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Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Другие методич. материалы / Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов "Зооветеринарного техникума"

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов "Зооветеринарного техникума"

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Министерство просвещение Приднестровской Молдавской Республики

Государственное образовательное учреждение среднего

профессионального образование

«Зооветеринарный техникум»



Республиканский интернет-конкурс «Лучшая методическая разработка» среди педагогических работников организаций начального и среднего профессионального образования Приднестровской Молдавской Республики


УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

по английскому языку

Специальность 111801 Ветеринария



Автор: Толстова Н.Г., преподаватель английского языка,

ГОУ СПО «Зооветеринарный техникум»









Тирасполь, 2016г.

Автор: Толстова Н.Г., преподаватель английского языка, ГОУ СПО «Зооветеринарный техникум»

Рецензент: Ермакова П.А., учитель английского языка, II кв. категория, МОУ «Кармановская ОСШ»


Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку в сельскохозяйственных техникумах по специальности Ветеринария.

Цели пособия – заложить основы навыков чтения и перевода текстов средней трудности по основным отраслям сельского хозяйства.

Актуальность пособия: тексты пособия заимствованы из оригинальных источников и подверглись методической обработке с учетом программных требований к обучению студентов по специальности Ветеринария.

Практически все тексты посвящены основным отраслям сельского хозяйства. Помимо текстов, учебный материал включает систему упражнений, направленных на обучение чтению различных видов (изучающего, ознакомительного, просмотрового и поискового).

Самостоятельная работа начинается с повторения, пройденного на предыдущем этапе материала по грамматике или словообразованию.

Текст А предназначается для изучающего чтения и перевода, а тексты В и С информативны, тематически и грамматически увязаны с основным текстом. В конце пособия имеется материал для профессионального общения.

















Содержание:

  1. WE LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGES………………………………………..4

  2. THE WORKING DAY OF AN ENGINEER ………………………………......8

  3. INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURE………………………...11

  4. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY……………………………………………………....14

  5. FARMING PRACTICES…………………………………………………….....17

  6. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMAL………………………….21

  7. FEEDS FOR LIVESTOCK……………………………………………………...23

  8. HOW CAN LIVESTOCK BE IMPROVED………………………………........27

  9. SELECTIVE BREEDING………………………………………………………29

  10. FEEDING DAIRY COWS………………………………………………….......34

  11. MECHANIZATION IN LIVESTOCK RAISING……………………………...37

  12. ECONOMICS OF ANIMAL BREEDING……………………………………..39

  13. BEEF PRODUCTION FARM………………………………………………….42

  14. CLASIFICATION OF FEEDS……………………………………………........47

  15. PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION……………………………………….56

  16. ЛИТЕРАТУРА …………………………………………………………………63















Занятие 1. WE LEARN FOREIGN LANGUAGES


My name's Petrov. I live in the central of Moscow. I work at the Ministry of Foreign Trade. I’m an engineer and I’m also a student. Many engineers in our Ministry learn foreign languages. I learn English. We have our English in the morning. We’re at a lesson now. Jane is standing at the blackboard. She’s writing an English sentence. We aren’t writing. We’re looking at the blackboard. We don’t often write in class. Sometimes we have dictations! During the lesson we read our text-book and do a lot of exercises. We don’t often speak Russian in class. We speak English to our teacher. We usually speak Russian after classes.


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ НА ПЕРВИЧНОЕ ЗАКРЕПЛЕНИЕ

ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОГО МАТЕРИАЛА

I. Поставьте следующие предложении в отрицательную и вопросительную формы.

1. I often meet this engineer here. 2. You go to the factory every day. 3. I read newspapers every morning. 4. His sisters always give me books to read. 5. They often go there. 6. I usually read the newspaper at home. 7. They often come here. 8. We write questions at home.


II. Прочитайте следующие предложение, заменяя наречие often наречиями, данными в скобках.

a) 1. We often meet these boys here. 2. They often send me English books. 3. I often write to my sister. 4. Do you often go there? 5. Do you often read English newspapers? 6. Do they often come here? (sometimes, always, usually).

b) 1. We don’t often copy out these texts. 2. They don’t often meet their friends here. 3. I don’t often read English newspapers, (always, usually).


III. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What do you read every morning?

2. Where do you usually read books and newspapers?

3. Where do you go every day?

4. Do you often meet your friends?

5. Do they sometimes take your books?

6. Do you read English books or newspapers?

7. What do you often copy out?

8. Do you read the newspaper every day?

9. Are you reading the newspaper now?

10. What are you doing now?

11. What do you do every evening?

12. Where do you go every morning?

13. Do you copy out English texts at home?

14. Is your friend copying out the new text?

15. What’s he doing?


IV. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.

1. This is a room. 2. The walls in this room are yellow. (1) 3. Ann is in her room now. (1) 4. She is reading a newspaper. (3) 5. We read good books. (2)6. I sometimes give Peter my exercise-books. (2) 7. My sons read these books every day. (2) 8. I am going to the blackboard. (1)


V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на форму времени и наклонение глагола-сказуемого.

1. Откройте ваши тетради, пожалуйста. 2. Что вы читаете сейчас? 3. Что его студенты обычно читают? Какие газеты они читают? 4. Куда вы идете? 5. Куда вы ходите каждый день? 6. Сядьте за стол, пожалуйста, возьмите тетради и спишите текст номер пять.— Что вы сейчас делаете? — Мы списываем текст номер пять. 7. Читают ли ваши друзья английские книги? — Да, очень часто. 8. Не закрывайте книгу, пожалуйста. 9. Они не присылают мне книг и газет. 10. Какой это фильм? — Это хороший фильм. 11. Я часто встречаю здесь этого рабочего. 12. Часто ли вы встречаете этих инженеров? — Нет, эти инженеры очень редко приходят сюда.


ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ


I. Ответьте на вопросы, используя активную лексику урока.

1. What’s your name?

2. Do you live in Moscow or in Leningrad?

3. Do you live in the center of Moscow?

4. Are you a teacher?

5. What do you do?

6. Where do you work?

7. Where do you go in the evening?

8. When do you have your English?

9. What language do you learn?

10. What do you do during the lessons?

11. What are you doing now?

12. Where do you do your exercises?

13. Do you usually do many exercises in class?

14. Do you do many exercises at home or not?

15. Do you often have dictations?

16. Do you often speak English to your teacher?

17. What language do you usually speak in class?

18. Where do you go after classes?

19. What kind of books do you usually read?

20. Are you reading now?

21. Do you sometimes speak English before and after classes?

22. Are you speaking English or Russian now?


II. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.

1. I work at an office. (1)2. We usually have our English in the evening. (1) 3. They often speak English in class. (1)4. We write a lot of sentences on the blackboard. (2) 5. After my English I go to the office. (2) 6. You read English books at home. (2) 7. We read, write and speak English during our lesson. (2) 8. We are having a dictation. (2) 9. I am taking my English book off- the table. (2)


III. Составьте как можно больше утвердительных и отрицательных предложений, пользуясь таблицей (добавьте необходимые дополнения).

Образцы:

1. My sisters often send me letters.

2. I don’t often do exercises in class.

3. The students are having their English now.

4. He isn’t standing now.


IV. Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

1. We live ... Moscow. 2. They work ... the Ministry ... Foreign Trade. 3. I usually go ... the office ... the morning. 4. Do you speak English or Russian ... your teacher? 5. “Where’s your pencil? Is it ... the table?” "No, it’s ... the floor ... the table.” 6. Take your pen.... ... your bag and write this sentence. 7. We often write ... the blackboard ... class. We usually write ... our exercise books ... home. 8. “What do you usually do ... your English lessons?” “We read, write and speak English ... our lessons.” 9. Are you going ... the office or ... your lesson? 10. Don’t go ... that room. 11. Look ... the blackboard, please. 12.... What language do you speak ... classes?


V. Заполните пропуски артиклями, где это необходимо.

My sister is ... student. Her friends are ... students, too. They live in Moscow. They learn ... English. They usually have classes in ... morning. Their classroom is large. ... walls in ... classroom are yellow. Every morning ... students go into ... classroom and sit down at ... tables. They usually do ... lot of exercises and have ... dictations in class. They also often write on ... blackboard. They do ... exercises at ... home, too.


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ НА РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ


I. Составьте ситуации, используя данные слова и словосочетания.

1. In the Morning to live, in the center, to go, the office, to meet friends.

2. Before Classes to have one’s English, in the evening, to go into the classroom, to speak to smb., to speak Russian. 3. In Class to have one’s English, in the morning, to do exercises, a lot of, to have a dictation, sometimes. 4. At Home usually, to speak Russian, to do exercises, to copy out the new words, to learn the new words, often.


II. Расскажите о своих занятиях, используя как можно больше слов c выражений урока. Начните с описания вашей аудитории.


III. в) Спросите вашего товарища по-английски:

1. где он живет, чем занимается, где работает;

2. какой иностранный язык он изучает, когда у него бывают уроки (утром или вечером), часто ли он пишет на уроке, много ли делает упражнений, часто ли разговаривает на уроке по-английски;

3. много ли английских книг он читает; часто ли говорит по-английски после уроков, по-русски или по-английски разговаривает дома.

б) Суммируйте полученные сведении в кратком сообщении.


IV. Спросите вашего товарища, как перевести на английский язык следующее слова и словосочетания, попросите назвать по буквам некоторые из названных слов, поблагодарите за каждый правильный ответ.

Образец:

What’s the English for ’диктант’?

A dictation.”

Please spell the word.”

D — i — c — t — a — t — i — o — n."

Thank you.”

жить, работать, утром, вечером, на уроке, до урока, после урока, изучать, иностранный язык, делать упражнения, писать диктант, заниматься, первый, грамматика, стоять, редко, центр, когда.



Занятие 2. THE WORKING DAY OF AN ENGINEER


Comrade Petrov works at an office. He lives near the office .He usually walks there. He only works five days a week. He works on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday! He doesn’t work at the week end. His working day lasts eight hours. He receives very many letters and telegrams in the morning and always answers them. He sometimes translates articles from foreign newspapers and journals. He often receives engineers from factories in the afternoon. They discuss a lot of questions with him. He usually finishes work at six o’clock in the evening.

Comrade Petrov learns English. He works hard at his English. He sometimes stays in the office after work for his English, lessons. After classes he returns home.


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ НА ПЕРВИЧНОЕ ЗАКРЕПЛЕНИЕ

ГРАММАТИЧЕСКОГО МАТЕРИАЛА

I. Раскройте скобки, употребляйте личные местоимения в объектном падеже.

1. These are very good exercises. Do (they) at home, please. 2. This engineer works with (I). I know (he) well. 3. Write these words out in your exercise -book, please, and learn (they). 4. Read this letter and translate (it) in to English, please. 5. I know this girl. She works with (we).


II. Заполните пропуски необходимыми пo смыслу личными, местоимениями в объектном падеже.

1. Take this book and read ... at home, please. 2. Is he going to speak to ... about is new work? 3. These are very good exercise -books. Where do you get …? 4. My sister knows English well. I often do my homework with … 5. Read these words and learn ... well. 6. I don’t know . . . . What’s his name?


III. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.

1. Не translates very many letters in to English. 2. The teacher gives us a lot of homework. 3. Your friends read a lot. 4. She gets a lot of telegrams every day. 5. They work too much.


IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слов много, мало.

1. Моя сестра много работает. 2. Они читают много английских книг. 3. Ваш сын много работает? — Нет, он работает очень мало сейчас . 4. Он получает много писем каждый день. 5. Мы очень много читаем и очень мало пишем в классе . 6. Ваш сын много читает? — Да, много. Обычно он читает по вечерам. 7. Многие студенты знают два иностранных языка . 8. Не читайте слишком много вечером. 9. Мы посылаем письма многим иностранным фирмам.


