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Инфоурок Английский язык Другие методич. материалыУрок на тему "Natural Phenomena in «Wuthering Heights» and «War and Peace» as a Reflection of the State of Heroes’ Mind"

Урок на тему "Natural Phenomena in «Wuthering Heights» and «War and Peace» as a Reflection of the State of Heroes’ Mind"


Natural Phenomena in «Wuthering Heights» and «War and Peace» as a Reflection of the State of Heroes’   Mind




We all know that nature plays an important role in literary works. It helps to better understand the experiences of the characters, their state of mind, and the overall atmosphere of the work.

So, in the work of Emilia Bronte "Wuthering Heights" we better understand the state of mind of the characters is due to the description of natural phenomena.

Also, thanks to the natural phenomena in the work of Leo Tolstoy "War and Peace", you can predict the further development of the plot, nature in its own way helps the characters of the work to deal with their problems and internal experiences.

The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of natural phenomena on the behavior of characters in both works.

Despite the fact that these literary works were written quite a long time ago, they are still relevant today, as they raise important topics of society, so the work is relevant.


                                                        Main part

Nature in the novel "Wuthering heights "

"Wuthering heights" is a very dark work in its atmosphere. Thanks to the skillfully described natural phenomena, we can fully experience the situation that takes place in the novel.

Let's start with the name "Wuthering heights". The epithet "thunderstorm" refers to those atmospheric phenomena, from the fury of which the house, standing on the Jura, is not at all protected in bad weather.

«This time, I remembered I was lying in the oak closet, and I heard distinctly the gusty wind, and the driving of the snow; I heard, also, the fir-bough repeat its teasing sound, and ascribed it to the right cause: but it annoyed me so much, that I resolved to silence it, if possible; and, I thought, I rose and endeavoured to unhasp the casement. »

This passage describes the dream of the narrator Mr. Lockwood, when he stayed the night at Wuthering heights, because there was a strong storm , and in such a Blizzard you could not even look out the door. That night, he had nightmares. This is a description of the second one. The narrator was visited by the Ghost of the late Catherine Linton, who persistently begged to be let in, as he has been wandering for 20 years. Thanks to the transmission of the weather, it is as if we are next to the narrator and can feel the atmosphere and hear the creaking of a fir branch on the glass.

«That Friday made the last of our fine days for a month. In the evening, the weather broke: the wind shifted from south to north-east, and brought rain first, and then sleet and snow. On the morrow one could hardly imagine that there had been three weeks of summer: the primroses and crocuses were hidden under wintry drifts; the larks were silent, the young leaves of the early trees smitten and blackened. And dreary, and chill, and dismal, that morrow did creep over!»

This is a description of the weather after Catherine Linton's death. Nature seems to have changed so abruptly on purpose to show the inner torment of Heathcliff after the departure of his beloved to another world.

«Yesterday evening I sat in my nook reading some old books till late on towards twelve. It seemed so dismal to go upstairs, with the wild snow blowing outside, and my thoughts continually reverting to the kirkyard and the new-made grave! I dared hardly lift my eyes from the page before me, that melancholy scene so instantly usurped its place. »

This is an excerpt from a conversation between Isabella Heathcliff and Ellen Dean. She shared her experiences after escaping Wuthering heights a few days after Katherine's death.

Nature in the novel "War and peace»


Leo Tolstoy's novel War and peace is an epic work that covers many aspects of human life. Man is a child of nature, he cannot exist without it, all natural phenomena not only affect the physical state of a person, but also affect his emotional and mental balance. The descriptions of nature in Tolstoy's War and peace are not just lyrical digressions that add color and life to the work. Nature seems to participate in the events that take place in the novel, becoming a backdrop against which the action unfolds. The sky, clouds, trees, fog, comet-all this complements and enhances the impression of the events that the author writes about.

For example, at the beginning of the description of the battle of Austerlitz, Tolstoy draws a picture before the reader: Russian troops are leaving in a thick fog. This fog covers all the surrounding area so that nothing is visible and it is not clear what is happening, where the soldiers are going, where the enemy is, and where their own: "The fog became so heavy that, despite the fact that it was dawn, you could not see ten paces in front of you. The bushes looked like huge trees, the flat places like precipices and slopes. Everywhere, from all sides, you could encounter an invisible enemy ten paces away."

Before the battle of Austerlitz, a Council of war was held, at which the Austrian General Weyrother explained his plan of attack at length and tediously. And the fog that settled on the ground in the morning seems to represent the vagueness and ill-thought of Weyrother's plan. Sending troops to attack the French, the General did not bother to read Kutuzov's opinion, moreover, Weyroter convinced the sovereign Alexander that it was at this moment that Napoleon should be attacked. And so the soldiers go into a thick fog, not knowing where the enemy is and when to expect it. "The columns moved without knowing where they were going and without seeing from the surrounding people, from the smoke and from the increasing fog, either the area from which they were leaving or the one they were entering."

