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Министерство Образования и Науки Р.Т.

ГАОУ СПО “Лениногорский Нефтяной Техникум”








Пособие по дисциплине «Иностранный (Английский) язык»

«Основы электротехники и электроники. Тексты, упражнения, контрольные работы»




Для студентов II курса специальности 140613 «Техническая эксплуатация и обслуживание электрического и электромеханического оборудования в нефтегазодобывающей промышленности»












Автор: Никонова А.А.,

преподаватель ГАОУ СПО “ЛНТ”









Лениногорск 2011г.


Пояснительная записка.


Поставленная перед средними специальными учебными заведениями задача научить студентов практическому владению иностранным языком включает в себя развитие у студентов навыков устной речи, а также обучение чтению и пониманию специальной литературы средней трудности. Выработке этих умений и навыков должно способствовать данное пособие, написанное для студентов второго курса специальности 140613.

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов, изучающих язык в средней школе и на первом курсе техникума, поэтому предполагает наличие у студентов определенных знаний разделов грамматики, а также наличие некоторой лексической базы.

Пособие состоит из четырех блоков, три из которых – текстовые, а четвертый – блок контроля.

Первый блок включает темы, связанные с изобретателями в области электричества и их изобретениями.

Второй блок посвящен темам: « Природа электричества» , « Электрический ток и его свойства», « Сопротивление и сопротивляемость», «Электронная эмиссия», «Полупроводники», «Диод».

Третий блок отражает темы электротехники: «Электротехника и электроника», «Электрический ток и аппараты», «Электроника».

Четвертый блок содержит 15 вариантов итоговых проверочных работ, обобщающих весь изученный материал.

С целью более эффективного изучения новых терминов, более качественного и быстрого перевода технических текстов и, наконец, запоминания специальной лексики в пособии представлены предтекстовые и послетекстовые упражнения. В конце каждого блока имеется задание для повторения, обобщения и контроля изученного материала – тест или кроссворд.

Приведенные упражнения не исчерпывают все виды работ, которые можно провести над текстами. Выбор упражнений будет зависеть от цели, поставленной преподавателем. Можно дополнить упражнения пересказом текста, составлением диалогов, дискуссий вопросно – ответного характера.

Пособие может быть использовано на уроках в качестве дополнительного материала, при самостоятельном изучении, а также во внеаудиторной кружковой работе.




ELEMNTARY ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.


CONTENTS

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ.

Unit 1. Inventors and Their Inventions.

Изобретатели и их изобретения.

James watt 4

Д. Ватт

Alessandro Volta 5

А. Вольт

Michael Faraday 7

М. Фарадей

Do you know… 8

Знаете ли вы

Discovering the Past 9

Открывая прошлое

Check yourself ( Revising Unit 1) 9

Проверь себя ( повторение первого блока).

Unit 2. Electricity.

Электричество.

The Nature of Electricity. 10

Природа электричества.

Electric Current 10

Электрический ток

Electric Currents and Their Properties. 11

Электрические токи и их свойства.

Resistance and Resistivity 12

Сопротивление и сопротивляемость.

Electron Emission 14

Электронная эмиссия.

Semiconductors 15

Полупроводники.

Diodes 16

Диоды.

Types of Diodes. 16

Виды диодов.

Electromagnetic Fields. 19

Электромагнитные поля.

Check your knowledge of Unit 2 24

Проверь свое знание второго блока

Unit 3 Electrical Engineering.

Электротехника.

Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 25

Электротехника и электроника.

Electric Power and Machinery 26

Электрический ток и аппараты.

Electronics 27

Электроника.

Check your Knowledge of the Third Unit 29

Проверь свое знание третьего блока.


Unit 4 Final control works

Итоговые контрольные работы


Variant 1 30

Variant 2 31

Variant 3 32

Variant 4 33

Variant 5 34

Variant 6 35

Variant 7 36

Variant 8 37

Variant 9 38

Variant 10 39

Variant 11 40

Variant 12 41

Variant 13 42

Variant 14 43

Variant 15 44


Literature 45

Литература


Unit 1

Inventors and Their Inventions

James Watt

James Watt was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, know for his improvements of the stream engine.

Watt was born on January 19, 1736, in Greenock, Scotland. He worked as a mathematical- instrument maker from the age of 19 and soon became interested in improving the steam, engine which was used at that time to pump out water from mines.

Watt determined the properties of steam, especially the relation of its density to its temperature ad pressure, and designed a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine that prevented large losses of steam in the cylinder. Watt’s first patent, in 1769, covered this device and other improvements on steam engine.

At that time, Watt was the partner of the inventor John Roebuck, who had financed his researches. In 1775, however, roebuck’s interest was taken over by the manufacturer Matthew Boulton, owner of the Soho Engineering Works at Birmingham, and he and Watt began the manufacture of steam engines. Watt continued his research and patented several other important inventions, including the rotary engine for driving various types of machinery; the double-action, in which steam is admitted alternately into both ends of the cylinder; and the steam indicator, which records the steam pressure in the engine. He retired from the firm in 1800 and thereafter devoted himself entirely to research work.

The misconception that Watt was the actual inventor of the steam engine arose from the fundamental nature of his contributions to its development. The centrifugal or flyball governor,

Which he invented in 1788, and which automatically regulated the speed of an engine, is of particular interest today. It embodies the feedback principle of a servomechanism, linking output to input, which is the basic concept of automation. The watt, the unit of power, was named in his honor. Watt was also a well known civil engineer. He invented, in 1767, an attachment that adapted telescopes for use in the measurement of distances. Watt died in Heathfield, near Birmingham, in August 1819.

Answer the questions.

  1. Who was James Watt?

  2. How was the steam engine used at the beginning of the 18th century?

  3. What did Watt determine?

  4. What did Watt patent in the seventieth?

  5. Was Watt the actual inventor of the steam engine?

  6. What is the centrifugal or fly bale governor?

  7. What unit of power was named in his honour?

  8. What attachment did he invent in 1767?

Match the words.

1. the properties a) of automation

2. to pump out b) work

3. the measurement c) engine

4. began d) chamber

5. prevented e) of steam

6. basic concept f) water

7. research g) engine

8. a separate condensing h) of distances

9. the rotary i) large lasses of steam

10.steam j) the manufacture


Alessandro Volta.

The Invention of the Electric Battery

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Find twelve words of the text in the crossword.








































ALESSANDRO VOLTA (1745-1827)

Alessandro Volta was an Italian scientist. For his works Volta was awarded a medal of the Royal Society of London. A statue now stands in his memory at Como (his birthplace).


Put the words in the correct order to get a sentence.

  1. effect, His, of, was, explanation, the, produced, exact, not.

