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  • Иностранные языки

Учебное пособие по английскому языку "Технический английский"

библиотека
материалов

Министерство образования и науки Самарской области

Государственное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

Тольяттинский социально- экономический колледж











АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК



Учебное пособие

для студентов III курса специальности

150414 «Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация

холодильно-компрессорных установок».








Автор-составитель: Е. А. Курочкина


















2008

Пояснительная записка

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов третьего курса специальности 150414 «Монтаж и техническая эксплуатация холодильно-компрессорных установок». Необходимость создания пособия была вызвана недостаточностью проработки тем в учебных пособиях, ориентированных на студентов технических специальностей. Обучение английскому языку в современном мире невозможно без инновационных методов обучения и текстов, отражающих современную жизнь общества. Тексты, представленные в пособии, предназначены для развития навыков и умений поискового и изучающего чтения. Тематика текстов соответствует реально существующим в настоящее время направлениям подготовки специалистов машиностроительного профиля. В пособии также использованы средства графической наглядности, которые служат дополнительной опорой при изучении иностранного языка и развивают логическое мышление студентов. Тематический словарь, представленный в пособии, упростит студентам поиск перевода незнакомых слов.

Данное пособие включает в себя тематические тексты и задания к ним. Пособие может быть использовано преподавателем при работе со студентами на аудиторных занятиях, для организации внеаудиторной, самостоятельной работы студентов, а также при подготовке к контрольным работам и опросам.























CONTENTS:


Topic 1. Engineering materials…………………………………………….…….4

Topic 2. Mechanical Properties of Materials……………………………………..7

Topic 3. Machine-tools……………………………………………………………11

Topic 4. The lathe…………………………………………………………………15

Topic 5. Engine lathe……………………………………………………………..18

Topic 6. The Hydraulic Grinder…………………………………………………..21

Topic 7. Dies……………………………………………………………………...23

Topic 8. The Plastic age. …………………………………………………………27

Topic 9. Hero of Alexandria………………………...……………………………30

Topic 10. Materials a car is made of……….…………………………………….32

Topic 11. Automobile Production………………………………………………...35

Topic 12. Components of the automobile………………………………………...38

Topic 13. Carburation……………………………………………………………42

Topic 14. Ignition. Lubrication and Cooling System………………………….….45

Topic 15. The Power Transmission. The Clutch…………………….…………....49

Topic 16. The Running Gear. The Control System……………………………….52

Topic 17. Famous people: Henry Ford……………………………….……..….56

Topic 18. The Pioneers……………………………………………………………59

Тематический словарь…………………………………………………………...62

Литература……………………………………………………………………….65







Topic 1. Engineering materials

__________________________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Property- свойство

Ferrous- железосодержащий

Steel- сталь

Alloy- сплав

Proportion- соотношение, пропорция

Improve- улучшать

Tungsten- вольфрам

Brass- латунь

Plastic- пластмасса, пластик

Pressure- давление

Undergo- подвергаться


Engineering materials


Engineers have to know the best and most economical materials to use. Engineers must also understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. There are two kinds of materials used in engineering — metals and non-metals. We can divide metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. The former contain iron and the latter do not contain iron. Cast iron and steel, which are both alloys, or mixtures of iron and carbon, are the two most important ferrous metals. Steel contains a smaller proportion of carbon than cast iron. Certain elements can improve the properties of steel and are therefore added to it. For example, chromium may be included to resist corrosion and tungsten to increase hardness. Aluminium, copper, and the alloys (bronze and brass) are common non-ferrous metals.

Plastics and ceramics are non-metals; however, plastics may be machined like metals. Plastics are classified into two types — thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped by heat and pressure but thermosets cannot be reshaped because they undergo chemical changes as they harden. Ceramics are often employed by engineers when materials which can withstand high temperatures are needed.

______________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents in the text:

    1. Смесь железа с углеродом

    2. Некоторые элементы

    3. подвергаться химическим изменениям

    4. улучшать свойства стали

    5. противостоять коррозии.


II. Are these statements true or false?

1. Engineers must know the properties of engineering materials. 2. All materials can be classified as metals and non-metals. 3. Non-ferrous metals can contain iron. 4. Steels have to contain more carbon than cast iron. 5. Ceramics can resist high temperatures. 6. Thermosets may be machined. 7. Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped.


III. Complete the sentences:

  1. Plastics are classified into two types _____.

  2. Chromium may be included ____

  3. Plastics and ceramics are ____.

  4. Steel contains ____.

  5. Thermoplastics can be shaped ____.


IV. Change the underlined words by the words from the text:

Model: There are two kinds of engineering materials.

There are two kinds of materials used in engineering.

1. Nickel steel is a mixture of iron, carbon and nickel. 2. Chromium can be added to steel to provide a good cutting edge. 3. There are many kinds of steel used in industry. 4. Ceramics are used by engineers where heat- resistant materials are needed. 5. Chromium steels resist corrosion.


V. Answer the questions:

1. What kinds of materials do you know?

2. What can be shaped by heat and pressure?

3. Are there any elements which improve the properties of steel?

4. What are non-ferrous metals?

5. How many kinds of materials are there in engineering?
















Topic 2. Mechanical Properties of Materials

___________________________________________________

Vocabulary

Ability - способность

Amount - количество

Absorb - поглощать

Application - применение

Brittle - хрупкий

Car bodyкузов автомобиля

Constituent - компонент

Crack - трещина

Creep resistanceустойчивость к ползучести

Definition - определение

Density - плотность

Ductility - ковкость

Failure -повреждение

Gradual - постепенный

Permanent - постоянный

Rigid - жесткий

To sink - тонуть

Square root – квадратный корень

Stiffness - жесткость

Strain - нагрузка

Strength - прочность

Stress - давление, напряжение

Tensile strength – прочность на разрыв

Toughness – прочность, стойкость

Yield strength – прочность текучести

Young modulus – модуль Юнга

Mechanical Properties of Materials
Density (specific weight) is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic meter. The density of water is 1000 kg/rn3 but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminum alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/rn3 are considerably less dense that steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg/rn3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.
Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.
Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/ m2, but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which in the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than in tension.
Ductility is the ability of material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.
Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by fist scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness that their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.
Creep resistance is the resistance to a gradual permanent change of shape, and it becomes especially important at higher temperatures. A successful research has been made in materials for machine parts that operate at high temperatures and under high tensile forces without gradually extending, for example the parts of plane engines.

__________________________________________________________________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. жесткий

  2. хрупкий

  3. постепенный

  4. ковкость

  5. плотность

  6. прочность

  7. жесткость

  8. напряжение

    1. gradual

    2. density

    3. strength

    4. rigid

    5. stress

    6. ductility

    7. stiffness

    8. brittle


II. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Мера сопротивления деформации

  2. Жесткая конструкция

  3. Прочность на сжатие

  4. способность материала деформироваться не разрушаясь

  5. поглощать энергию путем деформации

  6. постепенное изменение формы

  7. повышение температуры

  8. высокие растягивающие усилия


III. Fill in the missing words:

  1. The ability of material to deform without breaking is…

  2. Density is the amount of … in a unit …

  3. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple … or …

  4. Brittle materials have low….

  5. Materials that are not ductile are…


IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is density of materials?

