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Выбранный для просмотра документ About myself.docx
My name is Dasha.
I’m 14. I’m a student. I’m Russian. I live in Shakhty town, Rostov Region. But my native town is Kamishin not far Volgograd. I like my home town and I miss it. I have a mother, 2 grannies & an aunt with an uncle. My parents are divorced. As for my mum she’s a clever, kind, active & honest woman. My mum is a doctor. We like to spend time together going shopping, watching films or just chatting.
I like painting and I can paint animals, houses and people. I enjoy nature too and I like watching beautiful landscapes and then I try to paint them.
I go in for sport and it helps me to keep fit and to be slim. I go to the swimming-pool once a week. My favourite subject is Biology and I’m going to be a general practitioner (a doctor as my mum).
I think that I’m reliable, open and hard-working and I hope to become a good doctor.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Canada.docx
Canada is the second largest country in the world. It’s nearly as big as all of Europe. The capital of Canada is Ottawa. In Canada there are people of many nationalities. There are two official languages in the country- English and French. English spoken in Canada is a bit different from British English. There are pronunciation and grammatical differences. The red and white Canadian flag shows a leaf of the maple tree, which grows in North America. The maple leaf is the official emblem of Canada.
Canada is a vast country, bigger than the United States, bigger than the continent of Australia. It is in fact one of the world’s largest countries. The population of Canada is 29 mln people. The main cities are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. The word Canada means “a number of huts” from the Indian word “Kannata”. The French were the first settlers to this country. Today Canada is an independent federative state, consisting of 10 provinces and 2 territories. The two official languages are English and French. But many other languages are spoken: Italian, Chinese, German, Polish and Greek. Canada is a country with very high standards of living. This country is particularly advanced in the areas of health, education, social protection and human rights.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Discover Britain.docx
Discover Britain: England
The United Kingdom is a very small country.
It is an Island State.
The official name of the country is “ The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”
The Queen Elizabeth the second is the head of state.
Britain is a monarchy.
It’s twice smaller than France or Spain.
It’s one of the world’s smallest countries.
It consists of Wales, Scotland, England and Northern Ireland.
The official language is English.
London is the capital of England and the seventh biggest city in the world.
In Britain you can meet people from different nationalities.
In Great Britain you can find practically any type of landscape.
Britain is a beautiful country with green fields, hedges and trees.
England is the largest part of the UK.
Britain has a mild climate.
It was famous for its fogs.
But now these fogs have disappeared because there are no coal fire-places.
Britain is connected with Europe by the English Channel and the tunnel under the water.
So u can get to France from London by bus, by car or by train.
We know some sights of Britain famous all over the world.
They are Stonehenge, the Tower of London, St. Paul’s Cathedral, the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben.
As for me, I like Britain, especially London and I’d like to visit this country and to learn English there.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Education in Canada.docx
Education in Canada
The school system of Canada is like the one in the USA.
Education in Canada is general and compulsory for children from 6 to 16 years old.
Grades 1—6 are usually elementary schools, and grades 7—12 are secondary schools.
In some provinces there is a kindergarten year before the first grade.
Elementary education is general and basic, but the students can select some courses themselves.
Most secondary schools provide programmes for all types of students.
Some of them prepare students for entering the university.
There also exist some commercial high schools.
Some provinces have private kindergartens and nursery schools for children.
There also exist Roman Catholic schools and private schools in some provinces.
In most provinces private schools receive some form of public support.
Entering the university in Canada is after high school with specific courses.
Getting a degree in law, medicine, dentistry or engineering usually takes 3—4 years of studying.
University tuition fees vary among different provinces.
All provinces also have public non-university institutions.
They are regional colleges, institutes of technology, institutes of applied arts, colleges of agricultural technology and others.
Criteria for admission to these institutions are less strict.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Education in Great Britain.docx
Education in Great Britain
In Great Britain there are different types of secondary schools.
Most of them are state schools where education is free.
But some parents choose to pay for private education.
Private schools in England and Wales are very expensive.
They are attended by about 5 per cent of the school population.
The education in public schools is of high quality.
The discipline is very strict.
School education is divided into 3 stages: primary, secondary &further education.
Most of private schools are either for boys or for girls.
Public schools are famous not only for their perfect education but also for the contacts which are useful for a successful future.
In some British schools uniforms are worn by all the pupils, in others the children can wear what they want.