  2. that, in 1800, the idea, Thus, action, was, produce, can, electricity, born.

  3. is, pile, battery, a, Voltaic, called, pile, The, described, now.



THE INVENTION OF THE ELECTRIC BATTERY.

in the 18 th century Luigi Galvani, an Italian scientist while experimenting with an electric machine, found that the legs of a dead frog were set to work by "an electric shock".

He determined to see if lightning would have the same effect on a frog's muscles; but while he was fixing the frog by a copper skewer to the iron railing of his balcony, he observed the twitching again the moment the copper touched the iron, Galvani declared that electricity existed in the tissues of the frog and called it "animal electricity".

Thus Galvani made a great discovery. Yet his explanation of the produced effect was not exact. He thought that the electricity that caused this movement came from the nerves and muscles of the dead frog.

Alessandro Volta gave his own explanation of this phenomenon. He argued that it was produced by the contact of two different metals, and he proved that he was right. He placed a disk of copper on the table, and on top of that he placed a piece of cloth which had been soaked in the solution of sulphuric acid and water. On the piece of cloth he placed a disk of zinc. Next he added copper, cloth and zinc again, and so on, in that order, until he had built up a pile. It was a pile of pairs of zinc and copper disks, each pair having a moist piece of cloth between. Then he fastened a wire to the zinc disk at the top of the pile, and a second wire to the copper disk at the bottom of the pile.

Volta put the free ends of the two wires together, then separated them. As they were drawn apart, the electric current which had been set up in the pile caused a spark at the ends of the wires. Thus in 1800 was born the idea that chemical action can produce electricity and a device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy was invented.

The described battery now is called a Voltaic pile. Each of the pair of zinc and copper with a moist piece of cloth is known as a Voltaic cell.



Answer the following questions:


1. What caused the movement of the muscles of the dead frog? 2. How did Volta produce electricity? 3. What solution did Volta use in the device? 4. What is the Voltaic pile used for?



Do you know

...that we owe to Gilbert (an English scientist) the world "electricity", which is derived from "electron", the Greek name for amber?

...that the first lightning rod was invented by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who was not only an outstanding American scientist but a politician as wel


MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867)

Complete the sentences

1. Michael Faraday, English experimental ___, was the son of a poor bondon ___.

2. He fourd out that Faraday, working late at night, had already been making ___ of his own, though he was too poor to possess anything but a homemade ___.

3. Faraday told him he ___ to be a ___.

4. Electricity and magnetism were ___ firmly together as a single ___ of study, ___, on the day in 1820 that Hans Christian Orsted, a Dane, observed that the ___ of a compass was ___ when brought close to a ___ carrying an electric ___.

(field, blacksmith, experiments, wire, wanted, physicist, joined, needle, scientist, battery, current, electromagnetism, deflected)

Check yourself, having looked through the text.

Michael Faraday, English experimental physicist, was the son of a poor London blacksmith. After very little schooling’ he was apprenticed to a bookbinder. The boy worked hard all day and studied at night.

One day a man on entering the shop found the boy at work binding an encyclopae4ia, and at the same time studying hard the article in it on electricity.

The man vas surprised to see a boy so interested in a subject of such difficulty, and questioned him. He found out that Faraday, working late at night, had already been making experiments of his own, though he was too poor to possess anything but homemade battery! The visitor was surprised and gave him four tickets for the lectures which sir Humphry Davy was then delighted as if someone had given him a fortune. He went to the lectures and made notes of what he heard. At the end of the lectures he came up to the great scientist and showed him his notes. Davy was surprised, Then he remembered how poor he himself had been and how he had to struggle to educate himself.

Faraday told him that he wanted to become a scientist. Later Davy made Faraday his assistant and valet, he helped Faraday in his education and took him to the Continents. Thus began his scientific career.

Faraday had many notable discoveries to his credit4. Among his most important works are the concept of the magnetic field and the magnetic “lines of force”, production of new kinds of optical glass, in electricity-researches on electrolysis and the discovery of the rotation plane of polarized light6 in a magnetic fields.

Electricity and magnetism were joined firmly together as a single field of study—electromagnetism — on the day in 1820 that Hans Christian Orsted, a Dane, observed that the needle of a compass was deflected when brought close to a wire carrying an electric current.

It was Michael Faraday, who produced the first mechanical motion by means of a permanent magnet and an electric current. It was he who discovered that when a wire carrying a current is placed in the field of a magnet, a mechanical force is exerted on the wire. This is the principle upon which the modern electric motor is based. Like real great scientist Faraday loved his work more than honours, he refused the presidency of both the Royal Institute and the Royal Society of London and also refused to be knighted.

Put the letters missed:

1 was . p. . e . . i . . d

2 . . f f . . . . . y

3 . d . . a . . . n

4 . o . . t . . n

5 were j o . . . d

6 p . . . a . . . . t

7 . e . e . . c h

8 was . e . l . c . . d

9 d . . c . . . . y

10 . u . r . t

Do you Know

...that like other early nineteenth-century electro-phy­sicists, Faraday became a "man of measure", honoured by having a measuring unit of electricity — "the farad'.'— named after him? Other scientists whom we remember today as pioneers in this field, memorialized in units of electrical measurement, include Ampere, whose name comes down in the "ampermeter" (often spelled "ammeter") as well as "ampere" — the unit of current; George Ohm, German physi­cist, after whom we call the unit of electrical resistance the "ohm"; Volta, honoured in the "volt"; Galvani remembered in the words "galvanometer" and "galvanism"; "henry", "coulomb", "watt", "maxwell" and "joule", all of which were originally written with capital letters as proper names.

...that magnetism was known to the early Greek philos­ophers? One story goes that Magnes, a shepherd on the is­land of Crete was so strongly attracted to the ground by the nails in his shoes that he had difficulty in getting away. Dig­ging into the ground to find the cause he discovered a stone with the property of attracting iron. This stone is now called lodestone or magnetite.




Edison

Edison is known as one of the greatest inventors of his time. He invented so much that it is difficult to say which of his achievements is the greatest. He was an exprimentor and a practical man more than a theoretician.

Edison did not have any education. He went to school only for three months. Then he left it because the teacher considered him a dull boy. His mother became his teacher. The boy loved books and his mother said that he had a wonderful memory. When he first visited a publik library and saw a lot of shelves with books he decided that he would read all the books and then he would know everything in the world . He measured the shelf and decided to read of books every week.

In 1868 Edison built his first patented invention - an electromagnetik devise.

It is told that he planned to ask three thousand dollars for his invention, though he secretly decided he would sell it for two thousand if necessary. He was invaited to a meeting of businessmen who were interested in buying his invention he was asked to name the price he was very nervous and quite unable to speak.

