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Уроки учебного курса часть 5 "Один балл - это возможно"

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УРОК 13



Нисходяще-восходящий (Fall-Rise) тон часто употребляется в английской разговорной речи для выражения различного рода эмоций от сомнения до дружеского возражения.

Нисходяще-восходящий тон используется в:

  1. высказываниях, несущих в себе неуверенность, оговорку, сомнение, контраст:

ˈHow did it ˋgo? – ˈAll ˋright, ׀ I ˇthink.

I know her ˇface, but I don’t know her ˋname.

  1. выражении частичного согласия или частичного несогласия:

You are from London, ˏ aren’t you? – Well, ˇMartha is, but I’m from ˋManchester.

The party was ˋgreat! – Well, the ˇfood was great, but the evening was ˋboring.

  1. ответах на общие вопросы, выражающих неуверенное возражение:

Are you going to contradict? – Yes, I ˇam (but not now).

  1. побуждениях в форме предостережения:

ˇWatch out!

Be ˇcareful!

  1. побуждениях, выраженных в отрицательной форме:

Don’t open the ˇdoor!

Don’t tell me I was ˇwrong!

  1. обращениях, с целью привлечения внимания:

Professor ˇStone, may I have a word ˏwith you?

ˇJane, let me show you ˋsomething.

  1. высказываниях, с целью вежливо поправить собеседника, указать ему на его ошибку. Если такое указание звучит с нисходящим тоном, оно звучит грубо:

She is coming on ˋMonday. – No, on ˇTuesday.

It’ll take you only a few ˋminutes. – No, about ˇhalf an hour.

  1. ограничениях какого-либо элемента:

She didn’t do it because she was ˇtired.

  1. зависимых предложениях:

If I were ˇyou, I’d ˋreject it.

  1. в выражении вводных обстоятельств (наречиях типа usually), если они идут перед главным высказыванием. Главное высказывание в этом случае звучит с нисходящим тоном:

ˇActually, I was ˋbusy ˳yesterday.

  1. отрицательных высказываниях:

She wasn’t very ˇpleased.

I don’t think that’s ˇtrue.

It’s not just ˇme.

  1. при выражении прощания в форме See you:

ˇSee you!

  1. прося о помощи для себя:

ˈMay I use your ˇphone?

  1. со словами-связками, которые обычно стоят в начале предложения:

ˈAs a ˇresult, ׀ we can present our final report on the topic.

ˇSecondly, …

To beˇgin with, …

  1. чтобы удостовериться, убедиться в чем-либо:

ˈIs there an ˇearlier train? (I expect there will be – I know there is one, but I want to make sure, to check).

  1. в общественных запросах (они звучат более приятно. Мы задаем вопросы, звуча приветливо):

ˈAre you the new ˇsecretary?

ˈDid you have a ˈgood ˇjourney?

  1. когда собеседник избегает прямо отвечать на вопрос:

ˈWhere have they ˎgone? - ˋSomewhere ˏquiet.

  1. В разговорных формулах:

  • Exˇcuse me …

  • ˇThank you.

  1. Вежливые просьбы:

- ˋDon’t be ˏlate.

20) Настойчивое предупреждение:

- ˈDon’t be ˇlate.

21) Выделите в отдельную синтагму (тоническую единицу) ту часть предложения или длинную фразу, действующую как подлежащее:

ˈWhat we ˇneed ǀ is ˈplenty of ˋtime.

What John ↑really ˇneeds ǀ is a ˋwife.

22) Вводное предложение (Comment clause):

- When will he be out of the hospital?

- The ˇdoctor ˚thinks ǀ in ˈten ˚days ˋtime.



  • ˈWhose ˋfault was it ˳then?

  • ˇTerry ˚says ǀ it was ˋyours.

Comment clauses в начальной позиции предложения характерны только для разговорной речи. Находясь в начальной позиции, они работают как обстоятельства:

- To be ˇhonest, ǀ Im ˈnot ˚sure what to ˎdo.

- To ˈspeak ˇfrankly, ǀ ... .











Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Произнесите фразу «Not very» с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить мягкое, дружелюбное возражение:

This radio set is good, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.


That question is difficult, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.



That novel is new, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.


The bag is heavy, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.


The room is narrow, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.


The lake is shallow, isn’t it?
- ˇNot very.


Exercise 2. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить уточнение:

- The photos are in the box, aren’t they?
- In the ˇalbum.


- The children are at school, aren’t they?
- In the ˇyard.


- The books are in the bookcase, aren’t they?
- On the ˇbookshelf.


- The pupils are at the lesson, aren’t they?
- At the ˇlibrary.


- Eva and David are married for ten years, aren’t they?
- For ˇfifteen.


- Sam is leaving today, isn’t he?
- ˇTomorrow.


Exercise 3. Произнесите вторую часть предложения с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить противопоставление:

I want to go to the village, but not in ˇwinter.


I want to go to the park, but not in the ˇafternoon.


I want to go to the library, but not ˇtoday.


I’d like to play tennis, but not right ˇnow.


I’d love to watch TV, but not in the ˇday time.


We’d like to visit this museum, but not on ˇSunday.


Exercise 4. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить предположение:

- Where is my hat?
- It may be on the ˇarmchair.


- Where is Sally’s bag?
- It may be near the ˇdoor.


- Where is our map?
- It may be on the ˇwall.


- Where is Lisa’s belt?
- It may be in the ˇwardrobe.


- Where are my pencils?
- They may be in the ˇpencil-box.


- Where are the children’s toys?
- They may be in the ˇbedroom.


- Where are the students?
- They may be at the ˇlecture.






















Список использованных источников

  1. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001

Материалы, взятые из интернет ресурсов

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УРОК 14



Обстоятельства, слова-связки и вводные слова

Очень часто английское предложение изобилует помимо главных и второстепенных членов предложения всевозможными интересными словечками, которые в зависимости от своей занимаемой позиции в предложении произносятся с разным тоном. Среди таковых различают обстоятельственные слова (adjuncts), слова-связки (conjuncts) и вводные слова (disjuncts).

Adjunct переводится на русский язык как “определение, обстоятельственное слово, обстоятельство” и предоставляет дополнительную информацию. Оно входит в состав структуры предложения, но при этом не является ее обязательной частью. Оно выделяется в отдельную синтагму только в том случае, если занимает необычную для себя позицию:

  • How do you get to the college?

  • ˇOften ǀ I ˋwalk.

Они включают в себя:

  • обстоятельства местаin the hall

  • обстоятельства направленияto the hall

  • обстоятельства времени – at 8 oclock, for 10 days

  • обстоятельства относительного времениjust

  • обстоятельства частотыoften, seldom

  • наречия степени (to what extent) – almost

  • обстоятельства образа действияcarefully, willingly, naturally, frankly



Функцией слов-связок (conjuncts) является формирование логической связи между предложениями. Многие из них называются “предложными наречиями” (sentence adverbials). Они выпадают из структуры предложения, а если они многосложные, то еще и выделяются в отдельную тоническую группу с запятой на письме в любой позиции в предложении. Обычной занимаемой позицией для них является начальная.

К таковым словам-связкам относят:

first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), therefore, in short, that is, besides, nevertheless, yet, in all, by the way, finally, all together, in other words, for example, that is to say, to begin with, to conclude, in conclusion, last(ly), last of all, correspondingly, equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, further, furthermore, in addition, above all, on top of it all, to cap it all, thus, to sum up, to summarize, namely, in other words, for instance, for example, consequently, as a result, accordingly, somehow, now, so, rather, more precisely, alternatively, on the contrary, in contrast, by contrast, in comparison, by comparison, by way of comparison, anyhow, anyway, nonetheless, still, though, in any case, at any rate, at all events, in spite of that, for all that, incidentally, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, eventually, subsequently, originally.

To beˇgin with, ǀ they ˈfear the ↑outbreak of ˎwar.

And to conˇclude, ǀ they ˌfeel frusˈtrated in their aˏttempts ǀ to ˈinfluence the poˈlitical deˎcisions.

Our reˇport ǀ is very satisˎfactory, ǀ ˏtherefore, ǀ …



Вводные слова (disjuncts) выполняют функцию передачи отношения говорящего к тому, что он говорит. Они выпадают из структуры предложения, а еще и выделяются в отдельную тоническую группу с запятой на письме в любой позиции в предложении.

В эту группу слов входят:

certainly, naturally, candidly, flatly, honestly, seriously, strictly, truthfully, confidentially, privately, approximately, bluntly, briefly, broadly, crudely, frankly, generally, roughly, simply, admittedly, assuredly, definitely, indeed, indisputably, obviously, plainly, clearly, decidedly, allegedly, apparently, possibly, quite likely, most likely, perhaps, presumably, technically, basically, essentially, fundamentally, formally, officially, ideally, actually, really, correctly, incorrectly, justly, rightly, wrongly, cleverly, artfully, reasonably, sensibly, wisely, unwisely, surely;

in all fairness, frankly speaking, in all frankness, to be frank, putting it frankly, to put it frankly, to tell the truth, of course, to be sure, etc.

If I may say so, if I may be frank, if you don’t mind my pointing out, etc.

ˇFrankly, ǀ I ˈdon’t ˋtrust him.

I ˈdon’t ˋtrust him, ǀ ˏfrankly.

Некоторые Conjuncts и Disjuncts произносятся с падающим (нисходящим) тоном в начальной позиции, но это только тенденция:

as a matter of fact, on the contrary, by the way, to crown it all, to top it all, as a result, in general, to be sure, still, above, in fact, besides, certainly, anyhow, anyway, after all, for example, yet, namely, etc.



NB! Когда слова-связки и вводные слова стоят внутри сложного предложения, соединяя собой два простых предложения, то некоторые из них произносятся с низким восходящим тоном:

She has high responsibilities and, ǀ ˏeventually, ǀ a high salary.

ˇFirst(ly) he is my friend, ǀ and ˏsecondly, ǀ he is in desperate need.

He was irritable, unjust, unreliable ǀ and ˏsoǀ became increasingly unpopular.

