Инфоурок / Иностранные языки / Конспекты / Конспект урока английского языка по теме «Сказуемые, обозначающие действия: начало, середина, окончание». 12 класс

Конспект урока английского языка по теме «Сказуемые, обозначающие действия: начало, середина, окончание». 12 класс

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ВЫБРАТЬ КУРС И ПОДАТЬ ЗАЯВКУ
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УРОК английский язык ГОУ ВСОШ № 3
12 класс

Учитель Людмила Дмитриевна Федина


Тема: «Сказуемые, обозначающие действия: начало, середина, окончание».


Цель : выявить (исследовать) закономерности использования фазового сказуемого.


Задачи:
- Определить место сказуемого в иерархии членов предложения;
- Определить место фазового сказуемого в системе структурных типов предикатов;
- Выявить закономерности использования в различных типах фазового сказуемого видовременных форм фазовых операторов.
- Выявить закономерности использования инфинитива и герундия, выражающих вещественную часть сказуемого.


Предмет исследования: анализ сказуемых, обозначающих ту или иную фазу протекания действия, а именно, его начало, середину и окончание.


Определение:

Сказуемое называет признак, который при образовании предложения приписывается предмету-подлежащему. Признак может быть различного характера: процесс, действие, состояние, качество, свойство, отношение и другое.


Материал урока.
В английском языке имеются следующие виды сказуемого: простое сказуемое (Simple Predicate), составное глагольное сказуемое (Compound Verbal Predicate) и составное именное сказуемое (Compound Nominal Predicate).

Простое сказуемое выражается глаголом в личной форме в любом времени, залоге и наклонении. Форма глагола может быть простой, т. е. без вспомогательных глаголов (Не speaks English. Он говорит по-английски), или сложной, т. е. с вспомогательными глаголами (Не is reading now. Он читает сейчас. I shall be waiting for you at 5. Я буду ждать вас в 5).

Глаголы с послелогами (типа to carry out - осуществлять) устойчивые сочетания с глагольным значением (типа to take care - заботиться) также образуют в предложении простое сказуемое.

Составное глагольное сказуемое выражается сочетанием модальных глаголов can, may, must и так далее с инфинитивом, а также сочетанием с инфинитивом или герундием таких глаголов, как to begin, to start, to end, to continue, to want, to decide, to intend и тому подобное, выражающих начало, продолжение или конец действия или отношение лица, выраженного подлежащим, к действию, выраженному инфинитивом или герундием:

Heat can melt ice, vaporize water and cause bodies to expand. - Тепло может растопить лед, превратить воду в пар и вызвать расширение тел.

The airplane got covered with ice and they had to make a forced landing. - Самолет обледенел, и им пришлось сделать вынужденную посадку.

You are to follow the doctor's prescription. - Вы должны следовать предписанию врача.

Hе was still asleep when the snow began to fall.- Он еще спал, когда начал идти снег.

I want to remind you of a promise you made to me. - Я хочу напомнить вам об обещании, которое вы мне дали

The snow had ceased falling. - Снег перестал идти.

Составное глагольное сказуемое выражается также глаголами или словосочетаниями с примыкающим к ним инфинитивом или причастием в составе «Субъектного инфинитивного оборота» или «Субъектного причастного оборота».

The beta-rays are known to move with high velocity. -- Известно, что бета-лучи движутся с большой скоростью.

I seem to have promised you that I'd take you in my lab. -- Кажется, я обещал вам, что я возьму вас в свою лабораторию.

He is sure to be sent there. - Он, безусловно, будет послан туда.

He was seen crossing the bridge. - Видели, как он переходил мост

Составное именное сказуемое состоит из глагола-связки (link-verb) и именной части сказуемого (nominal part of the predicate1). Именная часть сказуемого называется также “предикативным членом” (predicative). Связка несет в сказуемом, служебные функции: она связывает подлежащее с именной частью сказуемого и служит показателем времени, залога, наклонения и, в некоторых случаях, лица и числа. Наиболее обычной связкой является глагол to be:




Упражнения


1.Прочитать

2.Перевести

3. Определить сказуемые, обозначающие действия: начало, середина, окончание


1.)And she kept going to old Mrs. Mellor’s' house, to catch him, and she began swearing he'd got in bed with her in the cottage and she went to a lawyer to make him pay her an allowance [D. H. Lawrence p177].

And I kept expecting him back. Especially at nights [D. H. Lawrence p108].

He took no more notice of his wife than if she had not been there. He lay down in a long rattan chair and went on reading [S. Maugham p42].

I seemed to her that she’d done the same damned thing day after day for ever and it frightened her to think that she’d have to go on doing the same damned thing day after day for ever more [S. Maugham p72].




