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  • Иностранные языки

Учебное пособие по английскому языку "Технический английский"

библиотека
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Министерство образования и науки Самарской области

Государственное образовательное учреждение

среднего профессионального образования

Тольяттинский социально- экономический колледж











АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК



Учебное пособие

для студентов II курса специальности

280104 «Пожарная безопасность»







Автор-составитель: Е. А.Тимошкина





















2011




Пояснительная записка

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов второго курса специальности 280104 «Пожарная безопасность». Необходимость создания пособия была вызвана недостаточностью проработки тем в учебных пособиях, ориентированных на студентов технических специальностей. Обучение английскому языку в современном мире невозможно без инновационных методов обучения и текстов, отражающих современную жизнь общества. Тексты, представленные в пособии, предназначены для развития навыков и умений поискового и изучающего чтения.

Данное пособие включает в себя тематические тексты и задания к ним. Пособие может быть использовано преподавателем при работе со студентами на аудиторных занятиях, для организации внеаудиторной, самостоятельной работы студентов, а также при подготовке к контрольным работам и опросам.



















CONTENTS:


Introduction. Miracles of science…………………………………………………..4

Topic 1. Science and technology…………………………………………….…….5

Topic 2. Text A: Hero of Alexandria.................................................................…...9

Text B: Michael Faraday…………………………………………...…..11

Topic 3. The engineering profession...……………………………………………15

Topic 4. The main branches of engineering………………………………………19

Topic 5. Jobs in engineering………………………………………….…………..23

Topic 6. Engineering materials…………………………………….……………..27

Topic 7. Mechanical properties of materials……………………………………...30

Topic 8. The plastic age…………………………….…………………………….34

Topic 9. Mechanical engineering ………... …………………………………...…37

Topic 10. Electrical engineering……………………...……………………….…42

Topic 11. Thermodynamics…………………..……………………………….….48

Topic 12. Automation…………………………..………………………...….…...53

Topic 13. Types of automation………………………………….………………..57

Topic 14. Robots in manufacturing………………………………………….……61

Topic 15. Safety instruction………………………………………………………65

Литература…………………………………………….…………………………70










Introduction.


  1. Read and translate the text.


MIRACLES OF SCIENCE


We are living in an Age of Science. Our electrically lighted and steam-heated homes, our prepared and preserved food, our synthetic clothing are all the results of patient scientific research.

Whello_html_m2dcdcce1.pnge travel across lands in fast electric trains. We ride across bridges. We fly in huge airplanes over great distances of land and water. We send and receive messages by means of telephone, radio, and television. We know what is happening around the world by reading our newspapers and by listening to our radios.

Our doctors cure many diseases which resulted in death only a few years ago.

This Age of Science did not come suddenly. It has taken centuries of scientific research and invention to develop the civilization of the modern age.


2. Answer the following questions:

  1. What are the results of patient scientific research?

  2. In what ways can we send the messages?

  3. How much time has it taken to develop the civilization of the modern age?

  4. What is The Age of Science?





Topic 1. Science and technology

Vocabulary :

scientific and technological developments – достижения науки и техники
to drastically
change life – резко изменить жизнь
a view of. –
взгляд на
the Universe -
Вселенная
to be closely related –
быть тесно связанным
nuclear power –
атомная энергия
a space flight –
космический полет
application of scientific knowledge –
применение научных знаний
an advance in pure science –
прогресс в чистой науке
to create new opportunities for smth. –
создавать новые возможности для ч.-л.
to satisfy needs and desires –
для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей
to alter the environment – изменить окружающую среду

industrial technology- промышленная технология

development of power-driven machines- развитие паровых машин

to create the basis for smth.- создавать основу для чего- либо

according to one estimate – по одной оценке

increased scientific activity – возросшая научная активность

an invention- изобретение

to make a revolutionary discovery – сделать революционное открытие

to patent srnth. – запатентовать изобретение

to be based on science -основываться на науке

electrical lighting – электрическое освещение

to carry on an investigation – проводить исследование

an electric bulb - электрическая лампочка

a research laboratory – исследовательская лаборатория

modern technological research – современное научно- техническое исследование


In recent years, scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.
Today, science and technology
are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research.
Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives easier.
Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it
in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modem society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount.
The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who
made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water.
However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly
was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Edison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.
In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.







TASKS:


  1. Match English equivalents with the Russian ones:

  1. товары

  2. наука

  3. возможности

  4. освещение

  5. потребности

  6. ядерный

  7. открытие

  8. исследование

  9. прогресс

  10. применение


  1. Science

  2. Discovery

  3. Opportunities

  4. Lighting

  5. Nuclear

  6. Advance

  7. Research

  8. Goods

  9. Needs

  10. Application


  1. Are these statements true or false? Correct the false sentences:

  1. Science and technology are closely related.

  2. Revolution refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires.

  3. It was not until the 17th century that technology truly was based on modern science.

  4. The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together.

  5. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make their lives harder.



3. Translate into Russian:

1. In recent years, our views of life on the Earth, of ourselves as individuals and of the Universe have drastically changed. 2. Modern technology depends on advances in pure science. 3. Technology provides science with more accurate instruments for research. 4. Scientific developments create opportunities for satisfying needs and desires of the people and for making their life easier. 5. Throughout human history people invented tools, machines, materials and technologies and altered the environment.


4. Translate into English:

  1. Техника в более узком смысле означает промышленную технику,

создавшую основу современного общества.

  1. Современная техника началась с паровых машин, развития фабричной системы и массового производства товаров.

  2. Научная революция, начавшаяся в ХУI веке, вызвала появление новых идей, открытий и изобретений.

  3. Только в ХIХ веке техника стала действительно основываться на работах ученых.

  4. Первым действительно научно-техническим исследованием было исследование Фарадея.

5. Answer the questions:

I. What role has scientific and technological development played in man’s life?

2. What proves that science and technology are closely related today?

3. What does the term <> refer to?

4. What does the term <> mean?

5. How is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?








Topic 2. Text A: Hero of Alexandria

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Vocabulary:

Invent-изобретать

Pump-насос

Weight-вес

Effort-усилие

Pulley-ролик

Screw-болт, винт

Entertain- развлекать

Hero’s engine

About sixty years after the death of Alexandria the hero was born. Nobody knows the exact date of his birth, but according to the best authorities, he lived about 150 B. C. In addition to being a great mathematician, he invented the siphon, the gearwheel, the water clock and the steam engine.

