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Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов ветеринарного отделения специальности «Технология Производства и Переработки Сельхозпродукции».

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Text 1. What is agriculture?

Agriculture is an important branch of economy. Economic growth of any country depends on the development of agriculture, which supplies people with food and clothing and industry with raw materials.

The word "agre" is a Latin word. It means the cultivation of fields in order to grow crops. Now agriculture also includes the use of land to breed

farm animals.

We do not know when people began to grow crops. It was many thou­sand years ago. Now crop production and animal husbandry are highly developed branches of agriculture.

Life is impossible without plants. They play a highly, important role in everyday life of people. Plants that ate grown by farmers are known as farm crops. They are used for many different purposes. Most of them are used directly as food for people, some are consumed by farm animals, oth­ers are used in industry and medicine.

Ihello_html_m26a7fdca.jpgn order to increase crop yields and animal products our collective and state farms apply widely intensive technologies.

Learn the words.

agricultureсельское хозяйство

animal – животные

apply - применять

breed – разводить

crop - культура

cultivation – обработка

development – развитие

farm – ферма, хозяйство

field – поле

food – пища

grow – расти, выращивать

growth –рост

increase – увеличение

plant – растение

supply – снабжать

use использовать

yield урожай

1. Call equivalents following international words:

region, climate, machine, tractor, combine, bulldozer, to mechanize, tendency, tradition, traditional, industrial.

2. What questions are answered in the text:

  1. Из каких отраслей состоит сельское хозяйство?

  2. Когда люди начали выращивать сельскохозяйственные культуры?

  3. Может ли человек жить, не выращивая культуры?

  4. О каких интенсивных технологиях говорится в тексте?

3. Answer the following questions

1. Why is agriculture very important?

2. What are the two branches of agriculture?

3. What does the Latin word "agre" mean?

4. Is life possible without plants?

5. Where are farm crops used?

6. How do people increase crop yields?

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Text 10. Preservation and Storage Meat.

Thello_html_5619920b.jpghe usual methods of preserving meat from bacteria and decay arc refrigerating, freezing, during, freeze-drying, and canning. Meats are marketed as fresh or processed goods or become ingredients of various meat products, including many types of sausages and luncheon meats. They also yield a number of important by-products. Meat preservation helps to control spoilage by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, slowing enzymatic activity, and preventing the oxidation of fatty acids that promote rancidity. 
Тhere are many factors affecting the length of time meat products can be stored while maintaining product safety and quality. The physical state of neat plays a role in the number of microorganisms that can grow on meat. For example, grinding meat increases the surface area, releases moisture and nutrients from the muscle fibres, and distributes surface microorganisms throughout the meat. Chemical properties of meat, such as pH and moisture content, affect the ability of microorganisms to grow on meat. Natural protective tissues (fat or skin) can prevent microbial contamination, dehydration, or other undesirable changes. Covering meats with paper or protective plastic films prevents excessive moisture loss and microbial contamination. 

Cold storage Temperature is the most important factor influencing bacterial growth. Pathogenic bacteria do not grow well at temperatures under 3° С. Therefore, meat should be stored at temperatures that are as cold as possible Refrigerated storage is the most common method of meat preservation. The typical refrigerated storage life for fresh meats is 5 to 7 days. Freezer storage is an excellent method of meat preservation. It is important to wrap frozen meats closely in packaging that limits air contact with the meat in order to prevent moisture loss during storage. The length of time meats are held at frozen storage also determines product quality. Under typical freezer storage of-18° С beef can be stored for 6 to 12 months, lamb for 6 to 9 months, pork for 6 months, and sausage products for 2 months.

Freezing. The rate of freezing is very important in maintaining meat quality, rapid freezing being superior. If meats are frozen slowly, large ice crystals form in the meat and rupture cell membranes. When this meat is thawed, much of the original moisture found in the meat is lost as juice Sow from the meat. For this reason cryogenic freezing (the use of super cold substances such as liquid nitrogen) or other rapid methods of freezing meats arc used at the commercial level to maintain maximal product quality. It is important to note, however, that freezing does not kill most microorganisms; they simply become dormant. When the meat is thawed, the spoilage continues where it left off.

Vacuum packaging. Oxygen is required for many bacteria to grow. For his reason most meats are vacuum-packaged, which extends the storage life under refrigerated conditions to approximately 100 days. In addition, vacuum packaging minimizes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and slows the development of rancid meat.

Canning. The second most common method of meat preservation is canning. Canning involves sealing meat in a container and then heating it to destroy all microorganisms capable of food spoilage. Under normal conditions canned products can safely be stored at room temperature indefinitely However, certain quality concerns can make producers or sellers recommend an optimal "sell by" date.

Drying. Drying is another common method of meat preservation. Drying removes moisture from meat products so that microorganisms cannot grow. Dry sausages, freeze-dried Beats, and jerky products are all examples of dried meats capable of being stored at room temperature without rapid spoilage.

Fermentation. An ancient form of food preservation used in the meat industry is fermentation, which involves the addition of certain harmless bacteria to meal. These fermenting bacteria produce acid as they grow, lowering the pH of the meat and inhibiting the growth of many pathogenic microorganisms. 
Irradiation. Irradiation, or radurization, is a pasteurization method accomplished by exposing meat to doses of radiation. Radurization is as effective as heat asteurization in killing food-spoilage microorganisms. Irradiation of meat is accomplished by exposing meat to high-energy ionizing radiation produced either by electron accelerators or by exposure to gamma-radiation-emitting substances such as cobalt-60 or cesium-137. Irradiated products are virtually identical in character to nonirradiated products, but they have significantly lower microbial contamination. Irradiated fresh meat products still require refrigeration and packaging to prevent spoilage, but the refrigerated storage life of these products is extended. 
Curing and smoking. Meat curing and smoking are two of the oldest methods of meat preservation. They not only improve the safety and shelf life of meat products but also enhance the colour and flavour. Smoking of meat decreases the available moisture on the surface of meat products, preventing microbial growth and spoilage. Meat curing, as commonly performed in products such as ham or sausage, involves the addition of mixtures containing salt, nitrite, and other preservatives.

Salt decreases the moisture is meats available to spoilage microorganisms. Nitrite prevents microorganisms from growing and retards rancidity in meats. Nitrite also produces the pink colour associated with cured products by binding as nitric oxide) to myoglobin. However, the use of nitrite in meat products is controversial owing to its potential cancercausing activity.

Sodium erythorbate or ascorbate is another common curing additive, which not only decreases the risks associated with the use of nitrite but also improves cured meat colour development. Other common additives include alkaline phosphates, which improve the juiciness of meat products by increasing their water-holding ability. 

Learn the words:

electron accelerator

ускоритель электронов

gamma-radiation-emitting substances

гамма-излучение-излучающих веществ

sodium

натрия

salt decreases

соли уменьшается

curing

лечить

smoking

для

irradiation

облучение

canning

консервирование

vacuum

вакуум

packaging

упаковка

freezing

замораживание

acids

кислот

luncheon

обед

oxidation

окисление

moisture

влаги

flavour

вкус

alkaline

щелочные

phosphates

фосфаты

juiciness

сочность

water-holding

влагоудерживающий

nitrite

нитрит

rapid spoilage

быстрая порча

1.Ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1)Какие методы хранения существуют?

2) Зачем нужен кислород при консервации? 