2.) If a window was broken or a drain was blocked up, someone was certain to say that Snowball had come in the night and done it, and when the key of the store-shed was lost, the whole farm was convinced that Snowball had thrown it down the well. Curiously enough, they went on believing this even after the mislaid key was found under a sack of meal [Animal Farm p45].


3.) They had just finished singing it for the third time when Squealer, attended by two dogs, approached them with the air of having something important to say [Animal Farm p32].

So I stopped talking "fine", as they call it, talking proper English, and went back to talking broad [D. H. Lawrence p133].




4.) Of late the sheep had taken to bleating "Four legs good, two legs bad" both in and out of season, and they often interrupted the Meeting with this [Animal Farm p17].

It was also more suited to the dignity of the Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of Napoleon under the title of "Leader") to live in a house than in a mere sty [Animal Farm p24].

He tilted his chair towards the pot on the mat, and the dog meekly went, and fell to eating [D. H. Lawrence p131].

5.) All the Wragbys and Shipleys in England have given their part, and must go on giving. There's your responsibility.' [D. H. Lawrence p119].

Why is the star Jupiter bigger than the star Neptune? You can't start altering the make-up of things! [D. H. Lawrence p.119].

Заключение / обобщение урока.

Фазовое сказуемое является достаточно распространенным явлением в художественной литературе. Использование фазовых сказуемых зависит от стиля автора и возможности употребления фазовых сказуемых в определенном контексте.

В проведенном нами исследовании мы выявили некоторые особенности и закономерности использования фазовых сказуемых в художественных текстах.

Так, например, наибольшую распространенность в тексте имеют глаголы со значением начала действия и повторяющегося действия. Менее частотны глаголы, имеющие своей целью передать смысл длительности действия. И реже всех остальных употребляются глаголы со значением окончания действия.

Большая часть рассмотренных в нашем исследовании примеров представлена в прошедшем времени (Past Indefinite, Past Continuous и Past Perfect).


  1. 'And my opinion being favourable,' said Grace, good-humouredly; and pausing for a moment to admire the pretty head she decorated, with her own thrown back; 'and Marion being in high spirits, and beginning to dance, I joined her. ‘ [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p5]

  2. With that she began to bustle about most vigorously; presenting, as she did so, an appearance sufficiently peculiar to justify a word of introduction [Ch.Dickens The Battle of Life p6]

  3. We shall have them beginning to turn, soon, with a smooth sound. Whereas they ought to grate upon their hinges, sir.' [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p8]

  4. I began, as a boy, to have my thoughts directed to the real history of a battle-field. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p13]

  5. "her home made exquisitely dear by these remembrances, she now began to know that the great trial of her heart must soon come on, and could not be delayed. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p28]

  6. But, now, the Bird of Paradise was seen to flutter down the middle; and the little bells began to bounce and jingle in poussette [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p44]

  7. and breathless Mr. Craggs began to doubt already, whether country dancing had been made 'too easy,' like the rest of life; and Mr. Snitchey, with his nimble cuts and capers, footed it for Self and Craggs, and half-a-dozen more. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p44]

  8. But, as Clemency bade him good night very much after her usual fashion, and began to bustle about with a show of going to bed herself immediately [Charles Dickens The Battle of Life p36]

  9. At first, he was sadly broken down; and it was enough to make one's heart bleed, to see him wandering about, railing at the world; but a great change for the better came over him after a year or two, and then he began to like to talk about his lost daughter, and to praise her, ay and the world too! [Charles Dickens The Battle of Life p53]

  10. As if the equipage were a great firework, and the mere sight of a smoking cottage chimney had lighted it, instantly it begins to crack and splutter, as if the very devil were in it. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.5]

  11. and the carriage begins to rattle and roll over a horribly uneven pavement. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.5]

  12. As we approached Marseilles, the road began to be covered with holiday people [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.17]

  13. and I already began to think that when the time should come, a year hence, for closing the long holiday and turning back to England, I might part from Genoa with anything but a glad heart. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.24]

  14. Heaven knows what there may be above that; but when you are there, you have only just begun to go up-stairs [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.27]

  15. Then, lights begin to shine in Genoa, and on the country road; and the revolving lanthorn out at sea there, flashing, for an instant, on this palace front and portico, illuminates it as if there were a bright moon bursting from behind a cloud; then, merges it in deep obscurity. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.37]

  16. in its bright, and infinite, and flashing variety; and in its entire abandonment to the mad humor of the time--an abandonment so perfect, so contagious, so irresistible, that the steadiest foreigner fights up to his middle in flowers and sugar-plums, like the wildest Roman of them all, and thinks of nothing else till half-past four o'clock, when he is suddenly reminded (to his great regret) that this is not the whole business of his existence, by hearing the trumpets sound, and seeing the dragoons begin to clear the street. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.88]