His book on mechanics translated into Arabic was carefully studied by mechanics and engineers of the sixteenth century. In this remarkable book Hero lists and describes five simple ways by which an unusually heavy many be lifted and moved with minimum effort. These five principles form the basis of all the machinery in the world today and though described in detail by Hero their practical application to machinery did not come about for more than a thousand years. They are: the lever, the wheel and axle.

While it is true that the invention of the screw is attributed to Archimedes and the man, who showed for the first time that all machinery is based on these five important principles, and how to apply these principles to machinery – such as it was in these early times.

Neither he nor anyone else of his time realized the importance of these inventions. Hero’s book on pneumatics, which was translated into Italian in 1549 and later into English, described more then seventy totally useless inventions, most of which had important basic principles. Their main function was to entertain.


TASKS:


1.Find these words in the text. Read and translate them:

Mathematician, authorities, mechanics, engineer, principle, to list, to lift, pneumatics, to apply, function, minimum, practical.


2. Are these statements true or false?

  1. About seventy years after the death of Alexandria the hero was born.

  2. He invented the siphon, the gearwheel, the, radio and the steam engine.

  3. His book on mechanics was studied by mechanics and engineers of the sixteenth century.

  4. He describes four simple ways by which an unusually heavy many be lifted and moved with minimum effort.

  5. The invention of the screw is attributed to Archimedes.

  6. Hero’s book on pneumatics described more then seven totally useless inventions.


  1. Translate into English:

    1. тяжелый вес

    2. важные принципы

    3. полезные изобретения

    4. великий математик

    5. практическое применение

    6. применять принципы

    7. главная функция

    8. книга по механике



  1. Finish the sentences:

  1. The hero was born…

  2. He invented…

  3. His book on mechanics translated into…

  4. Hero lists and describes five simple ways by which…

  5. Hero’s book on pneumatics described…


5. Answer the questions:

  1. Who was the Hero of Alexandria?

  2. What did he invent?

  3. Is the invention of the screw attributed to Archimedes?

  4. How many useless inventions the Hero had?

  5. What does the basis of all the machinery in the world today form?


















Text B: Michael Faraday


Vhello_html_63012ed1.pngocabulary:

physicist -физик

apprentice -ученик

concept -концепция

optical -оптический

research - исследование

permanent -постоянный

current - ток

to refuse - отказываться


1. Michael Faraday, English experimental physicist, was born in 1791 in a poor family. The boy began to work as an apprentice at a bookbinder’s shop at an early age. One day a man entered the shop and found the boy so interested in such a difficult subject and gave him four tickets for the lectures at the Royal Institutions.

2. The boy went to the lectures and made notes of what he heard. At the end of the lecture he came to Sir Humphry Davy, the great English scientist, and showed him his notes. Davy was surprised. Later he made Faraday his assistant and helped him in his education.

3. Faraday had many important discoveries. Among his works are the concept of the magnetic field and the magnetic “lines of force”, production of new kinds of optical glass, and research on electrolysis.

4. Faraday produced the first mechanical motion by means of a permanent magnet and an electric current. This is the principle upon which the modem electric motor is based. Faraday was very modest and he loved his work more than honors. He refused to become President of the Royal Society and also refused to be knighted.

TASKS:

1. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. ассистент

  2. опыт

  3. физик

  4. заметки

  5. образование

  6. сила

  7. открытие

  8. ученый

    1. notes

    2. force

    3. scientist

    4. physicist

    5. education

    6. experience

    7. assistant

    8. discovery


2. Are these statements true or false?

1) Michael Faraday, English experimental physicist, was born in 1795 in a rich family.

2) Sir Humphry Davy made Faraday his assistant and helped him in his education.

3) Faraday had many unimportant discoveries.

4) Faraday produced the first electric current.

5) He refused to be knighted.


3. Fill in the gaps:

  1. Michael Faraday, English experimental …, was born in … in a … family.

  2. Faraday had many important … .

  3. Faraday produced the first mechanical … by means of a permanent … and an electric ….

  4. He … to become President of … and also refused to be ….

  5. Faraday was very … and he loved his … more than honors.


4. Answer the questions:

1. Who was M. Faraday?

2. What were his discoveries?

3. What is the principle upon which the modern electric motor is based?

4. Do you consider that his discoveries are very important now?


5. Make a report about one of the famous scientists.

Topic 3. The engineering profession


Vocabulary:

empirical - эмпирический

ohello_html_m120a3c6e.gifbservation - изучение

science - наука

to seek - искать

device - устройство

previously - ранее

steam engine паровой двигатель

horsepower- лошадиная сила

research - исследование

source - источник

proportion доля

science наука

industrial промышленный

application - применение

Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience.
The great engineering works of ancient times were constructed and operated largely by means of slave labor. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water, and animals were used to provide energy for some of these new devices. This led to the Industrial Revolution that began in the eighteenth century. First steam engines and then other kinds of machines took over more and more of the work that had previously been done by human beings or by animals. James Watt, one of the key figures in the early development of steam engines, devised the concept of horsepower to make his customers understand the amount of work his machines could
perform.
Since the nineteenth century both scientific research and practical application of its results have escalated. The mechanical engineer now has the mathematical ability to calculate the mechanical advantage that results from the complex interaction of many different mechanisms. He or she also has new and stronger materials to work with and enormous new sources of power. The Industrial Revolution began by putting water and steam to work; since then machines using electricity, gasoline, and other energy sources have become so widespread that they now do a very large proportion of the work of the world.


TASKS:


1. Match the parts of the sentences using the appropriate endings of them:

  1. Engineering is often defined as…

  2. The great engineering works of ancient times were…

  3. Many of the early branches of engineering were …

  4. The Industrial Revolution began by …

  5. James Watt devised the concept of horsepower …



  1. constructed and operated largely by means of slave labor.

  2. to make his customers understand the amount of work his machines could perform.

  3. putting water and steam to work.

  4. making practical application of theoretical sciences.

  5. based not on science but on empirical information.

2. Are these statements true or false?

  1. Engineering is defined as theoretical science.

  2. During the middle ages people used wind and water to provide energy.

  3. The engineering works of middle ages were operated by means of slave labor.

  4. The slave has the ability to calculate the mechanical advantage.

  5. Electricity and gasoline do a very large proportion of the work of the world.


3. Translate the words in brackets into English:

  1. The mechanical (инженер) now has the mathematical ability (вычислять) the mechanical advantage.

  2. During the Middle Ages people (начали) to seek (устройства) and (методы) of work.

  3. First steam (двигатели) and then other (виды) of machines took over more and more of the (работы).

  4. The (промышленная) Revolution began by putting (воду) and (пар) to work.

  5. Many of the early (отрасли) of engineering were (основаны) not on (науке).


4. Translate the phrases into English:

  1. первый двигатель

  2. методы работы

  3. научное исследование

  4. источник силы

  5. энергетические источники

  6. промышленная революция

  7. обеспечивать энергией

  8. ранние отрасли инженерии

  9. приводить к ч.-л.