I want to tell you about my trip, ǀ ˏbut, ǀ by the ˋway, ǀ how is your mother?









Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Practise the adverbials.

Adjuncts:

  1. He worked quietly at home.

  2. He worked at home that day.

  3. The plane arrived uneventfully at Honolulu by midnight.

  4. By midnight the plane arrived uneventfully at Honolulu.

  5. He greeted the Bishop formally.

  6. They treated their friend badly.

  7. He put the point well.

  8. Very quickly my brother came to despise his school.

  9. She fixed it perfectly.

  10. All of a sudden, I felt free again.

  11. She gave me an answer rapidly.

  12. He stopped the car suddenly.

  13. Suddenly, he stopped the car.

  14. I go to school by bus.

  15. We are travelling to Washington (by) first class.

  16. He always writes in a carefree manner.

  17. She spoke from notes.

  18. He chopped the parsley with a knife.

  19. They played the game in a different way.

  20. The news was heard by millions.

  21. These linguistic units were separated intonationally.

  22. He did it for his son.

  23. She returned home early because of his insistence.

  24. She performed a recital out of charity.

  25. She is applying for a better job.

  26. They attacked the police as a protest.



Conjuncts:

  1. First, the economy is beginning to recover, and secondly unemployment figures have not increased this month.

  2. She has high responsibilities and, eventually, a high salary.

  3. Firstly he is my friend, and secondly he is in desperate need.

  4. She had her novel published this year, but too, she’s written some interesting articles on acupuncture.

  5. He lost his watch, his car broke down, and he got a letter of complaint from a customer, all in all, he had a bad day.

  6. They took with them some chocolate cans of beer, and fruit juice, a flask of coffee, in other words, enough refreshments.

  7. He was irritable, unjust, unreliable and so became increasingly unpopular.

  8. You haven’t answered my question; in other words, you disapprove of my proposal.

  9. She didn’t get the award after all. Still, her results were very good.

  10. I want to tell you about my trip, but, by the way, how is your mother?

  11. To conclude, it was a great success.

  12. Anyway, do you know the answer?

  13. Don’t try, what’s more, to justify yourself.



Disjuncts

  1. Briefly, there is nothing more I can do about it.

  2. I don’t want the money, confidentially.

  3. You ask me what he wants. Quite simply, he wants to move to a better climate.

  4. In short, he is mad but happy.

  5. There were 12 people present, to be precise.

  6. Generally speaking, the raining season has already begun.

  7. Speaking purely for myself, I find the music too arid.

  8. Technically our task is to recycle the waste products.

  9. Rightly, Mrs Jensen consulted her lawyer.

  10. Remarkably, Mrs Jensen consulted her lawyer.

  11. Certainly, he had very little reason to fear the competition.

  12. Obviously, nobody expected us to be here today.

  13. Really, the public doesn’t have much choice in the matter.

  14. To be sure, we have heard many such promises before.

  15. Of course, nobody imagines that he will repay what he borrowed.

  16. Understandably, we were all extremely annoyed when we received the letter.

  17. Wisely, Mrs McDonald didn’t want to have anything to do with them.



Exercise 2. Adjuncts, conjuncts or 6isjuncts?

  1. The police, however, thought he was guilty.

  2. They are enjoying themselves, or rather, they appear to be.

  3. He was extremely tired, but he was, nevertheless, unable to sleep.

  4. Naturally, he didn’t accept the invitation.

  5. He didn’t accept the invitation, naturally.

  6. Surprisingly, no one objected to the plan.

  7. She has visited the National Gallery lately.

  8. – When do you go to sleep? – Generally after midnight. – And you? – Normally, at about 11 p.m.

  9. To my regret, he didn’t accept our offer.

  10. Surely, you can find other people to play golf with.

  11. I’m lost here, to tell the truth.

  12. Actually, he happens to be the best chess-player.

  13. I thought he was speaking frankly.





The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 1. Practise the adverbials.

Adjuncts:

  1. He ˈworked ˈquietly at ˋhome.

  2. He ˈworked at ˋhome ˳that ˳day.

  3. The ˈplane ˈarrived uneˋventfully ǀ at Honoˋlulu ǀ by ˋmidnight.

  4. By ˇmidnight ǀ the ˈplane ˈarrived un˚eventfully at Honoˋlulu.

  5. He ˈgreeted the Bishop ˋformally.

  6. They ˈtreated their ˈfriend ˋbadly.

  7. He ˈput the ˈpoint ˋwell.

  8. ˈVery ˇquickly ǀ my ˈbrother ˈcame to deˈspise his ˋschool.

  9. She ˈfixed it ˋperfectly.

  10. All of a ˇsudden, ǀ I ˈfelt ˋfree a˳gain.

  11. She ˈgave me an ˈanswer ˋrapidly.

  12. He ˈstopped the ˈcar ˋsuddenly.

  13. ˇSuddenly, ǀ he ˈstopped the ˋcar.

  14. I ˈgo to ˈschool by ˋbus.

  15. We are ˈtravelling to ˈWashington (by) ˈfirst ˋclass.

  16. He ˈalways ˈwrites in a ˈcarefree ˋmanner.

  17. She ˈspoke from ˋnotes.

  18. He ˈchopped the ˈparsley with a ˋknife.

  19. They ˈplayed the ˈgame in a ˈdifferent ˋway.

  20. The ˈnews was ˈheard by ˋmillions.

  21. ˈThese linˈguistic ˏunits ǀ were ˈseparated intoˋnationally.

  22. He ˋdid it ǀ for his ˋson.

  23. She reˈturned ˈhome ˋearly ǀ because of his inˋsistence.

  24. She perˈformed a reˋcital ǀ out of ˋcharity.

  25. She is aˈpplying for a ˋbetter ˳job.

  26. They aˈttacked the poˈlice as a ˋprotest.



Conjuncts:

  1. ˇFirst, ǀ the eˈconomy is beˈginning to reˋcover, ǀ and ǀ ˏsecond(ly) ǀ unemˈployment ˚figures have ˈnot inˋcreased this ˳month.

  2. She ˈhas ˈhigh responsiˎbilities and, ǀ eˏventually, ǀ a ˈhigh ˋsalary.

  3. ˇFirstly ǀ he is my ˋfriend, ǀ and ˏsecondly ǀ he is in ˈdesperate ˋneed.

  4. She ˈhad her ˈnovel ˋpublished this ˳year, ǀ but ˋtoo, ǀ she’s ˈwritten ˚some ˈinteresting ˋarticles on ˳acupuncture.

  5. He ˈlost his ˎwatch, ǀ his ˈcar ˈbroke ˎdown, ǀ and he ˈgot a ˈletter of comˋplaint ǀ from a ˎcustomer, ǀ all in ˏall, ǀ he ˈhad a ˋbad ˳day.

  6. They ˈtook with them ˚some ˏchocolate, ǀ ˈcans of ˏbeer, ǀ and ˏfruit ˚juice, ǀ a ˈflask of ˏcoffee, ǀ in ˈother ˋwords, ǀ eˋnough re˳freshments.

  7. He was irˏritable, ǀ unˏjust, ǀ unreˏliable ǀ and ˏso ǀ beˈcame inˈcreasingly unˋpopular.

  8. You ˈhaven’t ˈanswered my ˋquestion; ǀ in ˈother ˋwords, ǀ you disaˋpprove of my pro˳posal.

  9. She ˈdidn’t ˈget the aˋward ˳after ˳all. >Still, ǀ her reˇsults ǀ were ˈvery ˋgood.

  10. I ˈwant to ˈtell you about my ˋtrip, ǀ ˏbut, ǀ by the ˋway, ǀ ˈhow is your ˋmother?

  11. To conˇclude, ǀ it was a ˋgreat ˳success.

  12. ˋAnyway, ǀ ˈdo you ˈknow the ˋanswer?

  13. ˈDon’t ˇtry, ǀ ˈwhat’s ˏmore, ǀ to ˋjustify yourself.



Disjuncts

  1. ˇBriefly, ǀ there is ˈnothing ˋmore ǀ I can ˋdo about it.

  2. I ˈdon’t ˈwant the ˋmoney, ǀ confiˏdentially.

  3. You ˈask me ˈwhat he ˋwants. ǀ Quite ˇsimply, ǀ he ˳wants to ˈmove to a ˋbetter ˳climate.

  4. In ˇshort, ǀ he is ˋmad ǀ but ˋhappy.

  5. There were ˈ12 ˋpeople ˳present, ǀ to be preˎcise.

  6. ˈGenerally ˇspeaking, ǀ the ˈraining ˏseason ǀ has ˈalready beˋgun.

  7. ˈSpeaking ˇpurely for myself, ǀ I ˈfind the ˇmusic ↑too ˋarid.

  8. ˇTechnically ǀ our ˈtask is to reˈcycle the ˋwaste ˳products.

  9. ˇRightly, ǀ Mrs ˈJensen conˈsulted her ˋlawyer.

  10. Reˇmarkably, ǀ Mrs ˳Jensen conˋsulted her ˳lawyer.

  11. ˋCertainly, ǀ he ˈhad ˈvery ˋlittle ˳reason ǀ to ˈfear the compeˋtition.

  12. ˇObviously, ǀ ˈnobody exˈpected us to be ˋhere ˳today.

  13. ˇReally, ǀ the ˈpublic ˈdoesn’t ˈhave ˚much ˈchoice in the ˋmatter.

  14. To be ˋsure, ǀ we have ˈheard ˚many ˈsuch ˋpromises be˳fore.

  15. Of ˋcourse, ǀ ˋnobody ˳imagines ǀ that he will reˋpay ˳what he ˳borrowed.

  16. Underˇstandably, ǀ we were ˈall ↑extremely anˋnoyed ǀ when we reˈceived the ˋletter.

  17. ˇWisely, ǀ Mrs McˈDonald ˈdidn’t ˈwant to ˈhave ˋanything to ˳do with them.



Exercise 2. Adjuncts, conjuncts or 10isjuncts?