  17. People began to drop off [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.100]

  18. A group of miserable children, almost naked, screaming forth the same petition, discover that they can see themselves reflected in the varnish of the carriage, and begin to dance and make grimaces, that they may have the pleasure of seeing their antics repeated in this mirror. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.116]

  19. A crippled idiot, in the act of striking one of them who drowns his clamorous demand for charity, observes his angry counterpart in the panel, stops short, and thrusting out his tongue, begins to wag his head and chatter. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.116]

  20. We who walk, make the best use of our staves; and so the whole party begin to labour upward over the snow,--as if they were toiling to the summit of an antediluvian Twelfth-cake. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.123]

  21. People begin to inquire his age, with a view to the next lottery; and the number of his brothers and sisters [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.128]

  22. As the bright hangings and dresses are all fading into one dull, heavy, uniform colour in the decline of the day, lights begin flashing, here and there: in the windows, on the housetops, in the balconies, in the carriages, in the hands of the foot-passengers: little by little: gradually, gradually: more and more: until the whole long street is one great glare and blaze of fire. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.89]

  23. when everybody had run away from the one, and few people had yet begun to run back again for the other: we went conscientiously to work, to see Rome. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.91]

  24. It would, probably, have disappeared in the natural course of events, before the railroad between Leghorn and Pisa, which is a good one, and has already begun to astonish Italy with a precedent of punctuality, order, plain dealing, and improvement--the most dangerous and heretical astonisher of all. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.77]

  25. When we were fairly going off again, we began, in a perfect fever, to strain our eyes for Rome [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.81]

  26. On the Monday afternoon at one or two o'clock, there began to be a great rattling of carriages into the court-yard of the hotel [Ch.Dickens Pictures From Italy p.85]

  27. Here the sugar-plums and the nosegays began to fly about, pretty smartly [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.86]

  28. But being due at Nice at about eight or so in the morning, this was of no consequence; so when we began to wink at the bright stars, in involuntary acknowledgment of their winking at us, we turned into our berths, in a crowded, but cool little cabin, and slept soundly till morning. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.38]

  29. So, in the noontide of his patronage of his gigantic protégé, he lay down among the wool, and began to snore. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.38]

  30. It soon began to burn brighter; and from being one light became a cluster of tapers, twinkling and shining out of the water, as the boat approached towards them by adreamy kind of track, marked out upon the sea by posts and piles. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.54]

  31. the road began to wind among dark trees, and after a time emerged upon a barer region, very steep and toilsome, where the moon shone bright and high. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.68]

  32. Taking to our wheels again, soon afterwards, we began rapidly to descend; [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.69]

  33. At six o'clock next morning, we were jingling in the dark through the wet cold mist that enshrouded the town; and, before noon, the driver (a native of Mantua, and sixty years of age or thereabouts) began TO ASK THE WAY to Milan. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.65]

  34. When I left the inn, he coupled with his final bow in the yard, a parting assurance that the road by which I was going, had been Milor Beeron's favourite ride; and before the horse's feet had well begun to clatter on the pavement, he ran briskly up-stairs again, I dare say to tell some other Englishman in some other solitary room that the guest who had just departed was Lord Beeron's living image. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.50]

  35. And the brave Courier, as he band I strolled away to look about us, began immediately to entertain me with the private histories and family affairs of the whole party. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.44]

  36. Then I begin to comprehend that the state-room is standing on its head. [ChDickens American Notes for General Circulation p.10]

  37. 'But the immortal spirit which had been implanted within her could not die, nor be maimed nor mutilated; and though most of its avenues of communication with the world were cut off, it began to manifest itself through the others. [ChDickens American Notes for General Circulation p.25]

  38. …but now the truth began to flash upon her: [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.27]

  39. As soon as she could walk, she began to explore the room, and then the house; she became familiar with the form, density, weight, and heat, of every article she could lay her hands upon [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.25]

  40. The reader will scarcely need to be told, however, that the opportunities of communicating with her, were very, very limited; and that the moral effects of her wretched state soon began to appear [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.26]

  41. her intellect began to work: she perceived that here was a way by which she could herself make up a sign of anything that was in her own mind, and show it to another mind [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.27]

  42. She accomplished this speedily and easily, for her intellect had begun to work in aid of her teacher, and her progress was rapid. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.27]

  43. Presently Laura ran against her, and at once began feeling her hands, examining her dress, and trying to find out if she knew her [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.29]

  44. 'Another article from home was now given her, and she began to look much interested; she examined the stranger much closer, and gave me to understand that she knew she came from Hanover [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.30]

  45. For instance, treading upon the register of a furnace, he instantly stooped down, and began to feel it, and soon discovered the way in which the upper plate moved upon the lower one [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.33]

  46. His attention then began to flag, and I commenced playing with him. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.34]

  47. Every gentleman sets as long as he likes to the opposite lady, and the opposite lady to him, and all are so long about it that the sport begins to languish, when suddenly the lively hero dashes in to the rescue [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.71]