"It is no use asking us a big prise," said one of the businessmen, "we have already decided how much we will pay. Forty thousand dollars is our limit. "

With this money Edison established a workshop and began his career as a professional inventor at the age of twenty - two.

All his inventions were the result of hard work. He sometimes made thousands of experiments. According to his words the idea that a genius works only by inspiration was absurd. "Genius is 2 per cent inspiration and 98 per cent perspiration, " he often said.



Write your own report about T. Edison.

Answer these questions while preparing.

1. What' s Edison famous for?

2. What education did he get?

3. In what way did he read books?

4. How old was Edison when he patented his first invention?

5. What story is told about his first invention?

6. How did he make his invention?

7. What is his idea of a genius? Do you agree with him?



Discovering the Past

Indoor Lightening

First was the oil lamp. Cro - Magnon man < some fifty thousand years ago, discovered that a fibrous wick fed by animal fat kept burning. His stone lamps were triangular, with the wick lying in a saucerlike depression that also held the rank- smelling animal fat. The basic principle was set for millennia.

Around 1300 B.C ., Egyptians were lighting their homes and temples with oil lamps. Now the base was of sculpted earthenware, often decorated ; the wick was made from papyrus; and the flammable material was the less malodorous vegetable oil. The later Greeks and Romans favored lamps of bronze with wicks of oakum ore linen.

Until odorless, relatively clean- burning mineral oil (and kerosene) became widely available in the nineteenth century, people burned whatever was cheap and plentiful.

To enable him to work throughout the night, Leonardo da Vinci invented what can best de described as history’s first high- intensity lamp. A glass cylinder containing olive oil and a hemp wick was immersed in a large glass globe filled with water , which significantly magnified the flame.

There was , of course one attractive alternative to the oil lamp: the candle.

Although Thomas Edison is rightly regarded as the father of the incandescent lamp, his was not the first. British inventors had been experimenting with electric lights more than a half century before Edison perfected his bulb. He registered his patent in 1879. Edison , though , in setting up a system of electric distribution , took the incandescent bulb out of the laboratory and into the home and street.


Check Yourself (Revising Unit 1)

TEST

  1. Improvement

  1. улучшение

  2. удаление

  3. урезание

  1. to pump out

  1. закачивать

  2. перекачивать

  3. выкачивать

  1. to determine

  1. наделять

  2. определять

  3. выделять

  1. density

  1. плотность

  2. загруженность

  3. частота

  1. losses

  1. прибыль

  2. потери

  3. выработка

  1. unit

  1. измерение

  2. масса

  3. единица

  1. measurement

a) инструмент

b) разделение

c) измерение

  1. distance

a) расстояние

b) длина

c) протяженность

  1. to manufacture

a) строить

b) производить

c) возводить

  1. contribution

a) налог

b) доход

c) вклад

  1. pressure

a) натяжение

b) давление

c) трение

  1. relation

a) применение

b) взаимодействие

c) отношение

  1. fasten

a) приклеить

b) закреплять

c)отрывать

  1. convert

a) получать

b) запечатать

c) превращать

  1. moist

a) влажный

b) сухой

c) твердый

  1. touch

a) притягивать

b) прикасаться

c) прикреплять

  1. exist

a) существовать

b) осуществлять

c) проявлять

  1. frog

a) змея

b) лягушка

c) рыба



Unit 2


ELECTRICITY


THE NATURE OF ELECTRICITY

The ancient Greeks knew that when a piece of amber is rubbed with wool or fur it achieves the power of attracting light object. Later on the phenomenon was studies, and, the word electric, after the Greek word «electron», meaning amber was used. Many scientists investigated electric phenomena, and during the nineteenth century many discoveries about the nature of electricity, and of magnetism, which is closely related to electricity, were made. It was found that it a sealingwax rod is rubbed with a woolen cloth, and a rod of glass is rubbed with a silken cloth, an electric spark will pass between the sealing- wax rod and the glass rod when they are brought near one another. Moreover, it was found that a force of attraction operates between them. An electrified sealing – wax is repelled, however, by a wax rod, and also an electrified glass rod is repelled, by a similar glass rod.

The ideas were developed that there are two kinds of electricity, which were called resinous

Electricity, and that opposite kinds of electricity attract one another, whereas similar kinds repel one another.



NOTES AND COMMENTARY


it achieves the power-она (па- sealing- wax rod-палочка из сургуча

лочка) приобретает способность


after the Greek word- от греческого a rod of glass – стеклянная палочка

слова Moreover- более того




Electric Current


This is circuit. It consists of voltage source, a resistor and a conductor. A voltage source supplies current. A resistor reduces current. A conductor connects the elements of the circuit.

Compare circuit a with circuit b. What is the difference between them? Current

passed through circuit a while no current passed Through circuit b. Circuit b has an open. No current through circuit b results from an open. An open and a short are troubles in a circuit. A trouble in a circuit may result in no current in it.






ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND THEIR PROPERTIES


Conduction is the name normally given to a movement or flow of charges. The charges are usually electrons, but may also be ions when the conduction takes place in gaseous or liquid which the conductor, in which the ions are mobile.

How does the current flow through a wire? A metal is made up of tiny crystals which are visible under a microspore. A crystal is a regular and orderly arrangement of atoms. As it was explained, an atom is a complex particle in which tiny electrons move around nucleus. When the atoms are tightly packed as they are in a metallic solid, some of the electrons move freely between the atoms. There are called free electrons. Ordinarily, the free electrons move at random through the metal. There must be some driving force to cause the electrons to move through the metal conductor. This driving force tending to produce the monitor of electrons through a circuit is called an electromotive force or e. m. f. that moves electric charges from one point in the circuit to another.

When an electromotive force is applied to the ends of a wire the free electrons move in one direction. It is the movement of the free electrons in a conductor that induces an electric current. The greater the number of participating electrons, the greater is the flow greater is the flow of current.

No one has even seen an electric current. We only know of the existence of a current by its effects. A current can heat a conductor, it can have a chemical action when passing through a solution, or it can produce a magnetic effect. We can measure currents by observing their heating, their chemical, or their magnetic effects.

There are some kinds of current, namely: a direct current (d. c., for short ), an alternating current (a. c.), a pulsating current.


NOTES AND COMMENTARY


Is made up of tiny crystals- состоит it is the movement that- именно движение

из мелких кристаллов

The greaterthe grater –чем больше…..

a regular and orderly arrangement- тем ( the … the… - чемтем)

правильное расположение атомов

namely – а именно

at random – беспорядочно

d. c.= direct current- постоянный ток

driving force – движущая сила

for short - для краткости

e. m. f. –electromotive force –

электродвижущая сила, Э.Д.С. а. с. = alternating current- переменный ток


Is applied - приложена










Resistance and Resistivity


Put the first words of the sentences into their places.