2. What are the units of density?

3. What are the densities of water, aluminium and steel?

4. What is stiffness?

5. What is strength?

6. Why is fracture strength always greater than yield strength?

7. What is ductility? Give the examples of ductile materials. Give the

examples of brittle materials.

8. What is toughness?

9. What properties of steel are necessary for the manufacturing of a) springs,

b) car body parts, c) bolts and nuts, d) cutting tools?

10. Where is aluminium mostly used because of its light weight?










Topic 3. Machine-tools

___________________________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Machine-tools – станки

Electrically driven – с электроприводом

Shape – форма

Work piece – деталь

Accurate – точный

Development – развитие

To allow – позволять, разрешать

Interchangeable – взаимозаменяемый

Facility – приспособление

Relative – относительный

Amount – количество

Fluid – жидкость

To lubricate – смазывать

Erosion – электроискровая обработка

Discharge – разряд

By means of – посредством

Beam – луч

Drilling – сверление

Flexible – гибкий

Range – ассортимент, диапазон



Machine-tools

Machine-tools are used to shape metals and other materials. The material to be shaped is called the work piece. Most machine-tools are now electrically driven. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools: they were an important element in the development of mass-production processes, as they allowed individual parts to make in large numbers so as to be interchangeable.

All machine-tools have facilities for holding both the work piece and the tool, and for accurately controlling the movement of the cutting tool relative to the work piece. Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat, and use cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) for cooling and lubrication. Machine-tools usually work materials mechanically but other machining methods have been developed lately. They include chemical machining, spark erosion

To machine very hard materials to any shape by means of a continuous high-voltage spark (discharge) between an electrode and a work piece. Other machining methods include drilling using ultrasound, and cutting by means of a laser beam. Numerical control of machine-tools and flexible manufacturing systems has made it possible for complete systems of machine-tools to be used flexibly for the manufacture of a range of products.

__________________


Tasks:

I. Match the words in English and in Russian:


  1. spark

  2. to hold

  3. possible

  4. to develop

  5. shape

  6. drilling

  7. to include

  8. fluid



  1. включать

  2. развивать

  3. жидкость

  4. искра

  5. возможно

  6. сверление

  7. форма

  8. держать


II. Find the English equivalents in the text:

  1. Обрабатываемый материал

  2. Электропривод

  3. Более точный

  4. Отдельные детали

  5. Процесс массового производства

  6. Приспособления для держания резца и детали

  7. Операции по механической обработке детали

  8. Высоковольтный разряд

  9. Резание с помощью лазерного луча

  10. Гибкие производительные системы

  11. Проворачивать деталь вокруг оси

  12. Двигать в сторону, двигать по направлению к детали

  13. Глубина резания

  14. Непрерывное вращение детали

  15. Движение резца вдоль станины


III. Answer the questions:

  1. What are machine-tools used for?

  2. How are most machine-tools driven nowadays?

  3. What facilities have all machine-tools?

  4. How are the cutting tool and the work piece cooled during machining?

  5. What other machining methods have been developed lately?

  6. What systems are used now for the manufacture of a range of products?

  7. What parts can be made with lathe?

  8. How can the cutting tool be moved on a lathe?

  9. Can we change the speeds of work piece rotation in a lathe?

  10. What is numerical control of machine tools used for?


IV. Answer the questions, looking at the scheme below:

  1. What processes of material technology do you know?

  2. How many machine- tools can you name? What are they?

  3. What products can be manufactured by machine-tools?


Material technology


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Topic 4. The lathe. Engine lathe


















Topic 4. The lathe


Vocabulary:

Versatile- универсальный

Lathe- токарный станок

Bed- станина

Headstock- передняя бабка

Tailstock- задняя бабка

Carriageкаретка

Spindle - шпиндель

Revolve- вращать

Support- поддерживать

Rotate- вращать, чередоваться

Speed- скорость


The lathe

The most useful and versatile machine in the workshop is a turning machine (lathe); As the name shows, it is used for turning different objects and parts. However, besides turning many other operations can be performed on a lathe, such as drilling, reaming, tapping and by employ­ing suitable adapters operations of milling and grinding may be carried out without difficulty.

The lathe consists of the following basic parts: the bed, the headstock, the tailstock, the saddle (or carriage) - with the tool-post and the driving and gear mechanism.

The bed is a base for supporting and aligning the components of the machine. At the opposite ends of the bed there is a headstock and a tailstock.

The headstock carries a pair of bearings in which the spindle rotates. The spindle holds the workpiece and rotates with it. The headstock also incorporates the driving and gear mechanism. The parts of this mechanism are the feed shaft and the change gear box. The feed shaft is designed for driving the tool-post, and the change gear box drives the spindle of the lathe at various speeds. Tapered centres in the nose of the spindle and of the tailstock hold the work firmly between them. The tool-post is driven along the saddle either forwards or backwards at a fixed and uniform speed. That is why the operator is capable of making accurate cuts and giving the work a good finish.

There are many types of lathes but all of them operate on the same basic principle: the workpiece is revolved by power and a cutting tool is brought against it, removing metal in the form of chips.

________________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents in the text:

1. Деталь закреплена

2. Разная скорость

3. Компоненты станка

4. Вращать деталь

5. Подача коленчатого вала

6. Движение резца


II. Fill in the gaps using the next words:

Turning, along, bearings, lathes, supporting, designed.


  1. The bed is a base for ___________ and aligning the components of the machine.

  2. The headstock carries a pair of _____________ in which the spindle rotates.

  3. The feed shaft is ____________ for driving the tool-post.

  4. The tool-post is driven ___________ the saddle.

  5. There are many types of ___________.

  6. The lathe is used for ____________ different objects and parts.


III. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

    1. Lathe

    2. forwards

    3. suitable

    4. workpiece

    5. The bed

    6. carriage

    7. hold

    8. revolve

      1. деталь

      2. станина

      3. держать

      4. вращать

      5. вперед

      6. токарный станок

      7. каретка

      8. подходящий


IV. Are these statements true or false?

1. The main components of the lathe are: the bed, the headstock, the saddle and the driving and gear mechanism. 2. The headstock and the tailstock are located at one end of the bed. 3. The tool-post is mounted on the bed. 4. The tool-post carries the tool. 5. The spindle holds and rotates the work. 6. The function on the change gear box is driving the headstock spindle. 7. The tool-post is driven by the feed-shaft. 8. All lathes operate in the same principle: the tool is fixed and the work is moved to and fro against in a horizontal plane.


V. Finish the scheme using the text:

hello_html_m4d7f0f9b.gif

(for driving the tool- (for driving the headstock

post on the addle) spindle)


Topic 5 . Engine lathe.