  48. The weary days pass on with solemn pace, like mourners at a funeral; and slowly he begins to feel that the white walls of the cell have something dreadful in them: that their colour is horrible: that their smooth surface chills his blood: that there is one hateful corner which torments him. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.84]

  49. Then he began to fear it, then to dream of it, and of men whispering its name and pointing to it. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.84]

  50. as the darkness thickens, his Loom begins to live; and even that, his comfort, is a hideous figure, watching him till daybreak. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.84]

  51. The term we had assigned for the duration of our stay in Washington was now at an end, and we were to begin to travel [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.99]

  52. I began to listen to old whisperings which had often been present to me at home in England, when I little thought of ever being here; and to dream again of cities growing up, like palaces in fairy tales, among the wilds and forests of the west [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.99]

  53. The advice I received in most quarters when I began to yield to my desire of traveling towards that point of the compass was, according to custom, sufficiently cheerless: my companion being threatened with more perils, dangers, and discomforts, than I can remember or would catalogue if I could; but of which it will be sufficient to remark that blowings-up in steamboats and breakings- down in coaches were among the least [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.99]

  54. There is no use in going further, so I begin to undress. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.101]

  55. No effect. On the contrary, the coach begins to roll back upon No. 2, which rolls back upon No. 3, which rolls back upon No. 4, and so on, until No. 7 is heard to curse and swear, nearly a quarter of a mile behind. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.103]

  56. It brought a great many boxes, which were bumped and tossed upon the roof, almost as painfully as if they had been deposited on one's own head, without the intervention of a porter's knot; and several damp gentlemen, whose clothes, on their drawing round the stove, began to steam again. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.113]

  57. I descried on each shelf a sort of microscopic sheet and blanket; then I began dimly to comprehend that the passengers were the library, and that they were to be arranged, edge-wise, on these shelves, till morning. [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.115]

  58. When your brothers began to appear in succession, your mother retired, left off her smart dressing (she had previously been a smart dresser), and her dark ringlets (which had previously been flowing), and haunted your father late of nights, lying in wait for him, through all weathers, up the shabby court which led to the back door of the Royal Old Dust-Bin (said to have been so named by George the Fourth), [Somebody's luggage p2]

  59. When I began to settle down in this right-principled and well-conducted House, I noticed, under the bed in No. 24 B (which it is up a angle off the staircase, and usually put off upon the lowly-minded), a heap of things in a corner [Somebody's luggage p5]

  60. The artist, having finished his touching (and having spoilt those places), took his seat on the pavement, with his knees crouched up very nigh his chin; and halfpence began to rattle in [Somebody's luggage p48]

  61. …he began upon the purple smoke from the chimney of the distant cottage of the proprietor of the golden harvest (which smoke was beautifully soft), [Somebody's luggage p31]

  62. 'So you'll begin to pick oakum to-morrow morning at six o'clock,' added the surly one in the white waistcoat. [Oliver Twist p9]

  63. …begun to fatten him up in that way. [Oliver Twist p16]

  64. Oliver began to cry very piteously [Oliver Twist p16]

  65. When he began to undo the chain, the legs desisted, and a voice began. [Oliver Twist p26]

  66. … the voice began to whistle. [Oliver Twist p26]

  67. Then he sat down to rest by the side of the milestone, and began to think, for the first time, where he had better go and try to live. [Oliver Twist p44]

  68. By degrees, the shutters were opened; the window-blinds were drawn up; and people began passing to and fro [Oliver Twist p46]

  69. The pace at which they went, was such a very lazy, ill-looking saunter, that Oliver soon began to think his companions were going to deceive the old gentleman [Oliver Twist p57]

  70. …and, being in a state of considerable delight at seeing him so much better, forthwith began to cry most violently. [Oliver Twist p70]

  71. …and Oliver, who made one of the party, began to feel more at his ease than he had yet done in the fierce old gentleman's presence. [Oliver Twist p89]

  72. At length, he began to languish for fresh air, and took many occasions of earnestly entreating the old gentleman to allow him to go out to work with his two companions. [Oliver Twist p56]

  73. This resistance only infuriated Mr. Sikes the more; who, dropping on his knees, began to assail the animal most furiously [Oliver Twist p92]

  74. After tea she began to teach Oliver cribbage: which he learnt as quickly as she could teach: and at which game they played, with great interest and gravity, until it was time for the invalid to have some warm wine and water, with a slice of dry toast, and then to go cosily to bed. [Oliver Twist p83]

  75. In the very instant when Oliver began to run, the old gentleman, putting his hand to his pocket, and missing his handkerchief, turned sharp round [Oliver Twist p58]

  76. 'He's been in good training these last few weeks, and it's time he began to work for his bread. Besides, the others are all too big.'[Oliver Twist p126]