1. Different a) … of resistance is the ohm while the unit of resistivity is

ohm/m.

2. Any conductor b) … materials also have different melting points.

3. The unit c) … of a conductor depends on its material.

4. Materials d) … offers resistance to flow of current.

5) The resistance e) … change the value of resistance with change in their

temperature.


Resistance and Resistivity


Any conductor resistance to the flow of current. The resistance of a conductor depends on its material. It also depends on its temperature. Materials change the value of resistance with change in their temperature. Metals – copper, steel, iron, aluminium have low value of resistance white the resistance of nichrome is rater high.

Resistance of conductors and their resistivity have different units. The unit of resistance is the ohm while the unit of resistivity is ohm/m. The table below gives the resistivity of some materials.

Different materials also have different melting points. The melting points of some are given in the table. See the table and compare the points of aluminium, bronze, copper, steel, and manganin. Which of them are comparatively high?


Material

Melting Point, ۫C

Resistivity at 20 ۫C, ohm m

aluminium

bronze

manganin

copper

nichrome

steel

657

900

960

1083

1360

1400

0.029

0.021-0.4

0.42

0.0175

1.1

0.13-0.25





Write down only materials.


Value, table, resistance, copper, metal, point, steel, unit, iron, conductor, brass, glass, sand, plate, wood, nickel, oil, cast iron, gold.






White the answers into the crossword in English.

hello_html_m52888e59.png

  1. Вещество, проводящее электрический ток.

  2. Устройство, создающее сопротивление току в цепи.

  3. Комплекс устройств, соединенных между собой, через которые протекает электрический ток.

  4. Самая малая отрицательная заряженная частица.

  5. ЭДС force.

  6. То, что состоит из нейтронов и протонов.

  7. Направленное движение заряженных частиц.

  8. Начало движения свободных электронов проводника, которые создают электрический ток.

  9. Атом с избытком и недостатком электронов.

  10. Ток бывает постоянным и …



ELECTRON EMMISION


Put the words in the correct order to get the sentences.


  1. a number, the electrons, of ways, of a substance, there are, through, its, break, can, surface, in which/

  2. light, when, by the energy, it, of, rays, electrons, liberated, are, called, photoelectric, is, emission.

  3. emission, the, of, type, is, the, of, liberation, third.


Try to match the parts of the sentences. If it’s too difficult, look through the text first.


  1. When electrons of a a) the electrons move faster than their normal

metal are reed by heating … speed of motion.


2. The third type of emission b) the liberation of electrons from substances

is the liberation of electrons … under particular conditions.

3. While cold-cathode emission c) as a result of the bombardment of the

the electrons are liberated from substance with fast – moving electrons.

a substance …

4. Electron emission is … d) by the attracting power of a strong

electric force.

5. If the metal is heated, … e) it is called thermionic emission.



ELECTRON EMMISION


Electron emission is the liberation of electronic from substances under particular conditions. There are a number of ways in which the electrons of a substance can break through its suriace, for example, the application of heat. If the metal is heated, the electrons move faster than their normal speed of motion. When electrons of a metal are freed by heating it is called thermionic emission.

Then there is the application of light. When electrons are liberated by the energy of the light rays it is called photoelectric emission.

The third type of emission is the liberation of electrons as a result of the bombardmend of the substance with fast- moving electrons.

The fourth method is called cold-cathode. In this case the electrons are liberated from a substance by the attracting power of a strong electric force.


NOTES AND COMMENTARY


under particular conditions- при can break through its surface- могут

особых условиях вырываться с поверхности

a number of ways- ряд способов as a result of- в результате




Semiconductors


Match the words.


1. semiconductor a) приемник

2. resistivity b) выпрямитель

3. insulator c) притягивать

4. receiver d) полупроводник

5. device e) усилитель

6. rectifier f) твердое тело

7. amplifier g) сопротивляемость

8. attract h) требовать

9. solid i) изолятор

10. require j) устройство


Semiconductors


Semiconductors are solids whose resistivity lies between those of electrical conduction and insulators. Semiconductors are used (используется) in computers, in radio and TV received, and in other electronic products.

Semiconductors devices perform many control function. They may be used as rectifiers, amplifiers, detectors, oscillators and switching elements. Some characteristics which make the semiconductors such as attractive member of the electronics family, are as follows.

1. Semiconductors are small and light in weight.

2. Semiconductors and solids. There is therefore little chance that element will vibrate. Element vibration in vacuum tubes was the cause of microphonies.

3. Semiconductors require little power and radiate less heat than tubes. They do not need warm up time and operate as soon as power is applied.

4. Semiconductors do not undergo the chemical deterioration which occurs in tube cathodes. The deterioration of tube cathodes eventually results in unacceptable tube performance (зд. Плохая работа электронной лампы.)

Silicon is material of which most semiconductor devices are presently constructed.


Answer these questions.


  1. What are semiconductors?

  2. What is the sphere of semiconductors usage?

  3. What are the attractive features of semiconductors?

  4. Where does the deterioration result in?

  5. Do semiconductors require little or much power?







Diodes


Correct the wrong statements.

  1. We can define electronics as the study of capacity of electricity in a vacuum, is gases and in semiconductors, and in liquids.

  2. No vacuum tube diode has a cathode with a colder and a plate.

  3. Positive voltage on the plate repels the electrons.

  4. A diode permit current to flow in any direction.

  5. Diodes are never used as rectifiers of alternating voltages, as detectors of radio signals, as meter of voltage.



Make word combinations.



  1. vacuum

  2. conduction

  3. conducts

  4. physical

  5. switching

  1. current

  2. device

  3. tube

  4. of electricity

  5. principles



Types of Diodes


We can define electronics as the study of conduction of electricity in a vacuum, in gases in semiconductors. The conduction of electricity in a vacuum, for example occurs tuber. Though in some vacuum tuber current flows from one element to the other though a gas.

Every vacuum tube diode has a cathode with a heater and a plate. When the circuit is completed (замкнута) the cathode emits electrons. Negative voltage on the cathode repels the electrons. Positive voltage on the plate attracts the electrons. The current flows though the tube.

If a negative voltage is applied to the plate current does not flow. Thus, a diode permits current to flow in only one direction. A semiconductors diode also conducts current in one direction, but the physical, principles, which permit it to do this are different. Diodes are used as rectifiers of alternating voltages, as detection of radio signals, as switching devices, etc (и т.д)



A Diode

Answer the following questions in Russian. If you aren`t able read and translate the text first.