  1. The ˈpolice, ǀ howˏever, ǀ ˈthought he was ˋguilty.

  2. They are ˋenjoying themselves, ǀ or ˏrather, ǀ they ˋappear to ˳be.

  3. He was ˈextremely ˋtired, ǀ but he was, ǀ ˏnevertheless, ǀ unˈable to ˋsleep.

  4. ˇNaturally, ǀ he ˈdidn’t acˈcept the inviˋtation.

  5. He ˈdidn’t acˈcept the inviˋtation, ǀ ˏnaturally.

  6. Surˇprisingly, ǀ no ˚one obˈjected to the ˋplan.

  7. She has ˈvisited the ˈNational ˋGallery ˳lately.

  8. – ˈWhen do you ˈgo to ˋsleep? – ˇGenerally ǀ after ˋmidnight. – And ˊyou? – ˇNormally, ǀ at about ˋ11 p.m.

  9. To ˇmy regret, ǀ he ˈdidn’t acˈcept our ˋoffer.

  10. ˇSurely, ǀ you can ˈfind ˋother ˳people ǀ to ˈplay ˋgolf with.

  11. I’m ˋlost ˳here, ǀ to ˌtell the ˏtruth.

  12. ˇActually, ǀ he ˈhappens to be the ↑best ˋchess-˳player.

  13. ˇI thought ǀ he ˋwas speaking ˏfrankly.















Список использованных источников

  1. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001





























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Вариативность употребления тонов и ее значение

Иногда бывает так, что одно и то же предложение можно произнести с разной мелодикой с выражением определенного значения.

  1. Фразы типа let me see; you know; oh, that reminds me; mm; well; I say; you see; on the contrary (так называемые “initiators”) выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся иногда по-разному:

а) a Level Tone – наиболее обычен

> Let me see …

> Mm …

б) a Low-Rise

в) a Fall-Rise – при наличие контраста

г) a High-Fall – акцент на чем-либо

  1. Прямое обращение (vocative) в начале предложения выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится четырьмя разными способами:

Low-Riseнебрежно

ˏBoys, ǀ have you seen my ˇbag ˚anywhere?

High-Fall – вежливо и официально/формально

ˋMadam, ǀ ˌsit ˋclose to the ˏfire. You ˈmust be ˎfrozen.

Fall-Riseдружелюбно

ˇHarry, ǀ would you ˈlike to ˚give me a ˇhand beˌfore you ˌgo out?

Low-Fall – слишком важно

Будучи расположенными в середине или в конце предложения, они не выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся безударным “хвостиком” предыдущей синтагмы. Но после нисходящего тона они могут получить восходящий тон и тогда они станут звучать вежливее и более значимее:

ˋMove out of my ˏway, ˚Peter. / ˈMove out of my ˋway, ˳Peter.

ˈWhat’s the ˋsalt for, ˏMum? / ˈWhat’s the ˋsalt for, ˳Mum?

I ˋsay, ˳Mike, ǀ will you ˈgive me a ˏhand? / I ˋsay, ˏMike, ǀ will you give me a hand?

  1. Слова автора, вводящие прямую речь, выделяются в отдельную синтагму в начале предложения и произносятся с

Level Tone – самая обычная ситуация

Low-Rise – также для обычного употребления

Fall-Rise – для передачи контраста

нисходящим тоном – когда слова автора грамматически и семантически закончены. Приведу ниже для примера ситуацию:

ˈJoan ˎgrumbled ǀ ˈstifling a ˎyawn: “Im ˈtoo ˎsleepy”.

But my ˈaunt ˚said ˏsuddenly: ǀǀ “There is ˈno ˚smoke without ˋfire”.

  • ˋWho can do it?

>Johnny said: “ˋI can”/ ˏJohnny said: “ˋI can”

>Ben ˳said: “ˋI can do it”.

ˇTim ˚said: “You’ll ˋnever be ˳able to ˳do it”.

Но если они расположены внутри предложения или в его конце, тогда мы не выделяем их в отдельную синтагму, а произносим как безударный “хвостик” предыдущей синтагмы:

To ˈtell the ˏtruth” he said ˚shyly, “I ˈdon’t ˋtrust these ˳people”.

Of ˋcourse”, he re˳torted rather ˳rudely.











Список использованных источников

  1. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001





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Упражнения для отработки изученных тонов

(Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”)





Exercise 1. Read subordinate clauses in initial and final position.

a)

    1. ˈWhen he ˏcame ǀ I ˈasked him to ˋwait.

    2. ˈAfter the ˏgame ǀ he ˌhad some ˋtea.

    3. ˈWhen he ˏsaw us ǀ he ˈran aˋway.

    4. ˌSince you reˈfuse to ˏhelp ǀ I must ˈdo it aˋlone.

    5. Just as the ˈtrain was ˏstarting, ǀ he ˈjumped ˋin.

    6. Whenˈever I had a ˏheadache ǀ I ˌtake a ˈcup of ˈstrong ˋtea.

    7. Unˈless it ˈrains in the ˈnext ˈfew ˏdays ǀ we shall ˈhave a ˈvery ˈpoor ˋharvest.

    8. Beˈfore ˏdinner ǀ he ˈused to ˈsmoke a ciˋgar.

    9. Beˈfore I ˈhad ˚time to ˈopen the ˏdoor ǀ she ˈknocked aˋgain.

    10. ˈAfter we’ve ˈhad our ˏdinner ǀ we ˈcan’t ˈsit ˋoutside.

    11. ˈAs he was ˈcoming ˈdown the ˏstairs ǀ her ˈfoot ˋslipped.

    12. In ˈspite of the ˏrain ǀ they ˈall ˋcame ǀ as they had ˎpromised.

    13. ˈIf it’s ↑all the ˏsame to you ǀ you’d ˈrather ˋwalk.

    14. ˌSince ˌearly ˏmorning ǀ I’ve been preˈparing to the ˋparty.





b)

  1. I ˈeat ˋsteak ǀ when I can ˏget it.

  2. I preˈfer to ˚go to the ˋseaside, if I can aˏfford it.

  3. We can ˋbuy ǀ it if there’s eˌnough ˏmoney.

  4. I’d ˈlike some ˋtoo, ǀ if you can ˏfind ˚any.

  5. I should ˈlike to ˋread it ǀ ˌwhen you have ˏfinished.

  6. They’ll ˈhave to ˈcross by ˋboat ǀ ˌuntil the ˌbridge is ˏbuilt.

  7. You’ll be ˈdead ˋtired ǀ beˌfore the ˌday is ˏout.

  8. You’ll be ˋlate ǀ ˌif you ˌdon’t ˌhurry ˏup.

  9. It’s ˈno ˈuse ˋgoing ǀ ˌuntil the ˌlibrary is ˏopen.

  10. ˈLet’s ˈswim out to ˋthat ˳rock ǀ ˌif it’s ˌnot ˌtoo ˏfar.

  11. ˇMad ǀ but ˋhappy ǀ as the ˌphrase ˏgoes.

  12. I’ll ˈbuy a ˋnew ˳one ǀ ˌif I can aˏfford it.



Exercise 2. Read the following sentences convincingly. Divide them up into tone units. Give your reasons and explain the intonation used.

    1. Just as train was starting, he jumped in.

    2. Whenever I have a headache, I take a cup of strong tea.

    3. We can walk there, if there’s time.

    4. I prefer red if you’ve got it.

    5. I couldn’t tell him because his wife was there, damn her.

    6. Looked at politically, it was a defeat – morally, they have won.

    7. It’s no use going until the Supermarket is open.

    8. As I was coming down, my foot slipped.

    9. (Cigarette? – Thanks.) – Oh, that reminds me, I’ve given up smoking.

    10. He was very tired, but he was, nevertheless, unable to sleep.

    11. Whoever wrote this book is a genius.

    12. I’ll have finished by the time you get back.

    13. She comes late, usually.

    14. And don’t answer me back, you cheeky little devil.

    15. (Do you need the book at once?) – Let me see … no, I don’t need it, honest I don’t.

    16. – At first he was dead against it.

  • Later, however, he decided to join us.

    1. While we are waiting, partner, let’s go through our notes again.

    2. Surely, you can find other people to play golf with. Why do you have to choose him?

    3. In fact, we’re still quite-quite-strangers round here, and well, I’m rather lost, to tell you the truth.

    4. Madam, sit close to the fire. You must be frozen.

    5. “Haven’t you got any change?”, asked the conductor, feeling in his bag.

    6. – Did you enjoy the play yesterday?

  • You see, I can’t say it was interesting.

    1. A change of air and surroundings will work wonders, I suppose.

    2. Mrs Bennet, my aunt, was thrilled by the latest events, naturally. Therefore, she blushed and flushed, and couldn’t utter a word.

    3. – How are you getting on with your English?

  • The teacher says, I’m making a lot of progress.

    1. She was there – all huddled up and-and-and cold, terribly cold.

    2. Well, see you on Saturday at your birthday party.

    3. – Can you manage it?

  • I must manage it, somehow.

    1. – She’ll do anything, if you ask her nicely.

  • I think she’s very obstinate, to put it mildly, and I don’t have the nerve to ask her, I’m afraid.

    1. She can be absolutely charming, when she chooses to be.

    2. – How about brandy?

  • Personally, I never touch the stuff.

    1. Generally, it rains a lot here in spring.

    2. He left early in case he should miss the last train.

    3. She didn’t leave home because I was watching the house all day.

    4. She didn’t leave home because her father told her not to.



Exercise 3. Read the following sentences and explain what the choice of tonicity depends on in them.

  1. ˇMum, ǀ this ˌcake’s terˆrific!

  2. – This ˈgroup plays ter↑rific ˚music for ˋdancing.

  • ˋRight. It’s ˈtoo ˋloud for ˏlistening ǀ and ˈsitting is ˎboring. – I ˋadore ˳dancing.

  1. I ˈlook ˋawful.

  2. ˈParking is ˋterrible in ˏLondon.

  3. – I’m ˈthinking of ˚having ˋair-con˳ditioning.

  • But it’s ˆfrightfully ex˳pensive to inˇstall.

  1. – ˈHow do you ˚find this ˋbook?