  77. He remained lost in thought for some minutes; and then, with a heavy sigh, snuffed the candle, and, taking up the book which the Jew had left with him, began to read. [Oliver Twist p131]

  78. By the time they had turned into the Bethnal Green Road, the day had fairly begun to break [Oliver Twist p136]

  79. By degrees, other shops began to be unclosed, and a few scattered people were met with [Oliver Twist p137]

  80. They had some cold meat for dinner, and sat so long after it, while Mr. Sikes indulged himself with three or four pipes, that Oliver began to feel quite certain they were not going any further. [Oliver Twist p139]

  81. Mr. Bumble, having spread a handkerchief over his knees to prevent the crumbs from sullying the splendour of his shorts, began to eat and drink [Oliver Twist p151]

  82. consequently Mr. Bumble, moving his chair by little and little, soon began to diminish the distance between himself and the matron [Oliver Twist p152]




  1. 'And duly witnessed as by law required,' said Snitchey, pushing away his plate, and taking out the papers, which his partner proceeded to spread upon the table[Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p15]

  2. Some proceeded to disperse themselves about the roads, and some took horse, and some got lights, and some conversed together, urging that there was no trace or track to follow. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p46]

  3. Sir Yew ud se on, nothing daunted, proceeded to entertain him with an ordinance of the British Government, regulating the state he should preserve, and the furniture of his rooms: and limiting his attendants to four or five persons. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.35]

  4. Having, I hope without offence to any quarter, offered such observations as I felt it my duty to offer, in a free country which has ever dominated the seas, on the general subject, I will now proceed to wait on the particular question. [Somebody's luggage p5]

  5. Before I proceed to recount the mental sufferings of which I became the prey in consequence of the writings, and before following up that harrowing tale with a statement of the wonderful and impressive catastrophe, as thrilling in its nature as unlooked for in any other capacity, which crowned the ole and filled the cup of unexpectedness to overflowing, the writings themselves ought to stand forth to view[Somebody's luggage p10] Sikes, snatching it from him, hastily opened it; and proceeded to count the sovereigns it contained. [Oliver Twist p93]

  6. Having by this time recovered a little breath, the worthy book-stall keeper proceeded to relate, in a more coherent manner the exact circumstances of the robbery [Oliver Twist p66]

  7. The result was, that, after a few struggles, Oliver breathed, sneezed, and proceeded to advertise to the inmates of the workhouse the fact of a new burden having been imposed upon the parish, by setting up as loud a cry as could reasonably have been expected from a male infant who had not been possessed of that very useful appendage, a voice, for a much longer space of time than three minutes and a quarter. [Oliver Twist p1]

  8. The medical gentleman walked away to dinner; and the nurse, having once more applied herself to the green bottle, sat down on a low chair before the fire, and proceeded to dress the infant. [Oliver Twist p2]

  9. The board then proceeded to converse among themselves for a few minutes, but in so low a tone, that the words 'saving of expenditure,' 'looked well in the accounts,' 'have a printed report published,' were alone audible. [Oliver Twist p14]

  10. Then, he hastily proceeded to dispose the watches and jewellery beneath his clothing. [Oliver Twist p82]

  11. These preliminaries adjusted, Mr. Sikes proceeded to drink brandy at a furious rate, and to flourish the crowbar in an alarming manner; yelling forth, at the same time, most unmusical snatches of song, mingled with wild execrations[Oliver Twist p128]

  12. Oliver murmured his comprehension of the different bodies referred to; and Mr. Sikes proceeded to load the pistol, with great nicety and deliberation. [Oliver Twist p134]

  13. Mrs. Corney shook her head mournfully, as if deploring the mental blindness of those paupers who did not know it; and thrusting a silver spoon (private property) into the inmost recesses of a two-ounce tin tea-caddy, proceeded to make the tea. [Oliver Twist p148]



  1. I little thought, that day, that I should ever come to have an attachment for the very stones in the streets of Genoa, and to look back upon the city with affection as connected with many hours of happiness and quiet! [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.19]


  1. His attention then began to flag, and I commenced playing with him. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.34]


  1. We fall to upon these dainties; eat as much as we can (we have great appetites now); and are as long as possible about it. If the fire will burn (it WILL sometimes) we are pretty cheerful. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.14]

  1. …and fell to comparing notes on the subject of my personal appearance, with as much indifference as if I were a stuffed figure. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.89]

  2. Those who do not observe this custom, and who help themselves several times instead, usually suck their knives and forks meditatively, until they have decided what to take next: then pull them out of their mouths: put them in the dish; help themselves; and fall to work again. [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.123]


  1. Many a lonely moon was bright upon the battle-ground, and many a star kept mournful watch upon it, and many a wind from every quarter of the earth blew over it, before the traces of the fight were worn away.[ Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p1]