Some private schools are very famous, such as Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Winchester.
A lot of famous people got their education in some British schools.
Also there are a lot of Universities which are famous all over the world.
Oxford &Cambridge are the oldest, the most prestigious and privileged universities in the UK.
There are about 40 colleges in Oxford and 30 in Cambridge.
Each college has its own library.
I think a lot of students from different countries would like to get education in England.
Education in Australia.
Education in Australia is compulsory between the ages 6 & 15.
Most children study in state schools where education is free.
Most Australians live in cities along the coastline.
But there are also many remote towns on the continent.
So children get education there in a quite different way.
In several states of Australia there are “schools of air”.
These schools are situated in areas far away from big cities and towns.
Pupils use Internet, radio, TV and video.
The students learn about the world around them and they stay at home.
There is also “School through the Mailbox”.
They are for children who live far away from any school in the area.
Subjects are divided into one-or two-week units.
Each unit can be sent to pupils any time.
Of course there are colleges and Universities of higher education in Australia.
In Sydney or Canberra students get education on different professions.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Education in New Zealand.docx
Education in New Zealand
The Education system in New Zealand is a three-tier model which includes primary schools, followed by secondary schools (high schools) and tertiary education at universities and/or polytechs. The academic year in New Zealand varies between institutions, but generally runs from late January until mid-December for primary schools, secondary schools, and polytechnics, and from late February until mid-November for universities.
In 2009, the Programme for International Student Assessment,published by the OECD, ranked New Zealand 7th best at science and reading in the world, and 13th in maths . The Education Index, published as part of the UN's Human Development Index consistently ranks New Zealand among the highest in the world. However, this index appears to be based primarily on the average number of years that children spend at school rather than their level of achievement
Primary and secondary education
Education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16, although in special cases an exemption can be gained after applying to the Ministry Of Education (MOE). These may be granted to students who are close to 16, have been experiencing some ongoing, unresolved, difficulty at school, and have an approved job already lined up. Families wishing to home educate their children can apply for exemption. To get an exemption from enrollment at a registered school, they must satisfy the Secretary of Education that their child will be taught "as regularly and as well as in a registered school".
Children almost always start school on their 5th birthday, or the first School Day after it. Many children attend some form of early childhood education before they begin school such as:
Playcentre (birth to school age)
Kindergarten (ages 3–5)
Licensed Early Childhood Centres (ages 0–5) (usually privately owned)
Chartered Early Childhood Centres (ages 0–5) (state funded)
Free primary and secondary education is a right for all New Zealand citizens and permanent residents from a student's fifth birthday until the end of the calendar year following the student's 19th birthday, and is compulsory for students between the ages of 6 and 16 (15 with parental and school.MOE permission). A recent proposal by the New Zealand Government, called Schools Plus, would see students required to remain in some form of education until age 18. Disabled students with special educational needs can stay until the end of the calendar year they turn 21.
Most students start when they turn 5, and many remain in school for the full 13 years. Students living more than 5 kilometres walking distance from the nearest school (or public transport to school) may be exempted from attending school but may be required to enrol in a correspondence school. Many schools contract public transport operators to provide school buses that deliver students to the school gate in the morning and home again at the end of the school day.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Education in Russia.docx
Education in Russia
In Russia children begin going to school at the age of seven. First they study at the elementary school. It lasts three or four years. At the elementary school children get the elementary education, they learn to read, write and count. From the fifth form the secondary education begins. Children begin learning different subjects, such as Literature, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Computing, Foreign Languages and soon. The nine-year secondary education is compulsory in our country, but after completing the nine-year schooling pupils face the first serious decision in their lives. They have to decide either to continue their studies in the tenth and eleventh forms at a general secondary school, or to transfer to specialised colleges, that is to say, choose a particular career. Colleges give young people a secondary education plus trade training. This means that after finishing a college they are both educated and financially independent, able to go straight to a job.
Except general secondary schools there are a lot of specialised schools, where more attention is paid to a particular subject, mostly to a foreign language. Besides, the-re are many private schools now, where the education is not free of charge.