  10. практическое применение



5. Answer the questions:

1. How is engineering often defined?

2. What kind of information were many of the early branches of engineering based on? Give some examples.

3. Name two important factors in the explosion of scientific knowledge in modern times.

4. What made people in the Middle Ages in Europe begin to experiment with new devices and methods of work?

5. What was the historical result of experimentation with different kinds of energy?

6. Who was James Watt? Why did he devise the concept of horsepower?

7. What advantages have scientific research and its applications given to the mechanical engineer?

8. What energy sources have come into common use since steam engines were developed at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?




















Topic 4. The main branches of engineering.


Vocabulary:

manufacture- производство

deals with- имеет дело с

generation-выработка

distribution-распространение

application-применениe

marine- морской

mining-горнодобывающий

harbour- порт (морской)

X-ray- рентген

equipment- оборудование

heating- отопление

refrigeration- охлаждение

installation- установка

high-tech- высокотехнологичный

service- обслуживание

to convert-превращать

to fill- заполнять


А)

Engineering is largely a practical activity. It is about putting ideas into action.

Civil engineering is concerned with making bridges, roads, airports, etc.

Mechanical engineering deals with the design and manufacture of tools and machines.

Electrical engineering is about the generation and distribution of electricity and its many applications.

Electronic engineering is concerned with developing components and equipment for communications, computing, and so on.

Mechanical engineering includes marine, automobile, aeronautical, heating and ventilating, and others.

Electrical engineering includes electricity generating, electrical installation, lighting, etc.

Mining and medical engineering belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical.

В)

Transport: Cars, trains, ships, and planes are all products of mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineers are also involved in support services such as roads, rail track, harbours, and bridges.

Food processing: Mechanical engineers design, develop, and make the machines and the processing equipment for harvesting, preparing and preserving the foods and drinks that fill the supermarkets.

Medical engineering: Body scanners, X-ray machines, life-support systems, and other high-tech equipment result from mechanical and electrical engineers combining with medical experts to convert ideas into life-saving and preserving products.

Building services: Electrical engineers provide all the services we need in our

homes and places of work, including lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration, and lifts.

Energy and power: Electrical engineers are concerned with the production and distribution of electricity to homes, offices, industry, hospitals, colleges and schools, and the installation and maintenance of the equipment involved in these processes.




hello_html_69c2c9ba.png














X-ray machine



TASKS:


1. Translate into Russian the words in bold type.

2. Complete the blanks in this diagram using information from the text A).

hello_html_578a5e5a.gif



  1. Match each item in column A with an appropriate item from column В and link the two in a sentence.

A


В

1

marine

a

air-conditioning

2

aeronautical

b

roads and bridges

3

heating and ventilating

с

body scanners

4

electricity generating

d

cables and switchgear

5

automobile

e

Communications and equipment

6

civil

f

ships

7

electronic

g

planes

8

electrical installation

h

cars and trucks

9

medical

i

power stations













4. Answer the questions:

  1. What is engineering?

  2. What kinds of engineering do you know?

  3. What kind of engineering do mechanical and electrical engineering belong to?

  4. What is engineering concerned with maintenance of the equipment?

  5. Where can you get the engineering profession?


5. Translate into English:

Инженерия- это важная практическая деятельность в наше время, так как она охватывает все сферы деятельности: создание дорог, эксплуатация оборудования, создание машин и т.д. Существует много видов инженерии, но есть такие сферы, которые одновременно относятся к нескольким видам, например, медицина. Она относится к механической и электрической.

Topic 5. Jobs in engineering


Vhello_html_6057210e.pngocabulary:

Team- команда

to create- создавать

Installation- установка

Production- производство

Efficient- эффективный

Fault- недостаток

Technician- техник

to test- тестировать

quality- качество

repair- ремонт

dies- штампы

Fitter- установщик, механик

Joining- соединение


Professional engineers may work as:

Design engineers: They work as part of a team to create new products and extend the life of old products by updating them and finding new applications for them. Their aim is to build quality and reliability into the design and to introduce new components and materials to make the product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.
Installation engineers: They work on the customer’s premises to install equipment produced by their company.

Production engineers: They ensure that the production process is efficient, that materials are handled safely and correctly, and that faults which occur in production are corrected. The design and development departments consult with them to ensure that any innovations proposed are practicable and cost-effective.


Just below the professional engineers are the technician engineers. They require a detailed knowledge of a particular technology — electrical, mechanical, electronic, etc. They may lead teams of engineering technicians.

Technician engineers and engineering technicians may work as:

Test/laboratory technicians: They test samples of the materials and of the product to ensure quality is maintained.

Installation and service technicians: they ensure that equipment sold by the company is installed correctly and carry out preventative maintenance and essential repairs.

Production planning and control technicians: They produce the manufacturing instructions and organize the work of production so that it can be done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently as possible.


The next grade is craftsmen/women. Their work is highly skilled and practical. Craftsmen and women may work as:

Toolmakers: They make dies and moulding tools which are used to punch and form metal components and produce plastic components such as car bumpers.

Fitters: They assemble components into larger products.

Maintenance fitters: They repair machinery.

Electricians: They wire and install electrical equipment.