  • It’s ˋdreadfully ˳dull.

  1. ˈPoor and ˎproud. It was eˋxactly how he ˳felt.

  2. ˇSuddenly ǀ I ˌfelt ˈquite ˋyoung a˳gain.

  3. You’ve ˌdone ˇthis ˚exercise ˈquite acˋceptably.

  4. ˈThank you for a ˆwonderful ˳evening, ǀ ˏClare.

  5. – ˈWhat a ˋgame!

  • They ˌplay ˆwonderfully ˳well.

  • >Well, ǀ they ˈsometimes ˇlose ǀ but they ˈusually ˋwin.

  1. – Are you ˈstill ˋhungry?

  • I’m ˋalways ˳hungry.

  • You’re ˋjoking, ǀ of ˋcourse.

  1. - ˈJane’s ˚passed her ˋdriving ˳test.

  • ˈHow ˎmarvelous!

  1. – The ˈwhole thing was a tre↑mendous sucˎcess.

  • ˋYes. It was ˋperfectly all ˏright.

  1. – I exˈpect the ˈexam was ↑far too ˋdifficult.

  2. – She’s ˋdreaming of going to ˏLondon, ǀ to ˌdo the ˏsights.

  • She’ll have ˋheaps of ˏopportunities, ǀ I ˚think.

  1. – The ˈPrime-ˌminister was ↑killed in an ˋair ˳crash.

  • We were ˋterrified when we ˏlearnt the ˚news.

  1. – ˊKnow him?

  • ˈRather ↑too ˎwell.

  1. We ˈcouldn’t ˋsqueeze through the crowds of ˏfans.

  2. He is ˈthoroughly absent-ˋminded.

  3. Marˊtini? – I ˋrather ˏlike this ˚drink.

  4. – ˈWhat a ˈwonderful ˎday!

  • ˋYes, ǀ the ˌday is ˋreally ˳lovely.

  1. – ˈDo you reˈmember their ↑huge ˎcar?

  • I ˈutterly disˎlike it, ǀ ˏactually.



Exercise 4. Read and explain the way of tonetical marks.

  1. – ˈCould we ˏhelp him?

  • ˋYes, ǀ he’s ˋterribly ˳hard ˳up.

  1. – >Well, ǀ ˈhow did you ˈtwo ˈget ˋon?

  • ˆWonderfully ˳well.

  1. – ˈWhat do you ˈthink of this ˋactress?

  • ˋOh, ǀ she’s ˈdefinitely ˋbrilliant.

  1. – It was an ˋaccident, ˏwasn’t it?

  • A ˋterrible ˳accident.

  1. There’s ˈsomething ↑definitely ˋstrange about the ˳man.

  2. The ˈboy is an ↑awful ˋliar.

  3. – ˈWho’s she with ˋnow?

  • ˋAlbert. A ˈvery unˋpleasant ˳sort of ˳person.

  1. ˈWhat ˈshocking ˋtreachery!

  2. It’s ˋappalling ǀ the ˌway ˈSheila’s ˇhusband ˋtreats her.

  3. I ˋhate ˳being inter˳rupted.

  4. – You can ˈborrow it ˋany ˳time.

  • ˈThat’s ex↑tremely ˋkind of you.

  1. – ˈToo ˊold?

  • She is ˈonly ˋthirty.

  1. – Postˊpone it?

  • I’d ˈrather you ˈdid it ˋtoday.

  1. ˈWhat a ˈlovely ˋvoice!

  • ˋHer ˳voice is ˳lovely!

  1. – I am ˋhungry.

  • ˈNo ˇproblem. There are ˋtons of food in the ˏfridge.

  1. ˈWhy ˈall that ˋrush, ǀ ˋanyway? We’ve ˈgot ˋheaps of ˏtime.

  2. He ˈlives ↑miles ˋaway, I’m ˏsure.

  3. – ˈThink we’ll ˋcatch the ˏtrain?

  • ˋEasily. ˋLoads of time to ˏspare.

  1. ˈHave I ˈever ˈbeen to ˊLondon? I’ve ˌbeen ˌthere ˋscores of ˏtimes.

  2. The ˈpoor ˈfellow ǀ was a ↑mess of ˋbruises.

  3. ˈSome ˈpeople ǀ ↑just ˈlove ˚mountain ˋclimbing.

  4. ˈSeventy ˈpeople ˈmeans a ↑huge ˋparty.

  5. Our ˈventure ǀ was a ↑huge sucˋcess.

  6. ˈMaria ˈmade a de↑licious ˈcake and ˈdropped ˚some ↑dreadful ˈpoison ˋin at the ˳end.

  7. ˊLost it? ˋRather a ˳pity.

  8. – ˈStop ˋbreathing down my ˏneck, ǀ for ˈheaven’s ˋsake.

  • I was ˈonly ˈtrying to be a ˈbit ˋhelpful.

  1. ˊObstinate? ˋAll ˏright. ˈThen ˋI’ll be ˳obstinate, ǀ ˋtoo.

  2. ˈDon’t you ˏlike it, ǀ ˋeither?



















The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences convincingly. Divide them up into tone units. Give your reasons and explain the intonation used.

  1. ˈJust as ˈtrain was ˏstarting, ǀ he ˈjumped ˋin.

  2. Whenˈever I ˈhave a ˏheadache, ǀ I ˌtake a ˈcup of ↑strong ˋtea.

  3. We can ˋwalk ˳there, ǀ if there’s ˏtime.

  4. I preˈfer ˋred ǀ if you’ve ˏgot it. (it’s an adverbial clause of condition)

  5. I ˈcouldn’t ˋtell him ǀ beˌcause his ˋwife was ˳there, ǀ ˋdamn her. (qualifying comment clause)

  6. ˈLooked at poˏlitically, ǀ it was a deˋfeat ǀ – ˏmorally, ǀ they have ˋwon.

  7. It’s ˈno ˈuse ˋgoing ǀ unˌtil the Supermarket is ˏopen.

  8. ˈAs I was ˈcoming ˏdown, ǀ my ˈfoot ˋslipped.

  9. (Cigaˊrette? – ˇThanks.) – ˋOh, ǀ ˇthat ˏreminds me, ǀ I’ve ˈgiven up ˋsmoking.

  10. He was ˈvery ˋtired, ǀ but he was, ǀ ˏnevertheless, ǀ unˈable to ˋsleep.

  11. Whoˈever ˈwrote ˈthis ˇbook ǀ is a ˋgenius.

  12. I’ll have ˋfinished ǀ by the ˌtime you ˌget ˏback.

  13. She ˈcomes ˋlate, ǀ ˏusually.

  14. And ˈdon’t ˈanswer me ˋback, ǀ ˌyou ǀ ˌcheeky ˌlittle ˏdevil.

  15. (ˈDo you ˈneed the ˈbook at ˇonce?) – >Let me see … ˋno, ǀ I ˋdon’t ˳need it, ǀ ˋhonest I ˳don’t.

  16. – At ˇfirst ǀ he was ˋdead a˳gainst it.

  • ˇLater, ǀ howˋever, ǀ he deˈcided to ˋjoin us.

  1. ˈWhile we are ˏwaiting, ǀ ˚partner, ǀ ˈlet’s ˈgo ˚through our ˈnotes aˋgain.

  2. ˇSurely, ǀ you can ˈfind ˋother people ǀ to ˈplay ˋgolf with. ˋWhy do you ˳have to ˳choose him?

  3. In ˋfact, ǀ we’re ˈstill ˈquite-ˈquite-ˋstrangers round ˳here, ǀ and >well, ǀ I’m ˈrather ˋlost, ǀ to ˌtell you the ˏtruth.

  4. ˇMadam, ǀ ˈsit ˋclose to the ˏfire. You ˈmust be ˋfrozen.

  5. “ˈHaven’t you ˈgot any ˇchange?”, ˚asked the con˚ductor, ǀ ˌfeeling in his ˏbag.

  6. – ˈDid you ˈenjoy the ˋplay ˳yesterday?

  • You >see, ǀ I ˋcan’t say it was ˏinteresting.

  1. A ˈchange of ˈair and ˏsurroundings ǀ will ˈwork ˋwonders, ǀ I ˏsuppose.

  2. Mrs ˇBennet, ǀ my ˏaunt, ǀ was ˋthrilled by the ˳latest e˳vents, ǀ ˏnaturally. ˇTherefore, ǀ she ˎblushed ǀ and ˎflushed, ǀ and ˈcouldn’t ˈutter a ˋword.

  3. – ˈHow are you ˈgetting ˈon with your ˋEnglish?

  • The ˇteacher ˚says, ǀ I’m ˈmaking a ˈlot of ˋprogress.

  1. She ˋwas ˳there ǀ – all ˈhuddled up and-and-and ˋcold, ǀ ˋterribly ˳cold.

  2. >Well, ǀ ˈsee you on ˋSaturday ǀ at your ˋbirthday ˳party.

  3. – ˈCan you ˋmanage it?

  • I ˋmust ˳manage it, ǀ ˋsomehow.

  1. – She’ll ˈdo ˋanything, ǀ ˌif you ˌask her ˏnicely.

  • I ˈthink ǀ she’s ˈvery ˋobstinate, ǀ to ˌput it ˏmildly, ǀ and I ˈdon’t ˈhave the ˋnerve to ˳ask her, ǀ I’m ˏafraid.

  1. She can be ˈabsolutely ˋcharming, ǀ when she ˏchooses to be.

  2. – ˈHow about ˋbrandy?

  • ˇPersonally, ǀ I ˈnever ˋtouch the ˳stuff.

  1. ˇGenerally, ǀ it ˈrains a ˋlot ˳here ǀ in ˋspring.

  2. He ˈleft ˋearly ǀ in ˌcase he should ˌmiss the ˌlast ˏtrain.

  3. She ˈdidn’t ˈleave ˋhome ǀ beˈcause I was ˈwatching the ˈhouse ↑all ˋday.

  4. She ˈdidn’t ˈleave ˋhome ǀ beˌcause her ˌfather ˌtold her ˏnot to.















Список использованных источников

  1. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001





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Слова со сдвинутым фокусом ударения

Некоторые слова иногда бывают безударными, т.е. со сдвинутым фокусом ударения. Это происходит в следующих случаях:

      1. причастие или прилагательное в конечной позиции выпадает из фокуса ударения, если его можно предугадать или додумать:

You must ˈhave your ˋhair ˳cut.