ЛЕКСИКО ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ


I.Прочитайте вслух текст урока, предварительно отработав чтение

следующих сочетаний слов.

Walks there

Thursday and Friday

Works there

Letters and telegrams

Answers them


II. Прочитайте вслух следующие слова:

a) past, task , flask , mast, holiday , kidney , hockey , store , dear , clear , fear

b) stay , play , gay , day , leap , feel, deer , steer


III. От основы, какой части речи образованы следующие слова? Переведите их на русский язык.

Translation, discussion, weekend, hourly, receiver, translator, walker, giver.


IV. Ответьте на вопросы, используя активную лексику урока.

1. Does your friend work at an office or in a factory?

2. Does your friend live far from the office (the factory) ?

3. Does he walk to the office (factory)?

4. (On) Which days does he work?

5. How long does his working day last?

6. How many hours does he work a day?

7. Who usually answers telegrams at the office?

8. Who does he often receive?

9. What do they discuss?

10. What time does he usually finish work?

11. Where does he sometimes stay after work?

12. When does he return home?

13. What does he do on Sunday?

14. Does he usually stay in Moscow over the week –end?


V. Поставьте вопросы к выделенным словам.

1. Не discusses a lot of questions at the office. (2) 2. Our English lessons usually last two hours. (2) 3. These students usually get home at five in the afternoon. (2) 4. His sisters work at a new factory. (3) 5. I am going to stay at the factory after work today. (3) 6. You live a long way from the office. (1) 7. They are discussing this question now. (3)


VI. Употребите глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующем времени, лице и числе.

1. Не usually (to walk) home after work. 2. Where (to work) Comrade Petrov? 3. You often (to speak) in class? 4. Who (to answer) questions now? 5. Your sister often (to stay) at the office after work for her English? 6. I often (not to get) telegrams from my friends. I often (to get) letters from them.


УПРАЖНЕНИЯ НА РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ


I. Составьте ситуации, используя данные слова и словосочетания.

1. My Friend Works Hard at the Office

to receive , to discuss , to answer , a lot of articles , to finish work

2. Like Walking

a long way from , to walk (to) , to go for a walk , in the evening


II. Опишите свой рабочий день (рабочий день своего товарища, жены, сестры).


III. Спросите своего товарища о его рабочем дне, используя активную лексику урока и следующие вопросительные слова:

when, where , what, who , which of, how , how well, how often , how long.


Занятие 3. INTENSIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURE


  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: степени сравнения прилагательных, отглагольное существительное, герундий.


  1. Проанализируйте следующие примеры и переведите их, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных (устно).

    1. This is thе largest farm in our region. 2. Our farm has higher crop yields now than last year. 3. Intensification of agricultural production is the most important problem now. 4. Animal husbandry is more important on this farm than crop production;


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова с окончанием

-ing (устно).

  1. Supplying industry with raw materials is one of the tasks of agriculture.

  2. Crop yields are increased by applying intensive technologies. 3. The breeding of farm animals is one of the branches of agriculture.


  1. Прочитайте тексты и передайте основное содержание прочитанного.


Agriculture

Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dry land farming. Livestock are raised in a combination of grassland-based and landless systems, in an industry that covers almost one-third of the world's ice- and water-free area. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture, including permaculture and organic agriculture.


Intensive technologies in agriculture

There are two ways of increasing the yield of farm crops. They are the cultivation of new lands and the increase in yields per hectare. In the recent past the first way was more popular. At present more agricultural products are obtained by intensification of agricultural production.

Intensification is based on mechanization, electrification and chemization which are the main sources of progress in agriculture. Most of agricultural processes in crop production and animal husbandry are mechanized now. They are the preparation of the soil, planting and harvesting crops, feeding farm animals and cleaning livestock buildings. Chemization of agriculture is increased by higher production and use of mineral fertilizers and other chemicals. They increase crop yields and quality.

Some other important intensive technologies are the development of better high-yielding varieties of crops, the application of most effective cultural practices, the breeding of better farm animals, the control of weeds, insects and diseases.

All intensification factors must be used in such a way as not to damage the land which is the basis of agriculture.

Запомните:

most – самый, наиболее (перед прилагательным)

most; most of – большинство (перед существительным)

plant – растение

to plant – сажать, сеять

  1. Определите по суффиксам, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова.

specialist, colder, coldest, adaptation, nature, natural, effective, economic, greatly, development.


  1. Назовите номера предложений, в которых прилагательное употреблено в сравнительной степени. Переведите предложения.

1. This is the most effective cultural practiced Application of fertilizers is one of the best methods of increasing crop yields. 3. Man obtains more food by growing better crop varieties. 4. Intensification is a most popular way of increasing food products now. 5. Higher-quality crops are obtained by our farm now than in the past.


7. В следующих предложениях выделите герундий и отглагольное существительное. Переведите предложения.

1. Different farm crops are used in feeding farm animals. 2. Applying fertilizers increases crop yields. 3. More food is obtained by growing new crop varieties. 4. The breeding of better farm animals also increases food for people. 5. Cleaning livestock buildings is done with special machines.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова.

1. Most of the farms in our region are animal breeding farms. 2. High- yielding crops are most popular among farmers. 3. There are many highly important food plants. 4. Our farm plants some of the crops in autumn.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. How can crop yields be increased? 2. What is intensification based on? 3. Is harvesting of most crops mechanized? 4. What is the basis of agriculture?


10. Прочитайте текст В и ответьте по-русски на вопросы.

  1. Какие факторы способствуют высокому развитию сельского хозяйства в Дании? 2. Какая с.-х. продукция является основной для экспорта? 3. Догадайтесь о значении выделенных слов.


Текст В. AGRICULTURE IN DENMARK

Agriculture is the most important branch of economy in this country. It is highly developed. Big farms are predominant in Denmark.

The country has very favorable (благоприятный) climate, soils and topography for farming. These factors stimulate crop growing and animal breeding.

Most farm operations are highly mechanized, from preparation of the soil to harvesting crops and feeding animals. The use of fertilizers and other chemicals increase crop yields and animal products.

England is the main importer of Denmark farm products. Animal products make up about 80% of the total agricultural export of the country.



Занятие 4. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

    1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: причастия настоящего и проведшего времени.


    1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастия I и II

1. Cultural practices applied in crop cultivation are different in different regions. 2. Farmers applying fertilizers obtain high yields of farm crops.

3. Applying fertilizers, farmers increase crop yields. 4. Raw materials used in industry are supplied by agriculture. 5. The crops growing on this farm are high - yielding. 6. The farm growing this crop is not far from Moscow.


Текст A. TWO BRANCHES OF AGRICULTURE

There are two main branches of agricultural production – crop production and animal husbandry.

Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. The most important crops grown by man are grain crops, vegetables and grasses. In order to obtain high yields crops are grown under favorable soil and climatic conditions. Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture including the breeding of farm animals and their use. Dairy and beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry are widely bred throughout the world. Farm animals are highly important sources of food for man. They are kept for the production of such nutritious products as meat, milk and eggs.

Many crops grown by man are used in feeding livestock. At the same time manure produced by farm animals is an important source for the maintenance soil fertility. Most of the nutrients taken by plants from the soil are thus returned. Applying manure, farmers improve the physical condition of the soil.

Thus, crop production and animal husbandry are closely connected with each other.

Запомните:

some – несколько, некоторый

the same – тот же самый, один и тот же

Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания


beef cattle – мясной скот

dairy cattle – молочный скот

egg – яйцо

favourable – благоприятный

grain – зерно

meat – мясо

milk – молоко

nutrient – питательное вещество nutritious – питательный poultry – домашняя птица


3. Прочитайте тексты и обобщите полученную информацию на иностранном языке

Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed. The term can refer to the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desirable traits in animals for utility, sport, pleasure, or research, but also refers to the efficient exploitation of a species in agriculture advantageous to humans.


Sustainability

In organic and biodynamic farming methods, animals play an important role in achieving closed or sustainable system by providing multiple functions to the agricultural system. In the Balinese context, for example, ducks are herded through rice paddies at particular stages of the growing season. The ducks eat insects and weeds that inhibit the growth of seedlings, and prevent the farmer from using herbicides or pesticides. Their droppings contribute nitrogen to the soil as a natural source of fertilizer, and the movement of their feet and bills in the water of the terrace ecosystem increases the oxygen content of the soil thus increasing nutrient availability.


  1. Образуйте причастия I и II от следующих глаголов. Переведите их.

to produce, to improve, to supply, to use, to increase, to harvest, to feed, to breed, to grow


  1. Выделите причастный оборот в каждом предложении. Переведите предложения.

1. The products supplied by farm animals axe meat, milk and eggs. 2. Farmers supplying their animals with nutritious feed obtain much vitamins and meat.

3. Grain crops harvested with combines produce higher yields. 4. Increasing soil fertility, farmers increase yields of grain crops, vegetables and grasses.


3.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова some и same.

  1. Some farmers keep poultry in poultry houses in summer and in winter.

  2. All grain crops take the same nutrients from the soil. 3. Some cultural practices are highly effective in controlling weeds. 4. These two farmers use the same methods in growing vegetables.


  1. Найдите в текстах А, В предложения с причастными оборотами и переведите их.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. What are the two branches of agriculture? 2. What is crop production?

3. What are the main farm crops? 4. What does animal husbandry include?

5. What products do farm animals produce? 6. What is manure used for?

7. How do farmers improve the physical condition of the soil?


  1. Прочитайте первый абзац текста В и скажите по-русски, что отражают приведенные в нем цифры.


  1. Прочитайте весь текст В и по контексту определите значение слова mutton. Ответьте по-русски на вопросы, поставленные в конце текста.


B. MAIN SOURCES OF FOOD

There are three main sources of food for man. They are crops, livestock and fish (рыба). Of these, crops make up about 75% of the world's food production, 23% is contributed by livestock and only 2% of food comes from fish.

Many foods are obtained from farm animals. They are meat, milk and eggs. Milk is often called (называть) the nature's most important food. Meats from farm animals are highly important as food for people. The animals most often used for this purpose are beef cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. Meat from mature (взрослый) sheep is known as mutton. How do we call meat from hogs? From mature beef cattle? From young beef cattle?




Занятие 5. FARMING PRACTICES

  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: функции one и that.


  1. Переведите предложения, в которых слово one: а) соответствует русскому «один»; б) заменяет существительное; в) является подлежащим и не переводится (устно).

  1. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting crop growth.

  2. One can classify crops according to their use. 3. A perennial crop is the one that grows for more than two years.


  1. Определите значение слова that в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения (устно).

  1. The optimum temperature for cotton is higher than that for small grains.

  2. We know that rice belongs to the grass family. 3. The variety of corn that is grown on our farm is highly productive.


  1. Составьте тематический словарь к текстам и выучите слова наизусть


Farming practices

Farming practices vary dramatically worldwide and between types of animals. Livestock are generally kept in an enclosure, are fed by human- provided food[citation needed] and are intentionally bred, but some livestock are not enclosed, or are fed by access to natural foods, or are allowed to breed freely, or any combination thereof. Livestock raising historically was part of a nomadic or pastoral form of material culture. The herding of camels and reindeer in some parts of the world remains unassociated with sedentary agriculture. The transhumance form of herding in the Sierra Nevada of California still continues, as cattle, sheep or goats are moved from winter pasture in lower elevation valleys to spring and summer pasture in the foothills and alpine regions, as the seasons progress. Cattle were raised on the open range in the Western United States and Canada, on the Pampas of Argentina, and other prairie and steppe regions of the world.