After finishing school or college young people may enter institute or university to get the higher education. After finishing the fourth course they get the bachelor's degree and after graduating from the higher educational establishment — the master's degree.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Famous people in Great Britain.docx
Famous people in Great Britain
One of the most popular musical groups was the Beatles. The group became famous in 1962. The group included Paul Mc. Cartney, John Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. The songs seemed simple, but they were exciting and appealed to the hearts of people. Every time the Beatles arrived somewhere many fans greeted them. Their famous songs were ''Yesterday'', ''Let it Be'', ''Lady Madonna'', and others. In 1980 John Lennon was murdered in New York in 1980. The killer was a fan of "The Beatles".
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was born in 1859 in Scotland. His father worked as a clerk in an office. Arthur's mother was a good story-teller. It helped Conan Doyle as a writer. Arthur studied medicine at Edinburgh University and had his medical practice in a small English town. Here he published his first detective story "A Study in Scarlet". It was in 1887. Its main characters were Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. Holmes`s address was 221B Baker Street, London. The public liked these characters and demanded more and more stories about Sherlock Holmes. His favourite stories about Sherlock Holmes were '' The File Orange Pips'', The Stark Munro Letters'' (Письма Старка Монро)," A Study in Scarlet" (Этюд в багровых тонах)."The Sign of Four" (Знак четырёх), "The Hound of the Baskervilles", ''The Poison Belt". Sherlock Holmes is a well known detective of all time. He was able to solve difficult crimes using his powers of observation and deduction, sometimes without leaving his flat in Baker Street. He smoked a pipe and had a big collection of pipes. Sometimes he liked playing the violin. In 1902 Conan Doyle was knighted for his medical service in the Anglo-Boer wars. In 1930 he died. Conan Doyle wrote many stories about Sh. Holmes. Sh. Holmes is a well-known detective of all time. He is able to solve difficult crimes using his powers of observation and deduction sometimes without leaving his flat in Baker Street.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Keeping fit.docx
To keep fit most people do sports. Some of them join a sports club. The most popular individual sports are walking, swimming, cycling and aerobics.
People work hard. They come home late and are busy at weekends. They have no time to go to a sports club or a sports centre which isn’t quite near their homes. They can hardly do sport seriously. They just want to relax.
People of all ages and types do exercises at home to improve their health and to keep fit. In the morning they switch on the TV and follow fitness classes at home or go jogging in the park in the evening.
Выбранный для просмотра документ New Zealand.docx
New Zealand is a small and quiet country in the Pacific Ocean. It is situated in the Southern Hemisphere. It consists of two main islands and some smaller islands. When it’s summer in Europe, it’s winter in NZ. But the school year still starts in autumn- in February. The capital of NZ is Wellington. The population of the country is mixed. Some people came from Britain years ago. Some Maori people lived here before the British came. The official languages are English & Maori. But English is spoken in a very unusual way in NZ. It’s often called Kiwi English. NZ is sometimes called “the World’s biggest farm”. It’s famous for its products: butter, cheese, meat.
Выбранный для просмотра документ Russia is a Great Place.docx
Russia is a Great Place
Russia is my country. I was born in Russia. The first thing that I’m going to tell you is that Russia is my motherland and I’m proud that I’m Russian. Moscow is the capital of the country. Russia is the largest country in the world. It is located in Eastern Europe and north Asia. The country is washed by 3 oceans (the Arctic, the Atlantic, and the Pacific). Russia borders on many countries. There are many rivers, lakes, seas, mountains in Russia. The Volga is the longest river in Europe and the country’s most important river. The largest lakes are Baikal, Ladoga and Onega. Baikal is the deepest fresh-water lake in the world and its water is the purest on Earth. The Caucasus is the highest and the youngest mountain chain in Russia. Mount Elbrus is the highest mountain peak/point in Russia and in Europe. The Ural mountain chain forms a natural border between Europe and Asia.
The Russian Federation is extremely rich in natural and mineral resources. It has the deposits of oil, gas, iron, gold and many other minerals.
The second thing I’m going to speak about Russia’s economy. I believe economy is a foundation of any country’s life. Russia is still dependent on export of oil, gas and timber (древесина). Its industrial and farming sectors are still weak.
The third point I’m going to touch upon is Russia’s political system. Russia is a parliamentary republic. President is the Head of State. He is elected for a 4-year term.
I like the nature of my country. It is very beautiful and rich. There are many rivers, lakes and seas. The lake Baikal is one of the deepest lakes in the world. The Black Sea is popular for holiday-makers. The Volga is the longest river in Europe.
There are many big cities in Russia such as Rostov-on-Don, St. Petersburg, Krasnodar, Voronezh and so on. The Russian national flag is the symbol of the country. It has three stripes – white, blue and red.