You ˈmust have had your ˋnails ˳done.

ˈHas the ˏpost a˚rrived?

ˈShall I ˚let the ˏdog ˚loose?

ˈGet the ˏpapers ˚ready.

      1. сказуемое в конечной позиции выпадает из фокуса ударения, если его можно предугадать или додумать:

(Nora?) The ˋkettle is ˳boiling.

(I ˋsay, David) A ˋtap is ˳running.

Fanˆtastic it ˳looks.

      1. обстоятельства времени и места в конечной позиции обычно выпадают из фокуса ударения в общих вопросах (“да/нет” вопросах):

ˈIsn’t he ˏcoming to˚morrow?

ˈIs ˏmother at ˚home ˚yet?

ˈFeel like a ˊwalk this ˚morning?

ˈGot any ˊvisitors ˚coming this after˚noon?

ˈTaking the ˊletter to the ˚post? And ˈcan you ˈbuy me a ˏnewspaper while you are ˚out?

NB! Но они расцениваются как вспомогательная, второстепенная информация в утверждениях в разговорной речи:

He is ˋcoming toˏmorrow.

I am ˋoff ˏnow ˚then.

I ˈmet your ˋmother at the ˏSupermarket.

Иногда обстоятельства места и времени могут передавать важную информацию и поэтому являются ударными:

You’ll ˈfind them ˈall upˎstairs.

We ˈhaven’t ˎseen them ǀ for ˋhours.











Revision exercises

Exercise 1. How are final “place and time” adverbials treated in these sentences?

  1. You ˋcan’t go by ˳tube toˏnight.

  2. I’m ˈoff to ˋIndia in a ˏmonth.

  3. >Brr… It’s ˋchilly a bit in ˏhere.

  4. I ˋshan’t be ˳very ˏlong.

  5. She ˈhasn’t been ˈvisiting ˋLondon beˏfore.

  6. His ˋbirthday’s ˏsoon.

  7. He was in the ˌgarage a ˋminute ˏago.

  8. The ˈwaiter’s ˋcoming ˏnow.

  9. I’m ˋworking toˏday.

  10. We’ve ˈarranged to ˚stay at ˋLeo’s place for the weekˏend.

  11. We’re ˋbusy at the ˏmoment.

  12. ˋLook! ˇMoore’s ǀ in the ˋpenalty ˳area ˏnow.

  13. I ˈhope to ˚work for an ˋadvertising ˳agency one ˏday.

  14. I’ve ˈgot to ˚go to ˋCambridge ˳next ˏweek.

  15. The ˈmountains ˈaren’t ˋfar from ˏhere, ǀ ˏare they?



Exercise 2. Mark the intonation, read the sentences correctly and explain how the underlined words behave tonetically.

  1. Do you know it’s my birthday today?

  2. Will you go to the laundry today or tomorrow?

  3. – I see that you’ve had your hair waved.

  • Not waved, but permed.

  1. – Did you see Othello on television last night?

  • Yes, I did.

  1. I saw your sister at the theatre.

  2. The doctor has called. Do be quick.

  3. I’m off now then.

  4. I thought of going for a walk on Sunday.

  5. Feel like a walk this morning?

  6. The dog is barking. Don’t move.

  7. At that very moment the phone rang.

  8. As I was coming down, my foot slipped.

  9. Isn’t he coming tomorrow?

  10. You must have had your nails done.

  11. Have your photograph taken yet?

  12. Has the mail arrived?

  13. I’m ready now.

  14. Is Peter at home, Dad?

  15. We are busy at the moment.

  16. Parking is terrible in London.

  17. She hasn’t visited London before.

  18. I ought to be at Tim’s by half past seven.

  19. – How long will you be staying in Geneva?

  • I’ll be staying there for nine days.

  1. I hope to work for an advertising agency one day.

  2. Look! Moore’s in the penalty area now.

  3. I’ve got to see a client in Dover this afternoon.

  4. I hope it won’t be too hot in the theatre.

  5. I’m working today.

  6. He’ll be here soon.

  7. Did you talk to John last night?

  8. The light isn’t working, please bring a new bulb.

  9. Mrs Hunt’s going to the hairdresser’s to have her hair done. Then we are going to the cleaner’s to have some clothes cleaned.

  10. – Can I have my coat pressed here?

  • Yes, it’s possible to have clothes pressed and cleaned very quickly here.

  1. While I was playing, this telegram was delivered.

  2. If we’re sure that we’d stay here, we could have a house built.

  3. Do you sell stamps in here?

  4. – What should I do with this luggage?

  • First have it labelled.

  1. Since the traffic is very heavy, delays of up to 30 minutes are expected.











The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 2. Mark the intonation, read the sentences correctly and explain how the underlined words behave tonetically.

  1. ˈDo you ˚know it’s my ˋbirthday ˏtoday?

  2. ˈWill you ˈgo to the ˈlaundry ˇtoday or ˋtomorrow?

  3. – I ˈsee ǀ that you’ve ˈhad your ˋhair ˳waved.

  • Not ˇwaved, ǀ but ˋpermed.

  1. – ˈDid you ˈsee Oˇthello ˚on tele˚vision last ˚night?

  • ˏYes, ǀ I ˋdid.

  1. I ˈsaw your ˋsister at the ˏtheatre.

  2. The ˈdoctor has ˋcalled. ˋDo ˳be ˳quick.

  3. I’m ˋoff ˏnow ˚then.

  4. I ˈthought of ˈgoing for a ˈwalk on ˋSunday.

  5. ˈFeel ˈlike a ˊwalk ˚this ˚morning?

  6. The ˋdog is ˳barking. ˈDon’t ˇmove.

  7. At ˈthat ˈvery ˇmoment ǀ the ˋphone ˳rang.

  8. ˈAs I was ˈcoming ˏdown, ǀ my ˋfoot ˳slipped.

  9. ˈIsn’t he ˏcoming to˚morrow?

  10. You must have ˈhad your ˋnails ˳done.

  11. ˈHave your ˋphotograph ˳taken ˳yet?

  12. ˈHas the ˋmail ˳arrived?

  13. I’m ˋready ˏnow.

  14. ˋIs Peter at ˏhome, ˚Dad?

  15. We are ˋbusy at the ˳moment.

  16. ˈParking is ˋterrible in ˏLondon.

  17. She ˈhasn’t ˈvisited ˈLondon beˋfore.

  18. I ought to be at ˈTim’s by ˈhalf past ˋseven.

  19. – How ˋlong will you be ˳staying in Ge˳neva?

  • I’ll be ˌstaying there for ˈnine ˋdays.

  1. I ˈhope to ˈwork for an ˋadvertising ˳agency one ˳day.

  2. ˋLook! ˇMoore’s ǀ in the ˋpenalty ˳area ˏnow.

  3. I’ve ˈgot to ˈsee a ˋclient in ˏDover ˚this after˚noon.

  4. I ˈhope it ˈwon’t be ↑too ˋhot in the ˏtheatre.

  5. I’m ˋworking to˳day.

  6. He’ll be ˈhere ˋsoon.

  7. ˈDid you ˈtalk to ˋJohn ˳last ˳night?

  8. The ˋlight ˳isn’t ˳working, ǀ please ˈbring a ˋnew ˳bulb.

  9. Mrs ˈHunt’s ˈgoing to the ˋhairdresser’s ǀ to ˈhave her ˋhair ˳done. Then we are ˌgoing to the ˋcleaner’s ǀ to ˈhave ˚some ˋclothes ˳cleaned.

  10. – ˈCan I ˈhave my ˋcoat ˳pressed ˳here?

  • ˋYes, ǀ it’s ˋpossible to ˳have ˳clothes ˳pressed and ˳cleaned ˳very ˳quickly ˳here.

  1. While I was ˏplaying, ǀ ˈthis ˋtelegram was de˳livered.

  2. ˈIf we’re ˏsure ǀ that we’d ˏstay ˚here, ǀ we could ˈhave a ˋhouse ˳built.

  3. ˈDo you ˈsell ˋstamps in ˳here?

  4. – ˈWhat should I ˈdo with ˇthis ˚luggage?

  • ˇFirst ǀ ˋhave it ˳labelled.

38. Since the ˈtraffic is ↑very ˏheavy, ǀ ˈdelays of up to ˈ30 ˋminutes are ex˳pected.



















Список использованных источников

  1. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001



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Тексты для отработки изученных тонов

(Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”)



Mark your own intonation where necessary:

  1. - It ˈsays here the ˋQueen’s ˳coming.

  • ˋWhere?

  • ˋHere.

  • I ˋdo hope ǀ we’ll be ˈable to ˇsee her.

  1. - ˈWhat are your ˈchildren ˋfighting a˳bout?

  • It’s ˋMy ˳book.

  • ˋHis book’s ǀ ˌover ˋthere.

  • ˋHer ˳book’s ˳over ˏthere. ˈThis one is ˋˋMine.



  1. Mrs. Newell has gone to see the doctor and is discussing her problem with him.

Doctor: - ˈWhere’s the ˋpain, Mrs. ˏNewell?

Mrs. Newell: - ˎHere, ˏDoctor, ǀ in my ˎchest.

Doctor: - I ˎsee. ˇHere?

Mrs. Newell: - ˎYes, ˳Doctor.

Doctor: - ˈDoes it ˈhurt when you ˏcough?

Mrs. Newell: - ˋYes, ǀ it ˆdoes.

Doctor: - How ˈlong have you ˋhad it?

Mrs. Newell: - ˈSix or ˈseven ˎweeks.

Doctor: - ˌSix or ˌseven ˎweeks. As ˈlong as ˋthat?

Mrs. Newell: - I ˋthink ˏso.

Doctor: - ˈHave you ˈtried ˏtaking ˚anything ǀ – for the ˌcough I ˏmean?