Текст А. Farm animals

Animal husbandry, a branch of agricultural production, includes the breeding of farm animals and their use. Farm animals are highly important sources of food for man. They are known to produce highly nutritious products such as milk, meat and eggs. In addition, the skin of animals, down and feather of poultry and wool of sheep are used as raw materials to produce clothing and for many other purposes.

The most important group of farm animals is cattle. There are four types of cattle. They are dairy cattle, beef cattle, draft cattle and dual- purpose cattle. Dairy cattle, that is, dairy cows provide milk that may be used in making various dairy products. Beef cattle are the producer of beef. One can raise dual-purpose cattle producing both milk and meat. Draft cattle and horses are almost everywhere replaced by agricultural machinery.

Important sources in producing human food are sheep and hogs. Sheep are raised for two purposes: wool and mutton production. The production cycle of hogs is much shorter than that of cattle or sheep. In other words, unlike the other farm animals hogs are rapid growing ones. They may be fattened in less than six months. That is why hog breeding is one of the most important and economic ways of solving the problem of supplying the population with meat.


Пояснения к тексту

    1. dual-purpose cattle мясо-молочный cкот

    2. that is – то есть

    3. that is why – вот почему


  1. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания.


cow n – корова

down n – пуховая техника

draft cattle – тягловый (рабочий) скот

fatten v – откармливать

machinery n машины, с.-х.

mutton n – баранина

feather п – перо

1.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значение слов one и that.

  1. One should provide farm animals with proper feeds. 2. We know that farm animals are important sources of food for people. 3. Products that are produced by farm animals are highly nutritious. 4. The problem of supplying the population with meat is the one that must be solved in the near future. 5. Concentrates, that is, the feeds high in protein and energy are good for hogs. 6. Hay made from alfalfa is higher in nutrients than that made from grasses. That is why farmers grow this crop widely.


  1. Прочитайте предложения вслух, заменяя данные в скобках русские слова их английскими эквивалентами.

1. Milk produced by this (корова) is of high quality. 2. Farms breeding sheep produce (баранина) and (шерсть). 3. Both milk and meat are produced by (мясо-молочными коровами). 4. Poultry supply us with meat, eggs, (пух) and (перо). 5. About six months is usually required to (откармливать) a pig.


  1. Найдите в тексте А и переведите предложения; в которых говорится: а) о продуктах, которые дают нам животные; б) об использовании молока; в) о том, что дает нам мясомолочный скот; г) об особенностях свиней по сравнению с другими видами сельскохозяйственных животных.

  2. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. Why are farm animals so important for man? 2. What raw materials do farm animals supply industry with? 3. What are the four types of cattle? 4. What are sheep raised for? 5. Why is hog breeding the most economic way of producing meat?

  1. Прочитайте текст В и ответьте по-русски на вопросы: 1) Почему при неблагоприятном климате в этой части Англии фермеры разводят молочный скот? 2) Как фермеры здесь используют землю?


Текст В. DAIRY FARMS IN EAST LANCASHIRE

In this part of England there are about 3,600 farms. The climate of this area is not very favorable to dairy farming. The farmers breed dairy cattle because there are many industrial towns here and they supply these towns with milk.

The typical small dairy farm in Lancashire is a farm of about 40 acres (акр = 0,4 га) with 18 to 20 dairy cows. The land is all grass. Half (половина) of it is used for hay and the other half for pastures. Summer pastures provide feed and exercise for the cows.

  1. Прочитайте текст С и скажите по-русски, широко ли используются лошади в сельской местности в настоящие время. Догадайтесь о значении выделенных слов.


Текст С. DRAFT ANIMALS

Draft cattle and horses are still (еще) widely used as draft animals in India, China, Italy and in some other parts of the world.

In many countries tractors perform most of the difficult field work. However (однако) horses still do some valuable services and, in addition, they are sources of great pleasure (удовольствие). In some parts of the United States and other countries where there are no improved roads (дорога) horses are still used for transporting people and farm products from place to place. Now more than half of the world uses horses as draft animals.


Занятие 6. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS

  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: much, many, little, few, a little, a few.


  1. Найдите в следующих предложениях английские слова со значением «много, мало, немного». Переведите предложения (устно).

1. On our farm there are many cows but few horses. 2. Young animals are usually provided with a little milk every day.3. We do not raise this breed of poultry. It produces little feather. 4. One should work much in the field to grow potatoes and other root crops. 5. This farm breeds the sheep producing much wool. 6. Dairy cows are the main source of food for man. There are a few other sources such as sheep, hogs and poultry.


3. Составьте аннотацию следующих текстов и передайте содержание на иностранном языке.


Текст A. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF FARM ANIMALS

A lot of work has to be done by a farmer in caring for his livestock and their products. Barns and other buildings are to be provided in order to protect the animals from unfavorable weather conditions. Young animals lambs, calves and pigs are known to require special care and protection.

During the first days after birth animals are weak and may die if proper care is not provided.

At present separate buildings are usually provided for each kind of livestock such as cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. Cowsheds, sheep-pens, pigsties and poultry houses should be comfortable for livestock and workers who take care of the animals. Much attention is now paid to lighting, ventilation, temperature, and humidity in animal buildings. Very often farmers keep bulls in separate barns.

Probably no farm animal is more responsive to good came than is the dairy cow. Regularity in feeding and milking and kindness result in more milk and greater profits. Dairy cows are to be provided with plenty of bedding, such as clean, dry straw in the barns where they are kept. When not on pasture cows should take exercise to be in good breeding condition.

Animal care

Sheep are kept in flocks in paddocks, in pens, or barns, or in the open. Freshly shorn hoggets can be very susceptible to wet, windy weather and can quickly succumb to exposure. Sheep have to be kept dry for one to two days before shearing so that the fleece is dry enough to be pressed and to protect the health of the rearers.


  1. Назовите английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний: животноводство, разводить, порода, содержать, трава, питательный, молочный скот, мясной скот, мясо-молочный скот, свиньи, овцы, мясо, молоко, фураж, пастбище, ceв, силос, солома, корова, бык, теленок, ягненок, поросенок, коровник, свинарник, доить, иметь моцион, уход, содержание.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на лексику данного занятия.

1. High beef and milk production is obtained by proper care and management as well as by proper feeding and fattening of cattle. 2. When cattle are kept in cowsheds they are fed with corn silage, grass silage and high- quality hay. 3. Dairy cows are milked with special machines. 4. There is always much work to do on the farm. 5. The farmer has to take great care of the young animals. 6. Cowsheds, sheep-pens and pigsties are to be kept clean and well ventilated. 7. Cows, bulls and calves should be provided with clean straw for bedding. 8. Animals are to take much exercise to be in good breeding condition.


  1. Найдите в тексте А и переведите предложения, в которых говорится: а) как защищают животных от неблагоприятных погодных условий; б) как следует содержать молодняк; в) о том, чтобы в животноводческих постройках животноводу было удобно работать; г) как следует ухаживать за молочной коровой.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. Should farmers care for animal products? 2. Why are animals kept in buildings?

3. Why do farmers provide special care for young animals? 4. What farm buildings do you know? 5. What conditions are provided m animal buildings? 6. When should cows take much exercise?


5. Прочитайте текст В и найдите в нем информацию о двух системах содержания быков.


Текст В. SYSTEMS OF BULL MANAGEMENT

The best way of keeping the bull is to have a small separate barn with pasture of one or two acres where he can take exercise. Manger (кормушка) and water-supply are to be provided in the barn.

The bull may also be kept in a box-stall (стойло) in the barn used for the cows. When the bull is kept in this way, the farmer can feed and care for him together with the cows.

Under both systems of management the bull should be fed and cared for properly. To provide the bull with legume hay and some grain is necessary in order to keep him in good breeding condition. Silage should not be given to the bull in large amounts.


6. Прочитайте текст С и найдите ответ на вопрос: Как влияет слишком жаркая и слишком холодная погода на молочный и мясной скот?


Текст С. LIVESTOCK AND TEMPERATURE

Too hot or too cold weather is a stress to all kinds of livestock. Under very hot weather in summer production of milk is often reduced because cows consume little feed at this time. Cold weather is not a great stress to dairy cattle because large amounts of feed consumed by them produce much energy.

Beef cattle do not develop well under conditions of hot weather. They are more adapted to cool conditions.



Занятие 7. FEEDS FOR LIVESTOCK

  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: числительное; самостоятельный причастный оборот.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на самостоятельный причастный оборот (письменно).

1. Cows being not on pasture, hay and silage are fed to them. 2. Young animals requiring special care and protection, farmers usually keep them in special buildings. 3. Spring grass being high in water, cows should not eat it too much.

  1. Dairy cattle require much water, the amount depending on the season.

  2. Farmers often raise dual-purpose cattle, both milk and meat being obtained.

  3. We raise some breeds of hogs, this one being most productive.


  1. Составьте тематический словарь текста А


Текст A. FEEDS FOR LIVESTOCK

Feeds are classified into three groups, depending on their fibre content and nutritive value. They are roughages, concentrates and protein supplements.

The primary characteristic of roughage is its high fibre content. Roughages may contain from 25 to 40 per cent fibre. For this reason they are not suitable for hogs but one can give large quantities of roughages to cattle and sheep.

Roughages may be classified according to the method they are fed. They may be succulent or dry. Succulent roughages include silage or pasture grasses, the latter being the most economical source of forage.

The most common forms of dry roughage are hay and straw. Good hay is the one that contains much green leaf. Hay being made from grass in the early flowering stage, its feeding value is higher than that from mature grass.

Oat straw is known to be a valuable feed for beef cattle and low-yielding dairy cows. Barley straw is sometimes fed to beef animals. It is more digestible than wheat straw. The latter is high in indigestible fibre. That is why it is used for bedding.

Concentrates being high in energy, all classes of farm animals are fed with such feeds. The main concentrated feeds are different kinds of cereals.

Feed containing protein of about 20 per cent or higher is known as a protein feed. Animals require from 10 to 20 per cent protein in their ration, depending on their age and productivity.

All these feeds supply farm animals with enough protein, carbohydrates and fats.

Пояснения к тексту

  1. for this reason – по этой причине

  2. the latter последний

  3. low-yielding cows низкоудойные коровы


  1. Прочитайте и тексты и сгруппируйте предложения, передающие основные составляющие кормов домашних животных.


Fodder or animal feed is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. Most animal feed is from plants, but some is of animal origin. «Fodder» refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves (see forage). It includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes.

The worldwide animal feed industry consumed 635 million tons of feed (compound feed equivalent) in 2006, with an annual growth rate of about 2%. The use of agricultural land to grow feed rather than human food can be controversial; some types of feed, such as corn (maize), can also serve as human food; those that cannot, such as grassland grass, may be grown on land that can be used for crops consumed by humans. Some agricultural byproducts fed to animals may be considered unsavory by human consumers.

Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания.

age n – возраст

carbohydrate n – углевод

concentrate n – концентрат, концентрированный корм contain v – содержать content n – содержание digestible а – переваримый, усвояемый

fat n – жир

feeding – питательная ценность

fibre n – клетчатка

indigestible а – непереваримый

productivity n – продуктивность ration n – рацион

roughage n – грубый корм succulent а – сочный supplement n – добавка dry а – сухой



5. Прочитайте числительные: 25, 40, 92, 150, 415, 310, 713, 6831, 7-й, 10-й, 52-й.


6. Выделите самостоятельный причастный оборот в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения.

1. Feeds being of high quality, animals grow and develop well. 2. Cows should be supplied with protein, the amount varying with their productivity; Calves being 3 weeks of age, other feeds containing fiber should be given. Roughage feeds being high in fiber, hogs are not fed with such feeds. 5. Wheat straw containing large amounts of indigestible fiber, the farmers use it for bedding.