3) Как называется самая древняя форма хранения продуктов?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

Meat curing, irradiation of meat, radurization, dry sausages, oxygen, slowing enzymatic activity, influencing bacterial growth.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1)…… the moisture is meats available to spoilage microorganisms.

2) Drying is another common method of ……..

3) Smoking of meat decreases the …………. products, preventing microbial growth and spoilage.

4) ……… is required for many bacteria to grow.

5) However, the …… products is controversial owing to its potential cancercausing ……….





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Thello_html_m61e3a2ba.jpgext 11. MEAT GRADING. 
Meat grading divides meat into different classes based on expected eating quality (e.g. appearance, tenderness, juiciness. and flavour) and expected yield of meat sold from a carcass. In contrast to meat-inspection procedures, meat-grading systems vary significantly throughout the world. These differences an due in large part to the fact that different countries have different meat quality standards. For example, in the United States cattle are raised primarily for the production of steaks and are fattened with high-quality grain feed in order to achieve a high amount of marbling throughout the muscles of the animal. High marbling levels are associated with meat cuts that are juicier, have more flavour, and are more tender. Therefore, greater marbling levels -and especially marbling that is finely textured and evenly distributed -improve the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) quality grade (i.e., prime, choice, or select) of the beef. However, in Australia cattle are raised primarily for the production of ground beef products, and the highest quality grades are given to the leanest cuts of meat. Some of the characteristics of meat used to assess quality and assign grades include: conformation of the carcass, thickness of external fat; colour, texture, and firmness of the lean meat; colour and shape of the bones; level of marbling; and degree of leanness, etc.

Learn the words:

appearance

внешний вид

tenderness

нежность

tender

тендер

carcass

тушки

texture

текстура

level of marbling

уровень мраморности

shape

форма

bones

кости

steaks

стейки

meat-inspection

мясо-инспекции

raised

поднял

fattened

раскормил

significantly

значительно

1.Ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Для чего выращивают скот в США?

2) Для чего выращивают скот в Австрии? 

3) Какие качества хорошего мяса?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words: conformation of the carcass, thickness of external fat, degree of leanness, meat grading.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1) These differences an due in large part to the fact …… have different meat quality standards.

2) …… cattle are raised primarily for the production of ground beef products, and the highest quality grades are given to the leanest cuts of meat.

3) High marbling levels are associated with meat cuts that are juicier, have more..


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Thello_html_m218955f2.jpgext 12DAIRY FARMING. DAIRY FARMS IN EAST LANCASHIRE
Dairy farming is one of the most important branches of animal husbandry. One reason for the importance of dairying is high nutritive value of milk and dairy products. Milk is one of the best sources of calcium, the mineral which is highly important for the growth of skeleton of people and animals. High-quality milk also contains a large amount of phosphorus and iron (
железо) Milk is also a good source of vitamins A, D, and B. Different dairy products are obtained by man from milk. To have high-quality milk farmers should not only feed their cows properly both in spring and in winter but they should care for the milk properly. Two factors should be controlled when keeping milk: 1) milk should be kept clean and 2) it should be kept cool (охлажденным).
In this part of England there are about 3,600 farms. The climate of this area is not very favourable to dairy farming. The farmers breed dairy cattle because there are many industrial towns here and they supply these towns with milk. The typical small dairy farm in Lancashire is a farm of about 40 acres (
акр = 0,4 га) with 18 to 20 dairy cows. The land is all grass. Half (половина) of it is used for hay and the other half for pastures. Summer pastures provide feed and exercise (моцион) for the cows. 

Learn the words:

calcium

кальций

climate

климат

small dairy

маленькие молочные

supply

поставка

obtained

полученные

nutritive

питательные

contains

содержит

amount

сумма

value

значение

favourable

благоприятные

branches

филиалы

husbandry

животноводство

phosphorus

фосфор

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Почему молоко такой ценный продукт?

2) Как сохранить высококачественное молоко? 

3) Почему при неблагоприятном климате в этой части Англии фермеры разводят молочный скот?

4) Как фермеры здесь используют землю?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

the growth of skeleton, exercise for the cows, different dairy products, keeping milk.



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Text 13. BEEF.

Bhello_html_m5a02910e.jpgeef is flesh of mature cattle, as distinguished from veal, i. e. the flesh of calves. The best beef is obtained from early maturing, special beef breeds. High-quality beef has firm, velvety, fine-grained lean, bright red in colour and well-marbled, the fat being smooth, creamy white, and well distributed. In young beef the bones are soft, porous, and red; the less desirable mature beef has hard white bones. Beef tenderness and flavour are improved by ageing: in one common aging method the carcass is hung for about two weeks at approximately 2° С, encouraging physical changes in the muscle tissue that enhance the quality of the meat. Grading standards are somewhat similar in various countries, as there is a large international beef trade. In the United States, grades in order of quality are prime, choice, good, commercial, utility, cutter, and canner. Commercial grades are mainly from mature cattle, especially cows. Utility, cutter, and canner grades are used in processed meat products. Beef hide, used for leather manufacture, is a valuable by-product of beef. The primary beef-consuming countries of the world (in per capita terms) arc Uruguay, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States. Beef is not particularly popular in most of Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Indian subcontinent; the sanctity of the cow in the Hindu religion forbids the consumption of its meat by the Hindus, Beef is not unusual in the cuisines of Korea and Japan, however; in Kobe, Japan, near Osaka, a highly prized beef is produced from cattle that are vigorously massaged and fed a liberal dietary supplement of beer. Butchering practices differ among countries. resulting in a variety of names for the different cuts. In the United States, where beef is the most popular meat, steaks (that is crossections from the fleshier parts of the carcass) are among the most desirable cuts. In Britain ribs used for roasting are the most valued cuts. Less desirable cuts may be used in stews or ground meat. Boiled beef is popular in some cuisines, as in the French dish known as pot-au-feu. Corned beef or salt beef in Britain is prepared from a brisket or rump cut.

Learn the words:

sanctity

святость

cross-section

поперечное сечение

stew

зд. Смесь

pot-au-feu

мясное жаркое с овощами

brisket

грудинка 

rump

Огузок

dietary supplement

пищевая добавка

encouraging

поощрение

veal

телятина

calves

Телят

flesh

Плоть

vigorously

энергично

mature

зрелые

approximately

примерно

roasting

обжарки

consumption

потребление

forbids

запрещает

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Каковы основные характеристики качественной говядины?

2) Назовите главные страны потребители говядины? 

3) Орудия разделки и обработки говядины?

4) Какое самое известное блюдо из говядины в США?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words: vigorously massaged and fed a liberal dietary supplement of beer, rump cut, flesh of mature cattle.

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Text 14. «We go to the state farm»

Alexei: Hello, everybody, grand news'. We're going to work on the kolkhoz just like real kolkhozniks do. There'll be a school team and we'll get paid for our work.

Vasily: Shall we? But we have got to learn how to work. It's not so easy with all the modern machinery. We'll make poor workers. I'm afraid.

Alexei: Never mind, we'll manage.

Vasily: You are a young naturalist, and a gifted one, You've got some knowledge of farming, but we haven’ t.

Grisha: I'm terribly keen on becoming a tractor-driver!

Vasily: Better be a combine-driver, but you never will.

Grisha: Won't 1? And why, if I may ask?

Alexei: Because your favourite mark in physics is «two»

Grisha: That has nothing to do with my wish to work as a tractor-driver!