Mrs. Newell: - >Well, ǀ the ˈusual ˈhoney and ˈhot ˇlemon. And then I ˈbought ˚some ˋcough ˳syrup.

Doctor: - ˈDid it ˏhelp?

Mrs. Newell: - ˋNo, ˳Doctor. ˳That’s ˳why I’ve ˳come to ˳see ˎyou.





  1. Jack Marsden has arranged to see his bank manager because he wants to borrow enough money to start buying a flat.

Bank manager: So, you’re interested in some sort of loan, Mr Marsden?

Mr. Marsden: That’s right. You see, I want to raise enough money for a deposit on a small flat.

Bank manager: Do you mean to buy?

Mr. Marsden: Yes, I don’t want to go on renting.

Bank manager: I see. Do you think you can get a mortgage?

Mr. Marsden: Yes. I’ve seen about that, You see, I’ve got a secure job with a good salary.

Bank manager: Is the flat for yourself? Will you be living there alone?

Mr. Marsden: Yes, for the moment, anyway. Why? Does that make any difference to the loan?

Bank manager: No. No. Just interested. That’s all.

Mr. Marsden: Do you need to know anything else? I’ve brought my contract with details of my salary.

Bank manager: Good. Yes. Fine. And have you got any securities? Shares in any companies? Insurance policies? Things like that?





  1. Step by step

It seemed to get an age to get there. But eventually the bus stopped. We got the terminus and everyone got out. We were somewhere in the commercial district, but I wasn’t sure where. I couldn’t recognize anything. The others hurried off. I hesitated, wondering which way to start. I ought to have asked someone, but it was too late. They had gone. The street was empty. Even the bus driver had gone. I hurried across, and turned into an alleyway, and started to walk. It was dark and drizzling a little. I went through an archway and into another street where there were street lights. It was one of those pedestrian precincts – no cars admitted – with concrete benches to sit on and concrete tubs for plants. But the benches were wet. It was winter and there wasn’t a plant to be seen. I passed some shops, bright lights, and bargains and fashionable dresses on plastic figures, videos and fridges and hundreds of shoes at give-away prices, left over gift wrapping, and holly, and snowmen. I walked along, looking in the windows. The last of the shop assistants was just closing the doors. “Could you tell me, please, where Market Street was.” She had no idea. She was a student doing a holiday job and she didn’t know the district yet. She thought there was a pub in the first street on the left. Perhaps they’d know there. It was all very odd. There was just nobody about. I walked on and took the left turning, where she’d said, and found the pub. But, of course, they didn’t open till seven. And it was just half past five. I went round to a side door and rang a bell.



  1. At the railway Station

Traveller: Can you help me, please? I’m travelling to York, but apparently, the train I was to catch has been cancelled.

Assistant: The train to York. When were you hoping to travel?

Traveller: On the eleven forty-eight. And on the indicator board it says it’s cancelled.

Assistant: Eleven forty-eight to York. That’s right. There seems to be some trouble on the line… they’ve had to take it off. The next direct train is at thirteen-twenty.

Traveller: Thirteen-twenty. And when does it get to York?

Assistant: It gets to York … at … fifteen ten.

Traveller: Oh, Lord! Perhaps I could go by another route, by an earlier train?

Assistant: Just a moment. How much luggage do you have?

Traveller: Only this bag?

Assistant: Because if you don’t mind changing, you could go via Manchester. There’s a train due out in – hang on – just five minutes.

Traveller: Which platform will that be?

Assistant: From platform two. But you’ll have to change.

Traveller: I don’t mind that. But what about your ticket? Can I use the same ticket?

Assistant: Let me look. That’s OK, yes. It’s just the same fare.

Traveller: And what time will that get me there?

Assistant: At fourteen forty-eight. About twenty minutes before the direct train. But you’ll have to hurry! Platform two – change at Manchester.





  1. Oscar wants to know (by Mike Quin)

  • Papa, what does opportunity mean?

  • “Opportunity is a chance to make some money”, Mr Darcey answered.

  • “Papa, how do people make money?” asked Oscar.

  • People make money by going into business.

  • Papa, can everybody go into business?

  • Of course, everybody can go into business.

  • If everybody goes into business, will they all be businessmen?

  • Everybody can’t go into business.

  • Why can’t they, Papa?

  • Because they haven’t got enough money.

  • If they get enough money, and if they all go into business, will they all be businessmen?

  • They will, naturally.

  • But if everybody is a businessman, who will do the work, Papa?

  • They can’t all be businessmen.

  • “Even if they have enough money?” asked Oscar.

  • “Even if they have enough money,” said Mr Darcey. “Somebody must do the work”.

  • How many people can be businessmen, Papa?

  • One out of a thousand.

  • But Papa, a few men can become businessmen, what can the rest of the people do, if they don’t want to be workers?

  • The rest can be businessmen too, if they are clever enough and if they have enough initiative.

  • But you said only a few of them can. Most of them must be workers…



















The correct way of reading the sentences



  1. Jack Marsden has arranged to see his bank manager because he wants to borrow enough money to start buying a flat.

Bank manager: >So, ǀ you’re ˈinterested in ˚some ˈsort of ˋloan, ˏMr Marsden?

Mr. Marsden: ˈThat’s ˋright. You >see, ǀ I ˈwant to ˈraise ˈenough ˋmoney ǀ for a ˋdeposit ǀ on a ˈsmall ˋflat.

Bank manager: ˈDo you ˈmean to ˇbuy?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes, ǀ I ˈdon’t ˈwant to ˈgo ˋon ˳renting.

Bank manager: I ˋsee. ˈDo you ˈthink you can ˋget a ˏmortgage?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes. I’ve ˋseen about ˏthat, You >see, ǀ I’ve ˈgot a ˈsecure ˇjob ǀ with a ˈgood ˎsalary.

Bank manager: ˈIs the ˚flat for ˏyourself? ˈWill you be ˈliving there aˏlone?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes, ǀ for the ˎmoment, ǀ ˎanyway. ˋWhy? ˈDoes ˈthat ˈmake any ˋdifference ǀ to the ˇloan?

Bank manager: >No. >No. ˈJust ˋinterested. ˈThat’s ˋall.

Mr. Marsden: ˈDo you ˈneed to ˈknow ˈanything ˇelse? I’ve ˈbrought my ˇcontract ǀ with ˈdetails of my ˇsalary.

Bank manager: ˋGood. ˋYes. ˋFine. And ˈhave you ˋgot any seˏcurities? ˏShares in ˚any ˚companies? ˏInsurance ˚policies? ˈThings like ˏthat?



  1. Step by step

It ˌseemed to ˌtake an ˎage to ˳get ˳there. But eˇventually ǀ the ˈbus ˋstopped. We ˈgot the ˋterminus ǀ and ˈeveryone ˚got ˋout. We were ˈsomewhere in the ˋcommercial ˳district, ǀ but I ˌwasn’t ˌsure ˎwhere. I ˈcouldn’t ˈrecognize ˋanything. The ˇothers ˈhurried ˋoff. I ˋhesitated, ǀ ˈwondering ǀ ˈwhich ˚way to ˎstart. I ought to have ˈasked ˋsomeone, ǀ but it was ˈtoo ˋlate. They had ˋgone. The ˈstreet was ˎempty. ˈEven the ˋbus ˳driver had ˳gone. I ˈhurried ˎacross, ǀ and ˈturned into an ˎalleyway, ǀ and ˈstarted to ˎwalk. It was ˎdark ǀ and ˎdrizzling a ˳little. I ˈwent through an ˎarchway and into another ˋstreet ǀ where there were ˎstreet ˳lights. It was one of ˈthose peˈdestrian ˋprecincts ǀ – ˌno ˎcars ad˳mitted ǀ – with ˈconcrete ˈbenches ǀ to ˚sit on ǀ and ˈconcrete ˋtubs ǀ for ˎplants. But the ˌbenches were ˎwet. It was ˎwinter ǀ and there ˌwasn’t a ˎplant ǀ to be ˎseen. I ˌpassed ˳some ˏshops, ǀ ˌbright ˏlights, ǀ and ˏbargains ǀ and ˌfashionable ˌdresses on ˌplastic ˏfigures, ǀ ˌvideos and ˏfridges ǀ and ˌhundreds of ˌshoes at ˌgive-away ˏprices, ǀ ˌleft ˳over ˏgift ˚wrapping, ǀ and ˏholly, ǀ and ˎsnowmen. I ˈwalked ˋalong, ǀ ˈlooking in the ˎwindows. The ˈlast of the ˈshop as˚sistants was ˈjust ˈclosing the ˋdoors. “ˈCould you ˇtell me, ǀ ˚please, ǀ ˌwhere ˋMarket ˳Street ˳was.” She ˈhad ˈno ˎidea. She was a ˋstudent ǀ ˈdoing a ˋholiday ˳job ǀ and she ˈdidn’t ˋknow the ˳district ˳yet. She ˈthought ǀ there was a ˈpub in the ˋfirst ˳street on the ˳left. Perˈhaps they’d ˚know ˎthere. It was ˈall ˈvery ˋodd. There was ˌjust ˈnobody aˋbout. I ˈwalked ˎon ǀ and ˈtook the ˈleft ˎturning, ǀ where she’d ˋsaid, ǀ and ˋfound the ˳pub. But, ǀ of ˋcourse, ǀ they ˈdidn’t ˈopen till ˋseven. And it was ˈjust ˈhalf ˚past ˋfive. I ˈwent round to a ˋside ˳door ǀ and ˈrang a ˎbell.



  1. At the Railway Station

Traveller: ˈCan you ˇhelp me, ˚please? I’m ˈtravelling to ˋYork, ǀ but apˇparently, ǀ the ˈtrain ǀ I was to ˇcatch ǀ has been ˋcancelled.

Assistant: The ˌtrain to ˌYork. ˈWhen were you ˈhoping to ˋtravel?

Traveller: On the ˈeleven ˈforty-ˋeight. And on the ˇindicator ˚board ǀ it ˈsays ǀ it’s ˋcancelled.