Vocabulary:

Variety- разновидность

Apron- фартук

Gearbox- коробка передач

to rotate- вращать

lever- рычаг

to mount- устанавливать

guide ways- направляющие

to control- контролировать


Engine lathe

  1. The lathe is the most commonly used machine-tool. It is used for great variety of metal operations, such as turning, drilling, screw cutting and many others.

  2. The principal units of the lathe are the bed, the headstock, the tailstock and the carriage with the apron.

  3. The bed is the base of any machine-tool and it is made of grey iron casting on which the tailstock slide along special guide ways. The headstock is also located and bolted on the bed.

  4. The headstock contains the spindle and the speed gearbox. The spindle is the part of the machine to which power is applied to rotate the work. The changing of the spindle speed is effect by levers.

  5. The tailstock consists of a casting fitted to the bed. The function of the tailstock is to support one end of the work turned between centers and to mount the tools.

  6. The carriage of the lathe, which carries the tool, is made up of two principal parts: the saddle and the apron. The saddle travels along the guideways of the bed. The apron represents the front wall of the carriage. On the front of the apron are mounted the handles and levers by which the actions of the tool are controlled.

________________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. engine lathe

  2. turning

  3. drilling

  4. screw cutting

  5. headstock

  6. tailstock

  7. lever

  8. saddle

  9. apron

  10. carriage

  11. guideways

  12. handle

    1. задняя бабка

    2. фартук

    3. каретка

    4. передняя бабка

    5. сверление

    6. токарно-винторезный станок

    7. нарезание винтов

    8. рычаг

    9. рукоятка

    10. суппорт

    11. обточка

    12. направляющие


II. Read and translate the international words:

Metal, operation, principal, function, centre, control, special, bolt.


III. Match the sentences using the appropriate ending of it:

1. The unit that contains the spindle and a) the carriage;

the gearbox is called… b) the headstock;

2. The units that support one end of c) the tailstock.

the work turned between centre is

called… a) the carriage;

3. The unit which carries the tool is b) the bed;

called… c) the headstock.

4. The unit on which the saddle and

the tailstock slide is called… a) guide ways;

5. The units, by which the actions of b) the saddle and the apron;

the tool are controlled, are called… c) levers and handles.

IV. Answer the questions:

1. What operations is the engine lathe used for?

2. What are the principal units of the lathe?

3. What units are located on the bed?

4. What is the function of the tailstock?

5. Where are the handles and levers mounted?


V. Name all the parts of the engine lathe:


hello_html_md5aba10.png


Topic 6. The Hydraulic Grinder.


Vocabulary:

Grinder- шлифовальный станок

hole- отверстие

massive- массивный

hydraulic- гидравлический

wheel- колесо

cross-feed- поперечная подача

surface- поверхность


The Hydraulic Grinder


1. This universal grinder is designed for grinding cylindrical holes and faces of workpieces. It is widely used for lot production in various types of machine building plants.
2. Machines of this type are of very massive construction, but they are designed in such a way that they can be operated as easily as machines of smaller sizes.

3. They are hydraulically operated and controlled by a single lever located at the front end of the machine. This single lever controls all functions of the machine including all movements of the wheel slide, cross-feed, starting and stopping the work of the spindle.

4. The wheel spindle is driven by a V-belt from a motor located on a bracket on the wheel slide. The cross-feed for the wheel slide is operated by a hydraulic unit.

5. The wheel head is clamped on the top surface of the table, setting up the grinder, the wheel head can be adjusted in a longitudinal direction to suit the length of the workpiece.

__________________________________________________________________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents to Russian words and word-combinations:

  1. grinder

  2. lever

  3. wheel slide

  4. cross-feed

  5. wheel spindle

  6. bracket

  7. wheel head

  8. to clamp

  9. to set-up

  10. to adjust

  11. longitudinal direction

  12. workpiece

    1. кронштейн

    2. заготовка

    3. продольное направление

    4. налаживать станок

    5. регулировать

    6. шлифовальный станок

    7. шлифовальный суппорт

    8. рычаг

    9. поперечная подача

    10. шлифовальная головка

    11. шпиндель шлифовального круга

    12. зажимать


II. Match the sentences using the appropriate ending of it:

I. The universal grinder is… a) a machine of small sizes

2. All functions of the machine b) a machine of very massive

are operated by… construction.


3. A V-belt from a motor drives… a) the wheel spindle;


4. On the top of the surface table there is… b) the wheel head;

c) the single lever

III. Answer the questions:

1. What operation is the universal grinder designed for?

2. What mechanism does the movements of the wheel slide control?

3. By what unit is the cross-feed for the wheel slide operated?

4. Where is the wheel head clamped?

Topic 7. Dies

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Range — диапазон

Inexpensive — недорогой

To permit — позволять

Common — обычный

Tungsten — вольфрам

Ingredient — ингредиент

Diamond — алмаз

Tips — наконечники

Ceramic — керамический

Truing — правка, заточка

Die — матрица, штамп

Matrix — матрица

To employ — применять

to pierce - протыкать

Wire - проволока

To draw — волочить, тащить

Thread — резьба

Hardened — закаленный

To lubricate — смазывать

To screw — привинчивать

Outside — снаружи

Inside — внутри




Dies

Dies are tools used for the shaping solid materials, especially those employed in the press working of cold metals.

In presswork, dies are used in pairs. The smaller die, or punch, fits inside the larger die, called the matrix or, simply, the die. The metal to be formed, usually a sheet, is placed over the matrix on the press. The punch is mounted on the press and moves down by hydraulic or mechanical force.

A number of different forms of dies are employed for different operations. The simplest are piercing dies (пробивной штамп), used for punching holes. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single or compound bends. A combination die is designed to perform more press. A progressive die permits successive forming operations with the same die. In coining, metal is forced to flow into two matching dies, each of which bears an engraved design.

Wiredrawing Dies

In the manufacture of wire, a drawplate (волочильная доска) is usually employed. This tool is a metal plate containing a number of holes, successively less in diameter and known as wire dies. A piece of metal is pulled through the largest die to make a coarse wire. This wire is then drawn through the smaller hole, and then the next, until the wire is reduced to the desired measurement. Wiredrawing dies are made from extremely hard materials, such as tungsten carbide or diamonds.

Thread-Cutting Dies

For cutting threads on bolts or on the outside of pipes, a thread-cutting die (резьбонарезная плашка) is used. It is usually made of hardened steel in the form of a round plate with a hole in the centre. The hole has a thread. To cut an outside thread, the die is lubricated with oil and simply screwed onto an unthreaded bolt or piece if pipe, the same way a nut is screwed onto a bolt. The corresponding tool for cutting an inside thread, such as that inside a nut, is called a tap (метчик).

________________________________________________________________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Удалять механическую стружку

  2. острый режущий край

  3. содержание углерода

  4. режущая способность

  5. сталь для скоростного резания

  6. правка шлифовальный кругов

  7. гидравлическое или механическое давление

  8. различные формы штампов


II. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. drawplate

  2. tip

  3. thread

  4. force

  5. sheet

  6. piercing die

  7. coining

  8. tap

    1. резьба

    2. лист

    3. чеканка

    4. волочильная доска

    5. метчик

    6. наконечник

    7. пробивной штамп

    8. сила


III. Fill in the gaps:

      1. Dies are tools used for ________ solid materials.

      2. _______ are used for punching holes.