There are many traditions and holidays in Russia. New Year, Christmas, Maslenitsa and Easter are old Russian holidays. I LOVE MY COUNTRY!!!!
Выбранный для просмотра документ Sport is Fun.docx
Sport is Fun
People all over the world are very fond of sports and games.
That is one thing in which people of every nationality and class are united.
The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow-skating, skiing and tobogganing.
Some people greatly enjoy figure-skating and ski-jumping.
Summer has excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, cycling, riding, golf and many other sports.
Among outdoor games football takes the first place.
This game is played in all the countries of the world.
The other favourite games in different countries are golf, tennis, cricket, volleyball, basketball and so on.
Badminton is also very popular.
All the year round many people go in for boxing, wrestling, athletics, gymnastics and track and field events.
A lot of girls and women go in for riding a bicycle.
Among indoor games the most popular are billiards, table tennis, draughts and some others, but the great international game is chess of course.
Sport helps us to be healthy and strong.
We can keep fit with the help of sport.
So we may say that sport is one of the things that makes all people kin.
Выбранный для просмотра документ The 1998 World Youth Games was the first international multi.docx
The World Youth Games
The 1998 World Youth Games was the first international multi-sport event of its kind.
More than 7thousand young athletes representing 140 countries  of the world participated in this event. It took place in Moscow, Russia from July 11 to 19, 1998.
The motto of the World Youth Games was “the open world for childhood” and its mascot was again the Mishka (Мишка)  – the Russian Bear that was also the mascot of the XXII Summer Olympic Games in Moscow 1980.
The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event first held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010. The games are held every four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format. The age limitation of the athletes is 14 to 18. The idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998. On 6 July 2007, International Olympic Committee (IOC) members at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City approved the creation of a youth version of the Olympic Games. The costs of hosting the event will be shared by the IOC and the host city, while the travel costs of athletes and coaches are paid by the IOC.
While the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics lasted 13 days, the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics lasted ten days. The IOC will allow a maximum of 3,530 athletes and 481 IOC accredited officials to participate the summer games, while 970 athletes and 580 officials are expected to attend the winter games. The Games will also feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes.
Several other Olympic events for youth, like the European Youth Olympic Festival are held every other year with summer and winter versions, and the Australian Youth Olympic Festival, have proven successful. The Youth Games are modelled after these sporting events. The YOG are a successor to the discontinued World Youth Games.
The concept of the Youth Olympic Games came from Austrian industrial manager Johann Rosenzopf in 1998. This was in response to growing global concerns about childhood obesity and the dropping participation of youth in sport activities, especially amongst youth in developing nations. Besides, in order to improve the students' academic performance, schools are dropping sports and physical education from their curriculums. It was further recognized that a youth version of the Olympic Games would help foster participations in the Olympic Games. Despite these reasons for having an Olympic event for young people, the IOC's response of holding a purely sporting event was negative. IOC delegates wanted the event to be as much about cultural education and exchange as it was about sports, which is why the Culture and Exchange Program (CEP) was developed as a component of each celebration of the Games. Jacques Rogge, IOC President, formally announced plans for the Youth Olympic Games at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. There are several goals for the YOG, and four of them include bringing together the world's best young athletes, offering an introduction into Olympism, innovating in educating and debating Olympic values. The city of Singapore was announced as the host of the inaugural Summer Youth Olympics on 21 February 2008. On 12 December 2008 the IOC announced that Innsbruck, host of the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, would be the host of the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics in 2012.
The scale of the Youth Olympic Games is smaller than that of the Olympics, which is intentional and allows for smaller cities to host an Olympic event. Potential host cities are required to keep all events within the same city and no new sports venues should be built. Exceptions to this building moratorium include a media center, amphitheater facilities for classes and workshops, and a village for coaches and athletes. This village is to be the heart of the Games for the athletes, and the hub of activity. No new or unique transportation systems are required as all athletes and coaches will be transported by shuttles. According to bid procedures, the track and field stadium for the opening and closing ceremonies must hold 10,000 people, and a city must have a 2,500-seat aquatics facility (for Summer editions).