Vasily: Hasn't it? Look at him, comrades, he... . Hush, the head­master' s coming, he'll tell us everything about our work on the kolkhoz.

Andrei: Hello, Misha, everything's all right!

Masha: What is all right? What are you talking about?

Andrei: You know that Dad wants me to work on the hog farm, but I do not want to.

Misha: Yes, I know that you've quarreled because of that.

Ahello_html_37c43aae.jpgndrei: I think a man isn’t much use on a farm now if he does not know everything about machines. Mechanization is what I’m interested in.


Misha: I know that. You'd better tell me what's happened.

Andrei; Well, Mum came home upset because something had , gone wrong with the milking machine at the dairy-farm.

Misha: But there is Vlasov who does all the repairs.

Andrei: He is gone to town. And I asked Mum to let me have a go. I saw she didn't believe I could do it, but she took me to the dairy-farm and I repaired the machine in half an hour. Now it works all right.

Misha: Does your father know about it?

Andrei: Oh, yes. He said “Congratulations” and not a word about the hog farm.

1. Learn the dialogue by heart .

2. Find English equivalents.

Комбайнёр, что случилось, школьная команда, молочная ферма, механизация – вот чем я интересуюсь, всё в порядке, знания о фермерстве, работать в колхозе, современные машины, что ты скажешь об этом.

3. Write 3 forms of verbs:

To be, to know, to go, to do, to work, to say, to make, to come, to ask, to happen.



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Rhello_html_5636f2e4.jpgead and translate the text:

Text 15. VEAL

Veal is meat of calves slaughtered between 3 and 14 weeks, delicate in flavour, pale grayish white in colour, firm and fine-grained, with velvety texture. It has no marbling, and the small amount of fat covering is firm and white. In modem livestock fanning, calves bred to yield high-quality veal are raised indoors under controlled temperatures 16°-18°C and intensively fed on milk, high-protein calf meal, or both. Grasses are excluded, resulting in an iron deficiency producing the desirable light colour in the meat. Although the meat of an animal from 15 weeks to one year is technically called calf, it is frequently marketed as veal. Wholesale cuts, usually smaller than comparable beef cuts, vary in different countries. Because of its high amount of connective tissue and low fat content, large cuts of veal require long, slow cooking. Fat in the form of lard or salt pork may be added to avoid dryness. Veal is often served rare in European countries but is usually thoroughly cooked in the U.S. Cuts such 
as the leg, loin, shoulder, and breast are usually roasted, often boned and stuffed, or braised. Schnitzel, pan-fried cutlets coated with bread crumbs, arc a specialty of Germany and Austria. Scallops, small dim slices - called scaloppini in Italy and escalopes or medallions in France may be cooked in wine or other sauces.

Learn the words:

roasted

жареный

stuffed

фаршированные

pan-fried

на сковороде

cutlets

котлеты

sauces

Соусы

tissue

Ткани

veal

телятина

frequently

Часто

slaughtered

Убой

calves

телят

comparable

сопоставимые

deficiency

дефицит

wine

Вина

medallions

медальоны

escalopes

эскалопы

loin

поясница

calf

теленок

yield

доходность

iron

Утюг

pale grayish

бледно-сероватый

meal

мука крупного помола

rare

недожаренный, полусырой 

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Основные характеристики качественной телятины?

2) Какие части телятины используют для еды в США? 

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

high-protein calf meal, livestock fanning, pan-fried cutlets, pale grayish, intensively fed, grasses.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1). …. and the small amount of fat covering is firm and white.

2) Wholesale cuts, usually smaller than comparable beef cuts, ……..

3) Scallops, small dim slices - …….. and escalopes or medallions in France …. cooked in wine or other sauces.


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Text 16.PORK.

Pork is flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered between the ages of six months and one year. The most desirable pork is grayish pink in colour, firm and fine-grained, well-marbled, and covered with an outer layer of firm white fat. About 30 percent of the meat is consumed as cooked fresh meat; the remainder is cured or smoked for bacon and ham, used т sausage, and used to produce lard. Because pigs may be infected by the parasitic disease trichinosis, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of 71 °C in order to destroy the disease-causing organism. Pork carcasses are graded according to the amount of edible meat they will yield. In the United States, where individual cuts are not graded, a U.S. Number 1 carcass is the one having the most satisfactory ratio of fat to lean; Number 2, Number 3, and Number 4 have a higher proportion of fat. Reducing the amount of lean. Utility-grade pork, which is usually from mature animals, has too little fat and is kiss firm. The mam cuts of pork are hams, spareribs, loin chops, bellies, picnic shoulders. Pork is one of the most popular types of meats and is consumed around the world. However, it is prohibited by the dietary laws of Judaism and Islam, so pork is virtually unknown in the cuisines of the Middle East and those of some local populations in Asia and Africa. The chief pork-consuming countries (on a per capita basis) arc Germany, Denmark, Poland, and Austria. In Western cooking fresh pork is commonly roasted, choice cuts being the loin, leg and rib sections known as spareribs. Chops from the loin and ribs are usually grilled or pan-fried. A spit-roasted whole young piglet, or suckling pig, is a delicacy in central and eastern Europe; wild pigs hare traditionally been cooked in a similar manner throughout the Pacific. Less desirable parts - cars, tail, hocks, feet, brains - and the fatty portions of the back of the carcass (fatback), may be cooked with various greens, especially in the southern United States. In China and Southeast Asia, pork is commonly shredded and fried with vegetables and spices. Pork-and-vegetable mixtures are also used to stuff a variety of small rolls, buns or dumplings.

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Learn the words:

trichinosis

трихинеллез

spin-roasted

зажаренный на вертеле

hock

коленное сухожилие

dumpling

клецка

spit-roasted

вертеле

spices

специи

stuff

Вещи

buns

булочки

spareribs

свиные отбивные

proportion

Доля

ratio

соотношение

lean

Лин

edible

съедобные

pork

свинина

Reducing

Снижение

prohibited

запрещено

ham

ветчина

consumed

Потребляемая

lard

Сало

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) В каком возрасте забивают свинью?

2) Какие классификации тушь свиньи вы знаете? 

3) Как готовят отбивные?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

piglet, Pork-and-vegetable mixtures, loin chops, slaughtered.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1) Chops from the loin and ribs are usually ……..

2) ….. be infected by the parasitic disease trichinosis, pork must be cooked to an internal temperature of 71 °C in order to destroy the disease-causing

Organism.

3) Pork is one of the most ……. and is consumed around the world.


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Text 17. LAMB.