  1. 'Yes, but they don't always put this,' he returned. 'Look here, "Mansion," &c. - "offices," &c., "shrubberies," &c., "ring fence," &c. "Messrs. Snitchey and Craggs," &c., "ornamental portion of the unencumbered freehold property of Michael Warden, Esquire, intending to continue to reside abroad"!'[Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p50]

  2. 'Intending to continue to reside abroad!' repeated Clemency. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p50]

  3. This answer, and his manner, and his black dress, and his coming back so quietly, and his announced intention of continuing to live abroad, explained it all. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p56]

  4. 'Now, observe, Snitchey,' he continued talk, rising and taking him by the button, 'and Craggs,' taking him by the button also, and placing one partner on either side of him, so that neither might evade him. 'I don't ask you for any advice. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p26]

  5. Still, we continued to advance toward them until nightfall; and, all day long, the mountain tops presented strangely shifting shapes, as the road displayed them in different points of view. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.68]

  6. I hope we shall continue to do so; and that in the fulness of time, even deans and chapters may be converted. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.43]

  7. I know no station which has a right to monopolise the means of mutual instruction, improvement, and rational entertainment; or which has ever continued to be a station very long, after seeking to do so [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.53]

  8. It still continued to rain heavily, and when we went down to the Canal Boat (for that was the mode of conveyance by which we were to proceed) after dinner, the weather was as unpromising and obstinately wet as one would desire to see [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.112]

  9. AS it continued to rain most perseveringly, we all remained below… [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.113]

  10. but I can most distinctly say, that for many months he continued meekly to submit to the domination and ill-treatment of Noah Claypole: who used him far worse than before, now that his jealousy was roused by seeing the new boy promoted to the black stick and hatband, while he, the old one, remained stationary in the muffin-cap and leathers [Oliver Twist p35]

  11. 'Wait a minute! Don't speak! Stop--' continued talking Mr. Grimwig, abruptly, losing all dread of the fever in his triumph at the discovery [Oliver Twist p87]

  12. It grew so dark, that the figures on the dial-plate were scarcely discernible; but there the two old gentlemen continued to sit, in silence, with the watch between them. [Oliver Twist p91]

  13. Here the position of affairs had not at all improved. Sowerberry had not yet returned, and Oliver continued to kick [Oliver Twist p40]

  14. The girl still held Oliver fast by the hand, and continued to pour into his ear, the warnings and assurances she had already [Oliver Twist p133]

  15. Mr. Bumble, moving his chair by little and little, soon began to diminish the distance between himself and the matron; and, continuing to travel round the outer edge of the circle, brought his chair, in time, close to that in which the matron was seated. [Oliver Twist p152]




  1. So we went on traveling, until eleven at night, when we halted at the town of Aix (within two stages of Marseilles) to sleep. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.16]

  2. We went on traveling, through a long, straggling, dirty suburb, thronged with people [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.17]

  3. 'There was one of two ways to be adopted: either to go on to build up a language of signs on the basis of the natural language which she had already commenced herself, or to teach her the purely arbitrary language in common use[Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.26]

  4. He would stop every now and then to listen when there was the least noise below: and when he had satisfied himself, he would go on whistling and stirring again, as before. [Oliver Twist p51]



  1. For a long time, there were wounded trees upon the battle- ground; and scraps of hacked and broken fence and wall, where deadly struggles had been made; and trampled parts where not a leaf or blade would grow [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p2]

  2. For a long time, no village girl would dress her hair or bosom with the sweetest flower from that field of death: and after many a year had come and gone, the berries growing there, were still believed to leave too deep a stain upon the hand that plucked them [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p2]

  3. They were very glad to please them, but they danced to please themselves (or at least you would have supposed so); and you could no more help admiring, than they could help dancing. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p3]

  4. 'Your Snitcheys indeed,' the latter lady would observe, sometimes, to Mr. Craggs; [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p20]

  5. While Mrs. Snitchey would observe to Mr. Snitchey, of Craggs, 'that if ever he was led away by man he was led away by that man, and that if ever she read a double purpose in a mortal eye, she read that purpose in Craggs's eye.' [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p21]

  6. Here, sometimes, they would linger, of a fine evening, at the window of their council-chamber overlooking the old battle-ground, and wonder (but that was generally at assize time, when much business had made them sentimental) at the folly of mankind, who couldn't always be at peace with one another and go to law comfortably. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p21]

  7. Sometimes, they would stop, and shaking their heads in concert, look towards the abstracted client. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p21]

  8. 'Nothing would serve you but you must be called Alfred's wife; [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p31]

  9. Sometimes, it roared as if it would make music too [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p41]

  10. Perhaps the young lady coquetted a little. The evidence would seem to point that way [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p42]