  1. Определите функции слов с окончанием -ing. Переведите предложения.

1. Farmers milking cows in special buildings obtain clean milk. 2. Farmers

milking cows in special buildings, higher-quality milk is obtained. Milking cows in special buildings, farmers obtain clean milk. 4. Milking cows is done in special buildings.


8.Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. What is the basis of feed classification? 2. What kinds of feeds are there?

3. Which feed is high in fiber? 4. Are roughages good for hogs? 5. How are roughages classified? 6. Why is wheat straw used for bedding? 7. What does the amount of protein in the ration depend on?

9. Прочитайте текст В и найдите информацию о самой важной проблеме животноводства. Догадайтесь о значении выделенных слов.


Текст В. MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM IN LIVESTOCK BREEDING

There are many problems in livestock breeding. Some of them are diseases, good or bad breeds, the availability (наличие) of proper buildings for winter management, feed supply being the most important of them.

Feed transportation costs are so great, that it is recommended to breed farm animals only in areas where there is enough feed.

The factors that affect feed production indirectly (косвенно) affect milk, meat and egg production. Much forage is usually obtained where there is enough rainfall and where soil fertility is high to provide all the necessary nutrients, air and water.

1. Прочитайте текст С и передайте информацию о питательных веществах, необходимых для производства высококачественного молока.


Текст С. NUTRIENTS AND COW PRODUCTIVITY

To produce much milk cows require different nutrients. Cows require carbohydrates, because they supply most of the energy necessary for the production of milk.

Fats in the ration are also used as a source of energy. But too much fat may result in digestive disturbances (пищеварительные расстройства).

When there is not enough protein in the cow ration the amount and quality of milk are reduced. Protein may be provided by feeding both concentrated and roughage feeds, such as alfalfa and clover hay, cereal grains, green feeds and others.

Minerals and vitamins are important for milk production. They may be provided by feeding cows with good quality feed and balanced rations.




Занятие 8. HOW CAN LIVESTOCK BE IMPROVED

  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: будущее неопределенное время в действительном и страдательном залоге.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое в будущем неопределенном времени действительного и страдательного залога (устно).

1. In winter the farmers will keep their cows in the cowsheds. 2. In winter the cows will be kept in the cowsheds. 3. The pigsty will be cleaned tomorrow.

4. On the farm «Znamya» we shall take care of the young animals. 5. Will the bull take exercise on pasture? 6. Barley straw will not be used for bedding.


3. Прочитайте тексты и выделите в них главное и второстепенное, расскажите на родном языке.


Текст A. HOW CAN LIVESTOCK BE IMPROVED?

The most important task of livestock breeders is to improve their herds and flocks according to the purposes for which the animals are to be kept. Thus, dairy farmers want to have high milk yields per cow. Beef cattle raisers would like to produce calves that gain in weight rapidly and economically. A high average egg production per hen is one of the tasks of the poultry farmers. Hog and sheep producers have other aims such as to obtain more pigs per litter per sow and to have a higher lamb production per ewe.

To reach these aims farmers should first of all select animals capable of high production. Best animals should be selected regardless of the breed.

It is highly important for the livestock breeders to use proper methods for improving their herds and flocks. One method used by the breeders is to have purebred sires and purebred dams. They will transmit best characteristics to their offspring. This system is known as purebreeding.

Some breeders use inbreeding, some – crossbreeding, the latter system being widely practiced now with different kinds of farm animals, including hogs, beef and dairy cattle and meat types of chickens.

To obtain good results from the methods mentioned above the farmers should use only good parents capable of transmitting high production to their offspring.

Sheep–goat hybrid

A sheep–goat hybrid are the hybrid offspring of a sheep and a goat. Although sheep and goats seem similar and can be mated, they belong to different genera in the subfamily Caprinae of the family Bovidae. Sheep belong to the genus Ovis and have 54 chromosomes, while goats belong to the genus Capra and have 60 chromosomes. The offspring of a sheep-goat pairing is generally stillborn. Despite widespread shared pasturing of goats and sheep, hybrids are poorly attested, indicating the genetic distance between the two species. They are not to be confused with sheep, which are chimera.

Cases

At the Botswana Ministry of Agriculture in 2000, a male sheep impregnated a female goat resulting in a live off spring. This hybrid had 57 chromosomes, intermediate between sheep (54) and goats (60) and was intermediate between the two parent species in type. It had a coarse outer coat, a woolly inner coat, long goat-like legs and a heavy sheep-like body. Although infertile, the hybrid had a very active libido, mounting both ewes and does even when they were not in heat. He was castrated when he was 10 months old, as were the other kids and lambs in the herd.

A male sheep impregnated a female goat in New Zealand resulting in a mixed litter of kids and a female sheep-goat hybrid with 57 chromosomes. The hybrid was subsequently shown to be fertile when mated with a ram. In France natural mating of a doe with a ram produced a female hybrid carrying 57 chromosomes. This animal backcrossed in the veterinary college of Nantes to a ram delivered a stillborn and a living male offspring with 54 chromosomes.

Characteristics

There is a long-standing belief in sheep–goat hybrids, which is presumably due to the animals' resemblance to each other. Some primitive varieties of sheep may be misidentified as goats. In Darwinism An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of Its Applications (1889), Alfred Russell Wallace wrote:

[...] the following statement of Mr. Low: «It has been long known to shepherds, though questioned by naturalists, that the progeny of the cross between the sheep and goat is fertile. Breeds of this mixed race are numerous in the north of Europe.» Nothing appears to be known of such hybrids either in Scandinavia or in Italy; but Professor Giglioli of Florence has kindly given me some useful references to works in which they are described. The following extract from his letter is very interesting:

«I need not tell you that there being such hybrids is now generally accepted as a fact. Buffon (Supplements, tom. iii. p. 7, 1756) obtained one such hybrid in 1751 and eight in 1752. Sanson (La Culture, vol. vi. p. 372, 1865) mentions a case observed in the Vosges, France. Geoff. St. Hilaire was the first to mention, I believe, that in different parts of South America the ram is more usually crossed with the she-goat than the sheep with the he-goat. The well-known 'pellones' of Chile are produced by the second and third generation of such hybrids (Gay, 'Hist, de Chile,' vol. i. p. 466, Agriculture, 1862). Hybrids bred from goat and sheep are called 'chabin' in French, and 'cabruno' in Spanish. In Chile such hybrids are called 'carneros lanudos'; their breeding inter seappears to be not always successful, and often the original cross has to be recommenced to obtain the proportion of three-eighths of he-goat and five-eighths of sheep, or of three-eighths of ram and five-eighths of she-goat; such being the reputed best hybrids.» Supposedly, most sheep–goat hybrids die as embryos. Hybrid male mammals are often sterile due to a phenomenon called Haldane's rule. The Haldane phenomenon may apply even when the parent species have the same number of chromosomes, as in most cat-species hybrids. It sometimes does not apply when the species chromosome number is different, as in wild horse (chromosome number = 66) with domestic horse (chromosome number = 64) hybrids. Hybrid female fertility tends to decrease with increasing divergence in chromosome similarity between parent species. Presumably, this is due to mismatch problems during meiosis and the resulting production of eggs with unbalanced genetic complements.



Занятие 9. SELECTIVE BREEDING

1.Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: будущее неопределенное время в действительном и страдательном залоге.


2.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое в будущем неопределенном времени действительного и страдательного залога (устно).

1. In winter the farmers will keep their cows in the cowsheds. 2. In winter the cows will be kept in the cowsheds. 3. The pigsty will be cleaned tomorrow.

4. On the farm we shall take care of the young animals. 5. Will the bull take exercise on pasture? 6. Barley straw will not be used for bedding.


3. Определите главную мысль следующих текстов и передайте ее на иностранном языке.

Selective breeding

A Belgian Blue cow. The defect in the breed's myostatin gene is maintained through line breeding and is responsible for its accelerated lean muscle growth.

This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane shows the wide range of dog breed sizes created using selective breeding.

Selective breeding transformed teosinte's few fruit cases (left) into modern corn's rows of exposed kernels (right).

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and the breeding is normally done by a professional breeder. Bred animals are known as breeds, while bred plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars. The cross of animals results in what is called a crossbreed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids.

There are two approaches or types of artificial selection, or selective breeding. First is the traditional «breeder’s approach» in which the breeder or experimenter applies “a known amount of selection to a single phenotypic trait” by examining the chosen trait and choosing to breed only those that exhibit higher or «extreme values» of that trait. The second is called «controlled natural selection», which is essentially natural selection in a controlled environment. In this, the breeder does not choose which individuals being tested «survive or reproduce», as he or she could in the traditional approach. There are also «selection experiments», which is a third approach and these are conducted in order to determine the «strength of natural selection in the wild». However, this is more often an observational approach as opposed to an experimental approach. In animal breeding, techniques such as inbreeding, line breeding, and outcrossing are utilized. In plant breeding, similar methods are used. Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his book, On the Origin of Species. The first chapter of the book discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats, cattle, and dogs. Selective breeding was used by Darwin as a springboard to introduce the theory of natural selection, and to support it.

The deliberate exploitation of selective breeding to produce desired results has become very common in agriculture and experimental biology.

Selective breeding can be unintentional, e.g., resulting from the process of human cultivation; and it may also produce unintended desirable or undesirable results. For example, in some grains, an increase in seed size may have resulted from certain ploughing practices rather than from the intentional selection of larger seeds. Most likely, there has been interdependence between natural and artificial factors that have resulted in plant domestication.

Animal breeding

Animals with homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics are known as particular breeds, and they are bred through culling particular traits and selecting for others. Purebred animals have a single, recognizable breed, and purebreds with recorded lineage are called pedigreed. Crossbreeds are a mix of two purebreds, whereas mixed breeds are a mix of several breeds, often unknown. Animal breeding begins with breeding stock, a group of animals used for the purpose of planned breeding. When individuals are looking to breed animals, they look for certain valuable traits in purebred stock for a certain purpose, or may intend to use some type of crossbreeding to produce a new type of stock with different, and, it is presumed, superior abilities in a given area of endeavor. For example, to breed chickens, a typical breeder intends to receive eggs, meat, and new, young birds for further reproduction. Thus, the breeder has to study different breeds and types of chickens and analyze what can be expected from a certain set of characteristics before he or she starts breeding them. Therefore, when purchasing initial breeding stock, the breeder seeks a group of birds that will most closely fit the purpose intended.

Purebred breeding aims to establish and maintain stable traits that animals will pass to the next generation. By «breeding the best to the best» employing a certain degree of inbreeding, considerable culling, and selection for «superior» qualities, one could develop a bloodline superior in certain respects to the original base stock. Such animals can be recorded with a breed registry, the organization that maintains pedigrees and/or stud books. However, single-trait breeding, breeding for only one trait over all others, can be problematic. In one case mentioned by animal behaviorist Temple Grandin, roosters bred for fast growth or heavy muscles did not know how to perform typical rooster courtship dances, which alienated the roosters from hens and led the roosters to kill the hens after reproducing with them.

The observable phenomenon of hybrid vigor stands in contrast to the notion of breed purity. However, on the other hand, indiscriminate breeding of crossbred or hybrid animals may also result in degradation of quality. Studies in evolutionary physiology, behavioral genetics, and other areas of organismal biology have also made use of deliberate selective breeding, though longer generation times and greater difficulty in breeding can make such projects challenging in vertebrates.


1. Определите время и залог сказуемого в следующих предложениях; переведите предложения.

