Инфоурок Иностранные языки Другие методич. материалыУчебный проект на тему "Ремесла Дагестана"(на английском)

Учебный проект на тему "Ремесла Дагестана"(на английском)

Скачать материал















Выполнила: ученица 9 П класса

Алекперова Фатима Муслимовна

Руководитель: преподаватель

английского языка

МамедоваСабина Бахтияровна








Дербент 2021 г.


For centuries, its unsurpassed folk craftsmen have worked in Dagestan: the goldsmiths of the aul Kubachi, the silversmiths of the master Gotsatl. The Untsukulites created hand-made poems from wood, Derbent and Tabasaran women transferred all hundred colors of the Dagestan land onto carpets, Balkharks wrote mysterious poems on clay jugs.

The topic is also relevant because historically artistic craft was of great importance for such a region as Dagestan. The folding of handicrafts appeared in the 19th century. and especially in the second half of it, the most important factor in the economic recovery of the region. Artistic craft was also the most important part of the culture of the Dagestan peoples.

The relevance of the topic is also determined by the heightened interest in the national origins of modern culture that has emerged in the last decade. Dagestan was and remains a special region, a kind of contact zone where local traditional, European and Eastern cultural phenomena interact. The historical experience of such mutual influence is valuable for understanding the processes of the modern stage of culture.

Folk crafts in the Dagestan Territory at all times played a very important role. And first of all, this is due to some features of nature and the land of Dagestan rich in its resources. All peoples and nationalities that inhabit the Dagestan Territory are bearers of a great centuries-old culture.

The most variegated crafts are popular and in demand here. Among the folk crafts of the Dagestan Territory, woodcarving, artistic metalworking, pottery, carpet making, bone processing, making weapons and knitting with patterns are especially widespread. And nowhere else in any other corner of our vast country crafts do not have such importance, both in the spiritual and in the material life of the people, as in the Dagestan mountains.

Object of research: the material culture of the inhabitants of the villages of Dagestan.

Research subject: traditional crafts of village craftsmen.

Purpose of the work: familiarization with various crafts of Dagestan and their preservation for the dissemination of the heritage of crafts of Dagestan.


·        to study the literature on this topic;

·        make a photo presentation describing the items found;

·        identify which crafts have survived at the present time.

To solve the set tasks, the generally accepted methods of historical research were used: analysis; comparison; photo fixation.

Practical significance: the materials of the work can be used as illustrative, additional material in the course of studying local history, the collected materials are transferred to the school museum.




















Main part

Hand carpet.

Historically, it so happened that the most widespread and one of the oldest types of decorative and applied art in Dagestan is hand-made carpet weaving. There was almost no corner on the territory of the republic where various types of carpet products were not weaved. But the highly artistic pile and napless carpets of Lezghin and Tabasaran craftswomen became especially famous for the skill of execution, the beauty of patterns and color combinations. The art of carpet weaving in Dagestan developed over many centuries. Information from researchers and the results of archaeological excavations show that the inhabitants of Dagestan were engaged in spinning and weaving even in the Bronze Age.

The skills and secrets of hand-made carpet weaving have been passed down from mother to daughter for many centuries. For many years, the composition of the ornament only improved, and the skills were gradually refined. From time immemorial, a hand-made carpet has been the most valuable thing in any Dagestan family.

Pottery art.

The use of natural materials to create household items for Dagestanis has long become commonplace. Most of the crafts over the centuries, thanks to the work of craftsmen, have been brought to perfection. For example, pottery. Clay is a completely unattractive natural material. And in the hands of the master, real works of art are born from it, in which the rich inner world of the people and close connection with nature are revealed.

In Dagestan, ceramics is one of the most ancient types of crafts. Its origins date back to the Neolithic era. The oldest samples of ceramics found on the territory of modern Dagestan date back to the 6th-5th millennium BC. e.

The main center of pottery is the aul Balkhar. Balkhar masters have preserved and augmented the pottery traditions of their distant ancestors. The products of the famous aul masters are valued for their high strength, excellent decorative characteristics, graceful shapes and the thinnest walls of the dishes.

Thanks to pottery, Balkhar became famous throughout the Caucasus, and the products of Balkhar craftsmen are still one of the landmarks of the region and a subject of national pride.

Artistic metal working.

Metal processing is also a traditional craft in Dagestan, the main centers of which are considered to be the villages of Kubachi, Harbuk and Gotsatl.

For more than a thousand years, metalworking has been flourishing in Kubachi, where craftsmanship has been passed on for many generations, from father to son. The products of Kubachi craftsmen are one of the highest priority export items in Dagestan. And unique products of ancient masters are kept in the houses of Kubachians to this day.

Such settlements as Kubachi, Gotsatl, Kharbuk, Amuzgi, etc. are considered famous centers of artistic metal processing, which is a traditional type of decorative and applied art in Dagestan.

The art of the craftsmen of our village Gotsatl originated more than 150 years ago, and one of the most famous craftsmen was the jeweler and gunsmith Alibek, who served with Shamil. The names of other masters who have achieved high results are no less well-known: Magomed-Mirza Geybatov, KelebSamedov, Ismail and Musa Gazievs and others. They masterly mastered several professions: they were familiar with forging, smelting, plumbing, engraving, nielloing, grinding, polishing, etc. The original traditions of the Avar jewelry art lie at the heart of the work of our masters.

Production and decoration of weapons.

The manufacture of weapons has almost a thousand-year history in the Dagestan expanses. Blade weapons are a special pride of the craftsmen of the region. Usually, one part of the craftsmen was involved in the production of both cold and firearms, and the other in its decoration.

