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Seven wonders of light Great pyramid in Gize The Hangings gardens of Babylon Temple of Artemis in Hilt Statue of Zeus in Olimpii Mavzoley in Galikarnase Colossus the Rodosskiy Alexandrian lighthouse
Great pyramid in Gize This graceful Egyptian pyramid is most ancient of seven miracles of an antiquity. Besides, this only thing from the miracles which have remained up to now. At the time of the creation the Great pyramid was the highest construction in the world. It also kept this record, most likely, almost 4000 years. The great pyramid has been constructed as a tomb of Hufu, known to Greeks as by Heops. It was one of Pharaohs, or tsars of ancient Egypt, and its tomb has been finished in 2580 BC Later in Giza has been constructed two more pyramids, for the son and grandson Hufu, and also smaller pyramids in the sizes for their tsarinas. The pyramid of Hufu is the biggest. Pyramids stand on an ancient cemetery in Giza, on opposite from Cairo, capital of modern Egypt, to river bank Nile. Some archeologists consider that, probably, on building of a great pyramid of 100000 persons 20 years were required. It has been created from more than 2 million stone blocks, each of which weighed not less than 2,5 tons. Workers dragged them to a place, using ramps, blocks and levers, and then adjusted to each other, without a solution. When the basic construction has been finished, it reminded a number of steps. They were then are closed by blocks from white limestone with the polished, brilliant surface. Blocks were so are densely adjusted to each other that outside between them it was impossible to push even a knife blade. On termination of works the Great pyramid has risen on 147 metres. Now its top has fallen off, besides, now one only a pyramid of son Hufu has kept calcareous facing on the most top. The party of the basis of the Great pyramid reaches 230 metres. It occupies more areas, than nine football grounds. Ancient Egyptians believed that in case of death of the person it is necessary to keep its body that the spirit could continue to live and after death. They took an internal, filled a body with salts and turned its linen veils. So the body turned to a mummy. A mummy then buried together with clothes, meal, the precious and other things useful to afterlife. The mumifitsirovannoe body of Hufu has been placed in the funeral chamber in the heart of its pyramid.
The Hangings gardens of Babylon Trailing gardens were one of the most well-known wonders of the ancient city of Babylon. However, though archeologists also have found prospective ruins of gardens, to prove that it they, is impossible. We know only one: gardens really existed, because people saw and have described them. The Greek and Roman writers tell that gardens have been constructed about 600 BC by order of Navuhodonosora II, the master of Babylon. This city lay on river banks Euphratess, to the south from today's Bagdad, capital of Iraq. The legend narrates that the tsar has ordered to construct gardens for the sake of homesick young wife Amitis, hoping that they will remind it native Persian mountains. Trailing gardens have been constructed, possibly, at the river and looked at city walls of Babylon. They have been arranged in the form of the terraces uppermost of which, probably, towered over the earth on 40 metres. Navukhodonosor has disposed to plant in a garden all conceivable kinds of trees and colours. Them brought from all empire on the carts harnessed by oxen, and river castles. Success of gardeners, should be, depended on good watering systems for which water from Euphrates was used. Water could lift on the top terrace by means of a chain of the buckets attached to a wheel which was rotated by slaves. And then it, should be, has run on gardens streams and falls so the earth always remained damp.
Temple of Artemis in Hilt Croesus was Lydia's last tsar, ancient area in Asia Minor entering into territory of modern Turkey. It was famous for the huge riches and in 560 year BC has constructed in the Hilt a majestic temple. The city has been based for 1000 before. On a legend amazons were its foundresses. Croesus has decided to construct a temple in honour of the goddess of the moon, the patroness of animal and young girls. Greeks called its Artemis, and Romans - Diana. The temple has been constructed of limestone and the marble extracted by workers in nearby mountains. Bearing designs of a temple made about 120 marble columns. Huge columns reached in height of 20 metres. Huge blocks of which they developed, it was necessary to put into place by means of blocks then them fastened metal probes. When the building was covered with a roof, artists have given it the finished kind, having decorated with sculptures and ornaments. In the temple centre there was Artemis's statue. It was one of the largest temples of the classics, much Parthenon surpassing by the sizes constructed later in Athenes. A platform on which it stood. Reached 131 metres at length and 79 metres at width. Two hundred years later, in 356 year BC, the temple has been reduced to ashes. Its person by name of Gerostat who simply wished to become famous has set fire. On strange coincidence, the temple has been destroyed that day when Alexander the Great was born. After years, Alexander has visited the Hilt and has ordered to restore a temple on a former place. Alexander's temple has existed till III century AD Gradually a bay in the Hilt brought silt and the city lost the value. The temple has been plundered готами, and later was flooded with flooding. Today from a temple in the Hilt some blocks of the basis and one restored column have remained.