  1. Good feeding and management conditions will increase milk yields.

  2. Purebred parents transmit their characteristics to their offspring. 3. Different methods are used by farmers to improve their herds and flocks. 4. Our farm does not breed sheep. 5. In winter the cattle will be fed with hay, silage and grain.

6. What methods do farmers use to increase the productivity of farm animals?


2. Прочитайте предложения, заполняя пропуски подходящими по смыслу следующими словами и словосочетаниями: litters, gain in weight, yield, herds, flocks, pure breeding, crossbreeding, off spring.

  1. Dairy cows should be fed with proper feeds in order to produce high milk....

  2. Calves provided with good pasture... well. 3. Sows are known to produce two

... per year. 4. The improvement of... and ... are important to obtain more and higher-quality products. 5. There are many systems of breeding livestock,... and ... being most common. 6. To obtain high-quality ... only purebred parents should be used.


  1. Исходя из содержания текста А ответьте по-русски на вопрос, поставленный в заголовке. Переведите предложения из текста А, в которых говорится: а) об общей задаче, стоящей перед селекционерами; б) о задачах свиноводов и овцеводов; в) о том, каких животных следует использовать для улучшения стада; г) что такое чистопородное разведение; д) с какими животными используют кроссбридинг.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. What is the task of dairy farmers? 2. What calves do beef cattle raisers want to have? 3. What animals should farmers select to improve their herds and flocks? 4. What methods of improving animals are mentioned in the text?


  1. Прочитайте текст В и передайте его содержание на русском языке, используя следующие вопросы: 1). Какие системы разведения животных используются наиболее широко? 2). Какие животные называются чистопородными, улучшенной породы и кроссбредными? 3). В чем преимущества кроссбредных животных?


Текст В. PARENTS AND THEIR OFFSPRING

Much of the improvement of productivity is done by the use of breeding systems. There are some breeding systems, two of them being most widely used. They are pure breeding and crossbreeding.

If both parents of an animal are purebreds of the same breed, the animal is also a purebred. If only one parent, usually the sire, is a purebred, the animal is known as a grade (животное улучшенной породы).

A crossbred animal is the one obtained from the parents that are purebreds but of different breeds. Crossbreds grow faster (быстрее) than their parents. Faster growth results in lower feed and labour costs.


  1. Прочитайте текст С и объясните по-английски, какую тему он освещает.

TEXT С

There are many cattle breeds in the USA. In the Northern areas of the USA the Holstein is the leading dairy breed. In the Southern states the Jersey is more popular than other dairy breeds raised there.

As to beef breeds there are many of them. They are bred throughout the country. Most farmers raise the Shorthorn and Hereford beef breeds of cattle.

There are also dual-purpose breeds kept for the production of both milk and meat. Two of them, the Red Polled and Milking Shorthorn are known to be the best dual-purpose breeds of cattle in this country.


Занятие 10. FEEDING DAIRY COWS

1. Какая информация данного текста представляет непосредственный интерес?

Текст A. FEEDING DAIRY COWS

In preparing rations for milking cows many factors should be considered. Rations are to provide carbohydrates in a readily available form, have proper amount of good quality protein, provide sufficient fat and mineral substances and contain the necessary vitamins. To obtain much milk is the aim of every cattleman. That is why the farmers are to supply their cows with nutritious feeds. Cows being on good pastures in summer, little or no additional feed are required. If pastures are of low quality, additional roughages and some grain should be fed to most cows.

During winter legume hay is known to be good roughage for dairy cows. Many dairy farmers provide corn silage or grass silage in addition to hay. High- yielding cows need some concentrated feeds to produce much milk. One can include high-protein feed in the grain mixture for such cows. Roughages of low quality being fed, the proportion of high-protein feed should be increased.

A dairy cow is known to require much water, for milk is about 87 per cent water. Three to four gallons of water are required for each gallon of milk produced by a cow.

Thus, cows being fed properly, all the necessary nutrients will be provided: carbohydrates and fats from grains, proteins from legume hay or protein supplements, minerals from good pasture, and vitamins from, a good mixture of feeds.


  1. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания: грубый корм, белковая добавка, сочный корм, рацион, непереваримая клетчатка, продуктивность, надой молока, потомство, помет, прибавлять в весе, свиноматка, овцематка, производитель, возраст, матка.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на изученные грамматические структуры и лексику.

1. Unlike the other farm animals sows can produce two litters per year. 2. Good silage can be made from legumes if they do not contain too much water. 3. Ewes having enough milk, lambs are kept with them for 4 or 5 months. 4. The best practice is to feed pigs some distance from the pigsty for them to take exercise. 5. As the calf grows the daily milk ration is to be increased. 6. One should regulate the temperature, ventilation and lighting in animals buildings. 7. The crossbreds obtained by crossing many breeds have better qualities than those obtained from crossing two breeds. 8. To improve herds and flocks farmers should use only purebred sires and dams. 9. Best offspring is produced by using purebreeding and crossbreeding.


3. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова. Переведите предложения.

1. Most farms of our region breed hogs and dairy cattle. 2. This dairy breed is high-yielding. 3. When they have a good cowshed they will breed dairy cattle.

  1. In winter this farmer feeds his cows with legume hay and grass silage.

  2. Roughage feeds are not good for feeding hogs.


  1. Расположите пункты плана в последовательности, соответствующей содержанию текста А

  1. . Кормление коров летом.

  2. . Значение воды для молочных коров.

3. Кормление коров зимой.

4. Источники питательных веществ.

5. Рационы и питательные вещества.


  1. Найдите в тексте А и переведите: а) три предложения с самостоятельным причастным оборотом; б) два предложения со сложным подлежащим; в) предложение с подлежащим, выраженным словом one.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. What nutrients should rations provide? 2. What is the aim of every cattleman?

3. Do farmers provide additional feed when cows are on good pasture? 4. What is the best feed for cows in winter? 5. Why is water so important for dairy cows?

  1. What are the sources of carbohydrates, protein and minerals?


  1. Прочитайте текст В и ответьте по-русски на вопросы: 1). Почему молоко такой ценный продукт? 2). Как сохранить высококачественное молоко?

Текст В. DAIRY FARMING

Dairy farming is one of the most important branches of animal husbandry. One reason for the importance of dairying is high nutritive value of milk and dairy products.

Milk is one of the best sources of calcium, the mineral which is highly important for the growth of skeleton of people and animals. High-quality milk also contains a large amount of phosphorus and iron (железо). Milk is also a good source of vitamins A, D, and B. Different dairy products are obtained by man from milk. To have high-quality milk farmers should not only feed their cows properly both in spring and in winter but they should care for the milk properly. Two factors should be controlled when keeping milk: 1) milk should be kept clean and 2) it should be kept cool (охлажденным).


  1. Прочитайте текст С и скажите по-русски: а) от чего зависит продолжительность периода откорма; б) сколько месяцев требуется для откорма взрослых животных, телят; в) когда следует давать основную часть зерна; г) когда следует давать скоту минеральную добавку.


Текст С. FATTENING CATTLE

The fattening of cattle is a common practice on farms where beef cattle are bred and corn is raised.

The length of the fattening period may vary from two to twelve months, depending on the age and condition of the animals. The cattle that are more than two years old may be fattened in four or eight months. Some farmers fatten calves in nine months or longer.

Cattle should not be given too much grain at the beginning of the fattening period. Late in summer when grass is poor it is recommended to provide cattle with some legume hay or protein concentrate.

A mineral supplement should be provided if cattle are fed with crops grown on the soil deficient in calcium, phosphorus or other necessary minerals.

Animals should have water and salt all the time.





Занятие 11. MECHANIZATION IN LIVESTOCK RAISING

  1. Повторите в грамматическом справочнике: настоящее, прошедшее и будущее продолженное время в действительном и страдательном залоге.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое в продолжен- ном времени действительного и страдательного залога (устно).

  1. If you go to the collective farm now you will see how the farmers are spreading fertilizers. 2. Rye is being threshed now. 3. When the students came to the collective farm «Progress» the farmers were plowing the soil. 4. At this time tomorrow we shall be rolling the soil to make it firm.


    1. Прочитайте и выберите предложения, которые рассказывают о новых достижениях в развитии крупного рогатого скота.


Текст A. MECHANIZATION IN LIVESTOCK RAISING

Further increase in animal productivity is achieved both by the introduction of new machinery and by wider electrification and automation of different processes on livestock farms.

Some kinds of livestock equipment are almost completely automatic, thus eliminating most of the hand labour. Many farms are using now automatic waterers which provide water to livestock at all times. At the press of the button silage unloaders remove silage from the silo and drop it into the conveyer that carries the silage to the feed troughs. The feeding of grain and hay to dairy cattle has also been almost completely mechanized on some farms. On most farms manure is collected and transported automatically.

Different machines are now being used which permit a better digestion of various feeds by livestock. For instance, grain grinders, feed mixers, forage cutters increase the feeding value of grain, roughages and other feeds.

Milk pipelines connected to milking machines carry the milk to milk tanks where it is automatically cooled to the proper temperature.

In some poultry houses time clock devices are installed so that chickens can be fed automatically at the desired time of the day. On many poultry farms eggs are cleaned, graded and packed primarily by automation.



    1. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания


automatic waterer – автопоилка

carry v – тащить, перевозить

grade v – сортировать

grain grinder – зернодробилка

conveyer n транспортер, конвейер digestion nпереваривание, усвое- ние

feed mixer – кормосмеситель feed trough – кормушка forage cutter – корморезка

milk pipeline молокопровод milk tank – цистерна для молока remove vвынимать, удалять silo n – силосная башня (яма)


1. Назовите номера предложений, содержащих сказуемое в продолженном времени. Переведите эти предложения.

  1. The farmer is in the cowshed now. He is cleaning the feed troughs. 2. Feeds are mixed automatically on that farm. 3. You may go and see how silage is being removed from the silo and transported to the troughs. 4. Digestion of feeds will be increased by grinding grain and cutting forage. 5. Much hand labour was used in animal husbandry twenty or even ten years ago.


  1. Определите функцию слов с окончанием -ing. Переведите их.

1. Better digestion of feeds may be achieved by grinding grain, mixing feed and cutting forage. 2. Cutting forage, farmers increase the feeding value of roughages. 3. Farmers having time clock devices in the poultry houses can feed the chickens automatically at the desired time of the day. 4. Farmers having time clock devices in the poultry houses, the chickens can be fed automatically at the desired time of the day. 5. The farmer is milking his cows now.


3. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова. Переведите предложения.

1. Dairy cows require much water to produce milk. 2. When there is too little rainfall farmers water their vegetable crops. 3. Digestion of feeds can be increased by using special machines. 4. I know the farmer who feeds his animals with much grain. 5. Very often farmers plow the soil in the fall in order to have more time for other cultural practices in spring. 6. We know that the first steel plow appeared in America more than 150 years ago.


  1. Исходя из содержания текста А, скажите по-русски: а) что дает механизация в области животноводства; б) какие процессы наиболее полно механизированы в животноводстве. Обоснуйте свои ответы предложениями из текста.


  1. Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

  1. How is higher productivity achieved? 2. Does mechanization eliminate hand labour? 3. What do silage unloaders do? 4. Is manure collected automatically? 5. What machines increase the feeding value of feeds? 6. What processes are mechanized in poultry breeding?




Занятие 12. ECONOMICS OF ANIMAL BREEDING

1.Повторите глагольные формы с окончанием -ing.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на слова с окончанием -ing (письменно).

1. Raising soil fertility, farmers obtain higher yields. 2. Raising soil fertility results in higher yields. 3. Farmers raising soil fertility obtain higher yields. 4. Farmers raising soil fertility, higher yields may be obtained. 5. Applying cost-accounting makes enterprises more profitable. 6. Applying cost- accounting, the farms become more profitable. 7. The farm «Zarya» is now plowing the soil.