  11. But, certain it is, that each wife went as gravely and steadily to work in her vocation as her husband did in his, and would have considered it almost impossible for the Firm to maintain a successful and respectable existence, without her laudable exertions. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p44]

  12. There are countries, dearest, where those who would abjure a misplaced passion, or would strive, against some cherished feeling of their hearts and conquer it, retire into a hopeless solitude, [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p63]

  13. Nothing would have astonished him so much, as to have known for certain from any third party, that it was she who managed the whole house, and made him, by her plain straightforward thrift, good-humor, honesty, and industry, a thriving man. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p50]

  14. Their eyes and hands become so used to this, and act with such astonishing rapidity, that an uninitiated bystander would find it very difficult, if not impossible, to follow the progress of the game [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.23]

  15. After this, he would come back, laughing lustily from pure good humour: while the Frenchman wrinkled his small face into ten thousand creases, and said how droll it was, and what a brave boy was that Friar! [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.38]

  16. For, in splendour of appearance, he was at least equal to the Deputy Usher of the Black Rod; and the idea of his carrying, as Jeremy Diddler would say, 'such a thing as tenpence' away with him, seemed monstrous. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.49]

  17. At intervals, some one among them would stop, as it were, in its restless flitting to and fro, and enable me to look at it, quite steadily, and behold it in full distinctness. [Ch.Dickens Pictures From Italy p.53]

  18. After a few moments, it would dissolve, like a view in a magic-lantern [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.53]

  19. …and while I saw some part of it quite plainly, and some faintly, and some not at all, would show me another of the many places I had lately seen, lingering behind it, and coming through it. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.53]

  20. Sometimes, the rowers of another black boat like our own, echoed the cry, and slackening their speed (as I thought we did ours) would come flitting past us like a dark shadow. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.54]

  21. The Corso, where the Milanese gentry ride up and down in carriages, and rather than not do which, they would half starve themselves at home, is a most noble public promenade, shaded by long avenues of trees. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.67]

  22. they would float away, dozing comfortably among the fishes; [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.72]

  23. Carriages, delayed long in one place, would begin a deliberate engagement with other carriages, or with people at the lower windows [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.88]

  24. and the spectators at some upper balcony or window, joining in the fray, and attacking both parties, would empty down great bags of confetti, that descended like a cloud, and in an instant made them white as millers. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.88]

  25. His antiquarian habits occasioned his being frequently in the rear of the rest; and one of the agonies of Mrs. Davis, and the party in general, was an ever-present fear that Davis would be lost. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.91]

  26. The candles were on a kind of altar, and above it were two delectable figures, such as you would see at any English fair, representing the Holy Virgin, and Saint Joseph, as I suppose, bending in devotion over a wooden box, or coffer; which was shut. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.93]

  27. as if the blood upon them would drain off in consecrated air, and have no voice to cry with [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.97]

  28. At the end of the street, was an open space, where there would be a dust-heap, and piles of broken crockery, and mounds of vegetable refuse, but for such things being thrown anywhere and everywhere in Rome, and favoring no particular sort of locality. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.100]

  29. A rumour got about, among the crowd, that the criminal would not confess [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.100]

  30. In which case, the priests would keep him until the Ave Maria (sunset) [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.100]

  31. The earth would still move round the sun, though the whole Catholic Church said No [Ch Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.1]

  32. He had often spoken of THE SALOON; had taken in and lived upon the pictorial idea; had usually given us to understand, at home, that to form a just conception of it, it would be necessary to multiply the size and furniture of an ordinary drawing-room by seven, and then fall short of the reality. [Ch Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.3]

  33. …the captain would look in to communicate the state of the wind, the moral certainty of its changing to-morrow (the weather is always going to improve to- morrow, at sea), the vessel's rate of sailing, and so forth. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.14]

  34. A dozen murders on shore would lack the interest of these slight incidents at sea. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.15]

  35. 'Then, on any article being handed to her, for instance, a pencil, or a watch, she would select the component letters, and arrange them on her board, and read them with apparent pleasure. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.27]

  36. For this very reason though, our best prisons would seem at the first glance to be better conducted than those of America. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.40]

  37. This lad, instead of being committed to a common jail, would be sent to the asylum at South Boston, and there taught a trade [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.44]

  38. and in the course of time he would be bound apprentice to some respectable master. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.44]

  39. Thus, his detection in this offence, instead of being the prelude to a life of infamy and a miserable death, would lead, there was a reasonable hope, to his being reclaimed from vice, and becoming a worthy member of society [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.44]

  40. Some gentlemen were only satisfied by exercising their sense of touch; and the boys (who are surprisingly precocious in America) were seldom satisfied, even by that, but would return to the charge over and over again. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.89]

  41. but receiving private and confidential information that the boat would certainly not start until Friday, April the First, we made ourselves very comfortable in the mean while, and went on board at noon that day. [Ch. Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.121]