Statue of Zeus in Olimpii Almost 3000 years ago Olympia was the important religious centre of Southwest Greece. Ancient Greeks worshipped to Zevsu, the tsar of gods, and spent there regular festivals to its honour which included sports competitions. The first Olympic games as them began to name, have been spent, possibly, in 776 year BC After that games were spent time in four years throughout 1100. They were of great importance; for the period of games all wars stopped not to disturb participants and spectators to reach to a place. In V century BC citizens of Olympia have decided to construct a temple of Zevsa. The majestic building was erected between 466 and 456 BC It has been built from huge stone blocks, and it was surrounded with massive columns. Within several years after the building termination in a temple there was no worthy statue of Zevsa though have soon enough decided that it is necessary. As the founder of a statue the well-known Athenian sculptor has been selected. The sculptor was called by Fidy, and he already has had time to create two majestic statues of the goddess of Athena. In Olympia Fidy and it improvised have created first of all a wooden skeleton which should serve a statue of Zevsa as skeleton. After that they have covered a skeleton with plates from an ivory, representing a skin of god, and the gold sheets representing its attire. Workers have hidden joints so the complete statue looked as a monolithic figure. Zevs sat on a throne, the inlaid ebony and jewels. The finished statue reached 13 m in height and almost concerned a temple ceiling. The impression was made that if Zevs has risen, it would take down a roof. Along walls have built platforms for spectators that people, having risen on them, could see the person of god. After the end in 435 BC the statue throughout 800 years remained one of the greatest miracles of the world. About 40 AD the Roman emperor Kaligula has wanted to transfer a statue to Rome. Behind it workers, but, according to a legend have been sent, the statue has burst in laughter explosion, and workers have run up. Then, in 391 AD, after Christianity acceptance, Romans have forbidden Olympic games and have closed the Greek temples. Some years after a statue of Zevsa have transported to Constantinople. In 462 AD the palace in which there was a statue, has been destroyed by a fire. In Olympic area in IV century there was an earthquake. The temple and stadium have been destroyed by flooding, their rests are covered by silt. It has helped fragments of Olympia to exist more than 1000.
Mavzoley in Galikarnase Mavsol was governor Karii, entering into the Persian empire, with 377 for 353 BC area Capital was Galikarnas which have become under the name of Bodrum by the tourist centre in modern Turkey. Mavsol has replaced the father as the master of a city and the satrap of a province. Mavsol married the sister Artemizii. Getting more and more power, he began to reflect on a tomb for itself(himself) and the tsarina. It should be the extraordinary tomb. Mavsol dreamt of a majestic monument which would remind the world of its riches and power after long time after his death. Mavsol has died before the termination of works on a tomb, but its widow continued to supervise over building before its full end, approximately in 350 BC the Tomb has been named by the Mausoleum, by name of the tsar, and this word began to mean any impressive and majestic tomb. Ashes of a regal couple were stored in gold urns in usypal'nice, were in the building basis. A number of stone lions guarded this premise. Over the massive stone basis the construction reminding the Greek temple, surrounded with columns and statues towered. At building top there was a step pyramid. Crowned her, at height of 43 metres over the earth, the sculptural image of the chariot harnessed horse. On it, possibly, there were statues of the tsar and the tsarina. After eighteen centuries earthquake has razed the Mausoleum to the ground. In 1489 Christian knights - ioannity began to use its fragments for the lock which they erected nearby. They have combined a part of fortifications from blocks of a green stone, characteristic for the basic part of the Mausoleum. In some years knights have found out a tomb of Mavsola and Artemizii. But they have left burial for the night without protection, and it has been plundered by marauders who have involved gold and jewelry. As early as 300 years have passed, before archeologists have started here excavation. They have opened parts of the basis of the Mausoleum, and also a statue and reliefs which have not been broken or stolen. Among them there were the huge statues representing as archeologists believe, the tsar and the tsarina. In 1857 these finds have been transported in the British museum in London. Last years have spent new excavation, and now on this place in Bodrume there was only a handful of stones.
Colossus the Rodosskiy As colossus was called the huge statue which stood in a seaport on Rhodes - island in Aegean sea, at coast of modern Turkey. During ancient times inhabitants of Rhodes wished to be independent dealers. They tried not to interfere with another's wars, and nevertheless them repeatedly won. In the end of IV century BC the people of Rhodes have celebrated a victory. They just have safely defended the city, which whole year was held in a siege by the Greek soldiers. Greeks, having understood that cannot win, even have abandoned a part of obsidional constructions. The people of Rhodes have decided to sell these constructions and to construct a statue esteemed by them as god of the sun of Geliosa, to thank it for protection. We do not know precisely as the statue looked and where it stood. And we know that it has been made of bronze and reached in height about 33 metres. It has been created by sculptor Haretom, on its building 12 years have left. The bronze cover fastened to an iron skeleton. Hollow statue have started to build from below and as it grew, filled with stones to make it steadier. The colossus has been finished about 280 BC Many centuries people believed that the Colossus rose over an input in rodosskuyu harbour. But it could not be. The width of a mouth of harbour made approximately 400 metres, and the statue was all the same not so enormous. Descriptions allow to assume that it stood in city centre and looked at the sea and harbour. Approximately in 50 years after end of building the Colossus Has failed. During earthquake it has broken at level of knees. The oracle ordered not to restore a statue, and it remained to lie there where has fallen. So it has lain more than 900 years, and went on Rodoss only to look at fragments defeated god.In 654 AD the Syrian prince has grasped Rhodes and has removed bronze plates from a statue. Said that it has taken away them to Syria on 900 camels.