The original estimated costs for running the Games were US$30 million for the Summer and $15 million to $20 million for Winter Games, these costs do not include infrastructure improvements for venue construction. The IOC has stipulated that costs for infrastructure and venues is to be paid by the host city. The IOC will pay travel costs to the host city and room and board for the athletes and judges, estimated at $11 million. The funding will come from IOC funds and not revenues. The budgets for the final two bids for the inaugural Summer Games came in at $90 million, much higher than the estimated costs. The cost of the first games in Singapore escalated to an estimated S$387 million ($284 million). Sponsors have been slow to sign on for the YOG, due to the fact that it is a new initiative and corporations are not sure what level of exposure they will get. The budget for the inaugural Winter Games to be held in Innsbruck has been estimated at $22.5 million, which does not include infrastructure improvements and venue construction.
Over 200 countries and 3,600 athletes participated in the inaugural 2010 Youth Summer Olympics. Participants are placed in the following age groups: 14–15 years, 16–17 years, and 17–18 years. The athlete's age is determined by how old he or she is by 31 December of the year they are participating in the YOG. Qualification to participate in the Youth Olympics is determined by the IOC in conjunction with the International Sport Federations (ISF) for the various sports on the program. To ensure that all nations are represented at the YOG the IOC instituted the concept of Unversality Places. A certain number of spots in each event are to be left open for athletes from under-represented nations regardless of qualifying marks. This is to ensure that every nation will be able to send at least four athletes to each Youth Olympic Games. For team tournaments one team per continent will be allowed to compete along with a sixth team either representing the host nation or as proposed by the IF with IOC approval. There is a cap of two teams (one boys' and one girls') per nation. Finally, no nation may enter more than 70 athletes in individual sports.
The sports contested at the Youth Games are the same as those scheduled for the traditional Games, but with some adaptations, and a limited number of disciplines and events. For example, in the aquatics sport the IOC decided to include diving and swimming events but excluded synchronized swimming and water polo. Some of the sports have been modified for the Games. The basketball competition uses the FIBA 33 format, which is 3-on-3 half-court game, where the periods are five minutes each, and the first team to 33 points wins. The cycling disciplines are mountain bike, BMX, and road, while track cycling has been left off the schedule. Other youth-driven sports may eventually be contested if backed by international sports federations. In November 2007, it was revealed that pentathlon will be included, as well as sailing, giving an edge to candidate cities near water.
The Winter Youth Games will feature seven sports. Hockey will have not only a men's and women's tournament but also an individual skills challenge. In luge, figure skating and short track speed skating there will be mixed NOC events that will allow athletes from various countries to compete together in teams. Alpine and cross-country skiing will have events in which men and women will compete on mixed-gendered teams.
Выбранный для просмотра документ The USA.docx
The USA is one of the biggest countries in the world. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and from Canada in the north to Mexico in the south. The capital of the USA is Washington. Some people think it’s New York. This famous city is the financial and cultural center of the USA.
The USA has the third largest population in the world. It’s a real melting pot. English is the official language in the USA. But the English language spoken in this country is known as American English.
There are some differences between British and American English. For example, a film in Britain is a movie in America, a postman is a mailman, and the underground is the subway. The second important language in the US is Spanish.
THE COUNTRY’S MOTTO IS “IN GOD WE TRUST”
Выбранный для просмотра документ William Shakespeare.docx
William Shakespeare & Beatles.
Britain is famous for its people.
I’d like to tell you about William Shakespear, a famous English writer.
William Shakespeare was born on April, 23, in 1564 to John and Mary Shakespeare in Stratford –upon – Avon.
His mother was the daughter of a farmer.
His father was a glove-maker.
William went to a grammar school and had quite a good education.
William married a farmer’s daughter some years older than himself.
During few years his three children were born: Susannah, the eldest, then twins – a son Hamnet and another girl, Judith.
But soon Shakespeare went to work in London, leaving Anne and the children at home.
Maybe he had to run away from law because he killed some deer belonging to a rich man.
In London Shakespeare began to act and to write plays and soon became an important member of a well-known acting company.
12) Most of his plays were performed in the new Globe Theatre built on the bank of the River Thames.
13) In 1613 he stopped writing and went to live in Stratford where he died in 1616.
14) There were many famous people in the history of Britain.
15) One of the most popular musical groups was the Beatles.
16) The group included Paul Mc. Cartney, John Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. 17)Their songs were simple but they touched the people’s hearts. Their famous songs were “Yesterday”, “Let it be”, “Help” and others. I like their songs.
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