      3. Bending and folding dies are designed to make single

or compound________.

4. A piece of ________ is pulled through the largest _______ to make

a coarse wire.

5. __________ dies are made from extremely hard materials.

6. The corresponding tool for cutting _________ thread.


IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is the main function of dies?

2. What operations are dies employed for?

3. What production can be produced with the help of dies?

4. What are the principal parts of dies?


V. Translate the sentences into English:

  1. Все резцы должны иметь острую режущую кромку.

  2. Во время резания режущий инструмент и деталь имеют высокую температуру и должны охлаждаться.

  3. Углеродистые стали часто используются для изготовления резцов.

  4. Для различных операций используются различные штампы.

  5. Волочильные доски делаются из очень твердых материалов.





















Topic 8. The Plastic age.

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

carbolic acid-карболовая кислота

shellac- шеллак

formaldehyde- формальдегид

versatility- гибкость

twist- крутить

bend- гнуть

ply- закручивать в веревку

airy foam- пенопласт

lab- лаборатория

link- соединять

button- пуговица, кнопка


The Plastic age.

It’s in our homes. It’s the most common material in the workplace. Sometimes it’s even in our bodies. We may be moving into the Information Age, but it’s hard to believe that we are not living in the Plastic age.

The very name “plastic” means versatility. You can bend it, mould it, model it, twist it and ply it in a number of different ways. The finished product can be soft and airy foam or a hard and strong compound rivalling the sturdiest metal alloys. In its many forms, plastic has forever changed the way we live.

The first in the long line of man-made plastics was called Bakelite, after its inventor, Leo Baekeland. Many years of work in his chemistry lab in Yonkers, New York, led him in 1907 to the invention of the first synthetic polymer (plastic), made by linking small molecules together to make large ones.

Baekeland made his new material by mixing the carbolic acid (phenol) with the strong—smelling formaldehyde to make a third material that was nothing like the original two. It turned out to be a substance that would change the world.

Some of the early uses for plastic were to make things like radio cabinets, buttons, billiard balls, pipe-stems, toilet seats, airplane parts and, the object of Baekeland’s research, shellac. Baekelands trick was to take the resin produced by the two chemicals and heat it under pressure to produce a soft solid that could be moulded and hardened or powdered and set under pressure. With this innovation, the plastic revolution was under way.

____________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents:

  1. новый материал

  2. химическая лаборатория

  3. синтетический полимер

  4. соединение молекул

  5. под давлением

  6. использование пластмассы

  7. изготовление пуговиц

  8. химический элемент.


  1. True or false:

  1. The very name “plastic” means hardness.

  2. The invention of plastic was in 1907.

  3. The inventor was Tom Baekeland.

  4. He made his new material by mixing phenol with shellac.

  5. Plastic hasn’t changed the way we live.

  6. Airy foam is the metal alloy.


III. Answer the questions:

      1. What properties of plastics do you know?

      2. Who was the first inventor of plastic?

      3. What is the other name of plastic?

      4. What is the role of plastic in our days?

      5. How many things made of plastics can you name?



IV. Make the scheme of:

  1. Bakelite,

  2. Shellac:


hello_html_m1f333743.gif




    1. Read and translate the international words:

group, combination, organic element, finished state, forming, commercial use, compromise, efficient production , mechanical requirement, substitute material, natural product, transportation, structural part.










Topic 9. Hero of Alexandria

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Invent-изобретать

Pump-насос

Weight-вес

Effort-усилие

Pulley-ролик

Screw-болт, винт

Entertain- развлекать


HERO OF ALEXANDRIA.

About sixty years after the death of Alexandria the hero was born. Nobody knows the exact date of his birth, but according to the best authorities, he lived about 150 B. C. In addition to being a great mathematician, he invented the siphon, the gearwheel, the, the water clock and the steam engine.

His book on mechanics translated into Arabic was carefully studied by mechanics and engineers of the sixteenth century. In this remarkable book Hero lists and describes five simple ways by which an unusually heavy many be lifted and moved with minimum effort. These five principles form the basis of all the machinery in the world today and though described in detail by Hero their practical application to machinery did not come about for more than a thousand years. They are: the lever, the wheel and axle, the, the wedge, the.

While it is true that the invention of the screw is attributed to Archimedes and the man, who showed for the first time that all machinery is based on these five important principles, and how to apply these principles to machinery – such as it was in these early times.

Neither he nor anyone else of his time realized the importance of these inventions. Hero’s book on pneumatics, which was translated into Italian in 1549 and later into English, described more then seventy totally useless inventions, most of which had important basic principles. Their main function was to entertain.

____________________


Tasks:


  1. Find these words in the text. Read and translate them:

Mathematician, authorities, mechanics, engineer, principle, to list, to lift, pneumatics, to apply, function, minimum, practical.


  1. True or false:

  1. About seventy years after the death of Alexandria the hero was born.

  2. He invented the siphon, the gearwheel, the, radio and the steam engine.

  3. His book on mechanics was studied by mechanics and engineers of the sixteenth century.

  4. He describes four simple ways by which an unusually heavy many be lifted and moved with minimum effort.

  5. The invention of the screw is attributed to Archimedes.

  6. Hero’s book on pneumatics described more then seven totally useless inventions.


  1. Translate into English:

    1. тяжелый вес

    2. важные принципы

    3. полезные изобретения

    4. великий математик

    5. практическое применение

    6. применять принципы

    7. главная функция

    8. книга по механике



Topic 10. Materials a car is made of

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

windscreen- лобовое стекло

headlight- передняя фара

tyre- шина

rubber- резина

body- кузов

steering wheel- руль

rear-view mirror- зеркало заднего вида

engine- двигатель

piston- поршень

valve- клапан


Materials a car is made of

A car is made of different materials. The windscreen, for example, is made of glass.

The headlights are also made of glass. The tyres are made of rubber. They are filled with air.

The air in the tyres is compressed. The body is made of metal. The metal is painted. The steering wheel is made of plastic. The mirrors are made of plastic and glass. This car has two mirrors. The rear-view mirror is fixed to the roof. The wine mirror is fixed to the door.

The engine is made of different metals. The pistons are made of aluminium and the valves are made of steel. The springs are also made of steel.