On the contrary, in describing how Napoleon sees the same picture, Tolstoy seems to emphasize that Bonaparte clearly understands what is really happening and correctly assesses the situation between the armies. "The fog was a solid sea spread out below, but at the village of Shlapanitsa, at the height where Napoleon stood, surrounded by his marshals, it was completely light. Above it was a clear blue sky, and a huge ball of the sun, like a huge hollow purple float, swayed on the surface of a milky sea of fog."

So, including contrasting descriptions of natural phenomena occurring in the same area, Tolstoy seems to emphasize how vague and vague the position of the Austrian-Russian army is, and how clearly and clearly Napoleon's strategy was thought out and built.

Man and nature in War and peace

Tolstoy interweaves a description of natural phenomena when he talks about some key situations in which the character finds himself. Nature seems to sympathize with the characters of the novel, causing them to have certain States of mind and thoughts that affect the further development of events.

Man and nature in Tolstoy's War and peace are one. If the character is sad or dissatisfied with life, as for example, Prince Bolkonsky, when driving past an old oak tree, immersed in sad thoughts, then nature seems to agree with him. Prince Andrew sees confirmation of his state of mind in the old oak tree, which does not want to open its leaves, unlike other trees.

"Spring, and love, and happiness!» "and how can you not get tired of the same stupid and senseless deception? It's all the same, and it's all a hoax! There is no spring, no sun, no happiness. Look, there are dead fir trees crushed down, always the same, and there I spread my broken, torn fingers, wherever they grew — from the back, from the sides; as they grew, so I stand, and do not believe your hopes and deceptions." "Yes, he is right, this oak tree is a thousand times right," thought Prince Andrew, " let other young people fall for this deception again, but we know life — our life is over!»

And when Bolkonsky, disturbed by Natasha's nocturnal conversation and her charming youth, returns, the sight of the same oak tree leads Prince Andrew to completely different thoughts. He goes home, enjoying and rejoicing in the coming summer, with surprise noticing the beauty of nature, listening to the singing of nightingales and seeing a blooming tree, suddenly realizes that " ... life is not over at 31 years old."

He relives all his best moments, recalls the sky that turned his soul when he lay wounded on the battlefield near Austerlitz. Natasha, admiring the beauty of the night, and the moonlight streaming in through his window. All this causes excitement and joyful expectation of something good. And the old oak tree, which has changed beyond recognition, again confirms Prince Andrew's thoughts about life: "The old oak tree, all transformed, spread out like a tent of juicy, dark green, was swaying slightly in the rays of the evening sun. Neither clumsy fingers, nor sores, nor the old distrust and sorrow, — could not see anything. Through the tough, hundred-year-old bark, juicy, young leaves broke through without knots, so that it was impossible to believe that this old man produced them."

Depending on the circumstances, nature in the novel "War and peace" performs a variety of functions. For example, for everyone, the comet of 1812 foreshadowed " all sorts of horrors and the end of the world." For Pierre, who suddenly realized and almost confessed his love for Natasha Rostova, the same comet was "a bright star ... with a long radiant tail", which "fully corresponded to what was in his blooming to a new life, softened and emboldened soul".

With a description of nature, Tolstoy emphasizes the misery of war for everyone. Abandoned dry fields with emaciated cattle that have nothing to eat in these fields. Soldiers bathing in a muddy pond, an abandoned garden in The Bolkonskys ' family estate-all this conveys much more clearly the burden that fell on the shoulders of the Russian people during the war.

At the same time, when the author wants to tell about something bright and romantic, the description of nature seems to draw in the reader's imagination the feelings that the characters experience at such moments. For example, the very night when Natasha dreamed of flying into the starry sky, and Prince Andrew, who accidentally overheard her conversation, seemed to Wake up from a heavy dream of despair.



In my work on the theme "Nature in the novels" War and peace and "Wuthering heights "" I would like to draw attention to the talent of Leo Tolstoy once again, who seems to draw descriptions of nature in his novel with a brush. Thanks to the bright and clear details, the reader imagines a beautiful moonlit night and a young girl sitting on the windowsill, or a bright sun in the blue sky, spread out over the milky fog, into which the Russian soldiers are leaving. And these details make Tolstoy's work alive and natural.

And also Emily Bronte perfectly conveys all the gloom and mystery of her work thanks to the description of nature, which fully conveys the whole picture of the work: whether it is a howling wind that pierces you to the bone, a noisy downpour that brings sadness or a bright sun that gives hope for a bright future.

Natural phenomena in these two works truly play a huge role.


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