  1. What does a vacuum tube diode consist of ?

  2. What kinds of diodes do you know ?

  3. What are thermionic diodes?

  4. What causes thermionic emission of electrons?

  5. Where are valve diodes used?





hello_html_5da10525.jpg


Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal

hello_html_51ac937.pnghello_html_5e28d96b.png

Structure of a vacuum tube diode



In electronics, a diode is a component that restricts the directional flow of charge carriers. Essentially, a diode allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction. Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Circuits that require current flow in only one direction typically include one or more diodes in the circuit design.

Early diodes included
“cat’s whisker” crystals and vacuum tube devices (called thermionic valves in British English). Today the most common diodes are made from semiconductor materials such as silicon or germanium.











History

Thermionic and solid state diodes developed in parallel. The principle of operation of thermionic diodes was discovered by Frederick Guthrie in 1873.[1] The principle of operation of crystal diodes was discovered in 1874 by the German scientist, Karl Ferdinand Braun.[2]

Thermionic diode principles were rediscovered by
Thomas Edison on February 13, 1880 and he was awarded a patent in 1883 (U.S. Patent 307,031 ), but developed the idea no further. Braun patented the crystal rectifier in 1899 [1]. Braun’s discovery was further developed by Sir Jagdish Bose into a useful device for radio detection.

The first radio receiver using a crystal diode was built around
1900 by Greenleaf Whittier Pickard. The first thermionic diode was patented in Britain by John Ambrose Fleming (scientific adviser to the Marconi Company and former Edison employee[2]) on November 16, 1904 (U.S. Patent 803,684  in November 1905). Pickard received a patent for a silicon crystal detector on November 20, 1906 [3] (U.S. Patent 836,531 ).

At the time of their invention such devices were known as
rectifiers. In 1919 William Henry Eccles coined the term diode from Greek roots; di means ‘two’, and ode (from odos) means ‘path’.



Thermionic or gaseous state diodes

hello_html_m8cc9571.pnghello_html_5e28d96b.png

The symbol for an indirect heated vacuum tube diode. From top to bottom, the components are the anode, the cathode, and the heater filament.

Thermionic diodes are thermionic valve devices (also known as vacuum tubes), which are arrangements of electrodes surrounded by a vacuum within a glass envelope, similar in appearance to incandescent light bulbs.

In thermionic valve diodes, a current is passed through the heater
filament. This indirectly heats the cathode, another filament treated with a mixture of barium and strontium oxides, which are oxides of alkaline earth metals; these substances are chosen because they have a small work function. (Some valves use direct heating, in which the heating current is passed through the cathode itself.) The heat causes thermionic emission of electrons into the vacuum envelope. In forward operation, a surrounding metal electrode, called the anode, is positively charged, so that it electrostatically attracts the emitted electrons. However, electrons are not easily released from the unheated anode surface when the voltage polarity is reversed and hence any reverse flow is a very tiny current.


For much of the 20th century thermionic valve diodes were used in analog signal applications, and as rectifiers in power supplies. Today, valve diodes are only used in niche applications, such as rectifiers in guitar and hi-fi valve amplifiers, and specialized high-voltage equipment.



March the words to get word – combination. Attention! One word is missed.


  1. charge a. function

  2. check b. light bulbs

  3. vacuum c. carriers

  4. cat`s whisker d. oxides

  5. thermionic e. valve

  6. incandeseent f. crystals

  7. strontium g. valve

  8. work h - ?






Electromagnetic Fields


In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. This electric field exerts a force on other electrically charged objects. The concept of electric field was introduced by Michael Faraday.
The electric field is a
vector field with SI units of newtons per coulomb (N C−1) or, equivalently, volts per meter (V m−1). The direction of the field at a point is defined by the direction of the electric force exerted on a positive test charge placed at that point. The strength of the field is defined by the ratio of the electric force on a charge at a point to the magnitude of the charge placed at that point. Electric fields contain electrical energy with energy density proportional to the square of the field intensity. The electric field is to charge as acceleration is to mass and force density is to volume.
A moving charge has not just an electric field but also a
magnetic field, and in general the electric and magnetic fields are not completely separate phenomena; what one observer perceives as an electric field, another observer in a different frame of reference perceives as a mixture of electric and magnetic fields. For this reason, one speaks of "electromagnetism" or "electromagnetic fields." In quantum mechanics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called photons, and the energy of photons is quantized.











Definition

A stationary charged particle in an electric field experiences a force proportional to its charge. The electric field is defined as the proportionality constant between charge and force in this relationship:

hello_html_m477175c6.png

where hello_html_m5e465156.pngis the electric force on the particle, q is its charge, and hello_html_m66b1f48e.pngis the electric field that the particle is in.
Note that this relationship only holds when the charge is stationary; otherwise the force is determined by the more general
Lorentz force equation.
Taken literally, this equation only defines the electric field at the places where there are stationary charges present to experience it. For this reason, physicists use the concept of a
test charge: to measure the electric field at a point, you hold a small "test charge" there, measure the force, and compute the electric field using the above equation.
As is clear from the definition, the direction of the electric field is the same as the direction of the force it would exert on a positively-charged particle, and opposite the direction of the force on a negatively-charged particle. Since like charges repel and opposites attract (as quantified below), the electric field tends to point away from positive charges and towards negative charges.

Coulomb's law

The electric field surrounding a point charge is given by Coulomb's law:

hello_html_a901e26.png

where

Q is the charge of the particle creating the electric field,

r is the distance from the particle with charge Q to the E-field evaluation point,

hello_html_3f48b76b.pngis the Unit vector pointing from the particle with charge Q to the E-field evaluation point,

hello_html_m66afd8b8.pngis the vacuum permittivity.

Coulomb's law is actually a special case of Gauss's Law, a more fundamental description of the relationship between the distribution of electric charge in space and the resulting electric field. Gauss's law is one of Maxwell's equations, a set of four laws governing electromagnetics.













Properties (in electrostatics)

hello_html_m4304a83a.pnghello_html_5e28d96b.png

Illustration of the electric field surrounding a positive (red) and a negative (green) charge.

According to equation (1) above, electric field is dependent on position. The electric field due to any single charge falls off as the square of the distance from that charge.
Electric fields follow the
superposition principle. If more than one charge is present, the total electric field at any point is equal to the vector sum of the respective electric fields that each object would create in the absence of the others.

hello_html_m6c586ba8.png

If this principle is extended to an infinite number of infinitesimally small elements of charge, the following formula results:

hello_html_m134feed5.png

where

hello_html_4bbfa4b0.pngis the charge density, or the amount of charge per unit volume.

The electric field at a point is equal to the negative gradient of the electric potential there. In symbols,

hello_html_m499f365b.png

where

hello_html_m2707cc38.pngis the scalar field representing the electric potential at a given point.