Assistant: ˌEleven ˌforty-ˌeight to ˎYork. ˈThat’s ˋright. There ˈseems to be ˚some ˈtrouble on the ˋline… they’ve ˈhad to ˈtake it ˋoff. The ˈnext ˇdirect ˚train ǀ is at ˈthirteen-ˋtwenty.

Traveller: ˌThirteen-ˎtwenty. And ˈwhen does it ˈget to ˋYork?

Assistant: It ˈgets to >York … >at … fifˈteen ˋten.

Traveller: ˈOh, ˋLord! Perˈhaps I could ˈgo by aˈnother ˋroute, by an ˋearlier ˳train?

Assistant: ˈJust a ˋmoment. ˈHow ˈmuch ˋluggage do you ˳have?

Traveller: ˈOnly ˇthis ˚bag?

Assistant: Beˌcause if you ˈdon’t ˈmind ˇchanging, ǀ you could ˌgo ˈvia ˋManchester. There’s a ˇtrain ǀ due ˚out in ǀ – >hang on ǀ – ˈjust ˈfive ˋminutes.

Traveller: ˋWhich ˳platform will ˳that ˳be?

Assistant: From ˌplatform ˋtwo. But you’ll ˈhave to ˋchange.

Traveller: I ˈdon’t ˋmind ˳that. But ˈwhat about your ˋticket? ˈCan I ˈuse the ˋsame ˳ticket?

Assistant: ˈLet me ˎlook. ˈThat’s ˇOK, ǀ ˋyes. It’s ˈjust the ˋsame ˳fare.

Traveller: And ˈwhat ˚time will ˈthat ˋget me ˳there?

Assistant: At ˈfourteen ˈforty-ˋeight. About ˈtwenty ˈminutes before the ˋdirect ˳train. But you’ll ˈhave to ˇhurry! ˇPlatform ˚two ǀ – ˈchange at ˋManchester.



  1. Oscar wants to know

  • ˋPapa, ǀ ˈwhat does opporˋtunity ˳mean?

  • “Opporˇtunity ǀ is a ˈchance to ˈmake ˚some ˎmoney”, Mr ˳Darcey ˳answered.

  • “ˋPapa, ǀ ˋhow do ˳people ˳make ˳money?” ˳asked ˳Oscar.

  • ˳People ˳make ˳money by ˈgoing into ˎbusiness.

  • ˋPapa, ǀ ˈcan ˋeverybody ˳go into ˳business?

  • Of ˋcourse, ǀ ˋeverybody can ˳go into ˳business.

  • ˏIf ˳everybody ˳goes into ˳business, ǀ ˋwill they ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen?

  • ˌEverybody ˋcan’t ˳go into ˳business.

  • ˋWhy ˳can’t they, ˳Papa?

  • Beˌcause they ˈhaven’t ˈgot ˋenough ˳money.

  • If they ˏget ˚enough ˚money, ǀ and ˏif they ˳all go into ˳business, ǀ ˋwill they ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen?

  • They ˋwill, ǀ ˏnaturally.

  • But ˏif ˚everybody is a ˚businessman, ǀ ˈwho will ˈdo the ˋwork, ˳Papa?

  • They ˋcan’t ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen.

  • “ˊEven if they ˚have ˚enough ˚money?” ˚asked ˚Oscar.

  • “ˋEven if they ˳have ˳enough ˳money,” ˳said Mr ˳Darcey. “ˈSomebody ˋmust ˳do the ˳work”.

  • ˈHow ˋmany ˳people can ˳be ˳businessmen, ˳Papa?

  • ˈOne out of a ˋthousand.

  • But ˋPapa, ǀ if ↑only a ˇfew ˚men can ˚become ˚businessmen, ǀˈwhat can the ˋrest of the ˳people ˳do, ǀ if they ˈdon’t ˋwant to ˳be ˳workers?

  • The ˌrest can ˌbe ˌbusinessmen ǀ ˋtoo, ǀ if they are ˋclever ˳enough ǀ and if they ˌhave ˌenough ˎinitiative.

  • But ˇyou ˚said ǀ ˳only a ˇfew of them ˚can. ˋMost of them ǀ ˋmust be ˳workers…

















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УРОК 19



Тексты для подготовки к экзаменам

(Открывая мир с английским языком. Говорение. Speaking. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва;

Открывая мир с английским языком. Современные темы для обсуждения. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва)



NB! После всех текстов приведены правильные варианты разметки всех текстов







Text 1

Dance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, often rhythmic and to music. Most people like dancing and they dance for different reasons. It is difficult to say when dance became an important part of human culture. Dance has been used during different ceremonies, rituals and celebrations since prehistoric times. In the past people danced to tell stories and to show feelings for one of the opposite gender. Dance plays a vital role in many of the world’s religions. People have used dance in praise of their gods, in celebration of the seasons, and simply as an outward expression of joy or grief.

For many people dance is an excellent opportunity to have fun, to express their emotions, to relieve stress, to experience music and to improve their health and fitness levels. Also, dance can be a form of nonverbal communication. It helps two people say “I love you” to each other. That is why many couples celebrate their unions with a wedding dance, which is the symbol of their love and affection.





Text 2

There are lots of different dancing styles. Some of them can be practiced alone (solo dance), as a couple (partner dance), or as a part of a much larger group (group dance). Many people dedicate their lives to dancing and spend years perfecting their dancing skills. But it is not necessary to be a professional. The most important thing is just to love dancing. There are many reality television shows and movies that have made ballroom dancing popular and appealing to the average person. Some people take dance lessons or just buy videos and DVDs that teach different dance steps.

While dancing, people try to express their emotions or to tell a story through their movements and facial expressions. Dance fills your body with energy and makes you feel happier. Dancing is a wonderful way to exercise while having fun. Besides, it has a lot of health benefits. It increases your muscle tone, lowers blood pressure and enhances the release of endorphins. It helps you burn calories and lose weight. But of course many people dance simply for the sake of dancing.



Text 3

Comedy films are designed to amuse and entertain the audience and to make people laugh. They often humorously exaggerate situations, ways of speaking, the action and characters. Many comedies are light-hearted stories which have a happy end.

Action film is a film genre where characters are thrust into a series of challenges that require physical feats. Action films usually feature explosions, car chases, villains, fist fights and other acts of violence. Stunt men are employed to take the place of an actor when something dangerous has to be done in a film. Action films often employ visual effects and computer animation.

Romance films are love stories that focus on passion and emotion. They make the love story or the search for love the main plot focus. Occasionally, lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms of discrimination, psychological restraints or families that threaten to break their union of love. Tensions of day-to-day life and temptations enter into the plots of romantic films. Romantic films often explore the essential themes of love at first sight, unrequited love, forbidden love or tragic love.





Text 4

Horror films often feature scenes that startle the viewer. They may deal with the viewer’s nightmares, hidden fears, revulsion and terror of the unknown. Plots with the horror genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage, commonly of supernatural origin, into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, aliens, vampires, werewolves, curses, demons, monsters, zombies, cannibals, and serial killers.

Thriller is a film genre that uses suspense, tension and excitement as the main elements. The aim of a thriller is to keep the audience alert and on the edge of their seats. Thrillers heavily stimulate the viewers’ moods giving them a high level of anticipation, expectation, uncertainty, surprise, anxiety or terror. The concealing of important information from the viewer, as well as fight and chase scenes are common devices used in all of the thriller subgenres. Others such as red herrings, plot twists and cliffhangers are also used extensively. Thrillers tend to be adrenaline-rushing, fast-moving, psychological, threatening, mysterious and sometimes involve espionage, terrorism and conspiracy.





Text 5

Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. They often have an element of magic, myth, wonder, escapism, and the extraordinary. Flying carpets, magic swords, spells, dragons, and ancient religious relics or objects are common elements. Some fantasy films may include supernatural characters such as magicians, fairies, dwarves and elves. In fantasy films, the hero often undergoes some kind of mystical experience and must ask for assistance from powerful, superhuman forces.





Text 6

Everybody likes watching movies. Movies are a source of entertainment for people of all ages and professions. They stir emotions and stimulate conversation.

Movies introduce us to cultures, historical events, and stories with which we are unfamiliar. They can bring families together. Family movie night is a fun activity that encourages parents and children to spend more time together and discuss different things.

Besides, movies can be used in classrooms to enhance learning. For example, watching the original versions of a foreign movie is an effective way of improving one’s language skills. Those who learn foreign languages seldom have an opportunity to talk to native speakers. Original movies give us a chance to listen to fluent speech and introduce us to new vocabulary and grammar.

















Правильные варианты разметки всех текстов



Text 1

ˇDance ǀ is a ˈtype of ˈart ǀ that ˈgenerally ˈinvolves ˈmovement of the ˏbody, ǀ ˈoften ˏrhythmic and to ˋmusic. ˇMost ˚people ˋlike ˳dancing ǀ and they ˳dance for ˈdifferent ˋreasons. It is ˈdifficult to ˈsay ǀ when ˚dance ˈbecame an ˈimportant ˈpart of ˈhuman ˋculture. ˳Dance has been ˈused during ˈdifferent ˏceremonies, ǀ ˏrituals and ˏcelebrations since ˈprehistoric ˋtimes. In the ˏpast ǀ ˚people ˈdanced ǀ to ˈtell ˏstories ǀ and to ˈshow ˈfeelings for one of the ˈopposite ˋgender. ˇDance ǀ ˈplays a ˈvital ˚role in ˈmany of the ˈworld’s ˋreligions. ˚People have ˈused ˚dance in ˈpraise of their ˏgods, ǀ in ˈcelebration of the ˏseasons, ǀ and ˈsimply as an ˈoutward ˈexpression of ˏjoy or ˋgrief.