Welders: They do specialized joining, fabricating and repair work.


hello_html_d02ca4f.png


TASKS:


1. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. мастер

  2. механик

  3. команда

  4. гарантировать

  5. представлять

  6. создавать

  7. знания

  8. быстро

  9. дешево

  10. производство


    1. fitter

    2. production

    3. cheaply

    4. knowledge

    5. craftsman

    6. quickly

    7. team

    8. to create

    9. to ensure

    10. to introduce


2. Name the jobs in engineering:

  1. They make dies and moulding tools.

  2. They ensure that the production process is efficient.

  3. They work as part of a team to create new products.

  4. They test samples of the materials to ensure quality is maintained.

  5. They do specialized joining, fabricating and repair work.

  6. They assemble components into larger products.

  7. They produce the manufacturing instructions.


3. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. детальные знания

  2. производственные правила

  3. установить оборудование

  4. пластиковые компоненты

  5. исправлять недостатки

  6. качественные товары

  7. отдел проектировки

  8. особая технология


4. What are the functions of:

  1. Toolmakers

  2. Installation engineers

  3. Test/laboratory technicians

  4. Electricians

  5. Production engineers


5. Answer the questions:

  1. What is engineering?

  2. What categories of engineers do you know?

  3. Who is a professional engineer? What are the jobs of The professional engineers?

  4. What profession is to test the materials?

  5. What job in engineering is closer to you? Why?

  6. Welders do specialized joining, fabricating and repair work, don’t they?












Topic 6. Engineering materials


Vocabulary:

Property- свойство

Ferrous- железосодержащий

Steel- сталь

Alloy- сплав

Proportion- соотношение, пропорция

Improve- улучшать

Tungsten- вольфрам

Brass- латунь

Plastic- пластмасса, пластик

Pressure- давление

Undergo- подвергаться


Engineers have to know the best and most economical materials to use. Engineers must also understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. There are two kinds of materials used in engineering — metals and non-metals. We can divide metals into ferrous and non-ferrous. The former contain iron and the latter do not contain iron. Cast iron and steel, which are both alloys, or mixtures of iron and carbon, are the two most important ferrous metals. Steel contains a smaller proportion of carbon than cast iron. Certain elements can improve the properties of steel and are therefore added to it. For example, chromium may be included to resist corrosion and tungsten to increase hardness. Aluminium, copper, and the alloys (bronze and brass) are common non-ferrous metals.

Plastics and ceramics are non-metals; however, plastics may be machined like metals. Plastics are classified into two types — thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped by heat and pressure but thermosets cannot be reshaped because they undergo chemical changes as they harden. Ceramics are often employed by engineers when materials which can withstand high temperatures are needed.


TASKS:


1. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Смесь железа с углеродом

  2. Некоторые элементы

  3. подвергаться химическим изменениям

  4. улучшать свойства стали

  5. противостоять коррозии.


2. Are these statements true or false?

1. Engineers must know the properties of engineering materials.

2. All materials can be classified as metals and non-metals.

3. Non-ferrous metals can contain iron.

4. Steels have to contain more carbon than cast iron.

5. Ceramics can resist high temperatures.

6. Thermosets may be machined.

7. Thermoplastics can be shaped and reshaped.


3. Complete the sentences:

  1. Plastics are classified into two types _____.

  2. Chromium may be included ____

  3. Plastics and ceramics are ____.

  4. Steel contains ____.

  5. Thermoplastics can be shaped ____.


4. Change the underlined words by the words from the text:

Model: There are two kinds of engineering materials.

There are two kinds of materials used in engineering.

1. Nickel steel is a mixture of iron, carbon and nickel. 2. Chromium can be added to steel to provide a good cutting edge. 3. There are many kinds of steel used in industry. 4. Ceramics are used by engineers where heat- resistant materials are needed. 5. Chromium steels resist corrosion.


5. Answer the questions:

1. What kinds of materials do you know?

2. What can be shaped by heat and pressure?

3. Are there any elements which improve the properties of steel?

4. What are non-ferrous metals?

5. How many kinds of materials are there in engineering?


6. Fill in the scheme:

Classification of Engineering Materials



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Topic 7. Mechanical Properties of Materials


Vocabulary:

Ability - способность

Amount - количество

Absorb - поглощать

Application - применение

Brittle - хрупкий

Car body – кузов автомобиля

Constituent - компонент

Crack - трещина

Creep resistance – устойчивость к ползучести

Definition - определение

Density - плотность

Ductility - ковкость

Failure -повреждение

Gradual - постепенный

Permanent - постоянный

Rigid - жесткий

To sink - тонуть

Square root – квадратный корень

Stiffness - жесткость

Strain - нагрузка

Strength - прочность

Stress - давление, напряжение

Tensile strength – прочность на разрыв

Toughness – прочность, стойкость

Yield strength – прочность текучести

Young modulus – модуль Юнга

Materials Science and Technology is the study of materials and how they can be fabricated to meet the needs of modem technology. Using the laboratory techniques and knowledge of physics, chemistry, and metallurgy, scientists are finding new ways of using metals, plastics and other materials.
Density (specific weight) is the amount of mass in a unit volume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic meter. The density of water is 1000 kg/rn3 but most materials have a higher density and sink in water. Aluminum alloys, with typical densities around 2800 kg/rn3 are considerably less dense that steels, which have typical densities around 7800 kg/rn3. Density is important in any application where the material must not be heavy.
Stiffness (rigidity) is a measure of the resistance to deformation such as stretching or bending. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple stretching or compression. It is the ratio of the applied force per unit area (stress) to the fractional elastic deformation (strain). Stiffness is important when a rigid structure is to be made.
Strength is the force per unit area (stress) that a material can support without failing. The units are the same as those of stiffness, MN/ m2, but in this case the deformation is irreversible. The yield strength is the stress at which a material first deforms plastically. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength, which in the stress at which it breaks. Many materials have a higher strength in compression than in tension.
Ductility is the ability of material to deform without breaking. One of the great advantages of metals is their ability to be formed into the shape that is needed, such as car body parts. Materials that are not ductile are brittle. Ductile materials can absorb energy by deformation but brittle materials cannot.
Toughness is the resistance of a material to breaking when there is a crack in it. For a material of given toughness, the stress at which it will fail is inversely proportional to the square root of the size of the largest defect present. Toughness is different from strength: the toughest steels, for example, are different from the ones with highest tensile strength. Brittle materials have low toughness: glass can be broken along a chosen line by fist scratching it with a diamond. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater toughness that their constituent materials. The example of a very tough composite is fiberglass that is very flexible and strong.
Creep resistance is the resistance to a gradual permanent change of shape, and it becomes especially important at higher temperatures. A successful research has been made in materials for machine parts that operate at high temperatures and under high tensile forces without gradually extending, for example the parts of plane engines.