If several spatially distributed charges generate such an electric potential, e.g. in a solid, an electric field gradient may also be defined.
Considering the
permittivity hello_html_3b002e00.pngof a material, which may differ from the permittivity of free space hello_html_f348e5a.png, the electric displacement field is:

hello_html_m50cfa266.png










Energy in the electric field

Main article: Electrical energy


The electric field stores energy. The energy density of the electric field is given by

hello_html_m8998bb4.png

where

hello_html_5f9ccff5.pngis the permittivity of the medium in which the field exists

hello_html_m66b1f48e.pngis the electric field vector.

The total energy stored in the electric field in a given volume V is therefore

hello_html_m419cba21.png

where

hello_html_41d4f058.pngis the differential volume element.

Parallels between electrostatics and gravity

Coulomb's law, which describes the interaction of electric charges:

hello_html_5af6a5da.png

is similar to the Newtonian gravitation law:

hello_html_m4d358e68.png

This suggests similarities between the electric field hello_html_m523669b0.pngand the gravitational field hello_html_m212bb120.png, so sometimes mass is called "gravitational charge".
Similarities between electrostatic and gravitational forces:

  1. Both act in a vacuum.

  2. Both are central and conservative.

  3. Both obey an inverse-square law (both are inversely proprotional to square of r).

  4. Both propagate with finite speed c.

Differences between electrostatic and gravitational forces:

  1. Electrostatic forces are much greater than gravitational forces (by about 1036 times).

  2. Gravitational forces are attractive for like charges, whereas electrostatic forces are repulsive for like charges.

  3. There are no negative gravitational charges (no negative mass) while there are both positive and negative electric charges. This difference combined with previous implies that gravitational forces are always attractive, while electrostatic forces may be either attractive or repulsive.

  4. Electric charges are invariant under Lorentz transformations while gravitational charges (relativistic mass) are not.







Time-varying fields

Charges do not only produce electric fields. As they move, they generate magnetic fields, and if the magnetic field changes, it generates electric fields. This "secondary" electric field can be computed using Faraday's law of induction,

hello_html_m40895a97.png

where

hello_html_16bb5b36.pngindicates the curl of the electric field,

hello_html_5ab45563.pngrepresents the vector rate of decrease of magnetic field with time.

This means that a magnetic field changing in time produces a curled electric field, possibly also changing in time. The situation in which electric or magnetic fields change in time is no longer electrostatics, but rather electrodynamics or electromagnetics. External links

Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles.

Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, "amberlike") is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. This includes many well-known physical phenomena such as lightning, electromagnetic fields and electric currents,

Magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert attractive or repulsive forces on other materials. Some well known materials that exhibit easily detectable magnetic properties (called magnets) are nickel, iron and their alloys; however, all materials are influenced to

Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. This includes phenomena as simple as the attraction of plastic wrap to your hand after you remove it from a

Coulomb's law, developed in the 1780s by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb, may be stated as follows:

The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two points electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of each


In physics and mathematical analysis, Gauss's law is the electrostatic application of the generalized Gauss's theorem giving the equivalence relation between any flux, e.g.

Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. It is a scalar quantity.

In physics, the electric dipole moment (or electric dipole for short) is a measure of the polarity of a system of electric charges.

Magnetostatics is the study of static magnetic fields. In electrostatics, the charges are stationary, whereas here, the currents are stationary. As it turns out magnetostatics is a good approximation even when the currents are not static as long as the currents do not
magnetic field is a field that permeates space and which exerts a magnetic force on moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles. Magnetic fields surround electric currents, magnetic dipoles, and changing electric fields.
Magnetic flux, represented by the Greek letter Φ (phi), is a measure of quantity of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field.
The
Biot-Savart Law is an equation in electromagnetism that describes the magnetic field vector B in terms of the magnitude and direction of the source electric current, the distance from the source electric current, and the magnetic permeability weighting factor.


Classical electromagnetism (or classical electrodynamics) is a theory of electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century, most prominently by James Clerk Maxwell.

Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the ampere (A), which is equal to a flow of one coulomb of charge per second.


Read the text and answer these questions in Russian.


  1. What is called an electric field?

  2. Who introduced the concept of electric field?

  3. How is the strength of the field defined?

  4. What does these mean: « Electromagnetism » and « Electromagnetic fields » ?

  5. What should we do to measure the electric field at a point?

  6. How is Coulomb s low formulated?

  7. What are similarities between electrostatic and gravitation forces?

  8. What principle does electric fields follow?

  9. How is the energy of electric field`s density given?



Control Your Knowledge

Test

1. current a) медь в) ток с) розетка

2. conductor а) провод в) привод с) проводник

3. circuit а) диод в) напряжение с) цепь

4. tube а) трубка в) пластина с) катод

5. completed а) открытый в) замкнутый с)непрерывный

6. to attract а) притягивать в)отталкивать с) останавливать

7. to permit а) разрешен в) запрещен с) проводить

8. device а) станок в) устройство с) машина

9. solid а) жидкость в) газ с)твердое тело

10. to use а) включать в) использовать с) работать

11. to require а) требование в) нагревать с) создавать

12. resistance а) напряжение в)сопротивление с) сила тока

13. to depend а) течь в) позволить с)зависеть

14. to change а) меняться в) меняться с) плавиться

15. copper а) золото в) железо с) медь

16. iron а) железо в) серебро с) утюг

17. value а) сопротивление в) проводить с) ценность

18. resistivity а) уд. сопротивление в) ковкость с) кипение

19. melting point а) точка кипения в) точка плавления с) точка замерзания

20. compare а) уравнивать в) сочетать с) сравнить











Unit 3


Electrical Engineering


Put the necessary words.


  1. The _____ of electric power is concerned with the _____ and operation of systems for ______, transmitting and distributing electric _______.

  2. One of these is ability to _____ power at extremely high ____ in both the direct current and ____ current modes, reducing power ______ proportionately.

  3. A significant ____ in the engine erring of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic ____ that enable AC motors to run at variable ____ by adjusting the frequency of the ____ fed into them.

(advance, current, generating, power, controls, controls, transmits, speeds, field, voltages, losses, alternating, design.)



Electrical and Electronics Engineering.


Electrical and electronics engineering is the largest and most diverse field of engineering. It is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field are electric power and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solid-state electronics, medical imaging systems robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and fibre optics.

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, computers.



Answer these questions and expand your reasons.


  1. Is electrical and electronics engineering the largest or the smallest field of engineering?

  2. What is Electrical and Electronics Engineering concerned with?

  3. What are the subjects in the field of Electronical Engineering?













Electric Power and Machinery.


The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real -time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyse the data fed back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the system while it is in operation.

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency of the current fed into them. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way.



Put the syllables in the correct order to get the words.


  1. ti, li, app,on,ca.

  2. ment, de, lop, ve.