For ˈmany ˏpeople ǀ ˇdance ǀ is an ˈexcellent ˈopportunity to ˚have ˏfun, ǀ to ˈexpress their ˏemotions, ǀ to ˈrelieve ˏstress, ǀ to ˈexperience ˏmusic ǀ and to ˈimprove their ˈhealth and ˋfitness ˳levels. ˋAlso, ǀ ˳dance can be a ˈform of ˈnonverbal ˋcommunication. It ˈhelps ˈtwo ˈpeople ˈsay ǀ “I ˋlove you” to ˳each ˳other. ˈThat is ˈwhy ˈmany ˈcouples ˈcelebrate their ˈunions with a ˈwedding ˏdance, ǀ which is the ˈsymbol of their ˏlove and ˋaffection.





Text 2

There are ˈlots of ˈdifferent ˈdancing ˋstyles. ˇSome of them ǀ can be ˈpracticed ˏalone ǀ (ˏ solo ˚dance), ǀ as a ˏcouple ǀ (ˏpartner ˚dance), ǀ or as a ˈpart of a ˚much ˋlarger ˳group ǀ (ˋgroup ˳dance). ˇMany ˚people ˈdedicate their ˈlives to ˏdancing ǀ and ˈspend ˏyears ǀ ˈperfecting their ˚dancing ˋskills. But it is ˈnot ˈnecessary to be a ˋprofessional. The ↑most ˈimportant ˇthing ǀ is ˈjust to ˋlove ˳dancing. There are ˈmany ˈreality ˚television ˈshows and ˏmovies ǀ that have ˈmade ˈballroom ˚dancing ˈpopular and ˈappealing to the ˈaverage ˋperson. ˇSome ˚people ˈtake ˏdance ˚lessons ǀ or ˈjust ˈbuy ˈvideos and ˏDVDs ǀ that ˈteach ˈdifferent ˚dance ˋsteps.

While ˏdancing, ǀ ˳people ˈtry to ˈexpress their ˏemotions ǀ or to ˈtell a ˏstory ǀ through their ˏmovements and ˈfacial ˋexpressions. ˳Dance ˈfills your ˈbody with ˏenergy ǀ and ˈmakes you ˈfeel ˋhappier. ˇDancing ǀ is a ˈwonderful ˈway to ˈexercise while ˚having ˋfun. ˋBesides, ǀ it ˳has a ˈlot of ˋhealth ˳benefits. It ˈincreases your ˈmuscle ˏtone, ǀ ˈlowers ˈblood ˏpressure ǀ and ˈenhances the ˈrelease of ˋendorphins. It ˈhelps you ˈburn ˏcalories ǀ and ˈlose ˋweight. But of ˋcourse ǀ ˇmany ˚people ˚dance ˈsimply for the ˋsake of ˳dancing.



Text 3

ˇComedy films ǀ are ˈdesigned to ˈamuse and ˈentertain the ˏaudience ǀ and to ˈmake ˚people ˋlaugh. They ˈoften ˈhumorously ˈexaggerate ˏsituations, ǀ ˈways of ˏspeaking, ǀ the ˏaction and ˋcharacters. ˇMany comedies ǀ are light-ˈhearted ˚stories ǀ which ˚have a ˈhappy ˋend.

ˇAction film ǀ is a ˈfilm ˚genre ǀ where ˈcharacters are ˈthrust into a ˈseries of ˏchallenges ǀ that ˈrequire ˈphysical ˋfeats. ˳Action films ˈusually ˈfeature ˏexplosions, ˏ car chases, ǀ ˏvillains, ǀ ˏfist fights ǀ and ˋother ˳acts of ˳violence. ˇStunt men ǀ are ˈemployed to ˈtake the ˈplace of an ˏactor ǀ when ˈsomething ˋdangerous has to be ˳done in a ˳film. ˳Action films ˈoften ˈemploy ˈvisual ˏeffects ǀ and ˈcomputer ˋanimation.

ˇRomance films ǀ are ˈlove ˚stories ǀ that ˈfocus on ˏpassion and ˋemotion. They ˈmake the ˈlove story or the ˈsearch for ˚love the ˈmain ˋplot ˳focus. ˇOccasionally, ǀ ˈlovers ˈface ˈobstacles such as ˏfinances, ǀ ˈphysical ˏillness, ǀ ˈvarious ˈforms of ˏdiscrimination, ǀ ˈpsychological ˏrestraints ǀ or ˏfamilies ǀ that ˈthreaten to ˈbreak their ˈunion of ˋlove. ˈTensions of ˈday-to-day ˚life and ˈtemptations ˈenter into the ˈplots of ˋromantic ˳films. ˳Romantic ˳films ˈoften ˈexplore the ˈessential ˈthemes of ˈlove at ˈfirst ˏsight, ǀ ˏunrequited ˚love, ǀ ˏforbidden ˚love ǀ or ˋtragic ˳love.



Text 4

ˇHorror films ǀ ˈoften ˈ feature ˈscenes ǀ that ˈstartle the ˋviewer. They may ˈdeal with the ˚viewer’s ˏnightmares, ǀ ˈhidden ˏfears, ǀ ˏrevulsion ǀ and ˈterror of the ˋunknown. ˈPlots with the ˏhorror genre ǀ ˈoften ˈinvolve the ˈintrusion of an ˈevil ˏforce, ǀ ˏevent, ǀ or ˏpersonage, ǀ ˈcommonly of ˈsupernatural ˈorigin, ǀ into the ˈeveryday ˋworld. ˈPrevalent ˈelements ˈinclude ˏghosts, ǀ ˏaliens, ǀ ˏvampires, ǀ ˏwerewolves, ǀ ˏcurses, ǀ ˏdemons, ǀ ˏmonsters, ǀ ˏzombies, ǀ ˏcannibals, ǀ and ˈserial ˋkillers.

ˇThriller ǀ is a ˈfilm ˚genre ǀ that ˈuses ˏsuspense, ǀ ˏtension ǀ and ˏexcitement ǀ as the ˋmain ˳elements. The ˈaim of a ˏthriller ǀ is to ˈkeep the ˈaudience ˏalert ǀ and on the ˈedge of their ˋseats. ˳Thrillers ˈheavily ˈstimulate the ˚viewers’ ˏmoods ǀ ˈgiving them a ˈhigh ˚level of ˏanticipation, ǀ ˏexpectation, ǀ ˏuncertainty, ǀ ˏsurprise, ǀ ˏanxiety ǀ or ˋterror. The ˈconcealing of ˈimportant ˈinformation from the ˏviewer, ǀ as well as ˏfight and ˏchase scenes ǀ are ˈcommon ˏdevices ǀ ˈused in ˈall of the ˋthriller ˳subgenres. ˇOthers ǀ such as ˈred ˏherrings, ǀ ˏplot twists ǀ and ˏcliffhangers ǀ are ˈalso ˈused ˋextensively. ˳Thrillers ˈtend to be ˏadrenaline-rushing, ǀ ˏfast-moving, ǀ ˏpsychological, ǀ ˏthreatening, ǀ ˏmysterious ǀ and ˈsometimes ˈinvolve ˏespionage, ǀ ˏterrorism ǀ and ˋconspiracy.





Text 5

ˇFantasy films ǀ are ˈfilms with ˈfantastic ˏthemes, ǀ ˈusually ˈinvolving ˏmagic, ǀ ˈsupernatural ˏevents, ǀ ˈmake-believe ˏcreatures, ǀ or ˈexotic ˈfantasy ˋworlds. They ˈoften have an ˈelement of ˏmagic, ǀ ˏmyth, ǀ ˏwonder, ǀ ˏescapism, ǀ and the ˋextraordinary. ˏFlying carpets, ǀ ˏmagic swords, ǀ ˏspells, ǀ ˏdragons, ǀ and ˈancient ˈreligious ˏrelics ǀ or ˏobjects ǀ are ˋcommon ˳elements. ˇSome ˚fantasy films ǀ may ˈinclude ˈsupernatural ˈcharacters such as ˏmagicians, ǀ ˏfairies, ǀ ˏdwarves ǀ and ˋelves. In ˏfantasy films, ǀ the ˈhero ˈoften ˈundergoes ˚some ˈkind of ˈmystical ˏexperience ǀ and must ˈask for ˈassistance from ˈpowerful, ˈsuperhuman ˋforces.



Text 6

ˈEverybody ˈlikes ˈwatching ˋmovies. ˇMovies ǀ are a ˈsource of ˈentertainment for ˈpeople of ↑all ˈages and ˋprofessions. They ˈstir ˏemotions ǀ and ˈstimulate ˋconversation.

˳Movies ˈintroduce us to ˏcultures, ǀ ˈhistorical ˏevents, ǀ and ˏstories ǀ with which we are ˋunfamiliar. They can ˈbring ˈfamilies ˋtogether. ˈFamily ˏmovie night ǀ is a ˈfun ˚activity ǀ that ˈencourages ˈparents and ˈchildren to ˈspend ˈmore ˈtime ˏtogether ǀ and ˈdiscuss ˈdifferent ˋthings.

ˋBesides, ǀ ˳movies can be ˈused in ˈclassrooms ǀ to ˈenhance ˋlearning. For ˋexample, ǀ ˈwatching the ˈoriginal ˈversions of a ˏforeign ˚movie ǀ is an ˈeffective ˈway of ˈimproving one’s ˈlanguage ˋskills. ˇThose ǀ who ˈlearn ˈforeign ˏlanguages ǀ ˈseldom have an ˈopportunity to ˈtalk to ˈnative ˋspeakers. ˈOriginal ˚movies ˈgive us a ˈchance to ˈlisten to ˈfluent ˏspeech ǀ and ˈintroduce us to ˈnew ˏvocabulary and ˋgrammar.



Краткое описание документа:

Этот курс предназначен непосредственно для самих учащихся. Он хорош тем, что позволяет ребенку самостоятельно готовиться по многим аспектам и без педагога, т.к. почти в каждом уроке включены звуковые файлы, позволяющие отрабатывать определенные моменты английской речи.



В пятой части учащиеся продолжат знакомиться очень подробно с приведением примеров и многочисленных упражнений с существующими в английском языке тонами и с тем, как их произносить и когда употреблять. Именно наличие или, наоборот, отсутствие тонов заставляет нас помимо соблюдения правильности произношения звучать по-русски. А мы-то будем добиваться именно английского звучания.

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Дата добавления 17.08.2015
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