Lamb is live sheep before the age of one year, and the flesh of such animals. Mutton refers to the flesh of the mature ram or ewe at least one year old; the meat of sheep between 12 and 20 months old may be called yearling mutton. The meat of sheep 6 to 10 weeks old is usually sold as baby lamb, and spring lamb is from sheep of five to six month. The mild flavour of lamb is preferred in most Western countries; the stronger flavour of being desirable in many Middle and Far Eastern countries. Milk-fed lamb is especially delicate in flavour. The colour of the learn, deepens as the animal grows older. In the lamb it rangers from light to dark pink, in yearling mutton it is medium pink to light red, in mutton it is light to dark red in colour. The fat, soft and creamy white to pale pink in the lamb, hardens and whitens in older sheep. Bones also harden and whiten, becoming porous in the yearling and extremely hard in the mature animal. In the United States the carcass may be separated into sides and then divided into wholesale cuts; it may be cut straight across into saddles* (upper back portion of die carcass from last rib to legs), or it may be cut into leg, loin, shoulder, breast, and shank. The outer fat covering may be removed from the cuts. U.S. quality grades for lamb include prime, choice, good, utility, and cull, mature mutton grades being choice, good, utility, and cull. The primary lamb- and mutton-consuming countries (on a per capita basis) are New Zealand, Australia, Greece, Uruguay, and h-eland. The leg, saddle, and shoulder, although they contain higher proportions of bone to meat, are considered the finest cuts by some cooks. In the United States popular cuts include individual chops from the ribs or loin, the leg. A regional specialty, actually unknown outside of the state of Kentucky, is barbecued mutton. Curried mutton , served with rice, is a favourite dish of Jamaicans. The traditional British lamb roast is distinguished by a fresh mint sauce. Lamb also plays an important part in classic French cuisine; unlike American- or English-style preparation, however, French recipes often require shorter cooking times, yielding rare or pinkish meat. Lamb predominates in the cuisines of Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East, commonly marinaded and roasted on a skewer (shish kebab) or cooked with local vegetables. A classical Middle Eastern dish known as kibbe is a mixture of ground lamb and cracked wheat.

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Learn the words:

cracked

трещины

marinaded

маринованные

cuisine

кухни

saddle

поясничная часть туши

shank

голень

curried mutton

баранина с приправой карри

mint

Мята

skewer

вертел, шампур

cracked wheat

дробленная пшеница

pinkish

розовато

hardens

твердеет

porous

пористые

saddles

седла

utility

утилита

Milk-fed

Молоко вскармливании

outer

наружный

roast

жаркое

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Основные потребители баранины?

2) Какое самое любимое блюдо Ямайцев? 

3) Что такое кибби?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

pale pink, French cuisine, mature ram, fresh mint sauce, wholesale cuts.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1) Lamb is live sheep before the age of one year, and the flesh of ……..

2) A classical Middle Eastern dish known as kibbe is a mixture of ground lamb and ...

3) The leg, saddle, and shoulder, although they contain ….. are considered the finest cuts by some cooks..


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Text 18. Hamburger.

Hamburger is also called burger, or ground beef. The term is applied variously to a patty of ground beef, sometimes called hamburger steak, Salisbury steak, or Vienna steak, a sandwich consisting of a patty of beef seed within a split bread roll, with various garnishes or the ground beef itself, which is used as a base in many sauces, and other dishes. The origin of hamburger is obscure. An American chef from Connecticut, Louis Lassen is believed to have made and sold the first hamburgers in America in 1898. He called them hamburgers because sailors from Hamburg in Germany gave him the recipe Students from Yale University and businessmen loved them and bought them, with time popularity of the new product expanding far outside Connecticut. The importance of the hamburger in the 20th-century American culture is indicated by its virtually universal use at backyard barbecues as well as its availability at various types of cafes, the so-called hamburger stands and fast-food restaurants, the best known chains being McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's. Hamburgers are usually eaten as a sandwich, between two halves of a round bun. Mustard', mayonnaise, ketchup, and other condiments, along with garnishes of lettuce, onion, tomato, and cucumber are the most commonly used dressings. In the variation known as the cheeseburger, a slice of cheese is melted over the patty. The patty, itself is often seasoned with chopped onions, spices, or bread crumbs before cooking. According to the USDA standarts, hamburger meat may be defined as either hamburger, chopped beef or ground beef. It must be ground from fresh beef with no by-products or nonmeat additives, but the USDA does permit the addition of some beef fat and other condiments in meat labeled “hamburger”. Also, by law, hamburger and chopped or ground beef sold commercially may contain no more than 30 percent fat. Fifteen percent fat is regarded as the ideal proportion in terms of juiciness and flavour of the cooked product.

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Learn the words:

chopped

нарезанный

nonmeat

nonmeat

fast-food

фаст-фуд

garnishes

гарниры

flavour

Вкус

juiciness

сочность

crumbs

крошки

cheeseburger

чизбургер

halves

половинки

condiments

приправы

expanding

расширение

obscure

скрывать

mustard

горчица

bun

сдобная булочка

backyard barbecue

зд. пикник мясо жарят на приусадебном участке, во время которого мясо жарят на вертеле

roll

булочка

раttу

амер. котлета

1.Прочитайте текст и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:

1) Как еще называют гамбургер?

2) Самые известные рестораны быстрого питания? 

3) Вы любите гамбургеры?

2.Call Russian equivalents international words: chopped onions, garnishes of lettuce,

backyard barbecues, hamburger steak, melted.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1) Louis Lassen is believed to have made and sold the first hamburgers in ……

2) …………. is also called burger, or ground beef.

3) The importance of the hamburger in the 20th-century American culture is indicated by its …….. and fast-food restaurants, the best known chains being McDonald's, Burger King, and Wendy's.


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Text 2. Agriculture in the United Kingdom 

Agriculture in the United Kingdom uses around 71% of the country's land area and contributes about 0.6% of its gross value added. The UK produces less than 60% of the food it eats and the industry's share of the national economy is declining. Despite skilled farmers, high technology, fertile soil and subsidies, which primarily come from the European Union, farm earnings are low and falling, mainly due to low prices at the farm gate. With each generation, fewer young people can afford the increasing capital cost of entry into farming and more are discouraged by low earnings. The average age of the British farm holder is now 59.Recently there have been moves towards organic farming in an attempt to sustain profits, and many farmers now supplement their income by diversifying activities away from pure agriculture. Now, biofuels present new opportunities for farmers against a background of rising fears about fossil fuel prices, energy security, energy sustainability, and climate change. There is increasing awareness that farmers have an important role to play as custodians of the British countryside and wildlife. The high cost of entry into farming presents a significant barrier. Land prices in the United Kingdom are high. Local authorities recognise this and some offer smallholdings intended to allow those with skill or training but little capital to set up as tenant farmers. Nevertheless, this provision is shrinking and thello_html_e5a652c.jpghere is an increasing shortage of farmland to let. AutoShape 4The total area on agricultural holdings is about 17.1 million hectares (43 million acres), or 18.3 million including rough grazing land, of which 6.2 million hectares (15.3 million acres) are croppable. During the growing season about half the croppable area is devoted to cereal crops, and of the cereal crop area, more than 65% is wheat. There are about 31 million sheep, 10 million cattle, 9.6 million poultry and 4.5 million pigs. These are arranged on almost 327,000 agricultural holdings, on which the average farmable area is around 54 hectares (130 acres) each. About 70% of farms are owner-occupied or mostly so, the remainder being tenant farmers. Farmers represent an ageing population, partly due to low earnings and barriers to entry, and there are ongoing difficulties in recruiting young people into farming. The average farm holder is now 59 years old. British farming is intensive and highly mechanised, but the country is so heavily populated that it cannot supply its own food needs. The United Kingdom is a net importer of food, producing only 59% of the food it consumes.

Agriculture in the USA.

Almost 21mln.people or about 17 % of all population works in the agriculture of USA. Nearly 3 millions independent farms deliver feed products to the American consumers. The area of an average farm in the USA makes about 400 acres. In 1984 there were more than 2.3 million farms in the country. However, the very large farms -those with 1000 acres and more account for more than 40% of farm acreage. The largest manufacturers of grains making up 2,3% of total of farms, produce about 50 % of wheat in the country. Similarly, the largest 2 % of the manufacturers of chickens - broilers own 70 % of market sales.