  42. "Well, Christopher," he would say (having grovelled his lowest on the earth, half a moment before), "looking out for a House to open, eh? Can't find a business to be disposed of on a scale as is up to your resources, humph?" [Somebody's luggage p4]

  43. A railway train would come through at midnight, and by that train he would take away Bebelle to look for Theophile in England and at his forgiven daughter's. [Somebody's luggage p24] they would sit staring at the copper, with such eager eyes, as if they could have devoured the very bricks of which it was composed; employing themselves,meanwhile, in sucking their fingers most assiduously [Oliver Twist p10]

  44. He would stop every now and then to listen when there was the least noise below: and when he had satisfied himself, he would go on whistling and stirring again, as before. [Oliver Twist p51]




  1. 'Him that you used to love so dearly, once!'[Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p37]

  2. How often he has sat in this room, and talked to me, hour after hour, about one thing and another, in which he made believe to be interested! - but only for the sake of the days that are gone by, and because he knows she used to like me, Ben!' [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p52]

  3. 'Ah! The day was,' said the Doctor, looking at the fire, 'when you and he, Grace, used to trot about arm-in-arm, in his holiday time, like a couple of walking dolls. You remember?' [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p31]

  4. 'See how you used to go on once, yourself, you know!' said Clemency. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p34]

  5. 'I had somehow got used to you, Clem! [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p51]

  6. 'She then gave Laura a string of beads which she used to wear at home, which were recognised by the child at once, who, with much joy, put them around her neck, and sought me eagerly to say she understood the string was from her home. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.29]

  7. You might know them, if they were masked, by their long-tailed blue coats and bright buttons, and their drab trousers, which they wear like men well used to working dresses, who are easy in no others. [Ch.Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.62] 'Nonsense, my good man,' said the undertaker, who was pretty well used to misery in all its shapes. 'Nonsense!'[Oliver Twist p32]




  1. He had finished wafering up the bill, and had locked the vouchers for her day's proceedings in the cupboard - chuckling all the time, over her capacity for business - when, returning with the news that the two Master Britains were playing in the coach-house under the superintendence of one Betsey, and that little Clem was sleeping 'like a picture,' she sat down to tea, which had awaited her arrival, on a little table[Ch.Dickens The Battle of Life p51]

  2. He made no answer; but, turning round, when he had finished reading, looked at Clemency with the same observant curiosity as before. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p52]


  1. But you're as bold as brass in general,' he said, stopping to observe her; 'and were, after the noise and the lantern too. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p36]

  2. Some got on as if they were doing a match against time; others stopped to say a prayer on every step [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.112] Some few stopped to gaze at Oliver for a moment or two, or turned round to stare at him as they hurried by; but none relieved him, or troubled themselves to inquire how he came there [Oliver Twist p46]

  3. Noah stopped to make no reply, but started off at his fullest speed [Oliver Twist p38]




  1. Michael Warden, who had still been observant of Clemency, turned to Mr. Snitchey when he ceased to speak, and whispered in his ear. [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p57]

  2. I cease to be your ward to-day [Ch. Dickens The Battle of Life p10]

  1. The number of cripples in the streets, soon ceased to surprise me.[Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.31]

  2. The corpulent hairdresser was still sitting in his slippers outside his shop-door there, but the twirling ladies in the window, with the natural inconstancy of their sex, had ceased to twirl, and were languishing, stock still, with their beautiful faces addressed to blind corners of the establishment, where it was impossible for admirers to penetrate. [Ch. Dickens Pictures From Italy p.37]

  3. Afterwards, and when its novelty had long worn off, it never ceased to have a peculiar interest and charm for me [Ch Dickens American Notes for General Circulation p.8]

  4. It was November still, but the last echoes of the Guy Foxes had long ceased to reverberate [Somebody's luggage p35]

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Тема: «Сказуемые, обозначающие действия: начало, середина, окончание». 

Цель : выявить (исследовать) закономерности  использования фазового сказуемого.

 

Задачи:
- Определить место сказуемого в иерархии членов предложения;
- Определить место фазового сказуемого в системе структурных типов предикатов;
- Выявить закономерности использования в различных типах фазового сказуемого видовременных форм фазовых операторов.
- Выявить закономерности использования инфинитива и герундия, выражающих вещественную часть сказуемого.

 

Предмет исследования: анализ сказуемых, обозначающих ту или иную фазу протекания действия, а именно, его начало, середину и окончание.

 

Определение:

Сказуемое называет признак, который при образовании предложения приписывается предмету-подлежащему. Признак может быть различного характера: процесс, действие, состояние, качество, свойство, отношение и другое.

 

Материал урока.
В английском языке имеются следующие виды сказуемого: простое сказуемое (Simple Predicate), составное глагольное сказуемое (Compound Verbal Predicate) и составное именное сказуемое (Compound Nominal Predicate).

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