3.Прочитайте текст А и определите предложения из текста, которые напрямую связаны с его названием.


Текст A. ECONOMICS OF ANIMAL BREEDING

For profitable raising of livestock one should select a breed which is adapted to the purpose for which the animals are to be kept. For milk production a dairy breed should be chosen, not a beef breed. Regardless of the breed the livestock farmers choose, they would be most successful if they kept only the best animals. It is known that there are good and poor animals in every breed.

Feeds are known to make up the largest share of the costs in raising livestock. In the production of meat animals, such as hogs, beef cattle and sheep, feed costs amount to about 80 per cent or more of the total expenses. In egg and milk production they amount to half or more of the total costs. Underfeeding, overfeeding, improper combination of feeds, abrupt changes in feeding and irregular feeding are some of the mistakes that may prove to be costly to livestock raisers.

Great changes have occurred in the cattle feeding industry with the arrival of large commercial feedlots which use industrial methods of management, financing and marketing. The aim of feeding in commercial feed- lots is to simplify the feeding process, thus reducing production costs and labour.

Пояснения к тексту

  1. amount to составляют

  2. may prove (to) – могут оказаться

  3. commercial feedlots откормочные площадки на промышленной основе


4. Выучите следующие слова


choose (chose, chosen) v – выбирать

costly а – дорогой, дорогостоящий

expenses n – издержки, расходы

finance v – финансировать

overfeed v – перекармливать

underfeed v – недокармливать

5. Назовите русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний: animal, livestock, dairy cattle, beef cattle, draft cattle, hog, sheep, poultry, horse, cow, ewe, sow, offspring, litter, ration, forage, pasture, hay, silage, roughage feed, succulent feed, concentrates, protein supplement, straw, bedding, cowshed, sheep-pen, pigsty, care, management, milk, meat, egg, milk yield, manure, age, productivity, to breed, to feed, to keep, to fatten, to take exercise, to gain in weight


6.Назовите номера предложений, где слово с окончанием -ing является: а) причастием I; б) герундием. Переведите предложения.

  1. Raising cattle, farmers should make much hay and silage for winter feeding.

  2. Farmers raising cattle, much hay and silage for winter feeding must be made.

  3. Farmers, raising cattle make much hay and silage for winter feeding. 4. There being good and poor animals in every breed, farmers should select only best animals for rising: 5. Feeding in commercial feedlots reduces production costs and labour.

6. Farmers obtain good price when they are marketing young cattle.


7. Исходя из содержаний текста А, объясните по-русски, каких животных следует выращивать, чтобы данная отрасль была прибыльной.


8.Найдите и переведите предложения из текста А, в которых говорится: а) о том, что рекомендуется выращивать только самых лучших животных; б) о том, что составляет основную часть затрат в животноводстве; в) об ошибках животноводов при кормлении; г) об откорме скота на крупных комплексах; д) о цели кормлении на крупных комплексах.


9.Ответьте на вопросы по-английски.

1. What breed should farmers select? 2. What breed should be chosen for milk production? 3. Are there good and poor animals in every breed? 4. Do feeds make up the largest share of the costs in raising livestock? 5. What are the feed costs in the production of meat animals? 6. Do feed costs amount to half of the total costs in milk production? 7. Is over feeding a proper method of feeding animals? 8. What is the aim of feeding in commercial feedlots?


10.Прочитайте текст В и ответьте по-русски на вопросы: 1). О каких потерях говорится в тексте? 2). Что необходимо делать, чтобы избежать этих потерь?


B. LOSS OF FARM ANIMALS

Every animal that dies represents (представлять собой) a loss in feed and labour. For example, every young pig that dies soon (вскоре) after birth represents a loss of about 140 pounds (фунт = 450 грамм) of feed that has been fed to its mother before its birth.

To avoid (избежать) much of this loss farmers are to provide proper care and management of their animals. At present usually separate buildings are provided for every kind of livestock such as cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry. Buildings for livestock should be planned so as to provide comfort both for the animals kept and for the farmer's work. They should also provide economy (экономия) of costs, economy of labour and durability (прочность).


1.Переведите текст В без дополнительной подготовки.


2.Прочитайте текст С и назовите на иностранном языке факторы, влияющие на развитие животноводства


Текст С. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OFANIMAL HUSBANDRY

There are many factors affecting the development of animal husbandry. Some of them are growth and productivity of different kinds of animals.

Livestock farms are known to require large amounts of feeds. They should be adapted to areas where the necessary feeds can be produced. So, soil and climate are also highly important factors for good development of farm animals. For example, dairy cattle develop best m cool areas. Under such conditions grasses grow well and hay, silage and pastures are produced most economically.

On some livestock and poultry farms automatic machines regulate the microclimate, distribute (распределять) feed and clean farm buildings. That is one more factor affecting the development of animal husbandry.



Занятие 13. BEEF PRODUCTION FARM

  1. Повторите отглагольные существительные, герундий, причастие I, значение слова «most».


  1. Слова и выражения для повторения.

Amount, quantity, quality, to consume, yield, as well as, poultry breeder, as well, pasture, beef production, weight, silage, calf, calves, to fatten, properly, cattle, to keep, healthy, meat, kind, cow, sheep, supplementary, to increase, average, to vary with.


  1. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов: separation, total, climatic, section, classification, concentrate, energy, illustration, result, selection, carbohydrate, lactation.


  1. Определите, где форма с окончанием « -ing» является герундием и где отглагольным существительным; переведите.

Milking cows is done with special machines. 2. After milking cows were given some silage. 3. The milking of cows is done in cowsheds. 4. The breeds increases milk yields. 6. High milk yields are obtained by using high – productive breeds.5. The keeping of cattle on pasture provides them most feed and a lot of exercise


  1. Прочтите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на их произношение


Economy

Achieve Forage Legume Allow

period

improve require separate


  1. Прочитайте текст и выберите предложение, в котором сформулирована главная мысль текста.

Beef Production Farm

Most of it is under pastures. Beef production is the most important part of the farm’s economy.

High beef production is achieved by proper care and management as well as proper feeding are fattening of cattle. They are kept on both natural and cultivated pastures. The pasture land is divided into paddocks which are grazed in turn. Such system of using pastures is knows as rotational grazing.

When pasture forage is scarce or when cattle are not on pasture, they are fed corn silage, grass silage or high quality clover or alfalfa hay. Corn and legumes are the crops grown by the farmer for fattening cattle. Growing legumes, the farmer supplies the animals with highly nutritious feeds as well increases the soil fertility.

As to the calves they are kept in groups separated by 10 days age. Keeping calves in age groups allows the farmer to feed them according to their age. Weaning is usually done at the age of eight weeks. Male calves are castrated about a week old.

Most of the calves are sold as veal. Calves raised for veal production are generally ready for marketing at the age of 6 or 8 weeks. At this are they weigh about 200 to 300 pounds.

The best veal as obtained by liberal feeding of whole milk. Calves consuming a great amount of whole milk grow and develop properly and the quality of neat is high. The total amount of milk required during the period of vealing will depend on the birth weight of the calf. About 10 pounds of the milk are required for one pound of gain. New calves are to be put into this house.


Пояснения к тексту:

  1. rotational grazing – загонная пастьба.

  2. according to – согласно; в соответствии с.


Запомните

Most – самый, наиболее (перед прилагательным).

Most (of) – большинство (перед существительным).


1. Перечислите известные Вам названия: а) сельскохозяйственных животных, б) помещений для скота, в) сельскохозяйственных культур.


  1. Составьте предложения, соединяя подходящие по смыслу части.


1. Proper management and feeding are required

a. grown for fattening cattle.

2. Cattle are fed

b. is necessary to obtain the best veal.

3. Corn and legumes

c. depends on the birth weight of the calf.

4. Calves are kept

d. in order to achieve high beef production.

5. Weaning calves

e. corn silage and legume hay.

6. Liberal feeding of whole milk

f. in age groups.

7. The amount of milk

g. is done at the age of eight weeks.


  1. Выделите герундий и отглагольное существительное, переведите.

  1. Proper care and management of cattle are very important for obtaining high beef yields.

  2. The liberal feeding of whole milk is necessary for these calves.

  3. We spoke about his weaning the calves at the age of 7 weeks.

  4. Cleaning farm buildings is usually done with special machines.

  5. The farmer told us about his method of cleaning farm buildings.

  6. The feeding of poultry varies with the method of their keeping.


4. Определите функции слов с окончанием -ing в следующих предложениях; переведите.

    1. The fattening of cattle is usually done on farms where both corn and legumes are grown.

    2. A great amount of whole milk is required for fattening calves.

    3. Growing legumes increases soil fertility.

    4. Growing legumes, we increases soil fertility.

    5. Farmers growing legumes increases soil fertility.

    6. The breeding of farm animals is very important throughout the world.

    7. Breeding farm animals, man obtains highly nutritious products.

    8. Increasing soil fertility, we obtain higher yields of crops and grasses.

    9. Different farm crops are used in feeding livestock.

    10. Farmers using rotational grazing obtain good results.

    11. There are some systems of keeping poultry.

    12. We spoke about this farmer’s fattening cattle on pasture.

    13. Corn is widely used as a fattening feed.

    14. He is cleaning the pigsty now.


5. Образуйте причастие 1 и 2 от следующих глаголов. Переведите.

Obtain, ventilate, grow, separate, feed, consume.


6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значение слова «most».

  1. This is the most productive beef breed in our region.

  2. Concentrates are the most nutritious feeds.

  3. Most of the farms in our region are cattle breeding farms.

  4. Most pastures are natural in this part of the country.

  5. Clover and alfalfa are the most important pasture grasses.

  6. Most farmers wean calves at the age of 8 weeks.


  1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

What is necessary for high beef production?

What pastures are the cattle kept on?

When the cattle are fed silage and hay?

What age are the calves weaned at?

What are calves raised for?

How many pounds do the calves weigh at the time of marketing?

How is the best veal obtained?

What does the amount of milk required during the period of vealing depend on?

Where are the calves kept?

Are the calves kept in age groups?


  1. Переведите на английский язык:

а) цельное молоко, кукуруза, бобовое сено, большинство, получать, возраст, отнимать, развивать(ся), требовать, фунт, вес при рождении, привес, зависеть от ...

б) 1. Коров, дающих много молока, доят 3 раза в день. 2. Доение производится машинами. 3. Используя высококачественные корма, фермеры получают больше мяса. 4. Привесы телят были увеличены путём дополнительного кормления.


  1. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы по-английски.

  1. What kind of farms is still predominant in the United states of America?

  2. Why are small traditional farms disappearing?

  3. Which branch of agriculture is the leading one in the USA?

  4. What is the leading forage crop in America?

Farms in the USA

About 61 percent of the total land area of the United States is in farms. Most farms in this country are family farms. They are rather small. These small traditional farms cannot compete with big industrial farms and they are now disappearing.

Livestock plays the leading part in the agriculture of the USA. Different high productive dairy and beef breeds of cattle are raised on large farms. Sheep, pigs as well as poultry are raised by American farmers all over the country.

Among the forage crops grown in this country corn is the most important one.

Hay crops are grown as feed for.

Dairy farm in East

In this part of England there are about 3,600 farms. Most of the farms are from 35 to 50 acres. They are small family farms.

The climatic conditions of this area are not very favorable to dairy farming.

The farmers breed dairy cattle in this part of the country because there are many industrial towns here and they supply these towns with milk.