TASKS:


1. Find English equivalents to Russian words:

  1. жесткий

  2. хрупкий

  3. постепенный

  4. ковкость

  5. плотность

  6. прочность

  7. жесткость

  8. напряжение

    1. gradual

    2. density

    3. strength

    4. rigid

    5. stress

    6. ductility

    7. stiffness

    8. brittle


2. Find English equivalents in the text:

  1. Мера сопротивления деформации

  2. Жесткая конструкция

  3. Прочность на сжатие

  4. способность материала деформироваться не разрушаясь

  5. поглощать энергию путем деформации

  6. постепенное изменение формы

  7. повышение температуры

  8. высокие растягивающие усилия


3. Fill in the missing words:

  1. The ability of material to deform without breaking is…

  2. Density is the amount of … in a unit …

  3. The Young modulus is a measure of the resistance to simple … or …

  4. Brittle materials have low….

  5. Materials that are not ductile are…



4. Finish the sentences and translate them into Russian:

  1. Toughness is the resistance…

  2. The Young modulus is a measure of…

  3. Materials Science and Technology is the study of…

  4. Many materials have a higher…

  5. Composites can be designed to have considerably greater…

  6. Density (specific weight) is the amount of…


5. Answer the questions:

1. What is density of materials?

2. What are the units of density?

3. What are the densities of water, aluminium and steel?

4. What is stiffness?

5. What is strength?

6. Why is fracture strength always greater than yield strength?

7. What is ductility? Give the examples of ductile materials. Give the

examples of brittle materials.

8. What is toughness?

9. What properties of steel are necessary for the manufacturing of a) springs,

b) car body parts, c) bolts and nuts, d) cutting tools?

10. Where is aluminium mostly used because of its light weight?











Topic 8. The Plastic age.


Vocabulary:

carbolic acid-карболовая кислота

shellac- шеллак

formaldehyde- формальдегид

versatility- гибкость

twist- крутить

bend- гнуть

ply- закручивать в веревку

airy foam- пенопласт

lab- лаборатория

link- соединять

button- пуговица, кнопка


It’s in our homes. It’s the most common material in the workplace. Sometimes it’s even in our bodies. We may be moving into the Information Age, but it’s hard to believe that we are not living in the Plastic age.

The very name “plastic” means versatility. You can bend it, mould it, model it, twist it and ply it in a number of different ways. The finished product can be soft and airy foam or a hard and strong compound rivalling the sturdiest metal alloys. In its many forms, plastic has forever changed the way we live.

The first in the long line of man-made plastics was called Bakelite, after its inventor, Leo Baekeland. Many years of work in his chemistry lab in Yonkers, New York, led him in 1907 to the invention of the first synthetic polymer (plastic), made by linking small molecules together to make large ones.

Baekeland made his new material by mixing the carbolic acid (phenol) with the strong—smelling formaldehyde to make a third material that was nothing like the original two. It turned out to be a substance that would change the world.

Some of the early uses for plastic were to make things like radio cabinets, buttons, billiard balls, pipe-stems, toilet seats, airplane parts and, the object of Baekeland’s research, shellac. Baekelands trick was to take the resin produced by the two chemicals and heat it under pressure to produce a soft solid that could be moulded and hardened or powdered and set under pressure. With this innovation, the plastic revolution was under way.


TASKS:


1. Find English equivalents:

  1. новый материал

  2. химическая лаборатория

  3. синтетический полимер

  4. соединение молекул

  5. под давлением

  6. использование пластмассы

  7. изготовление пуговиц

  8. химический элемент.


2. Are these statements true or false?

  1. The very name “plastic” means hardness.

  2. The invention of plastic was in 1907.

  3. The inventor was Tom Baekeland.

  4. He made his new material by mixing phenol with shellac.

  5. Plastic hasn’t changed the way we live.

  6. Airy foam is the metal alloy.


3. Answer the questions:

      1. What properties of plastics do you know?

      2. Who was the first inventor of plastic?

      3. What is the other name of plastic?

      4. What is the role of plastic in our days?

      5. How many things made of plastics can you name?



4. Make the scheme of:

  1. Bakelite,

  2. Shellac:


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5. Read and translate the international words:

group, combination, organic element, finished state, forming, commercial use, compromise, efficient production , mechanical requirement, substitute material, natural product, transportation, structural part.








Topic 9. Mechanical engineering

Vocabulary:

to encompass – окружать

solid - твердый

core - ядро

ingenious - изобретательный

crankshaftкарданный вал

camshaft – распределительный вал

to ensure - обеспечивать

to pursue – преследовать, заниматься

drafting – проект, чертеж

society - общество

equation – уравнение, формула реакции

oblique наклонный


Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that was developed from the application of principles from physics and materials science. It is the branch of engineering that encompasses the generation and application of heat and mechanical power and the design, production, and use of machines and tools. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines.

The field requires a solid understanding of core concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, materials science, and energy. Mechanical engineers design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices and more.

Applications of mechanical engineering are found in the records of many ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287 BC–212 BC) deeply influenced mechanics.

During the early 19th century in England, Germany and Scotland, the development of machine tools led mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. The first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was formed in 1880. The field of mechanical engineering is considered among the broadest of engineering disciplines. The work of mechanical engineering ranges from the depths of the ocean to outer space.

Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs typically take four to five years and result in a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng), or Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc) degree. In the U.S., most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards among universities. Some mechanical engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (MEng.Mgt or MEM), a Doctor of Philosophy in engineering (EngD, PhD) or an engineer's degree.

Fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering usually include:

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, and physics.

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Mechanical Engineers design and build engines and power plants structures and vehicles of all sizes.

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An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons.


TASKS:


1. Translate into Russian:

1. Degree

2. Application

3. Design

4. Instrumentation

5. To undergraduate

6. Requirement

7. An inventor

8. Plant

9. Vehicle

10. Device


2. Fill in the missing words:

  1. engineers are expected to understand and be able to apply basic … from chemistry, chemical … .

  2. Mechanical engineers design and … manufacturing plants, industrial … and machinery.

  3. The … requires a solid understanding of … concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, … mechanics.

  4. Mechanical Engineering is an … discipline that was … from the application of principles from … and materials … .

  5. Mechanical engineering programs typically take … to … years and result in a Bachelor of Science.


3. Are these statements true or false?

  1. During the early 18th century in England, Germany and Scotland, the development of machine tools led mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering.

  2. The work of mechanical engineering ranges from the depths of the ocean to outer space.

  3. Applications of mechanical engineering are found in the records of many modern and medieval societies.

  4. Fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering usually include literature and philosophy.

  5. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes deeply influenced mechanics.





