Добавить материал и получить бесплатное свидетельство о публикации в СМИ
Эл. №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015
Свидетельство о публикации

Автоматическая выдача свидетельства о публикации в официальном СМИ сразу после добавления материала на сайт - Бесплатно

Добавить свой материал

За каждый опубликованный материал Вы получите бесплатное свидетельство о публикации от проекта «Инфоурок»

(Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ: Эл №ФС77-60625 от 20.01.2015)

Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Урок по теме "Морфологическая структура имени существительного и имени прилагательного"
ВНИМАНИЮ ВСЕХ УЧИТЕЛЕЙ: согласно Федеральному закону № 313-ФЗ все педагоги должны пройти обучение навыкам оказания первой помощи.

Дистанционный курс "Оказание первой помощи детям и взрослым" от проекта "Инфоурок" даёт Вам возможность привести свои знания в соответствие с требованиями закона и получить удостоверение о повышении квалификации установленного образца (180 часов). Начало обучения новой группы: 28 июня.

Подать заявку на курс
  • Иностранные языки

Урок по теме "Морфологическая структура имени существительного и имени прилагательного"

библиотека
материалов

Morphological structure of nouns and adjectives

According to their morphological structure nouns may be classified as 1) simple, 2) derivative, 3) compound.

Simple nouns are structurally simple in the sense that they are devoid of affixes — prefixes and suffixes and have only a root-stem. In other words they cannot be further

segmented: book, pen, bird, shirt, 'lamp, house, system, work, etc.

Derivative nouns derive from the root-stem of words which may belong to various parts of speech — nouns, adjectives, verbs. They are formed mainly with the help of numerous suffixes: writer, warmth, linguist, systematization. kingdom, childhood and so on. A great number of derivative nouns may contain prefixes which are traceable to verbs or adjectives and thus are typically verbal or adjectival prefixes, disagreement < disagree < agree, misunderstanding < misunderstand < understand, irres­ponsibility < irresponsible < responsible, impatience < impatient < patient.

The suffixes used in the noun-formation may be productive, i.e. most widely and regularly recurrent, and non-productive one that are characteristic of a limited number of words.

The most productive nounal suffix is -er (with its -or variant) which may theoretically be added to any verbal stem: doer, cleaner, gardener, singer, worker, conductor, inventor, distributor, etc.

Other productive suffixes of nouns are:

-ness: blackness, dullness, uselessness;

-ist: linguist, economist, typist;

-ism: nationalism, capitalism, dualism;

-ion/-ation/-ition: collection, creation, dictation, per­suasion, division/aspiration, consideration, recommenda-tion/acqisition. repetition, disposition.

The non-productive noun-forming suffixes are:

-ess: actress, heiress, waitress, lioness, tigress: -ian: mathematician, historian, librarian; -ure: picture, literature, nature, temperature;

-ant: assistant, attendant;

-ful: handful, spoonful;

-ie/-y: birdie, daddy, Jimmy;

-dom: boredom, freedom, kingdom:

-hood: childhood, brotherhood, motherhood:

-ship: friendship, relationship;

-ance/-ence: resistance, importance/decadence, de­pendence, difference;

-ment: agreement, announcement, statement;

-y/-ry: biology, geography, anatomy/chemistry, psy­chiatry;

-s: economics, linguistics, physics;

-ty/-ity: cruelty, difficulty/generosity, majority, visi­bility;

-th: length, strength, warmth.

Some prefixes rather typical of verbs or, more fre­quently of adjectives, especially negative ones, can still be found in nouns. They are as follows:

anti-: anticlimax, antimatter:

со-: coauthor; copilot, coeducation;

dis-: disagreement, disjuncture, disarmament:

ex-: ex-wife, ex-minister, ex-president;

il-: illegality, illiberality, illiteracy;

in-: indecency, incompatibility, indecorousness;

im-: impracticality, impregnability, impropriety;

ir-: irresponsibility, irresolution, irritability;

mis-: misunderstanding, misfortune, miscalculation, misuse;

поп-: non-smoker, non-event, non-story, non-cha­racter;

un-: unpleasantness, unreality, unruliness.

Adjectives derive from either nouns, verbs or even adjectives themselves by means of suffixes and prefixes: beautiful < beauty, friendless < friend, illogical < logic, unreliable < rely, independent < depend, repentant < repent, reddish < red, greyish < grey, childish < child.

The productive adjective-forming suffixes arc:

-able/-ible: usable, readable, intelligible, responsible;

-ful: colourful, useful, deceitful;

-less: colourless, useless;

-like: businesslike, childlike.

The less productive suffixes are:

-ish after the nounal root-stem: British, Turkish. Spanish; selfish, foolish, childish;

-ish after the adjectival root-stem: greyish, yellowish, youngish, tall ish:

-ish after the numeral root-stem: eightish, fortyish;

-ant/-ent: confidant, expectant; consequent, current;

-ous: curious, obvious, industrious, infectious;

-some: troublesome, quarrelsome;

-en: woolen, wooden, silken;

-an: American, Italian, Austrian;

-y: watery_, snowy, rainy, easy;

-al: principal, accidental, parental;

-ic/-ical: photographic; grammatical, hysterical, mu­sical; historic historical, economic — economical:

-ive/-ative: active, explosive; communicative, deri­vative;

-ate/-ite: delicate,, animate, accurate; definite, com­posite;

-or/ory/ary: inferior, superior; compulsory, conso­latory, preparatory; customary, stationary, sanitary:

-ing: surprising, perplexing:

-ed: barbed, beaded;

-ly: friendly, womanly, monthly.

Note that -ed, -ing and -ly can be regarded as adjectival suffixes only with some reservation for adjectives like surprising, perplexing and barbed, beaded

are in fact adjectivized present and past participles correspondingly while the -ly suffix is more typical of adverbs. (See 7.2.)

The adjective-forming prefixes are:

pre-: prearranged, prewar;

pro-: pro-American;

un-: unusual, unpredictable, unhappy;

in-: insensitive, inanimate;

im-: impossible, immoral;

il-: illiterate, illogical;

dis-: dishonest, disinterested; \

a-: aloof, agog, ajar, ablaze, aglow, afire.

Note that words with the a- prefix are traditionally discussed within the class of adjectives

2



Подайте заявку сейчас на любой интересующий Вас курс переподготовки, чтобы получить диплом со скидкой 50% уже осенью 2017 года.


Выберите специальность, которую Вы хотите получить:

Обучение проходит дистанционно на сайте проекта "Инфоурок".
По итогам обучения слушателям выдаются печатные дипломы установленного образца.

ПЕРЕЙТИ В КАТАЛОГ КУРСОВ

Автор
Дата добавления 28.01.2016
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Конспекты
Просмотров168
Номер материала ДВ-389902
Получить свидетельство о публикации
Похожие материалы

Включите уведомления прямо сейчас и мы сразу сообщим Вам о важных новостях. Не волнуйтесь, мы будем отправлять только самое главное.
Специальное предложение
Вверх