Number of firms producing selected products in the USA. 1980es.

Product

Numbers of firms producing

this product

Wheat

446075

Corn

937704

Rice

11445

Soy-bean

511229

Tobacco

179141

Pea-nuts

23046

Dairy products

197269

Cattle

1354309

There are therefore some concentrations of agricultural production in hands of the largest manufacturers in the USA. But even largest agricultural manufacturers accept the established prices for production.

Learn the words.

accelerate

ускорять

accept

принимать

acreage

площадь в акрах

additional

добавочный, дополнительный

advance

успех

advantage

выгода, польза, преимущество

agrarian

аграрный

allocation

размещение, распределение, назначение, ассигнование

alongside

рядом, бок о бок

apply

обращаться, прикладывать, прилагать, употреблять

assignment

назначение, должность, задание,

передача имущественных прав

average

среднее число, средний

выводить среднее число

branch

отрасль, филиал, отделение

carry out

выполнять

cattle

рогатый скот

charge

расход, плата, сбор

charitable

милосердный, благотворительный

completion

завершение

conservation

сохранение

considerably

значительный

consumption

потребление, расход

Dairy products

молочные продукты

decrease

уменьшаться, убывать, понижение

delay

промедление, задержка, отсрочка

медлить, откладывать

detain

задерживать

determine

определять, устанавливать, решать

discount

Скидка

domestic

отечественный

due

вызванный, должный, надлежащий

enable

давать возможность или право, приспосабливать

encouraging

ободрять, поощрять, поддерживать

engage

нанимать, обязываться, занимать

ensure

обеспечивать, страховать, гарантировать

equal

равный, равняться

equipment

снаряжение, снабжение, оборудование

establish

основывать, учреждать, устанавливать

estimate

оценка, смета

оценивать, составлять смету

expense

трата, расход, цена, статья расхода

fertilizer

удобрение

fodder

фураж, корм

foodstuff

пищевой продукт

forage

фураж, корм

фуражировать

frequently

многократно

grain

прибыль, выгода, заработок

увеличение, прирост

grant

субсидии

1. Call equivalents following international words:

population, independent farms, grazing land, tractor, gross value added, organic farmingr, croppable, biofuels, agriculture, arranged, smallholdings.

2. What questions are answered in the text:

1) Какой возраст у средне статистического фермера в Великобритании?

2) Сколько сельхоз угодий в Великобритании?

3) Самая крупная сельхоз культура США?

3. Fill in the blanks:

1. Almost 21mln.people or about 17 % of all population works…..

2. The high cost …… presents a significant barrier.

3. The average farm holder is ……… old.

4. But even largest agricultural ………. the established prices for production.

5. ……….. farms deliver feed products to the American consumers.





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Text 3. Two branches of agriculture.

There are two main branches of agricultural production — crop produc­tion and animal husbandry.

Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. The most important crops grown by man are grain crops, vegetables and grasses. In order to obtain high yields crops are grown under favorable soil and climatic conditions.

Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture including the breeding of
farm animals and their use. Dairy and beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry
are widely bred throughout the world. Farm animals are highly important
sources of food for man. They are kept for the production of such nutritious
products as meat, milk and eggs.

Many crops grown by man are used in feeding livestock. At the same time manure produced by farm animals is an important source for the maintenance of soil fertility . Most of the nutrients taken by plants from the soil are thus returned. Applying manure, farmers improve the physical condition of the soil.

Thus, crop production and animal husbandry are closely connected with each other.

Explanations to the text:

Under… conditions – при (в) … условиях

With each other – друг с другом

Notes:

Some – несколько, некоторый

The same – тот же самый, один и тот же

Lhello_html_632f72b3.jpgearn the words.

beef cattle - мясной скот

dairy cattle – молочный скот

egg - яйцо

favourable - благоприятный

grain - зерно

grass - трава

hog - свинья

improve - улучшать

to keep – содержать

manure - навоз

meat - мясо

milk - молоко

nutrient – питательное вещество

poultry – домашняя птица

to produce - производить

sheep – овца, овцы

soil fertility – плодородие почвы

1. Answer the following questions

1. What are the two branches of agriculture?

2. What is crop production?

3. What are the main farm crops?

4. What does animal husbandry include?

5. What products do farm animals produce?

6. What is manure used for?

7. How do farmers improve the physical condition of the soil?

2. Translate the sentences (pay attention to the words some and same):

1. Some farmers keep poultry in poultry houses in summer and in winter.

2. All grain crops take the same nutrients from the soil.

3. Some cultural practices are highly effective in controlling weeds.

4. These two farmers use the same methods in growing vegetables.

3. Make a dialogue.

4. Find 3 adjectives and form three degrees of comparison.




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Text 4. Main Sources of Food.

There are three main sources of food for man. They are crops, livestock and fish (рыба). Of these, crops make up about 75% of the world's food production, 23% is contributed by livestock and only 2% of food comes from fish.

Many foods are obtained from farm animals. They are meat, milk and eggs. Milk is often called (называть) the nature's most important food.

Meats from farm animals are highly important as food for people. The animals most often used for this purpose are beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. Meat from mature (взрослый) sheep is known as mutton. How do we can meat from hogs? From mature beef cattle? From young "beef cattle?

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Learn the words.

sources

Источники

crops

Культур

livestock

Скота

obtained

полученные

mutton

баранина

hogs

Hogs

poultry

Птицы

beef

говядина

cattle

крупного рогатого скота

1. Прочитайте первый абзац текста и скажите по-русски, что отражают приведенные в нем цифры.

2. Прочитайте весь текст и по контексту определите значение слова

mutlon.

3. Ответьте по-русски на вопросы, поставленные в конце текста.



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Text 5. WHEAT.

Wheat is widely cultivated throughout the world. It is one of the most valuable crop plants. The countries leading in wheat production are the Soviet Union, the United States, China, Canada, India, France and Italy.

Wheat is known to be adapted to different soil and climatic conditions. Only rye, barley, potatoes and some other crops are grown under colder conditions than wheat.

The wheat plant is an annual. There are spring wheat varieties sown early m spring and harvested in the late summer. There are also winter wheat varieties sown in the fall and maturing early the following summer.

Whello_html_571c85c9.jpgheat grows best when it is sown in a well-prepared, fine and mellow seedbed. Sufficient moisture should be present for wheat seed to germinate quickly and for young plants to grow well. Most of the wheat grown is sown with a drill. The rate and depth of sowing are more ассuratе and uniform with this method of sowing and less seed is required. To obtain more and higher-quality grain and to reduce labour costs farmers harvest wheat with combines. Wheat is considered to be ready for combine harvesting when moisture content of the grain is 14% or less.

Learn the words.

cultivated

культивируется

wheat seed

семя пшеницы

conditions

условия

rye

рожь

valuable

ценные

depth

глубина

ассuratе

точные

moisture

влаги

grain

зерна

harvesting

сбор урожая

sufficient

достаточно

soil

почвы

well-prepared

хорошо подготовленный

annual

годовой

reduce

уменьшить

germinate

прорастают

higher-quality

высшего качества

content

содержание



1. Определите функцию инфинитива в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения.