4. Translate the phrases into English:

1. Развитие станков

2. Промышленное оборудование

3. Технология производства

4. Основные понятия

5. Практический опыт

6. Применение принципов

7. Материаловедение

8. Система нагревания и охлаждения

9. Глубоко влиять на что-либо

10. Механическое устройство


5. Answer the questions:

1. What is mechanical engineering?

2. What is ABET?

3. Who considered to be the inventor of crankshaft and camshaft?

4. What was formed in 1880?

5. What do the fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering include?











Topic 10. Electrical engineering

Vocabulary :

  1. large – scale – тяжёлый

  2. circuit – эл. цепь

  3. to transmit - передавать

  4. to supervise - контролировать

  5. satellite - спутник

  6. qualitative - качественный

  7. quantitative - количественный

  8. power pole - силовое поле

  9. to implement - выполнять

  10. propulsion - приведение в движение

  11. digital - цифровой

  12. vehicle - транспорт

  13. coax - гибкий

  14. fraction – частица



Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. Electrical engineering may or may not include engineering. Electrical engineering deals with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and integrated circuits. So, electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information.



The most notable discoveries were made by:

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Michael Faraday, who formed the foundation Thomas Edison Who built the world's first

of electric motor technology. large-scale electrical supply network

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Nikola Tesla, who made long-distance electrical transmission networks possible.


Nowadays electrical engineers have contributed to the development of a wide range of technologies. They design, develop, test and supervise the deployment of electrical systems and electronic devices. For example, they may work on the design of telecommunication systems, the operation of electric power stations, the lighting of buildings, the design of household appliances or the electrical control of industrial machinery.

Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and mathematics as these help to obtain both a qualitative and quantitative description of how such systems will work. Most electrical engineers understand basic circuit theory (that is the interactions of elements such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors and inductors in a circuit). Today most engineering work involves the use of computers and it is commonplace to use computer-aided design programs when designing electrical systems.

Sub-disciplines:

Power engineering

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Power pole

Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of such devices as transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high voltage engineering and power electronics.

Control engineering

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Control systems play a critical role in space flight






Electronics

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Circuit board


Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors. First the subject was known as radio engineering. Now it includes modern television, audio systems, computers and microprocessors.



Microelectronics

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Microprocessor

Microelectronics engineering deals with the design of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit . Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to nanometer levels.




Signal processing

Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals, which can be analog and digital. The deep and strong relations between signals and the information they carry makes signal processing equivalent of information processing.




Telecommunications

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Milstar

Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a channel such as a coax cable, optical fiber or free space.


Instrumentation

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Radar gun

Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure, flow and temperature. The design of such instrumentation requires a good understanding of physics that often extends beyond electromagnetic theory.


Computers

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Personal digital assistant

Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware, the use of computers to control an industrial plant. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software.


TASKS:

1.Translate into Russian : 2. Translate into English :

1. description 1. открытие

2. industrial automation 2. космический полет

3. optical fiber 3. оптоволокно

4. application 4. конденсатор

5. electronic device 5. применение

6. the size of a coin 6. промышленная автоматизация

7. semicon doctor 7. частотная модуляция

8. a tiny fraction 8. полупроводник

9. household appliances 9. измерять температуру

10. design programs 10. освещение зданий


3. Are these statements true or false?

  1. Today most engineering work involves the use of computers.

  2. Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as temperature.

  3. Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to kilometer levels.

  4. Electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit water.

  5. Most electrical engineers understand basic circuit theory.


4. Finish the sentences and translate them into Russian:

  1. Computer engineers may…

  2. Signal processing deals with…

  3. First the subject was known as…

  4. Today most engineering work involves…

  5. Electrical engineering deals with the problems associated with…

  6. Michael Faraday formed…


5. Answer the questions:

1) What is electrical engineering?

2) What does electrical engineering deal with?

3) Who understands basic circuit theory?

4) Do control systems play a critical role in space flight or in radio engineering?

5) How many sub-disciplines of electrical engineering can you name?






Topic 11. Thermodynamics

Vocabulary:
volume – объем 
pressure - давление
efficiency-эффективность
to extract- извлекать
law-закон
existence- наличие

equilibrium - равновесие
surrounding - окрестность
cell - клетка
correllation – корреляция, соотношение
hence - следовательно
equal - равный
conservation - хранение
internal - внутренний
entropy - энтропия

In physics and chemistry, thermodynamics (from the Greek θέρμη therme, meaning "heat" and δύναμις, dynamis, meaning "power") is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical work, and such variables as temperature, volume and pressure. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.

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Typical thermodynamic system, showing input from a heat source (boiler) on the left and output to a heat sink (condenser) on the right. Work is extracted, in this case by a series of pistons.

The starting point for most thermodynamic considerations are the laws of thermodynamics, which say that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat or work. They also state the existence of a quantity named entropy, which can be defined for any isolated system that is in thermodynamic equilibrium. In thermodynamics, interactions between large number of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of system and surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes.

With these tools, the usage of thermodynamics describes how systems respond to changes in their surroundings. This can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, and even black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, and economics.

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Sadi Carnot (1796-1832), the father of thermodynamics

The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump. After Guericke, the Irish physicist and chemist Robert Boyle in 1656 built an air pump. Using this pump, Boyle noticed a correlation between pressure, temperature, and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. In 1697 engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine. These early engines were crude and inefficient, but they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time. Their work led 127 years later to Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", who, in 1824, started the thermodynamics as a modern science. The term thermodynamics was suggested by James Joule in 1849 to designate the science of relations between heat and power. The first and second laws of thermodynamics emerged in the 1850s, primarily out of the works of William Rankine, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).

With the development of atomic and molecular theories in the late 1800s and early 1900s, thermodynamics was given a molecular interpretation. This field, called statistical mechanics or statistical thermodynamics, relates the microscopic properties of individual atoms and molecules to the macroscopic properties of materials that can be observed in everyday life. Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of energy with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

TASKS:
1. Translate into Russian:
1. average motions
2. chemical reactions
3. materials science
4. vacuum pump
5. leading scientist
6. maximum value
7. finite number
8. equal
9. measurement
10.inversely proportional

2. Translate into English:
1. первый закон термодинамики
2. свойства материалов
3. современная наука
4. давление и объем
5. первый двигатель
6. черные дыры 
7. научная дисциплина
8. повышение эффективности
9. не создается и не разрушается
10. статистическая механика.


3. Are these sentences true or false?

  1. The starting point for most thermodynamic considerations are the laws of thermodynamics.

  2. The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Robert Boyle.

  3. With the development of atomic and molecular theories in the late 1800s and early 1900s, thermodynamics was given a molecular interpretation.

  4. Using the pump, Boyle noticed a correlation between pressure and volume.

  5. Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a need to increase the efficiency of early steam engines.

4. Fill in the missing words:

  1. The usage of thermodynamics … how systems respond to changes in their … .

  2. Thermodynamics is the study of … conversion between heat and mechanical work, and such variables as temperature, and pressure.