The typical small dairy farms in Lancashire are a family farm of about 40 acres with 18 to 20 milking cows. The farmer keeps poultry as well. It is bred for eggs. Most of the milk and eggs are marketed.

The land is all grass. Half of it is used for hay and the other half for grazing. The

area used for grazing is divided into paddocks. The quality of pasture grasses is good. Summer pasture provides feed and exercise for the cows. Poultry is kept only in the house. This method is known as intensive method of poultry keeping.

There are three kinds of farm buildings on the farm. They are a hay barn, a cowshed and a poultry house.

As it is a small family farm, the farmer has to do all the work on his farm himself. He must feed the animals, milk the cows, collect eggs and clean the cowshed and the poultry house. He himself takes the milk and eggs to the market. Most of the farm work is done with machines.

The principle winter feed is legume hay. Silage making is not popular here. As rainfall (осадки) is high hay making is a risky business in this part of the country. Natural drying of hay it in the barn. The method of barn hay drying produces better hay.

The annual milk yield per cow is about 750 800 gallons. The farmer supplies the cows with 3 ½ pounds of concentrates per gallon of milk. These concentrates are provided for cows because it is difficult to make high – quality hay.




Занятие 14. CLASIFICATION OF FEEDS

1. Повторите сложные формы причастия I, формы с окончанием -ing, временные формы глагола, значение слова «one», парный союз « either...or».

Словообразование:

  1. Суффиксы -ous; -able,(-ible)

  2. Префикс in-

Слова и выражения для повторения

Cattle breeding, to produce, barley growing, sheep, grass, clover, alfalfa, to consume, dairy cow, grain, as well, both...and, should, have to, is to, hay, yield, root crop, to provide, pasture, pig, quality, amount, to supply.

  1. Переведите следующие прилагательные:

а) образованные от существительных при помощи суффикса -ous

fibrious (fibre волокно)

nutritions (nutrition питание)

vigorous (vigour сила, энергия)

various (variety разнообразие)

  1. образованные от глаголов при помощи суффиксов - able, - ible.

suitable (suit подходить)

valuanle – (value – ценить)

digestible (digest переваривать, усваивать)

favourable (favour благоприятствовать)

  1. с отрицательным префиксом in- (который превращается в «im» перед «m» и

«p» и в «ir» перед «r»)

infertile (fertile – плодородный)

inadequate(adequate соответствующий, адекватный)

irregular (regular регулярный)

impossible (possible – возможный)


  1. Определите, к какой части относятся следующие слова, и переведите их, не пользуясь словарём.

  1. to feed, feeder, feeding, fed, the feed

  2. a product, production, to produce, producing, producer, produced

  3. proper, improper, properly


  1. Переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод сложных форм причастия.

  1. Being provided with good feed, cows, produce much milk.

  2. Having been provided with good feed, young animals developed well.

  3. Having provided the animals with good feed, the farmer obtained good results.

  4. Being used in feeding livestock, grasses and grains are widely grown by man.

  5. Having been weaned at the age of eight weeks, calves produced high quality veal.

  6. Having divided the calf house into section, the farmer could put his calves into it according to their age.


  1. Прочтите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на их произношение.

Various, classify, succulent, roughage, carbohydrate, variety, cause, value, content, contain, mature, digestible, energy, nutrient, scour, suitable, comparatively.

Classification of Feeds

Various feeds are used by man in feeding livestock. They are classified into three main groups: succulents, roughages and concentrates.

Succulent feeds are pastured grasses, silage and root crops.

Roots contain large quantities of water are laxative to stock. They are low in protein, but comparatively high in carbohydrates. Being fed together with hay or straw, roots provide good rations for sheep and cattle.

Green grass should be grazed when it is 4-8 inches high. Young grass is very rich in protein and animals eat it readily but its low fibre content may cause scours. The feeding value of grass is the highest in spring and early summer. Silage is made from variety of plants. Good silage is the one that is green in colour. Silage should be made from young leafy grass and clover. Having been prepared in this way, silage is always of high feeding value.

Roughages are bulky feeds. They are high in fibre content which is poorly digestible. For this reason they are not suitable for pigs, but one can give large quantities of roughages to cattle and sheep.

Good hay is the one that contains plenty of green leaf. The quality of hay varies with the kind of grass and the stage of growth at which it is cut. Hay made from grass in the early flowering stage is better than the one made from mature grass.

Oat straw is a valuable feed for providing bulk in the rations of beef animals and low yielding dairy cows.

Barley straw is sometimes fed to beef cattle. It is more digestible than wheat straw.

Wheat straw is high in indigestible fibre. Most of it is, therefore, used for breeding. Concentrates are feeds which are rich in either protein or energy or both. Being high in easily digestible nutrients and low in moisture and indigestible fibre, concentrates are very valuable in feeding all classes of animals. General grains, cakes and bran are illustrations of concentrates.

Having serried the animals with the proper kind and amount of feed, the farmer will obtain good results.

Пояснения к тексту

  1. to be low in содержать мало

  2. to be high in содержать много

  3. For this reason по этой причине

  4. plenty of много

  5. is for...value иметь (представлять) ценность

Запомните:

Either...or – или…или

  1. Переведите следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод сложных форм причастия 1.

1. Being grazed too early, young grass may cause scours in calves. 2. Having been made from young leafy grass and clover, silage was of high feeding value. 3. Having provided the pigs with highly nutritious feed, the farmer obtained high gains. 4. The animals grow better, being fed a concentrated ration twice a day. 5. Being bred by man, cattle, sheep and hogs are known as domestic animals. 6. Weaning calves at the age of about 8 weeks, farmers obtain high quality veal. 7. Having cleaned the cowshed, the farmer put the calves into it. 8. Having increased the amount of the supplementary feed, we shall be able to obtain a higher milk yield per cow.

  1. Separating calves by 10 days age, the farmer can feed them according to their age.

  2. Having been prepared from grass in the early flowering stage, hay was of high quality.


7. Определите, какой часть речи являются выделенные слова; переведите.

  1. In winter the farmer feeds his cattle high quality legume hay and silage.

  2. Roughage feeds are not good for feeding hogs. 3. They market pigs at the winning age. 4. It is the largest market in our region. 5. These farms increase their milk yields from year to year. 6. There was a great increase in cattle population last year. 7. Farmers milk average and low yielding cows twice a day. 8. This dairy breed is high yielding.

9. Farmers breed poultry for meat and eggs. 10. There is always much work to do on the farm. 11. They work as zootechnicians.


8. Определите время и залог сказуемого в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения и дополните их соответствующими обстоятельствами.

1. They feed ... . 2. They have fed ... . 3.they are fed ... . 4. they are feeding ... .

5. They have been fed ... . 6. He has to fed ... .7. He has to feed ... . 8. They are to feed ... . 9. They are to be fed ... .10. She has been fed ... . 11. She should feed ... .

12. They will feed ... . 13. They should be fed ... .14. They will be fed ... . 15. They ought to be fed ... . 16. They are being fed ... .


9. Определите функции слов с окончанием -ing; переведите.

  1. Cattle breeding is one of the most important branches of animal husbandry.

  2. Milk yields vary with feeding, age as well as care and of dairy cows. 3. Milk yields vary with the number of the milking per day as well. 4. As to this dairy breed it is a low yielding one. 5. After feeding the lambs the sheepman began cleaning the sheep pen. 6. Providing good feeding and management for the poultry, we obtain more eggs per bird year. 7. Being on pasture, animals take a lot of exercise. 8. Poultry breeders achieve good results by keeping the poultry on pasture. 9. Keeping the sheep on one pasture during summer is a bad practice.

  1. The development of the calves depends largely on feeding and exercise.

  2. The feeding of the animals should be done in regular intervals.


10. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на значения выделенных слов.

а) 1. One must feed domestic animals properly. 2. One of low gains may be poor feeding. 3. These feeds are the most nutritious ones for pigs. 4. In order to obtain good gains one should provide proper feeding and management. 5. The new cowshed is better than the old one. 6. One can use different kinds of breeding. 7. One should give enough water to the animals.



Vitamins

Vitamins play an important put in the feeding of all classes of livestock. They are required in small amounts for the normal growth and health of the animals.

To be in thrifty condition farm animals are to be provided with all these substances in proper proportion.

Пояснения к тексту

    1. vary in – различаться по

    2. for instance например

    3. as little as – (перед числительным) – всего лишь, только

    4. as much as – as many as – (перед числительным) – целых, до

    5. What is why – вот почему, поэтому

    6. digestive troubles – пищеварительные расстройства

    7. Oil bearing seeds – семена масличных культур

    8. thrifty condition – упитанное состояние

Запомните!

As (much) as possible как можно (больше)

1. Составьте предложения, соединяя подходящие по смыслу части


Roots are

The feeding value of grass

Roughages are not

Concentrates are low on

Plenty of water

Proteins

Carbohydrates and fats are

Vitamins are necessary

  1. indigestible fiber

  2. stimulate fat and milk production

  3. should be given to dairy cows.

  4. in small amounts

  5. high in water

  6. is the highest in spring

  7. suitable for pigs.

  8. the sources of energy

2. Напишите словарные формы следующих слов.

Существительные: calves, branches, pigsties .Прилагательные: highest, better, more, larger, earlier, Easier. Причастия: mixed, produced, fed, dried, flowering. Глаголы: supplies, does, made, developed, classified.

3. Определите функции инфинитива в следующих предложениях, переведите

1. To obtain good gains the animals should be provided with proper feeding and management. 2. To develop properly pigs ought to be kept on good pasture. 3. To supply the young animals with minerals is very important. 4. To produce milk cows must be provided with enough carbohydrates and fats. 5. To produce 25 pounds of milk daily a cow is to be supplied with 2, 5 to 3 pounds.

4. Прочтите текст. Выпишите из него предложение, где говорится о том, когда нужно давать животным больше воды, а когда меньше

The importance of Water for Farm Animals

Water is very important for farm animals. They should be provided with the necessary amount of water every day. The quantity of water required by the animals varies with the nature of the feed, the activity of the animal and the season as well.

The water content of feeds varies greatly. Roots, for instance, are about 88 percent water, while hay is only 15 percent.

Dairy cows must be supplied with large amounts of water for milk production as milk is high in water. A high yielding dairy cow will drink as much as 8 10 gallons of water per. In warm weather and after eating hay cows require more water than in cold weather and after eating succulent feeds.

Water given to the animals should be clean. It should not be very cold or very warm.

Animals need food to provide themselves with heat and energy. Consuming food, animals obtain the necessary nutrients in order to live and move. Food is also necessary for the growth of the animals.

Ration is the amount of food given to the animal during 24 hours. A balanced ration is the one which provides several nutrients in such proportion and amount that will maintain the animal in thrifty condition. A balanced ration should consist of the proper proportion of roughages, succulents and concentrates.

Carbohydrates

Cows require liberal amounts of carbohydrates. The feeds supplying carbohydrates are concentrate feeds such as oats, barley corn, wheat, rye or any combination of these grains. The lack of such feeds will reduce the milk yields and the weight of the animal.

Protein

High protein feeds are rather scarce and usually more expensive (дорогой) than low protein feeds. Protein rich concentrates used in breeding cows are linseed meal, cottonseed meal, soybeens and other. Roughage feeds high in protein are alfalfa and clover hay, soybean hay and growing green crops such as grass, green oats and green rye. Cows can have protein from both roughage and concentrate feeds.

Fat

The experiments have shown that the milk yield of cows may be reduced when insufficient quantities of fat are fed. In the ration cows should receive 70% of the total fat secreted during the lactation period. Oil bearing seeds are main sources of high fat feeds.

Minerals

Cows need sufficient quantities of calcium, phosphorus and iodine ( йод). Cows not receiving sufficient minerals often reduce their milk production. Minerals may be provided by feeding cows with well balanced rations.