1. To germinate well seeds require proper temperature, enough moisture and air. 2. Legume crops are known to improve soil fertility. 3. We know winter cereals to be fertilized in spring. 4. The aim of our farm now is to apply manure for growing sugar beets. 5. Like root crops potatoes are known to be biennials. 6. To cultivate corn during the growing season is necessary. 7. Phosphorus is to be applied in order to increase the effectiveness of manure.

2. Составьте предложения, соединяя подходящие по смыслу части.

1. As a plant grows

2. The stem as well as leaves of this plant

3. Too deep cultivation is believed to damage

4. Much higher yields are obtained

5. Unlike cereals

6. Intensification of agriculture is

a. root crops have tap roots.

b. obtaining higher yields from the same area.

с. it requires more water.

d. are used as feed for livestock.

с. when fertilizers are applied.

f. roots.

3. Расположите вопросы так, чтобы они могли служить планом к тексту .

1. Is wheat an annual crop? 2. What is the best period for harvesting wheat? 3. In what countries is most wheat grown? 4. Why is drilling widely practiced? 5. What seedbed does wheat require? 6. What crops are grown under colder conditions than wheat?





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Text 6. FARM ANIMALS.

Ahello_html_f76c021.jpgnimal husbandry, a branch of agricultural production, includes the breeding of farm animals and their use. Farm animal are highly important sources of food for man. They are known to produce highly nutritious products such as milk, meat and eggs. In addition, the skin of animals, down and feather of poultry and wool of sheep are used as raw materials to produce clothing and for many other purposes. The most important group of farm animals is cattle. There are four types of cattle. They are dairy cattle, beef cattle, draft cattle and dual-purpose cattle. Dairy cattle, that is, dairy cows provide milk that may be used in making various dairy products. Beef cattle are the producer of beef. One can raise dual-purpose cattle producing both milk and meat. Draft cattle and horses are almost everywhere replaced by agricultural machinery. Important sources in producing human food are sheep and hogs. Sheep are raised for two purposes: wool and mutton production. The production cycle of hogs is much shorter than that of cattle or sheep. In other words, like the other farm animals hogs are rapid growing ones. They may be fattened in less than six months. That is why hog breeding is one of the most important and economic ways of solving the problem of supplying the population with meat. 
Learn the words.

dual-purpose cattle - мясо-молочный скот 
that is-то есть 
that is why - вот почему 
cow- л корова
down- л пух 
draft cattle -тягловый (рабочийскот 
fatten v -откармливать 
feather n -перо  
mutton n- баранина 
skin л -кожа 
wool n -шерсть 

machinery n- машины, с.-х. техника


1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение слов one и that. 

1. One should provide farm animals with proper feeds. 2. We know that farm animals are important sources of food for people. 3. Products that are produced by farm animals arc highly nutritious. 4. The problem of supplying the population with meat is the one that must be solved in the "near future. 5. Concentrates, that is, the feeds high in protein and energy are good for hogs. 6. Hay made from alfalfa is higher in nutrients than that made from grasses. That is why farmers grow this crop widely. 
2. Прочитайте предложения вслух, заменяя данные скобках русские слова их английскими эквивалентами. 
1. Milk produced by this (корова) is of high quality. 2. Farms breeding sheep produce (баранина) and (шерсть). 3. Both milk and meat are produced by (мясо-молочными коровами). 4. Poultry supply us with meat, eggs, (пух) and (перо). 5. About sue months is usually required to (откармливать) a pig. 
3. Найдите в тексте и переведите предложения, в которых говорится: а) о продуктах, которые дают нам животные; б) об использовании молока; в) о том, что даст нам мясо-молочный скoт, г) об особенности свиней по сравнению с другими видами сельскохозяйственных животных
4. Ответьте на вопросы по-английский. 
1. Why are farm animals so important for man? 2. What raw materials do farm animals supply industry with? 3. What are the four types of cattle?4. What are sheep raised for? 5. Why is hog breeding the most economic way of producing meat?

5. Переведите предложения, которых слово one а) соответствует русскому «один»; б) заменяет существительное; в) является подлежащим и не переводится (устно).

1. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting crop growth. 2. One can classify crops according to their use. 3. A perennial crop is the one that grows for more than two years.

6. Определите значение слова that следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения (устно).

1. The optimum temperature for cotton is higher than that for small grains. 2. We know that rice belong to the grass family. 3. The variety of corn that is grown on our farm is highly productive.


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Text 7. Cultural practices.

Before planting a grower has to perform some tillage operations that insure proper environment for germination. The first tillage operation is plowing. It may be done either in the fall or in spring, depending on the crop and the region. Harrowing and rolling are the operations that are known to insure a level and firm seedbed. Nowadays the traditional tillage practices are increasingly replaced by minimum tillage. Under minimum tillage the number of operations is reduced. Farm machines can prepare the soil, apply fertilizers, and plant the seed in one operation. Main advantages of this method are lower soil com­paction and lower labour and energy costs.

Planting the seed is usually done when the soil and the air are warm enough. For cereals to germinate well two factors must be controlled during planting: depth and rate. Everybody knows the depth of planting the seed to depend largely on the type of the soil and the size of the seed. The coarse seeds of corn and peas are to be planted much deeper than fine seeds of clover or alfalfa. The establishment of high-quality stand is also favoured by a proper seeding rate. Too thick or too thin sowing lowers grain production.

Hhello_html_m14213c2d.jpgarvesting is the last cultural practice. Mechanical harvesting helps farmers obtain highest yields of good quality.

Learn the words.

either … or – илиили

depending on - в зависимости от

largely – в основном

thick sowing – загущенный посев;

thing sowing – редкий посев

coarse seed - крупное семя

depth – глубина

firm seedbed – уплотнённая пашня

fine seed – мелкое семя

grower – фермер, земледелец

level seedbed – ровная пашня

to perform – выполнять

to plow – пахать

rate – норма

to reduce – уменьшать, сокращать

to roll – прикатывать (почву)

size – размер

stand – всходы, травостой

tillage – обработка земли

1.Call Russian equivalents international words:

Situation, unbalanced, effectively, aeration, progressive, automatically, irrigation, importer, limited, unlimited, economist.

2. Fill in the blanks:

1. Coarse seeds are planted deeper than ... ... . 2. For the seedbed to be

firm it should be ... . 3. The depth of sowing depends on the seed .... 4. The

new tillage practice is known as ....... 5. To obtain a good stand the grower

should use a proper seeding ... .

3. Найдите в тексте и переведите предложения в которых говорится:

  1. о времени проведения вспашки;

  2. о том, как получают уплотнённую вспашку;

  3. о преимуществах минимальной обработки почвы;

  4. от чего зависит глубина посева;

  5. какие культуры заделывают глубже;

  6. что влияет на получение высококачественного травостоя.

4. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the first tillage operation?

2. What other tillage operations are necessary before planting? What is minimum tillage?

3. What are the advantages of minimum tillage?

4. What factors are important during planting?

5. What is the last cultural practice?



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Read and translate the text:

Text 8. TYPES OF MEAT.