___________________



Tasks:

    1. Find in the text the sentences to the Fig.1:


hello_html_3105b2c5.png



II. Find Russian equivalents to English words:


  1. air

  2. glass

  3. steel

  4. aluminium

  5. rear-view mirror

  6. windscreen

  7. rubber

  8. roof

    1. алюминий

    2. лобовое стекло

    3. резина

    4. крышка

    5. воздух

    6. зеркало заднего вида

    7. стекло

    8. сталь


III. Fill in the gaps:

      1. The headlights are also made of …….

      2. The tyres are made of …….

      3. The body is made of ……

      4. The engine is made of …… metals.

      5. The springs are also made of ……

      6. The steering wheel is made of ……

      7. This car has …… mirrors.


IV. Call the materials a car is made of:


hello_html_614c505e.png


V. Learn by heart the materials a car is made of.







Topic 11. Automobile Production

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:


requirement- потребность

efficiency- работоспособность

intend- предназначать

safe- безопасный

solution- решение

quality- качество

rapid- быстрый

gearbox- коробка передач

brake- тормоз

steering system- система управления

convenience- удобство


Automobile production

Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars, so they should know that the automobile comprises the following phases:

1. Designing

2. Working out the technology of manufacturing processes

3. Laboratory tests

4. Road tests

5. Mass production (manufacturing)

Why is it necessary to know all these facts? It is important to know them as before the automobile (car or truck) is into a mass production, it should be properly designed and the automobile must meet up-to-date requirements.

What are these requirements? The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, easy of maintenance and pleasant appearance.

In order to obtain’ all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date methods of designing cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials. Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal solution problems.

But before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to tests, first in the plant’s laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality control in road tests. Only then the car is put into mass production. Why are these tests, required? What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable brakes and steering system, as well as pleasant appearance. Also it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.

_____________________


Tasks:

I. Find Russian equivalents to English words:

1. Mechanical engineer a. долгий срок службы

2.to deal with b. запустить в массовое производство

3. designing cars c.подвергать испытаниям

4. To put into mass production d.плавное сцепление

5. long service life e. отвечать современным требованиям

6. driving safety f. Иметь дело (с чем-либо)

7. To meet up-to- date demands g. надежные тормоза и рулевое управление

8. smooth-acting clutch h. безопасность езды

9. Silent gearbox I. бесшумная коробка передач

10. Dependable brakes and steering system j. инженер-механик


II. Complete the sentences:

1. The cars are subjected to road tests in order to …

2. The car must have the following units …

3. The car must have the following qualities …


III. Translate into English:

  1. безопасность

  2. решение

  3. сокращать время

  4. все удобства

  5. высокая работоспособность

  6. грузовик

  7. современные потребности.


IV. Answer the questions:

1. What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?

2. What requirements must the automobile meet?

3. Why are cars subjected to road tests?

4. What qualities are required of the automobile?

5. Why is it important for the specialists in automobile industry to know computing methods?












Topic 12. Components of the automobile

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

chassis- шасси

power plant- силовая передача

light- фара

wheel- колесо

axle- ось

frame- рама

cardan shaft- карданный вал

pushes down- давить

clutch- сцепление


Components of the automobile

1. Basically, the automobile consists of three parts: the power plant, or the engine, the chassis and the body. To these accessories: the heater, lights, radio, speedometer and other devices.

2. The power plant or engine is the source of power that makes the wheels rotate and the car move. In includes electric, fuel, cooling and lubricating systems. Most automobile engines have six or eight cylinders.

3. The chassis consists of a power train, frame with axles, wheels and springs. The chassis includes brakes and steering system.

4. The power train carries the power from the engine to the car wheel and contains the clutch, gearbox, propeller or cardan shaft, differential and the final.

5. The clutch is a friction device connecting (or disconnecting) engine crankshaft to the gears in the gearbox. It is for freeing gearbox from the engine and is controlled by the clutch pedal.

6. Brakes are important mechanisms of the car. They are used to sic or stop the car. Most braking systems in use today are hydraulic. They are operated by the brake pedal. When the driver pushes down on the brake pedal, they are applied and the car stops.

_________________


Tasks:

I. Complete the sentence using the appropriate ending:


1. The mechanism used for stopping the car is…. a) clutch;

2. The mechanism used for changing the speed is… b) gearbox;

c) Brakes.

3. The mechanism used for connecting (or a) brakes;

disconnecting) the engine from the gearbox is… b) clutch;

c) Steering system.


4. The unit carrying the power from the engine a) power plant;

to the car wheels is… b) power train;

c) Chassis.

5. The instrument measuring the speed of the car is… a) heater;

b) Lights;

c) Speedometer.


II. Find English equivalents to Russian words and word-combinations:


  1. body a. тормоза срабатывают

  2. car wheels b.силовая передача

  3. power train c.главная передача

  4. power plant d.коленчатый вал двигателя

  5. springs e. нажимать на педаль

  6. Steering system f. силовая установка

  7. clutch g.колеса автомобиля

  8. final drive h.рама с осями

  9. engine crankshaft I.топливная система

  10. push down the pedal j.рулевая система

  11. brakes are applied k.сцепление

  12. frame with axles l.вспомогательные устройства

  13. fuel system m.система смазки

  14. lubricating system n.кузов

  15. accessories o.рессоры


III. Read and translate the international words:

Automobile, chassis, speedometer, electric, system, cylinder, cardan, control, hydraulic, pedal, accessories, differential.


IV. Answer the questions:

    1. What are the main basic parts of the automobile?

    2. What does the chassis consist of?

    3. What is the main function of chassis?

    4. What units does the power train contain?

    5. What is the function of the clutch?

    6. What is the function of gearbox?






V. Name all the parts of the automobile:


hello_html_m4942647.jpg



Topic 13. Carburation

__________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Vapour — пар

Evaporation of the fuel — испарение топлива

Float — feed chamber— поплавковая камера

Mixing chamber — смешивающая камера

Constant level — постоянный уровень

To pump — всасывать

Tank — бензобак

Float— поплавок

To be equipped — быть оснащённым

Accelerating pump — топливный насос

Levelroad driving — вождение на ровных поверхности

Ratio — соотношение

Acceleration — разгон

Choke — дроссель

Unvaporized fuel — жидкое топливо


Carburation

Air is mixed with the vapour of the petrol in the carburettor. To prevent the air and the carburettor from becoming too cold for successful evaporation of the fuel, the air for the carburettor is usually taken from a point close to a heated part of the engine. Modern carburettors are fitted with a so-called float- feed chamber and a mixing or spraying chamber. The first is a small chamber in which a small supply of petrol is maintained at a constant level. The petrol is pumped from the main tank to this chamber, the float rising as the petrol flows in until the desired level is reached, when the inlet closes. The carburettor is equipped with such devices as accelerating pumps and economizer valves, which automatically control the mixture ratio for efficient operation under varying conditions. Level-road driving at constant speed requires a lower ratio of petrol to air than that needed for climbing hills, for acceleration, or for starting the engine in cold weather. When a mixture extremely rich in petrol is necessary, a valve known as the choke cuts down the air intake, permitting large quantities of unvaporized fuel to enter the cylinder.

______________


Tasks:

I. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Обогреваемая часть двигателя

  2. Распылительная камера

  3. Снабжение топлива

  4. Экономичные клапаны

  5. Разнообразные условия

  6. Запуск двигателя

  7. Чрезмерно обогащенная топливом смесь

  8. Воздушная заслонка

  9. Поступить в цилиндр


II. Fill in the gaps using the appropriate word:

Pumps, chamber, petrol, tank, air, valves, carburetors, choke.