Vitamins

Cows require most of the known vitamins. These are usually supplied in sufficient amounts when good quality feeds are fed in winter and when cattle are on pasture during summer. Vitamin A is supplied largely by feeding fresh (свежий) grass and clover and well – made green coloured hays. Vitamins B is largely supplied by the grains and vitamin D through sunlight. Vitamin D is necessary for the proper assimilation of minerals.

Hay

Hay is usually classified into three categories as low and high quality hay.

It has not been grazed before cutting. It usually has little leaf. This type of hay should not be fed to milking cows in large amounts. Other cattle may be provided with this hay in any quantity. If dairy cows are fed low quality hay concentrates should be provided for them. The amounts of concentrates vary with the milk yield of a cow and the quality of the concentrates.

Average hay

This hay may be classified as hay which rather mature but has a good proportion of leaf. There is no need to limit greatly this type of hay. It is usually fed to appetite (давать неограниченно) but better results are obtained if not more than about 20 pounds are fed per day.

5. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на выражение as ... as possible.

  1. Hogs should be given as little roughages as possible.

  2. The quality of feed should be as high as possible.

  3. These animals ought to consume as much succulents as possible.

  4. The soil for this experiment should be as rich as possible.

  5. Farmers should use pastures as early as possible in spring.

Активные слова и выражения

Composition, substance, to receive, fat, carbohydrates, to reduce, thirfty condition, to drink (drank, drunk), as ... as possible.

6. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

  1. What do feeds vary in?

  2. Why should dairy cows consume plenty of water?

  3. What are proteins used for?

  4. How many pounds of proteins is it necessary to give a cow producing 25 pounds of milk a day?

  5. What do carbohydrates supply?

  6. What is energy required for?

  7. Do fats supply less energy than carbohydrates?

  8. Why are minerals essential for the young animals?

  9. Are vitamins required by the animals in great amount?

7. Переведите на английский язык.

а) жир, углевод, упитанное состояние, снижать, получать, состав, пить, вещество, как можно выше;

б) 1.Чтобы расти хорошо, животные должны получать все необходимые вещества. 2. Давать животным все необходимые вещества очень важно. 3. Чтобы производить молоко, корова должна получать много воды и питательных веществ. 4. Обеспечивать животных протеином необходимы.


8. Прочтите текст. Выпишите из него предложение, где говорится о том, когда нужно давать животным больше воды, а когда меньше.

The importance of Water for Farm Animals

Water is very important for farm animals. They should be provided with the necessary amount of water every day. The quantity of water required by the animals varies with the nature of the feed, the activity of the animal and the season as well.


























PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION


Публичное выступление.

Начало лекции, выступления, сообщения, рассказа


In my paper I want to high light ...

The subject of my lecture (talk) is ... I’m going to be talking about ...

Let me begin with ...

My introduction is going to be very little.

I’ll give you one or two sentences.

В своем докладе я хочу осветить...

Тема моей лекции (моего выступления)

Я собираюсь рассказать (поговорить) ... Позвольте мне начать с…

Мое вступление будет очень кратким.


Я изложу его вам в одном двух предло- жениях.


Подчеркивание важного, привлечение внимания аудитории


It should be said that ...

It is interesting (= of interest) to note that ...

That’s one thing I’d like to stress very heavily ...

I want to reinforce the following...

The following is terribly informable (terribly well! badly needed).


I want to call (to draw ! to invite) your attention to ...

It should be kept in mind that ...


First(ly) ... / Second(ly) ...

Third(ly) ... / Fourth(ly) ...

Следует сказать, что ...

Интересно отметить, что ...


На одну вещь мне хотелось бы обратить особое внимание ...

(Я) хочу подчеркнуть следующее... Следующее представляется необычайно важным (информативно полезным, необходимым)...

Хочу привлечь (обратить / направить) ваше внимание к (на) ...

Следует помнить, что (не следует забывать, что) ...

Во-первых, / Во-вторых ... В-третьих, / В-четвертых ...





Переход от одной мысли к другой


Now I come to ...

I’m coming on now to speak about.. Now we may pass to the next item (on the agenda).

Here we can say ...

We may pass these details.

Теперь я перехожу к…

А теперь я перехожу к рассказу о…

Теперь мы можем перейти к следующему пункту (в повестке дня).

Тут мы можем сказать...

Мы можем опустить эти детали.

Выражение личного мнения о высказываемом


I (don’t) believe ...


In my opinion ...

In my view ...

What I say (am saying) is that ...

I dare say ...

I am far from thinking (asserting) that ...

It’s no exaggeration to say that

Я (не) думаю

Я (не) считаю..

По моему мнению..

На мой взгляд

Как я считаю (по- моему)… Осмелюсь утверждать, что…

Я далек от того, чтобы думать (утверждать), что…

Не будет преувеличением сказать, что...



Сообщение об известных истинах и фактах


They say that / It’s said that ...

It is generally said that ...

It goes without saying that ...

Говорят, что…

Обычно утверждают, что…

Само собой разумеется, что…






Осуществление обратной связи с аудиторией


Any other points?

Is that clear?

Have I made my point clear? If there’s anything you don’t understand, please ask me.

Будут другие мнения?

Это ясно (понятно)?

Я выразился (достаточно) ясно? Если вам что-то неясно, пожалуйста, спрашивайте.


Как избежать категоричности в своих высказываниях


As far as I know ...

If I am not mistaken ...

If my memory serves me well (doesn’t fail me)

As far as I remember ...

Насколько мне известно…

Если я не ошибаюсь…

Если мне не изменяет память...


Насколько я помню…

Пояснение и дополнение к сказанному


I mean to say that ...

In other words ...

That is to say ...

To all this must be added that ...

As I have already mentioned ...

I have forgotten to say that ...

The following (fact) speaks for itself.

Этим я хочу сказать, что…

Другими (иными) словами…

Иначе говоря…

Ко всему этому следует добавить, что…

Как я уже упомянул…

Я забыл (а) сказать, что…

Следующее говорит само за себя (не требует комментариев).







Завершение выступления и выводы из сказанного


We’ve told a lot today.


In conclusion ...

I close with the words ...

The last part of my talk will be devoted to...


Now I’m going to sum up what has been said.

Summing up all that has been said ...

Hence, it follows that ...

This brings us to the conclusion that ...


I hope you’ll do some questions. I thank the audience for your kind attention.

Мы сегодня достаточно много

обсудили (говорили).

В заключение ...

Я заканчиваю словами ...

Последняя часть моего общения будет посвящена ...

А теперь я собираюсь резюмировать сказанное.

Суммируя все, что было сказано…

Из этого следует, что...

Это позволяет нам сделать вывод о том, что ...

Надеюсь, что вы зададите вопросы. Благодарю присутствующих за любезное внимание.


Диалог, беседа, разговор.

Как начать разговор с незнакомым человеком


Please tell me (something / a little)

about ...

Would you (please) tell me about ...


Would you mind telling me about ...

Пожалуйста, расскажите

(что-нибудь / немного) о ... (Пожалуйста) не могли бы вы рассказать мне о ... –

Вы не возражаете (не против) рассказать мне о ...







Как согласиться на разговор, если вас попросили об этом


With (great) pleasure.

Willingly. / Happily. Certainly. / Sure.

С (большим) удовольствием.

Охотно. / С радостью. Конечно. / Разумеется.



Как начать разговор со знакомым человеком


Can you tell me anything about ...


What do you know about ...

Можешь ты (можете вы)… рассказать

мне что-нибудь о…

Что ты знаешь (Вы знаете) о…


Как выразить неуверенность и попросить собеседника отреагировать


Am I right in thinking that ...

Я правильно думаю, что ...

(А это верно, что...)












Как выразить согласие со сказанным

Yes (indeed).

Yes, you are right.

I think you’re right.

I think so too.

That’s my opinion too. Certainly. / Sure.

I (certainly / quite) agree (with you).


I have nothing to say to this.

I have my doubts about that.

Are you sure?

Да (в самом деле).

Да, вы правы (ты прав/а).

Я думаю, вы правы.

Я тоже так думаю.

И я того же мнения.

Конечно. / Несомненно.

Я (конечно / вполне) согласен (с вами / с тобой).

Мне нечего на это возразить.

У меня на этот счет свои сомнения.

А ты (вы) уверен(ы)?


Как частично согласиться со сказанным


That may be true, but ...

I can share your view only up to a certain point.

I agree with you in a sense, but ...

Возможно это и так, но…

Я могу разделить вашу точку зрения лишь частично.

Я согласен с вами в некотором смысле, но…


Как выразить сомнение по поводу сказанного


(Is it) really?

I doubt it.

I don’t think so.

Разве это так? (Это правда?)

Я сомневаюсь в этом.

Я так не думаю.








Как не согласиться со сказанным, т.е. возразить


I think you’re mistaken.

I don’t think you’re right. I’m afraid I don’t agree. I disagree.

I don’t agree (with you). You’re wrong.

It (That) can’t be true.

I really can’t believe you / that. I find that hard to believe.

Я думаю, что вы ошибаетесь.

Я думаю, вы не правы. Боюсь, что я не согласен. Я не согласен.

Я не согласен с вами (тобой). Вы не правы.

Этого не может быть.

Я просто не могу вам это) поверить. Я считаю, что в это трудно поверить.


Как отреагировать на непонятое


Sorry, what did you say?

Would you mind saying that again?


(Would you please) say that again? I didn’t (quite) catch what you said.

Could you say that again (please)?

Простите, что вы сказали?

Вы не возражаете (не против) повторить это?

(Пожалуйста) повторите еще раз. Я не (совсем) уловил то, что вы сказали.

(Пожалуйста) не могли бы вы сказать это снова?












Литература


    1. Англо – русский словарь медицинских сокращений: учеб. Пособие для студентов медицинских вузов. – М. : Триада Х, 2004г.

    2. Губарева Т.А., Межличностное профессиональное общение на английском языке ., Оренбург Издательский центр ОГАУ 2014г

    3. Маслова Г.В., Английский язык. Пособие для сельхозохозяйственных техникумов. Москва «Высшая школа» 1991г.

    4. Н.А.Бонк, Г.А.Котий, Н.А.Лукьянова, Учебник английского языка. Часть I. Москва «Гис» 2001г.

    5. www.zooclub.ru

    6. www.vetinfo.com
























Рецензия


На учебное пособие по английскому языку.

Автор: Толстова Н.Г., преподаватель английского языка, ГОУ СПО «Зооветеринарный техникум».

Актуальность пособия: тексты пособия заимствованы из оригинальных источников и подверглись методической обработке с учетом программных требований к обучению студентов по специальности Ветеринария.

Учебное пособие содержит материал согласно рабочей программы.

Практически все тексты посвящены основным отраслям сельского хозяйства. Помимо текстов, учебный материал включает систему упражнений, направленных на обучение чтению различных видов (изучающего, ознакомительного, просмотрового и поискового).

Самостоятельная работа начинается с повторения, пройденного на предыдущем этапе материала по грамматике или словообразованию.

Текст А предназначается для изучающего чтения и перевода, а тексты В и С информативны, тематически и грамматически увязаны с основным текстом. В конце пособия имеется материал для профессионального общения.

Пособие сочетает различные формы работы: индивидуальную, парную, групповую, фронтальную и т.д., что в конечном итоге гарантирует успешное овладение английским языком.




Рецензент _________________________ Ермакова П.А.,

учитель английского языка, II кв. категория, МОУ «Кармановская ОСШ»

«______»_________________2016г.






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Автор
Дата добавления 08.04.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
Просмотров1098
Номер материала ДБ-017608
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