Mhello_html_119ac4b.jpgeat is the common term used to describe the flesh or other edible parts of animals (usually domesticated cattle, swine, and sheep) used for food, including not only the muscles and fat but also the tendons and ligaments. Processed or manufactured products prepared from animal tissues are also called meat. Containing all the amino acids necessary for the human body, meat is valued as a complete protein food. The fat of meat, which varies widely with die species, quality, and cut, is a valuable source of energy and also influences the flavour, juiciness, and tenderness of the lean. Parts such as livers, kidneys, hearts, and other portions arc excellent sources of vitamins and of essential minerals, easily assimilated by the human system. Meat digests somewhat slowly, but 95 percent of meat protein and 96 percent of the fat are digested. Fats tend to retard the digestion of other foods; thus, the higher the proportion of fat the longer meat remain in the stomach, delaying hunger and giving "staying power". Extractives in meat cause a flow of saliva and gastric juices, creating the desire to eat and ensuring case of digestion. Meats are often classified by the type of animal from which they are taken. Red meat refers to the meat taken from mammals; white meat refers to the meat taken from fowl; seafood refers to the meat taken from fish and shellfish; and game refers to meat taken from animals that are not commonly domesticated. In addition, most commonly consumed meats are specifically identified by the live animal from which they come. The most widely consumed meat is beef, the flesh of mature cattle than normally weigh fi-om 450 to 540 kg and yield between 55 and 60 percent of their weigh in meat. Veal, the flesh of calves of cattle, is much less fatty than beef. The pig is believed to be the world's second largest provider of meat known as pork. When taken to slaughter, pigs generally weigh between 90 and 135 kg and provide about 70 to 74 percent of than weight in meat. Meat from lambs and sheep is produced on a much smaller scale than either beef or pork (less than one-tenth of Out provided by cattle, for example) They ordinarily weigh between and 70 kg, although the most select lambs may weigh no more than 14 to 18 kg and yield about 48 to 50 percent of their weight in meat. The meat-products industry, though called meat picking, includes the slaughtering of animals. The steps in this process generally include stunning, bleeding, eviscerating, and skinning. Carcasses are then inspected and graded according to government-set standards of quality.


Learn the words:

domesticated

мясо

swine

комплектации

pork

Шкала

slaughtering

зрелые

stunning

млекопитающие

bleeding

Птицы

eviscerating

слюна

skinning

желудочного сока

lambs

Белка

meat

мясо

picking

комплектации

scale

шкала

mature

зрелые

mammals

млекопитающие

fowl

птицы

saliva

слюна

gastric juices

желудочного сока

protein

белок

edible

съедобные

1.Call Russian equivalents international words:

Carcasses, meat-products, addition, largest provider, amino acids, essential minerals, edible parts, delaying hunger.

2. Fill in the blanks:

1. Processed or ………….. from animal tissues are also called meat.

2. The steps in this process generally include stunning……………..

3. ………calves of cattle, is much less fatty than beef.

4. Parts such as livers, kidneys, hearts, and other portions arc excellent sources of vitamins and of essential minerals………

5. Meat digests somewhat slowly, but 95 percent of meat protein and 96 ……

3. Найдите в тексте и переведите предложения в которых говорится:

1) что такое мясо;

2) о том, как влияют жиры на усвоение других продуктов;

3) из каких видов состоит мясо;

4) сколько весит свинья при отправке на убой;

5) каким по величине мясом является свинина;


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Read and translate the text:

Text 9. PLANTS AND MAN.

Phello_html_m506ec84.jpglants are highly important in everyday life of people. Primitive man 
required little in addition to food and shelter. The man of today wants to 
have better and higher-yielding crops which can produce more food of good 
quality. He also wants to have raw materials which can be made into many
usefu1(
полезный) things and products. Many animals grown by man feed 
on plants and produce food and raw materials used by man. 
Some plants are used by man directly (
прямо) for food such as grain 
crops and vegetables. Some are grown for industry, and cotton is a typical industrial crop. Some are used in medicine. So, plants may be classified into three main groups: food plants, industrial plants and medicinal plants.
 

Learn the words:

primitive

примитивные

shelter

укрытие, навес

higher-yielding

высокодоходные

grown

вырос

industry

промышленность

medicinal

лекарственные

addition

дополнение

required

требуется

cotton

хлопок

1.Ответьте по-русски на вопросы:1)Чем отличаются потребности современного человека от потребностей первобытных людей? 2)Почему растения так важны для человека

2.Call Russian equivalents international words:

Primitive man, raw materials, industrial plants, produce food.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1. Many animals grown by man feed on plants and produce food and ………

2. …….. important in everyday life of people.

3. He also wants to have raw……into many usefu1 things and products.


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БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК



    1. Г.В. Маслова - Пособие для сельскохозяйственных техникумов «Английский язык», Москва, 2001

    2. Е.Н. Комарова - Английский язык для специальностей «Зоотехния» и «Ветеринария» , - М., 2008

    3. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Farm

    4. http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/courses/ansc221v/sheep/sheep-basics.html



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Введение

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для специального этапа обучения английскому языку в сельскохозяйственных техникумах (специальность 110812«Технология Производства и Переработки Сельхозпродукции»).

Цель пособия – заложить основы навыков чтения и перевода текстов средней трудности. Работая по данному пособию, у студентов формируются практические навыки различных видов речевой деятельности.

Тексты пособия заимствовались из оригинальных источников и подверглись методической обработке с учётом программных требований.

Структура пособия. Пособие состоит из 18 текстов, контрольно - тренировочных упражнений и словаря в качестве приложения.

Основной текст урока направлен на развитие навыков чтения вслух, умения извлекать полную и частичную информацию, основную идею. Текст также является основой для монологической и диалогической речи.

Далее следуют упражнения, имеющие целью проверку понимания и осмысления содержания текста, активизацию мыслительной деятельности учащихся. Предварительно, однако, преподавателю следует объяснить учащимся сложные места текста, оказавшиеся для них непонятными.

Система упражнений направлена на обучение чтению различных видов (изучающего, ознакомительного, просмотрового и поискового). В пояснениях к тексту раскрывается значение тех или иных реалий, фразеологизмов, сокращений и т.п. За пояснениями к тексту следует подлежащий заучиванию лексический минимум, который содержит до 20 наиболее употребительных в сельскохозяйственных текстах общенаучных слов и терминов. Остальные слова, необходимые для понимания текста, учащиеся отыскивают в словаре и записывают в тетради.

В конце пособия имеется англо-русский словарь терминов, встречающихся в текстах, но отсутствующих в рекомендуемых учащимся общих словарях.