Today the most famous enterprise specializing in weapon decoration is Kizlyar. The company produces more than a hundred basic types of knives and about a hundred more variations.

The manufacture of weapons has long been one of the most important crafts of the peoples of the Caucasus. Brave warriors, the Caucasian highlanders did not part with their weapons, they highly valued them and did not spare funds for decorating them. Weapons were a necessary part of their national costume. The special role that artistic weapons played in the life of the Caucasian peoples created the highest prestige for it and often put it in first place in a number of other applied arts.

The delicate art of Dagestan's gunsmiths was especially appreciated throughout the Caucasus. The manufacture and use of weapons is closely related to the history and military life of this region. Unfortunately, few early weapons have survived. The bulk of the weapons that have come down to us - guns and pistols, checkers and daggers - belong to the second half of the 18th - 20th centuries. Most of all, we meet edged weapons, mainly daggers of the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The weapons were poorly preserved - they continued to use them for several generations, they wore out, broke, due to a lack of raw materials, they were often converted into a new product.

















Summing up this work, we can say that there were and are real masters in Dagestan. Craftsmen made things, household items from various materials. Initially, they were primitive and convenient for household use, but gradually craftsmen began to decorate products. When making any thing, a folk master not only thought about its practical significance, but also did not forget about beauty. Beauty and utility in his work have always been inseparable.

While writing the work, we met with many craftsmen from the villages of Dagestan. They are engaged in various types of crafts, make products using various materials, giving beauty not only to themselves, but also to people.

Many types of folk art are still alive today.

But how not to lose these skills to create beautiful things, skills created by many generations of rural residents? Who does it depend on so that the work of the masters is not forgotten? You need to start with yourself. Our great-grandmothers are passing away, and we suddenly realize that we did not ask them how they lived, what they did, what they were famous for. Now I know and appreciate this invaluable gift, which I simply must preserve and tell others.

It is clear that this work is like a drop in the ocean. And you can work on this topic almost endlessly, in various directions. We plan to continue collecting exhibits for the museum with detailed descriptions.

During the research, a wealth of material was collected on traditional crafts:

• Collected surviving handicraft items;

• made a photo presentation with a description;

• the technologies of their manufacture are described;

• collected material about craftsmen;

• Describes the handicrafts that have survived at the present time.





List of references

1. Alikhanov R. Kubachi sketches: Notes of the master // Art of Kubachi. L., 2016.S. 8-63.

2. Anuchin D.N. Report on a trip to Dagestan in the summer of 2018 // News of the Russian Geographical Society: T.KhKh. SPb., 1884. No. 4.

3. Anchabadze V.D., Volkova N.G. Old Tbilisi: City and Citizens in the 19th Century. M., 2017.271 p.

4. Arslanbekov B.M. Manufacture of metal products in Dagestan at the end of the XIX beginning. XX century. // Questions of history and ethnography of Dagestan: Collection of scientific reports of Dagestan State University: Issue. 6. Makhachkala, 2015.S. 51-62.

5. Arslanbekov B.M. The penetration of capitalist relations into the handicraft production of Dagestan at the end of the 19th beginning. XX century // Questions of history and ethnography of Dagestan. Collection of scientific reports of DagosUniversity: Issue 7. Makhachkala, 2017.S. 53-73.

6. Kilchevskaya E. V. Folk crafts of Dagestan. M. 2018.

7. Krishtopa, AE Dagestan in the 13th - early 15th centuries. An outline of political history. M., Mammoth; Taus, 2017.

8. Folk art of Russia. Art album. M. 2019.

9. Utkin P. A. Folk arts and crafts. M 2017. The history of Dagestan from ancient times to the present day. In two volumes. Ed. A.I. Osmanov. M., Nauka, 2017.









Attachment 1.

Kubachi products

Пин от пользователя Radomsky Maya на доске Кубачинские шедевры | Серебро,  Этнические украшения, Украшения











Attachment 2.













Attachment 3.

Handmade Tabasaran carpet.

Ручное ковроткачество – это наиболее распространенный и один из древнейших ви...










Attachment 4.

Гончарное производство











Attachment 5.

Мастера украшают деревянные изделия металической насечкой, затем шлифуют и по...

Просмотрено: 0%
Просмотрено: 0%
Скачать материал
Скачать материал
Скачать материал

Найдите материал к любому уроку, указав свой предмет (категорию), класс, учебник и тему:

6 185 610 материалов в базе

Скачать материал

Другие материалы

Вам будут интересны эти курсы:

Оставьте свой комментарий

Авторизуйтесь, чтобы задавать вопросы.

  • Скачать материал
    • 02.06.2021 1152
    • DOCX 752.2 кбайт
    • Оцените материал:
  • Настоящий материал опубликован пользователем Мамедова Сабина Бахтияровна. Инфоурок является информационным посредником и предоставляет пользователям возможность размещать на сайте методические материалы. Всю ответственность за опубликованные материалы, содержащиеся в них сведения, а также за соблюдение авторских прав несут пользователи, загрузившие материал на сайт

    Если Вы считаете, что материал нарушает авторские права либо по каким-то другим причинам должен быть удален с сайта, Вы можете оставить жалобу на материал.

    Удалить материал
  • Автор материала

    Мамедова Сабина Бахтияровна
    Мамедова Сабина Бахтияровна
    • На сайте: 1 год и 9 месяцев
    • Подписчики: 0
    • Всего просмотров: 2471
    • Всего материалов: 9

Ваша скидка на курсы

Скидка для нового слушателя. Войдите на сайт, чтобы применить скидку к любому курсу
Курсы со скидкой