  3. ver, si, di, ty.

  4. ne, chi, ma, ry.

  5. mi, ti, com, ni, ca, ons.

Electronics.


Find ten words in the square.



i

a

s

t

c

r

e

a

p

c

n

n

a

v

a

k

i

t

e

a

c

o

d

a

p

s

d

e

r

r

l

e

v

i

a

e

f

g

f

r

u

h

a

k

c

p

i

m

o

y

d

o

n

p

i

a

r

u

r

v

e

w

c

x

t

r

t

y

m

z

a

b

e

c

o

a

u

i

f

h

s

i

d

o

r

t

b

p

o

r

s

e

m

b

l

e

e

s

y

n



Переносить; показание; выполнять; раздельный; трубка;

конденсатор (радио); монтировать; продвинутый; включать (в себя); создавать.




Find the translations of the English words in the right column.


1. application a) получать

2. to transmit b) связывать

3. to receive c) задача

4. to store d) сложный

5. task e) применение

6. digital f) волна

7. wave g) состоять

8. to consist h) передавать

9. to connect i) цифровой

10. complex j) хранить






Electronics.


Electronic engineering deals with the research, design, integration, and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. Information is now generated, transmitted, received, and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in history, and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue unabated.

Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodulating radio signals to recover the information they carry. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and tuning, as in television, and for correcting errors in digital information, as in telecommunications.

Prior to the 1960a, circuits consisted of separate electronic devices — resistors, capacitors, inductors, and vacuum tubes — assembled on a chassis and сonnected by wires to form a bulky package. The electronics revolution of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. The complex task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology, including computers, electron-beam lithography, micro-manipulators, ion-beam implantation, and ultraclean environments. Much of the research in electronics is directed towards creating even smaller chips, faster switching of components, and three-dimensional integrated circuits.



Put the first words into their sentences. Choose them from the list below.


1. ___are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing, and for correcting errors.

2. ___ ___ ___of the 1970s and 1980s set the trend towards integrating electronic devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material.

3. ___ ___deals with the research, design?integration and aplication the transmission and processing of information.

4. ___ ___ ___of manufacturing these chips uses the most advansed technology, including computers, electron - beam lithography, micro- manipulators,

iom - beam implantation and ultraclean ervironments.

5. ___ ___design circuits to perform specific tasks, such as amplifying electronic signals, adding binary numbers, and demodu lating radio signals to recover the

information they carry.




















CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE THIRD UNIT.

1.Развитие: а) demodulating; b) generating; c) development.

2.Волна: a) wave; b) frequency; c) rate.

3.Применение: a) application; b) integration; c) manufacturing.

4.Напряжение: a) error; b) voltage; c) indication.

5.Способность: a) capacity; b) growth; c) ability.

6.Исследование: a) research; b) creating; c) performance.

7.Поле: a) power; b) device; c) field.

8.Разнообразие: a) reducing; b) diversity; c) concerning.

9.Данные: a) data; b) task; branch.

10.Переменный: a) connecting; b) direct; c) alternating.

11.Среди: a) prior to; b) among; c) much of.

12.Внедрение: a) implantation; b) engineering; c) transmitting.

13.Измерение: a) assembling; b) correcting; c) dimension.

14.Делить: a) divide; b) design; c) diverse.

15.Волокно: a) chip; b) fibre; c) chassis.

16.Окружение: a) communication; b) recovering; c) environment.

17.Хранить: a) store; b) perform; c) design.

18.Составлять: a) add; b) consist; c) carry.

19.Получать: a) feed; b) run; c) receive.

20.Конденсатор: a) capacitor; b) inductor; c) resistor.
































Unit 4


Final checking works







Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-1




1. Переведите текст.


Any conductor offers resistance to the flow of current. The resistance of a conductor depends on its material. It also depends on its temperature. Materials change the value of resistance with change in their temperature. Metals copper steel iron aluminum have low value of resistance while the resistance of nichrome is rather high.



2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. animal 1 of the frog

  2. in the tissues 2 discovery

  3. a great 3 electricity

  4. device for 4 of sulphiric acid and water

  5. the solution 5 converting energy









Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-2





1. Переведите текст.


No one has ever seen an electric current. We only can heat a conductor it can have a solution or it can have chemical action when passing through a solution or it can produce a magnetic effect. We can measure currents by observing their heating their chemical or their magnetic effects.





2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. comprehensive 1 examination

  2. according to their 2 education

  3. junior 3 schools

  4. take 4 schools

  5. class-decided 5 mental abilities




3. Исправьте ошибки.



  1. elektrisity

  2. atrakt

  3. investigeit

  4. releitionship

  5. emision.





Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-3




1. Переведите текст.



Semiconductor devices are used in computers in radio and TV receivers and in other electronic products. Semiconductor devices perform many control functions. They may be used as rectifiers amplifiers detectors oscillators and switching elements. There are some characteristics which make the semiconductors such as attractive member of the electronics family.




2. Составьте словосочетание.


  1. to enter 1 for handicapped children

  2. certain 2 entrance exams

  3. compulsory 3 a higher educational institution

  4. to take 4 education

  5. special schools 5 subjects




3. Исправьте ошибки.



  1. libireition

  2. spid

  3. emision

  4. aplication

  5. sabstanse





Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-4



1. Переведите текст.



We can define electronics as the study of conduction of electricity in a vacuum in gages and in semiconductors. The conduction of electricity in a vacuum for example occurs in vacuum tubes. Though in same vacuum tubes current glows from one element to the other through a gas. Every vacuum tube diode has a cathode with a heater and a plate.




2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. began 1 of power

  2. the rotary 2 of a servomechanism

  3. the unit 3 the manufacture

  4. the double-action 4 engine

  5. feedback principle 5 engine




3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. korcuktor

  2. dipend

  3. valye

  4. korrer

  5. milting poind







Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-5




1. Переведите текст.


Many scientists investigated electric phenomena and during the nineteenth century many discoveries about the nature of electricity and of magnetism which is closely related to electricity were made. It was found that it a sealing wax rod is rubbed with a woolen cloth and a rod of glass is rubbed with a silken cloth an electric spark will pass between the rods.



2. Составьте словосочетание.


  1. the rotary 1 the steam pressure

  2. relation of 2 to research work

  3. devoted himself 3 large losses

  4. records 4 its density to its temperature

  5. prevented 5 engine



3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. kondaction

  2. eliktrisity

  3. diod

  4. hiater

  5. woltadge







Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-6




1. Переведите текст.


It was found that if a sealing-wax rod is rubbed with a woolen cloth and a rod of glass is rubbed with a silken cloth an electric spark will pass between the sealing-wax red and the glass rod when they are brought near one another. Moreover it was found that a force of attraction operates between them.