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Пhello_html_m63c98ca.pngРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1


АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ ТЕРМИНОВ

Сокращения

aadjectiveприлагательное

advadverbнаречие

nnoun – существительное

pl plural – множественное число

v verb - глагол

A

adaptability nприспособляемость

abundant а-обильный, богатый

acid n-кислота; fatty -s жирные кислоты

acid а-кислотный, кислый

additive n-добавка; приправа

adiposec а- жирный, жировой;

adult а- взрослый

age v- выдерживать, вызревать

ageing п- выдержка, созревает (сыра, мяса)

agitation n- перемешивание,

aid v- помогать

ash л- зола

assimilate v- поглощать

assist v- помогать

aeration n - аэрация (почвы)

affect v влиять (на что-либо)

alfalfa n – люцерна

apply v – применять, вносить

attachment n - приспособление

automation n - автоматизация

B

beef n-говядина

belly n- живот

beverage n-питье, напиток

bedding nподстилка

body nорган

breeder nселекционер, животновод

broadcast v – разбрасывать (семена и др.)

bind v -связывать

black pudding кровяная колбаса

bleed v пускать кровь

body п -тело

bone v- снимать мясо с кости

braise v- тушить мясо, предварительно его обжарив

buffalo п 6уйвол

bulky |а большой

butchering n забой скота;

buttermilk п пахта

С

calf тележка

can v консервировать

саnner n крупный рогатый скот низкой кондиции

carbohydrate n углевод

careass n туша

chiterlingsn pl свинные рубцы

choice а-лучший (сорт)

cholesteroln- холестерин

chop отрублснный кусок;

churn л маслобойка (масло)

diuming Пэпщ] л сбивише,1и)пани!(»|асаа)

carbohydrate n - углевод

care n – уход, забота; v заботиться

closely advтесно

coarse a – крупный (о семенах)

common aобычный, распространённый

compaction n- уплотнение

concentrate n- концентрированный корм, концентрат

condition n- состояние, кондиция

control n – борьба, контроль; v бороться, контролировать

cost n – стоимость, себестоимость; pl затраты, издержки

cover v – заделывать(семена)

cowshed nхлев, коровник

crop n - (c.-x.) культура

crossbreeding n - кросс-бридинг (скрещивание неродственных особей)

cultivation n- выращивание, возделывание; обработка

cutter n – резальная машина

compound n соединение; состав

condiment n приправа

conformation n форма,

consistency n струтура;

constituent n составная часть,

contamination п загрязнение, порта,; порча,

corned а соленый; ~ beef солонина

cottage cheese n домашний сыр; творог

counterpart n аналог, эквивалент

cream n сливки; «рем; sour ~ сметана,

cream dicese n- сливочный сыр

cuisine кухня, кулинарное искусство

cull [а бракованный

culture п культура бактерий

cure v консервировать


D

dairy aмолочный

depreciation n- амортизация, износ

digestible a – перевариваемый, усвояемый

digestion n - переваривание, усвоение

digger n - копалка

draft a - тягловый, рабочий (скот)

dual-purpose (cattle) a- мясо-молочный скот

E

economics n – экономика

economy n – экономика, хозяйство

efficiency n – эффективность, производительность

electronic a – электронный

employment n- занятость


F

farming n – ведение хозяйства, земледелие

fibre n – клетчатка

fibrous a - мочковатый (о корне)

fine aмелкокомковатый (о почве), мелкий (о семенах)

firm a – уплотнённый, осевший (о почве)

flock n – отара

G

gain v – прибавлять в весе

germination nпрорастание

grass n злак, трава

grower n – фермер, колхозник; производитель

H

herbicide n – гербицид

high-yielding aвысокоурожайный, высокоудойный

inbreeding n- инбридинг (родственное спаривание)

indication n - показатель

indigestible a непериваримый

I

Insecticide n - инсектицид

K

kind n - вид

L

laid n топленый свининой жир
leanness п худоба, истощение 
ligament n связка 
lights n легкие 
liver печень 
lung |п (жат.) легкое 
labour-consuming a - трудоёмкий

legume n бобовое растение

lifter n - подъёмное приспособление

game п дичь

grading n классификация,

grind [graind] (ground, ground) v молоть

grinding п измельченние, помол;

ground а молотый,

н

half-and-half n смесь двух веществ в равных частях

halt v останавливать,

ham n бедро, ляжка

harden v становиться жюри

M

mammal п млекопитающее

maintenance n – поддержание, сохранение

management n –содержание, управление

markedly adv заметно

marketing n – реализация, сбыт

mellow a – рыхлый, спелый

mobility n - побвижность, мобильность

mount v - навешивать


N

nutrient n – питательное вещество; а питательный

nutritional а – пищевой

O

overfeed v - перекармливать

P

photosynthesis n - фотосинтез

power n – энергия; v приводить в движение

practice n - приём

production n – возделывание, производство

productivity n – производительность, продуктивность

profitability nрентабельность, прибыльность

profitable a – рентабельный, прибыльный

purebred aчистопородный

R

rainfall f n – осадки

remove v – выносить (питательные вещества из почвы)

roughage n – грубый корм


S

seedbed n – пашня

self-propelled a - самоходный

set v – устанавливать, налаживать

sheep-pen n – овчарня, загон для овец

sire n – производитель (о животных)

soybeans n - соя

spread v - разбрасывать

stand nвсходы, травостой, стеблестой

supplement n – добавка

T

tap a - стержневой (о корне)

technology n технология

tuber n - клубень

U

underfeed v- недокармливать

utilization n - использование

V

variety n – сорт


W

water-n шербет, фруктовое мороженое на воде

whey n своротка

whip v сбивать

whole а цельный; - milk цельное молоко

wholesale а оптовый

Y

yield n – урожай, надой (молока)




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Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса ветеринарного отд...
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Г.В. Маслова - Пособие для сельскохозяйственных техникумов «Английский язык»,...
23 1

УЖЕ ЧЕРЕЗ 10 МИНУТ ВЫ МОЖЕТЕ ПОЛУЧИТЬ ДИПЛОМ

от проекта "Инфоурок" с указанием данных образовательной лицензии, что важно при прохождении аттестации.


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Список всех тестов можно посмотреть тут - https://infourok.ru/tests

Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

№ слайда 1 Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса ветеринарного отд
Описание слайда:

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса ветеринарного отделения специальности 110812 «Технология Производства и Переработки Сельхозпродукции». УТВЕРЖДАЮ Зам.директора по УНИР _________ Л.М. Штефанова «___» _________ 2014г. ГБПОУ КК «Армавирский аграрно – технологический техникума система менеджмента качества Комиссия общих гуманитарных и социально – экономических дисциплин

№ слайда 2 Введение Tекст 1. Что Такое Сельское Хозяйство? What Is Agriculture? Текст 2.
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Введение Tекст 1. Что Такое Сельское Хозяйство? What Is Agriculture? Текст 2. Сельское Хозяйство США, Великобритании. Agriculture In The USA And The United Kingdom Teкст 3. Две Отрасли Сельского Хозяйства. Two Branches Of Agriculture Teкст 4. Основной Источник Питания. Main Sources Of Food. Teкст 5. Зерно. WHEAT. Teкст 6. Сельскохозяйственные Животные. Farm Animals Teкст 7. Практика Культивации. Cultural Practices Teкст 8. Виды Мяса. TYPES OF MEAT Teкст 9. Растения И Человек .Plants And Man. Teкст 10. Консервация и Хранение Мяса. Preservation And Storage Meat Teкст 11. Классификация Мяса. Meat Grading Teкст 12. Молочное Хозяйство». Молочные Фермы В Восточном Ланкашире. Dairy Farming Dairy Farms In East Lancashire Teкст 13. Говядина. Beef Teкст 14. Диалоги «На Ферме». «We Go To The State Farm» Teкст 15. Телятина . Veal Teкст 16. Свинина . Pork Teкст 17. Баранина . Lamb. Teкст 18. Гамбургер.Hamburger Приложение 1. Словарь. Vocabulary Библиографический Список

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№ слайда 22 Г.В. Маслова - Пособие для сельскохозяйственных техникумов «Английский язык»,
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Г.В. Маслова - Пособие для сельскохозяйственных техникумов «Английский язык», Москва, 2001 Е.Н. Комарова - Английский язык для специальностей «Зоотехния» и «Ветеринария» , - М., 2008 http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Farm http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/courses/ansc221v/sheep/sheep-basics.html

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