  1. Air is mixed with the vapour of the ……in the carburettor.

  2. Modern …… are fitted with a so-called float- feed ……

  3. The petrol is pumped from the main …… to the ……

  4. The carburettor is equipped with such devices as accelerating ……

and economizer …….

  1. a valve known as the …… cuts down the …… intake.



III. Answer the questions:

1. What is carburation?

2. What does the air do with the petrol?

3. What is the structure of carburation?

4. What is the function of float — feed chamber?

5. What is the purpose of mixing chamber?

6. Describe the process of pumping of petrol.

7. What is the function of the choke?


  1. Fill in the scheme:


Carburation


Float-… chamber


Mixing-… chamber

hello_html_m37d303df.gifhello_html_m37d303df.gif

The function of the chamber



The function of the chamber









Topic 14. Ignition. Lubrication and Cooling System

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Charge — заряд

Spark plug— катушка зажигания

Porcelain — фарфор

Mica — слюда

To be grounded — быть заземлённым

Circuit— цепь

Current — ток

Coil— катушка, спираль

Interrupter cam — прерыватель

Condenser — конденсатор

High — voltage current — ток высокого напряжения

Winding — намотка

Wiring — электропроводка

Accessories — вспомогательные устройства

Windscreen wipers — стеклоочистители

Forcefeed system — система питания

Crankshaft — коленчатый вал

Explosion — зажигание

Melting point — уровень плавления

Gear — шестерня


Ignition.

The mixture of air and petrol vapour delivered to the cylinder from the carburettor is compressed by the first upstroke of the piston. This heats the gas, and the higher temperature and pressure facilitate ignition and quick combustion. The next operation is that of igniting the charge by a spark plug.

One electrode is insulated by porcelain or mica; the other is grounded through the metal of the plug, and both form part of the secondary circuit of an induction system.

The principal type of ignition now commonly used is the battery-and-coil system. The current from the battery flows through the coil and magnetizes the iron core. When this circuit is interrupted at the distributor points by the interrupter cam, a current is produced in the primary coil with the assistance of the condenser. This induces a high-voltage current in the secondary winding.

This secondary high voltage is needed to cause the spark to jump the gap in the spark plug. The spark is directed to the proper cylinder by the distributor, which connects the secondary coil to the spark plugs in the several cylinders in their proper firing sequence. The interrupter cam and distributor are driven from the same shaft, the number of breaking points on the interrupter cam being the same as the number of cylinders.

The electrical equipment controls the starting of the engine, its ignition system, and the lighting of the car. It consists of the battery, a generator for charging it when the engine is running, a starter and the necessary wiring. Electricity also operates various automatic devices and accessories, including windscreen wipers, directional signals, heating and air conditioning, cigarette lighters, powered windows and audio equipment.

Lubrication

In the force-feed system, a pump forces the oil to the main crankshaft bearings and then through drilled holes in the crankpins. In the full-force system, oil is also forced to the connecting rod and then out to the walls of the cylinder at the piston pin.

Cooling

At the moment of explosion, the temperature within the cylinder is much higher than the melting point of cast iron. Since the explosions take place as often as 2,000 times per minute in each cylinder, the cylinder would soon become so hot that the piston, through expansion, would freeze in the cylinder. The cylinders are therefore provided with jackets, through which water is rapidly circulated by a small pump driven by a gear on the crankshaft or camshaft. During cold weather, the water is generally mixed with suitable antifreeze, such as alcohol, wood alcohol, or ethylene glycol.

To keep the water from boiling away, a radiator forms part of the engine- cooling system. Radiators vary in shape and style. They all have the same function, however, of allowing the water to pass through tubing with a large area, the outer surface of which can be cooled by the atmosphere. In air cooling of engine cylinders, various means are used to give the heat an outlet and carry it off by a forced draught of air.

__________________________________________________________________


Tasks:

I. Read and translate into Russian:

  1. the first upstroke of the piston

  2. facilitate ignition

  3. the proper firing sequence

  4. the lighting of the car

  5. various automatic devices

  6. directional signals

  7. cigarette lighters

  8. quick combustion

  9. a spark plug

  10. the secondary circuit

  11. the battery-and-coil system

  12. the primary coil

  13. the assistance of the condenser

  14. a high-voltage current

15. to cause the spark



II. True or false:

1. A pump forces water to the main crankshaft bearings.

2. Oil is also forced to the connecting rod.

3. The temperature within the cylinder is much smaller than the melting point of cast iron.

4. During warm weather, the water is generally mixed with suitable antifreeze.

5. To keep the water from boiling away, a radiator forms part of the engine- cooling system.

6. Radiators don’t vary in shape and style.


III. Translate into English:

    1. нагрев воздуха

    2. аудио оборудование

    3. система питания

    4. ток невысокого напряжения

    5. стеклоочистители

    6. охлаждаться в атмосфере

    7. в момент зажигания


IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is compressed by the first upstroke of the piston?

2. What is the principal type of ignition?

3. What is happened when the circuit is interrupted?

4. What is the secondary high voltage used for?

5. What is the function of the spark?

6. What does the electrical equipment control?

7. What is the purpose of lubricating?

8. What is the purpose of cooling system?

9. Describe the process of cooling.





Topic 15. The Power Transmission. The Clutch

__________________________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Storage battery-аккумуляторная батарея

Overload-перезагрузка

Flywheel-маховик

Coupling-сцепление

Power transmission-силовая передача

Rear-axle drive shaft-задняя ось вала

Friction clutch-жидкое сцепление

To rotate-вращаться

Fan-bladed disc-лопасть вентилятора

Fluid coupling-жидкое сцепление


The Power Transmission

The engine power is delivered first to the flywheel and then to the clutch.

From the clutch, which is the means of coupling the engine with the power transmission units, the power flows through the transmission and is delivered into the rear-axle drive gears, or differential, by means of the drive shaft and universal joints. The differential delivers the power to each of the rear wheels through the rear-axle drive shafts.

The Clutch

Some type of clutch is found in every car. The clutch may be operated by means of a foot pedal, or it may be automatic or semi-automatic. The friction clutch and the fluid coupling are the two basic varieties. The friction clutch, which depends on solid contact between engine and transmission, consists of: the rear face of the flywheel; the driving plate, mounted to rotate with the flywheel; and the driven plate, between the other two. When the clutch is engaged, the driving plate against the rear face of the flywheel. Engine power is then delivered through the contacting surfaces to the transmission.

Fluid coupling may be used either with of without the friction clutch.

When it is the sole means of engaging the engine to the transmission, power is delivered exclusively through an oil medium without any contact of solid parts. In this type, known as a fluid drive, an engine-driven, fan-bladed disc, known as the fluid flywheel, agitates the oil with sufficient force to rotate a second disc that is connected to the transmission. As the rotation of the second disc directly depends on the amount of engine power delivered, the prime result of fluid coupling is as automatic clutch action, which greatly simplifies the requirements for gear shifting.

