at the bottom of the legal career chain, must have basic knowledge of substantive law and legal procedure.

. Time Management. In a profession based on a business model (billable hours) that ties productivity to financial gain, legal professionals are under constant pressure to bill time and manage large workloads.

. Organization. In order to manage large volumes of data and documents, legal professionals must develop top-notch organizational skills.

. Teamwork. Legal professionals do not work in a vacuum. Even solo practitioners must rely on secretaries and support staff and team up with co-counsels, experts to deliver legal services.



5. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям

. профессиональные компетенции юриста

. представлять информацию в ясной и краткой форме

. овладеть юридической терминологией

. развивать способность внимательно слушать собеседника

. составлять сложные юридические документы

. овладеть основами грамматики

. составлять ходатайства, записки по делу

. обслуживать клиента честно и ответственно

. просматривать и усваивать большой объем информации

. навыки логического рассуждения

. делать выводы и умозаключения

. осваивать технологии общения (коммуникации)

. на нижней ступеньке карьерной лестницы

. знания материального права и судопроизводства

. выдерживать большие рабочие нагрузки

. почасовая оплата

. развивать навыки самоорганизации высокого класса

. работа в команде

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