  3. In …, interactions between large … of objects are studied and categorized.

  4. In 1697 … Thomas Savery built the first ….

  5. The term thermodynamics was suggested by in 1849 to designate the science of relations between and .


5. Answer the questions:

  1. What is thermodynamics?

  2. What is the starting point for most thermodynamic considerations?

  3. Who is Sadi Carnot?

  4. Does the history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begin with Otto von Guericke?

  5. Who built and designed the world's first vacuum pump?

  6. What is chemical thermodynamics?




















Topic 12. Automation

Vocabulary:

automation - автоматизация

sequence - последовательность

assembly plant – сборочный завод

non-manufacturing - непроизводственный

resemble - походить

efficiency - эффективность

flyball governor – центробежный регулятор

steam engine - паровоз

household thermostat бытовой термостат

to facilitate - способствовать

punched – перфорированный1

aid - помощь

dimension – измерение, размеры

feedback- обратная связь

simplification - упрощение


Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks. The sequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an assembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.
The term automation is also used to describe non- manufacturing systems in which automatic devices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.

The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations. Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled by punched paper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.

Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.

Automation in Industry.

Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialling and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signalling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.

Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.

The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries. Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.


TASKS:


1. Translate into Russian:

  1. to describe

  2. mechanization

  3. speed up

  4. industrial robots

  5. automatic signalling devices

  6. consumer product industries

  7. complex products

  8. railways

  9. packaging of foods

  10. dangerous to human workers


2. Translate into English:

  1. автоматические устройства

  2. автоматизированное производство

  3. выполнять простые задачи

  4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали

  5. интегрированная система производства

  6. принцип обратной связи

  7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить

  8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды

  9. высокоавтоматизированная система

  10. непроизводственная система


3. Are these statements true or false?

  1. Technology is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks.

  2. The term automation is also used to describe manufacturing systems.

  3. Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development.

  4. All industries require the same degree of automation.

  5. Computers have greatly facilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes.


4. Fill in the missing words:

  1. Using feedback devices, machines can …, stop, speed up, slow down, … , inspect, test, compare, and measure.

  2. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is an … plant for automobiles or other … products.

  3. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to … .

  4. Small computers are used in … called word … .

  5. In the … the automobile industry for the first time used an … system of production.


5. Answer the questions:

1. How is the term automation defined in the text?

2. What is the most familiar example of automation given in the text?

3. What was the first step in the development of automaton?

4. What were the first robots originally designed for?

5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?

6. What is feedback principle?

7. What industries use automation technologies?



Topic 13. Types of automation


Vocabulary:

equipment - оборудование

sequence - последовательность

initial - первоначальный

investment – инвестиция, вклад

to facilitate - способствовать

rate - скорость

assembly machines – сборочные машины

quantity - количество

non-productive - непроизводительный

changeover – переход, переналадка

flexible - гибкий


Manufacturing is one of the most important application areas for automation technology. There are several types of automation in manufacturing. The examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described below.

1. Fixed automation sometimes called hard automation refers to automated machines in which the equipment configuration allows fixed sequence of processing operations. These machines are programmed by their design to make only certain processing operations. They are not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation needs high initial investments and high production rates. That is why it is suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation are machining transfer lines found in the automobile industry, automatic assembly machines and certain chemical processes.

2. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in large quantities, ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new product the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over. This reprogramming and changeover take a period of nonproductive time. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine- tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style and the machine-tool is controlled by the computer program.

3. Flexible automation is a kind of programmable automation. Programmable automation requires time to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each series of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation the number of products is limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Flexible automation allows a mixture of different products to be produced one right after another.


TASKS:

1. Translate into Russian:

  1. hard automation

  2. fixed automation

  3. programmable automation

  4. flexible automation

  5. production equipment

  6. one right after another

  7. large quantities

  8. reprogramming and changeover

  9. important application

  10. equipment configuration


2. Find equivalents in English in the text:

  1. сфера применения

  2. фиксированная последовательность операций

  3. автоматические сборочные машины

  4. определенные химические процессы

  5. станок с числовым программным управлением

  6. потерянное производственное время

  7. разнообразная продукция


3. Finish the sentences and translate them into Russian:

  1. Manufacturing is…

  2. Examples of fixed automation are …

  3. Programmable automation requires …

  4. The program is coded in …

  5. Programmable automation is …


4. Answer the questions:

  1. What is the most important application of automation?

  2. What are the types of automation used in manufacturing?

  3. What is fixed automation?

  4. What are the limitations of hard automation?

  5. What is the best example of programmable automation?

  6. What are the limitations of programmable automation?

  7. What are the advantages of flexible automation?

  8. Is it possible to produce different products one after another

automation technology?


5. Explain in English what does the following mean:

1. automation technology

2. fixed automation

3. assembly machines

4. non-productive time

5. programmable automation

6. computer terminal

7. numerical-control


  1. Make the scheme of the types of automation.


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Topic 14. Robots in manufacturing


Vocabulary:

handling - обращение

transfer- передача

location- местонахождение

arrangement- расположение

to utilize - утилизировать

gripper - захват

to grasp - схватывать

spot welding – точечная сварка

continuous - непрерывный

arc welding – электродуговая сварка

spray painting – окраска распылением

spray-painting gun – распылитель краски

grinding - шлифование

polishing - полирование

spindle - шпиндель

manual- ручной

hazardous - опасный

shift - смена


Today most robots are used in manufacturing operations. The applications of robots can be divided into three categories:

1. material handling

2. processing operations

3. assembly and inspection.

Material-handling is the transfer of material and loading and unloading of machines. Material-transfer applications require the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another. Many of these tasks are relatively simple: robots pick up parts from one conveyer and place them on another. Other transfer operations are more complex, such as placing parts in an arrangement that can be calculated by the robot. Machine loading and unloading operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts. This requires the robot to be equipped with a gripper that can grasp parts. Usually the gripper must be designed specifically for the particular pad geometry.

In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates a tool to perform a process on the work part. Examples of such applications include spot welding, continuous arc welding and spray painting. Other operations in this category include grinding and polishing in which a rotating spindle serves as the robot’s tool.

The third application area of industrial robots is assembly and inspection. The use of robots in assembly is expected to increase because of the high cost of manual labor. But the design of the product is an important aspect of robotic assembly. Assembly methods that are satisfactory for humans are not always suitable for robots. Screws and nuts are widely used for fastening in manual assembly, but the same operations are extremely difficult for a one-armed robot.