_________________

Tasks:


I. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. Flywheel

  2. rear wheel

  3. solid contact

  4. clutch

  5. fluid coupling

  6. automatic clutch

  7. friction

  8. to deliver


    1. сцепление

    2. автоматическое сцепление

    3. сплошной контакт

    4. доставлять

    5. заднее колесо

    6. трение

    7. маховик

    8. жидкое сцепление

II. True or false:

      1. The engine power is delivered first to the flywheel and then to the clutch.

      2. The clutch may be operated by means of an automatic pedal.

      3. The friction clutch and the fluid coupling are the two basic varieties.

      4. The friction clutch depends on one contact between engine and transmission.

      5. Engine power is then delivered through the contacting surfaces to the transmission.

      6. Fluid coupling may be used either with of without the brake pedal.

      7. A third disc is connected to the transmission.


III. Complete the sentences:

1. An electric starter receiving its current from the ... ... .

2. From the clutch the power flows through the ...and is delivered into the... .

3. The clutch may be operated by means of a... ... .

4. Fluid coupling may be used with or without the ... ... .


IV. Answer the questions:

1. What is starter?

2. What is the function of starter?

3. Where does the starter receive a current from?

4. What is clutch?

5. What is the main function of the clutch?

6. What are the main types of the clutch?

7. What happens when the clutch is engaged?

8. Describe the process of coupling with the help of clutch?









Topic 16. The Running Gear. The Control System

___________________________________________________

Vocabulary:


Running gear- ходовой механизм

Wheel- suspension- подвеска

To attach- прикреплять

Spring- пружина, рессора

Shock absorbers- амортизатор

To suspend- подвешивать

Appreciably- значительно

Spring- steel bar- перекладина рессоры

Steerability- управляемость

To mount- подниматься

Booster- усилитель

To reduce- сократить

Foot brake- ножной тормоз

Internally- изнутри, внутренне

To expand- расширяться

Convex- выпуклый

Consave steel brake drum- вогнутый металлический тормозной барабан


The Running Gear


The running gear of the car includes the wheel-suspension system, the stabilizers, and the wheels and tyres. The frame of the car may be considered the integrating member of the running gear. It is attached to the rear axle and to the front wheels by springs. These springs, along with the axles, the control and support arms, and the shock absorbers, constitute the wheel-suspension system. In modern cars the front wheels are independently suspended from the frame in a manner that permits either wheel to change its plane without appreciably affecting the other. This type of front-wheel suspension is known popularly as independent suspension. The stabilizers consist of spring-steel bars, connected between the shock-absorber arms by levers, to decrease body roll and improve steerability.


The Control System

Steering is controlled by a land wheel, mounted on an inclined column and attached to a steering tube inside the column. The other end of the tube is connected to the steering gear, which is designed to provide maximum ease of the operation. Power steering, adapted for passenger cars in the early 1950s, is generally a hydraulic mechanism used as a booster to reduce the effort of steering.

A car has two sets of brakes: the hand or emergency brake and the foot brake. The emergency brake generally operates on the rear wheels only. The foot brake in modern cars is always of the four-wheel type, operating on Jill wheels. Hydraulic brakes on cars and hydraulic vacuum, air, or power brakes on lorries apply the braking force to the wheels with much less force on the brake pedal than is required with ordinary mechanical brakes. The wheel brakes are generally of the internally expanding type, in which a convex strip of material is forced against a

concave steel brake drum.

______________

Tasks:


I. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Система подвески

  2. Шины

  3. Прикрепляться к задней оси

  4. Передние колеса

  5. Независимо подвешены

  6. Независимая подвеска

  7. Контролировать рулем

  8. Гидравлический механизм

  9. Сила торможения


    1. Complete the sentences:

  1. Steering is controlled by…

  2. The runnni9ng gear of the car includes…

  3. A car has…

  4. The emergency brake operates…

  5. The stabilizers consist of…

  6. The frame of the car…


III. True or false:

    1. The running gear of the motor-car includes the wheel-suspension system.

    2. The frame is attached to the rear axle and to the front wheels by brakes.

    3. The stabilizers consist of spring-steel bars.

    4. Steering is controlled by a land wheel.

    5. Power steering is generally a hydraulic mechanism used as a booster to expend the effort of steering.

    6. A car has four sets of brakes.

    7. The emergency brake generally operates on the rear wheels.

    8. The foot brake in modern cars is always of the two-wheel type.


IV. Fill in the words used in the text:

        1. The wheel brakes

        2. Gear

        3. Body roll

        4. Steering

        5. The stabilizers

        6. The springs

  1. mounted on an inclined column.

  2. The other end of the tube is connected to the steering… .

  3. connected between the shock-absorber arms by levers, to decrease … and improve steerability.

  4. are generally of the internally expanding type.

  5. constitute the wheel-suspension system.


  1. Answer the questions:

    1. What is the running gear?

    2. What does it include?

    3. What is the function of the control system?

    4. What types of suspension do you know?


VI. Name the parts of the automobile:

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Topic 17. Famous people: Henry Ford ___________________________________________________

Vocabulary:


inventing- изобретение

assembly line- сборочный конвейер

to sell- продавать

inexpensive- недорогой

reliable- надежный

enormous- огромный

employer- работодатель

division of labor- разделение труда


Henry Ford (1863- 1947)

Most people credit Henry Ford with inventing the automobile. The fact is he did not – such a complex machine is the result of a combination of technologies develops by many people over time. He did, however, invent the assembly line, which revolutionized the way we make cars, and how much they cost.

In 1908, Ford’s company began selling his famous Model T for $850 each. The Model T was inexpensive for its day, and proved to be reliable and easy to operate. It quickly became vary popular; and soon Ford found he was unable to meet the enormous demand for his cars.

Ford’s solution was to invent a moving industrial production line. By installing a moving belt in his factory, employers would be able to build cars one piece at time, instead of one car at a time. This principle, called “division of labor”,

allowed workers to focus on doing one thing very well, rather then being responsible for a number of tasks.

Ford found his new system produced cars quickly and efficiently; so efficiently that it considerably lowered the cost of assembling the cars. He decided to pass these savings along to his customers, and in 1915 dropped the price of the Model T to $290. That year, he sold 1 million cars.