2. Составьте словосочетание.


  1. a separate 1 several inventions

  2. determined 2 engine

  3. patented 3 the speed of an engine

  4. regulated 4 the properties of steam

  5. steam 5 condensing chamber





3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. semikondyktor

  2. rezistiviti

  3. divaice

  4. amlifaier

  5. riguire






Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-7




1. Переведите текст.


Resistance of conductors and their resistivity have different units. The unit of resistance is the ohm while the unit of resistivity is ohm/m. Different materials also have different melting points. If we see the table we can compare the melting points of metals. We find out that steel has got higher melting point than copper bronze aluminum.





2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. improvement 1 governor

  2. relation of its 2 of power

  3. the centrifugal 3 density to its temperature

  4. the measurement 4 of steam engine

  5. the unit 5 of distances






3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. kurrent

  2. cikuit

  3. sourse

  4. sappli

  5. korekt




Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-8




  1. Переведите текст.



The current flows through the tube. If a negative voltage is applied to the plate current does not flow. Thus a diode permits current to flow in only one direction. A semiconductor diode also conducts current in one direction but the physical principles which permit it to do this are different. Diodes are used as rectifiers of alternating voltages as detectors of radio signals as switching devices etc.




2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. vocational 1 new subjects

  2. schools 2 for gifted children

  3. a lot of 3 secondary schools

  4. general 4 exams

  5. school-leaving 5 regular school





3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. acheve

  2. diskavery

  3. sparc

  4. divelop

  5. atrac




Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-9




1. Переведите текст.



A metal is made up of tiny crystals which are visible under a microscope. A crystal is a regular and orderly arrangement of atoms. As it was explained an atom is a complex partied in which tiny electrons move around nucleus. When the atoms are tightly packed as they are in a metallic solid some of the electrons move freely between the atoms. These are called free electrons.




2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. enter 1 schools

  2. class-devided 2 their mental abilities

  3. comprehensive 3 examination

  4. take 4 the secondary schools

  5. according to 5 education





3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. enerdgi

  2. divaise

  3. diskavery

  4. manyfaktyre.




Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-10



1. Переведите текст.



The free electrons move at random throng the metal. There must be some driving force to cause the electrons to move throng the metal conductor. This driving force tending to produce the motion of electrons through a circuit is called an electromotive force or e.m.f. that moves electric changes from one point in the circuit to another.





2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. explanation 1 of sulphuric acid and water

  2. a pile of pairs 2 converting energy

  3. the solution 3 of the phenomenon

  4. can produce 4 of zinc and copper disks

  5. device for 5 electricity






3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. steem

  2. determaine

  3. rileition

  4. privent

  5. separeit




Контрольная работа.

ЭП , 2 курс

V-11



1. Переведите текст.


When an electromotive force is applied to the ends of a wire the free electrons move in one direction. It is the movement of the free electrons in a conductor that includes an electric current. The greater the number of participating electrons the greater is the flow of current.




2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. was awarded 1 the twiching

  2. a copper 2 of two different metals

  3. observed 3 a medal of the Royal

  4. by the contact society of London.

  5. Caused 4 a spark

5 skewer



3. Исправьте ошибки.



1 endgene

2 divelopmend

3 rotery

4 pauwer

5 distans







Контрольная работа.

ЭП , 2 курс

V-12



1. Переведите текст.


Electron emission is the liberation of electrons from substances under particular conditions. There are a number of ways in which the electrons of a substance can break through its surface for example the application

of heat. If the metal is heated the electrons move faster than their normal speed of motion. When electrons of a metal are freed by heating it is called thermionic emission.



2. Составьте словосочетание.



  1. production of 1 on electrolyses

  2. researches 2 the presidency

  3. discovery 3 new kinds of optical glass

  4. refused 4 carryins an electric current

  5. a wire 5 of the rotation plane.




3. Исправьте ошибки.



  1. edykeishn

  2. sekondery

  3. abiletiz

  4. komprehenseve

  5. junier







Контрольная работа.

ЭП , 2 курс

V-13



1. Переведите текст.


When electors are liberated bythe energy of the light rays it is called photoelectric emission. The third type of emission is the liberation of electrons as a result of the bombardment of the substance with fastmoving electrons. The fourth method is called cold-cathode emission. In this case the electrons are liberated from a substance by the attracting power of a strong electric force.





2. Составьте словосочетания.


1 notable. 1 a scientist .

2 was apprenticed. 2 of the magnetic field.

3 the concept. 3 of force.

4 lines. 4 to a bookbinder.

5 to became. 5 discoveries.






3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. Sabjekt.

  2. vakationel.

  3. sekondery.

  4. ebukation.

  5. entrense.





Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-14



1. Переведите текст.


Every vacuum tube diode has a cathode with a heater and a plate. When the circuit is completed the cathode emits electrons. Negative voltage on the cathode repels the electrons. Positive voltage on the plate attracts the electrons. The current flows through the tube. If a negative voltage is applied to the plane current does not flow.




2. Составьте словосочетание.




  1. reflect 1 intervals

  2. remarkable 2 conclusion

  3. serve 3 relationship

  4. the most important 4 the relation

  5. regular 5 as a basis







3. Исправьте ошибки.


  1. prodiuse

  2. enirgi

  3. solushn

  4. invistigeit

  5. diskavery



Контрольная работа

ЭП, II курс

V-15




1. Переведите текст.



How does the current flow through a wive? A metal is made up of tiny crystals which are visible under a microscope. A crystal is a regular and orderly arrangement of atoms. As it was explained an atom is a complex particle in which tiny electrons move around nucleus. When the atoms are tightly packed as they are in a metallic sold some of the electrons move freely between the atoms.




2. Составьте словосочетание.


  1. comparison 1 in the external properties

  2. insufficient 2 interrelated

  3. division 3 into two large groups

  4. differences 4 for chemist

  5. regularly 5 of the properties





3. Исправьте ошибки.



  1. kurent

  2. saintific

  3. diskaveri

  4. diferinces

  5. rilationsip





Литература


1.Полякова Т.Ю., Синявская Е.В., Тынкова О.И., Улановская Э.С. английский язык для инженеров. – Москва.: Высшая школа., 1998.

2. Агабекян И.П. Английский для технических вузов. – Ростов на Дону: Феникс, 2007.

3. Агабекян И.П. Английский для инженеров. – Ростов на Дону: Феникс, 2006.

4. Парахина А.В. Хрестоматия по анлийскому языку для средних специальных учебных заведений. – Москва.: Высшая школа.

5. Андреев Г.Я. и др. Сборник технических текстов на английском языке. – Москва: Высшая школа.

6. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Electrical

7. http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com



















































































































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Дата добавления 01.11.2015
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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