Inspection is another area of factory operations in which the utilization of robots is growing. In a typical inspection job, the robot positions a sensor with respect to the work part and determines whether the part answers the quality specifications. In nearly all industrial robotic applications, the robot provides a substitute for human labor. There are certain characteristics of industrial jobs performed by humans that can be done by robots:

1. the operation is repetitive, involving the same basic work motions every cycle,

2. the operation is hazardous or uncomfortable for the human worker (for example: spray painting, spot welding, arc welding, and certain machine loading and unloading tasks),

3. the workpiece or tool are too heavy and difficult to handle,

4. the operation allows the robot to be used on two or three shifts.


TASKS:


1. Translate into Russian:

  1. applications

  2. the robot manipulates

  3. hazardous or uncomfortable

  4. assembly and inspection

  5. loading and unloading operations

  6. pad geometry

  7. grinding and polishing

  8. a rotating spindle

  9. human labor

  10. spray painting


2. Translate into English:

  1. промышленные роботы

  2. болты и гайки

  3. важный аспект

  4. распылитель краски

  5. деталь слишком тяжелая

  6. электродуговая сварка

  7. замещать

  8. методы сборки

  9. высокая стоимость

  10. однорукий робот



3. Match the beginnings of the sentences with the appropriate endings:


  1. Inspection is another area of factory operations …

  2. Machine loading and unloading

  3. The operation is repetitive, involving the same …

  4. Material-transfer applications require …

  5. In robotic processing operations, the robot manipulates …


    1. basic work motions every cycle.

    2. in which the utilization of robots is growing.

    3. a tool to perform a process on the work part.

    4. operations utilize a robot to load and unload parts.

    5. the robot to move materials or work parts from one to another.


4. Answer the questions:

1. How are robots used in manufacturing?

2. What is “material handling”?

3. What does a robot need to be equipped with to do loading and unloading operations?

4. What does robot manipulate in robotic processing operation?

5. What is the most common application of robots in automobile manufacturing?

6. What operations could be done by robot in car manufacturing industry?

7. What are the main reasons to use robots in production?

8. How can robots inspect the quality of production?

9. What operations could be done by robots in hazardous or uncomfortable for the human workers conditions?


5. Make the plan for retelling the topic.






Topic 15. Safety instruction


Vocabulary:

phello_html_m5dc10485.pngrotection- защита

lathe- токарный станок

tidy- чистый

investigation- исследование

injury- повреждение

prompt- немедленный, срочный

preliminary- предварительный

defence - защита

delay- задержка, промедление

to comply with- соблюдать правила

causes- причины

to occur- происходить

performance- действие

witness- свидетель

employee- работник


1. Read the safety instruction from a workshop:



1. Translate into Russian:

  1. protective clothing

  2. eye protection

  3. when not in use

  4. should be cleaned after use

  5. operating lathes, cutters, and grinders

  6. tidy workplace


2. Answer the questions:

1. Who are the instructions for?
2. Who wrote them?
3. What was the writer’s purpose?


  1. Retell the safety instruction.


Accident investigation
Whenever an accident occurs that results in an injury (medical case), damage of equipment and material, or both, prompt accident investigation by the immediate manager is required. A written preliminary investigation will be completed by the end of the particular shift or business day on which the accident occurred.
In no event should there be a delay of more than 24 hours. Failure to comply with this requirement may subject the immediate manager to disciplinary action up to and including discharge. Without adequate accident investigation data the Company may be subjected to costs, claims, and legal action for which it has no defence.
As a minimum, the preliminary accident investigation report will include the following:
1. Name, occupation, and sex of injured worker.
2. Place and date/time of accident.
3. Description of how the accident happened.
4. Immediate causes of the accident - unsafe acts and unsafe
conditions.
5. Contributing causes - manager safety performance, level of worker
training, inadequate job procedure, poor protective maintenance, etc.
6. Witness (es) - name and department.
7. Corrective action taken - when.
The employee who was injured and
any employee(s) who witnessed the incident should be separately interviewed as soon as possible. A copy of the report must be submitted to the Manager - Human Resources for review. Another copy of the report is to be retained for a period of not less than the injured employee’s length of employment plus five (5) years.


TASKS:

1. Finish the phrases and translate them into Russian:

  1. accident …

  2. damage of …

  3. the immediate…

  4. A written preliminary…

  5. a delay of more than…

  6. the particular…

  7. how the accident…

  8. unsafe …

  9. A copy of…

  10. level of worker …


2. Translate into English:

  1. исследование инцидента

  2. дата и место инцидента

  3. имя свидетеля

  4. опрос свидетеля

  5. описание случившегося

  6. дисциплинарное действие

  7. срок службы

  8. соблюдать правила


3. Are these statements true or false?

  1. A written preliminary investigation will be completed by the end of the particular shift.

  2. Without adequate accident investigation data the Company may be subjected to medal.

  3. In no event should there be a delay of more than 12 hours.

  4. As a minimum, the preliminary accident investigation report will include seven points.

  5. A copy of the report must be submitted to the employee for review.


4. Study the company document on safety and answer these questions:
1. Who is this document for?
a. machine operatives c. all employees
b. managers d. injured employees


2. Who wrote this document?
a. trade union representative c. manager
b. technician d. medical staff


3. What is the write
’s intention?
a to prevent accidents c. to protect the company
b to ensure speedy help d. to warn about dangers
for injured employees


5. Make your own safety instruction, using the next words and word- combinations:


  • receive training

  • safety gloves

  • respirators

  • safety shoes

  • to protect the feet

  • to worn in dusty conditions

  • to clean after use

  • to put away when not in use

  • a helmet

  • goggles

  • protection for the hands.














Список литературы:

1. Дгашев В.Н., Долматовская Е.Ю. Английский язык для студентов машиностроительных специальностей. - М.: Астрель,2005;

2. Агабекян И. П., Коваленко П. И. Английский для технических Вузов.

- Ростов- на - Дону: Феникс, 2003;

3. Шляхова В.А., Любимова Т. Д. Английский язык. – М.: Высшая школа, 2002.

4.Буренина Л. К. , Консон С. Б. Учебник английского языка для средних специальных учебных заведений.- М. : Высшая школа ,2002.

Интернет - ресурсы:

  1. http://www. safetyinstruction.com/

  2. http://safety.mania.ru/

  3. http://www.automation.com/

  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamics

  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrotechnics

  6. http://www.shef.ac.uk/materials

  7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Materials_engineering
















Автор
Дата добавления 16.04.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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