Alexandrian lighthouse In III century the beacon that the ships could pass safely reeves on a way to the Alexandria bay BC has been constructed. At night they were helped with it by reflexion of tongues of flame, and in the afternoon - a smoke column. It was the first-ever beacon, and it has staid 1500. The beacon has been constructed on small island Faros in Mediterranean sea, about coast of Alexandria. This brisk port was based by Alexander the Great during visiting of Egypt. A construction have called in by name of islands. On its building, should be, 20 years have left, and it has been finished about 280 BC, at the time of board Ptolomeja II, the tsar of Egypt. The Farossky beacon consisted of three marble towers standing on the basis from massive stone blocks. The first tower was rectangular, in it there were rooms in which there lived workers and soldiers. Over this tower the smaller, octagonal tower with the spiral ramp conducting in the top tower settled down. The top tower the form reminded the cylinder in which fire helping to the ships safely to reach of a bay burnt. At tower top there was a statue of Zevsa of the Savior. The general height of a beacon made 117 metres. To support a flame, the fuel considerable quantity was required. A tree brought on a spiral ramp on the carts harnessed horse or mules. Behind a flame there were the bronze plates directing light in the sea. From the ships it was possible to see this beacon on distance to 50 km. By XII century AD the Alexandria bay was so filled with silt that the ships could not use it any more. The beacon has fallen into decay. The bronze plates serving by mirrors, possibly, have melted on coins. In XIV century the beacon has been destroyed by earthquake. Several years later Moslems used its fragments to construct a military fort. The fort subsequently time and again was reconstructed and till now is at a stop the first-ever beacon.
Tungus meteorite Tungus meteoroid, or the Tungus meteorite — a hypothetical body, possibly, comet an origin which, presumably, has served as the reason of the air explosion which has occurred around the river Stony Tunguska on June, 17th (30), 1908 at 7 o'clock 14,5±0,8 of minutes local time (0 ч 14,5 mines across Greenwich). Capacity of explosion is estimated at 10-40 megatons that corresponds to energy of a large hydrogen bomb. About 7 o'clock in the morning over territory of pool of Yenisei from the southeast on the northwest the big fiery sphere has flown by. Flight has ended with explosion at height of 7-10 km over not populated area of a taiga. The blast wave has been fixed by observatories worldwide, including, in the western hemisphere. As a result of explosion trees in territory more than 2000 km ² have been tumbled down, glasses have been beaten out in several hundreds kilometres from explosion epicentre. Within several days in territory from Atlantic to the central Siberia the intensive luminescence of the sky and shone clouds was observed. Research expeditions have been directed to accident area, since expedition of 1927 under the direction of L.A.Kulika some. The substance hypothetical Tungus meteoroida has not been found in some significant amount; however have been found out microscopic silicate and magnetitovye marbles, and also the raised maintenance of some elements specifying in a space origin of substance.
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Для повышения мотивации, особенно на старшем этапе, подходит метод проектов.
В своей работе я опробовала несколько типов проектов: исследовательские, творческие, информационные и проектно-ориентированные. Метод проектов является составной частью обучения английскому языку и поддерживает мотивацию к учению – в проектной работе она всегда положительная – и личный интерес: проект отражает интерес учащихся, их собственный мир.
Работа над проектом проходит поэтапно:
Подготовительный этап: - в рамках программы определение учителем тем проектов; - формулировка учителем проблемы. Основной этап - ознакомление учащихся с методикой работы над проектом; - знакомство с программной лексикой и грамматикой, овладение учебными умениями, предусмотренными программой; - ознакомление с аутентичным материалом; - выдвижение учащимися своих идей о мини-проектах; - формирование групп и распределение заданий по проектной работе; самостоятельная работа учащихся над мини-проектами, взаимо- и самоконтроль; - контроль учителем подготовленных материалов, внесение необходимых исправлений, дополнений. Завершающий этап: - оформление проектов в виде коллажа, путеводителя, плаката; - презентация и защита проектов; - обсуждение результатов, подведение итогов работы. Практическое использование проектов.
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