___________________

Tasks:

  1. Find the equivalents:

  1. развивать

  2. промышленный

  3. сосредоточивать внимание

  4. работодатель

  5. недорогой

  6. популярный

  7. управлять


    1. popular

    2. to focus

    3. to operate

    4. to develop

    5. enormous

    6. industrial

    7. employer


  1. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. результат сочетания технологий

  2. надежная в управлении

  3. огромный спрос

  4. разделение труда

  5. промышленная производственная линия

  6. цена сборки автомобиля


  1. Answer the questions:

  1. What was the invention of H. Ford?

  2. What is the assembly line?

  3. Why was the Model T very popular?

  4. Did Ford find his new system produced cars quickly and efficiently?

  5. How many cars did he sell in 1915?

  6. What was its price?


  1. Make a summary of the text using the scheme:
























Topic 18. The Pioneers

___________________________________________________


Vocabulary:

Reluctant- неохотный

to depart- отклоняться

influence- влияние

unique- уникальный

vibrationless- отсутствие вибрации

lightweight- легкий


The Pioneers

Karl Benz (1844-1929), the son of a railway engine-driver who died when Karl was two, studied engineering at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic. After various jobs he set up business, with successive partners in a very small way making two-stroke gas engines of his own design in 1880. Although he is entitled to be called the ‘‘inventor of the petrol car’’ he was reluctant to depart from his original design of belt-driven horseless carriage which sold well in 1890s.Other designers were called in, and after 1902 Benz had little influence on the development of the motor car.

Frederick William Lanchester (1868-1946), the son of an architect, made Britain’s first four-wheeled petrol car of wholly native design in 1895 with the help of his brother George. A small company was formed and production was begun late in 1899.Lanchester’s designs were always unique and ahead of their time; he was responsible for many innovations which became accepted some years later. Those include a vibrationless, fully balanced engine, splined shafts, full-pressure lubrication, lightweight pistons, disk brakes and more. ‘‘Doctor Fred’’ was also a pioneer authority and writer on aerodynamics, and for many years Consultant Engineer to the Daimler Co.

Henry Ford is usually credited with ‘‘inventing’’ mass-production, yet the idea originated many years earlier in the Connecticut clock trade and was developed in the America’s small-arms industry.

_______________


Tasks:


I. Read and translate the following international words:

Native, petrol, mass-production, design, vibration, balance, aerodynamics, industry.


II. Choose the right answer:

    1. Karl Benz

    2. Frederick William Lanchester

    3. Henry Ford

      1. He was the son of an architect.

      2. After 1902 he had little influence on the development of the motor car.

      3. He was the son of a railway engine-driver.

      4. He designed Model T.

      5. This man was the writer on aerodynamics.

      6. He studied engineering at the Karlsruhe Polytechnic.

      7. This man made Britain’s first four-wheeled petrol car.

      8. He invented the assembly line.


III. Translate into English:

  1. производство

  2. двигатель

  3. уникальный

  4. промышленность

  5. бензин

  6. вибрация

  7. аэродинамика

  8. изобретатель

  1. Answer the questions:

  1. What was K. Benz famous for?

  2. Were Lanchester’s designs of the cars always unique and ahead?

  3. Who was named “Doctor Fred”?

  4. What was H. Ford famous for?

  5. Do you know any other inventors and designers of the car?













































Тематический словарь


MACHINEBUILDING

(МАШИНОСТРЕНИЕ)







adjust регулировать

apron фартук (суппорта)

bed станина

bracket кронштейн

carriage суппорт

casting отливка

clamp зажимать

column колонна

control управлять

cross-rail поперечина (траверса)

drilling сверление

drive the motor приводить (в движение) мотор

engine lathe токарно-винторезный станок

face торец

facing торцевое точение

feed подача

finishing operation чистовая обточка

grey iron серый чугун

grinder шлифовальный станок

grinding шлифование

guideways направляющие

handle рукоятка

headstock передняя бабка

hole отверстие

hydraulic unit гидравлический агрегат

length длина

lover рычаг

longitudinal direction продольное направление

machine-tool станок

multidisk friction clutch многодисковая фрикционная муфта

mount устанавливать (монтировать)

move двигаться

rotate вращать(ся)

roughing operation черновая обточка

saddle салазки

screw cutting нарезание винтов

sep-up налаживать (станок)

side head боковой суппорт

single level единственный рычаг

sizes размеры

slide скользить

speed скорость

speed gearbox коробка переключения передач

spindle шпиндель

starting запуск

stopping остановка

suit соответствовать, подходить

support поддерживать

tailstock задняя бабка

the surfase of fhe table поверхность рабочего стола

tool инструмент

travel передвигаться, перемещаться

turning обточка

turning mill токарный станок

turret head револьверная головка

V-belt клинообразный приводной ремень

vertical turning mill вертикальный токарный станок

wheel head шлифовальный круг

wheel slide шлифовальный суппорт

wheel spindle шпиндель шлифовального круга

work (workpiece) заготовка (деталь)




AUTOMOBILE CONSTRUCTION

(АВТОМОБИЛЕСТРОЕНИЕ)


acceleration разгон

accessories вспомогательные устройства

axle ось

body кузов

bottom dead centre нижняя мёртвая точка

brake pedal тормозная педаль

brakes are applied тормоза срабатывают

car легковой автомобиль

car wheels колёса автомобиля

chassis шасси

clutch pedal педаль сцепления

combustion chamber камера сгорания

complete завершать

compression сжатие

comprise включать (в себя)

conveniences удобства

coling and lubricsting system системы охлаждения и смазки

crankshaft коленчатый вал

cylinder цилиндр (двигателя)

deal (with) иметь дело (с)

deliver подавать, доставлять

demand требовать

demands требования

dependable brakes надёжные тормоза

desing проектировать

develop разрабатывать, совершенствовать

device устройство

direction направление

driving safety безопасность вождения (движения)

each time каждый раз

ease of maintenance лёгкость техобслуживания

engine двигатель

engine crankshaft коленчатый вал двигателя

entire cycle полный цикл

exhaust выпуск отработанных газов

exhaust valve выпускной клапан

final drive главная передача

four-strouke engine четырёхтактный двигатель

frame рама

friction device фрикционное устройство

fuel топливо

fuel system топливная система

gerbox коробка передач

gears шестерни

heater отопитель

high effiency высокий к.п.д.

in otfer words другими словами, иначе говоря

include включать (в себя)

inlet valve впускной клапан

intake stroke такт впрыска топлива

intake valve впускной клапан

inted предназначать

internal combustion engine двигатель внутреннего сгорания

laboratory tests стендовые испытания

lights фары

long service life долгий срок службы

lower limit нижний предел

manufacture производитель

manufacturing производство

manufacturing processes производственные процессы

mass production (manufacturing) массовое производство

mixture смесь

mixture combustions оптимальные решения

motion движение

obtain получать, добиться

offer предлагать

optimal solutions оптимальные решения

piston movement движения поршня

pleasant appearance приятный внешний вид

power plant силовая установка

power stroke рабочий ход

power train силовая передача (трансмиссия)

produce производить

production производство, продукция

propeller shaft карданный вал

properly должным образом

push down on the pedal нажимать на педаль


























Список литературы:

1. Дгашев В.Н., Долматовская Е.Ю. Английский язык для студентов машиностроительных специальностей. - М.: Астрель,2004;

2. Агабекян И. П., Коваленко П. И. Английский для технических Вузов.

- Ростов- на - Дону: Феникс, 2002;

3. Шляхова В.А., Любимова Т. Д. Английский язык. – М.: Высшая школа, 2003.


22


Автор
Дата добавления 16.04.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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