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Great Patriotic War 1941-1945
German invasion into the territory of the USSR: The initial period of the war (22 June 1941 - 18 November 1942)
Great Patriotic War reasons Hitler's desire for world domination of the German nation (the idea of Pan-German) Need for conquest by Nazi Germany of natural resources of the USSR, it needs to continue the war against Britain and the U.S.A. Fatal ideological contradictions between the capitalist and socialist systems
At dawn on June 22, 1941 aerial bombardment and the onset of the German Army launched a plan "Barbarossa" . It was designed for Blitzkrieg ( Blitzkrieg ) and involves the joint action of three army groups (GA ) : "North " was aimed at Leningrad, "the Centre" - to Moscow , "South" - to Ukraine. By September, the enemy had to go on line Arkhangelsk- Astrakhan. Plan "Barbarossa" was part of a global plan "Ost" , provides for the phased establishment on the territory of the former USSR "new order" , ie enslavement and partial destruction of the Soviet population .
Causes of Red Army's defeat at the beginning of the war: military and economic potential of Germany, to use the resources of almost all Western Europe, greatly exceeded the capacity of industry in the USSR; Hitler's army had two years' experience of modern warfare, while the professional level of the Soviet troops, particularly commanders, after the mass repressions in the army, was low; major flaws of the Soviet leadership: underestimation of mechanized formations, outdated ideas about methods of warfare; Stalin's intervention in the command and control, in particular - the order of the transition to the offensive in the first days of the war, which cost the Soviet Army and the huge losses led to its disruption; international situation, in determining the timing of a possible outbreak of the war that led to the surprise attack of the enemy.
Reasons for failure of blitzkrieg plan: Mass courage and heroism of Soviet soldiers. From the first day of the war more than a month defended border defenders of the Brest Fortress. June 26 crew accomplished the feat Nikolai Gastello sent his crippled bomber on a column of tanks. These and many other manifestations of courage Soviet soldiers dreaded enemy, deprived of his faith in victory. Soviet generals acquired combat experience necessary to confront the latest tactics of the enemy. Appearance on the battlefield the latest models of Soviet military equipment, vehicles surpassed the enemy (KV-1 and T-34, Il-2, rocket launcher "Katyusha"). Complex natural and climatic conditions of the western and southwestern regions of the USSR (the summer heat, dust, autumn slush). Geography (a huge area of the country).
June 24, 1941 Council was established evacuation. Outlined the main directions of economic restructuring: Evacuation from the front line to the east industrial, property and people. Daylight factories civil society on the issue of military equipment. For example, the Leningrad plant them. Kirov and Kharkov plant for the production of diesel engines were merged with the Chelyabinsk Tractor for production of tanks ("Tankograd"). Accelerated construction of new industrial facilities.
Battle of Stalingrad - the strategic initiative for the time has passed to the Red Army. As a result of the Battle of Stalingrad the German Wehrmacht suffered a heavy defeat, causing him the first time in the war, was forced to leave the huge territories captured with great difficulty in the summer of 1942. After the Battle of Stalingrad severe crisis for the Red Army no longer arise.
The main reason for radical change in the Great Patriotic War was the achievement of the Soviet Union military and economic superiority over Germany.
The final stage of the Great Patriotic War In January 1944. Soviet troops launched a new offensive in which Jan. 27 was finally lifted the siege of Leningrad In January 1945, Soviet troops broke through the German defenses, pass in the last offensive (Vistula-Oder operation). April 25 there was a meeting of Soviet and American troops on the Elbe. April 30, two Soviet soldiers (Egorov and Kantariya) hoisted the red flag over the Reichstag. May 2, 1945 General Chuikov accepted the surrender of the German garrison, and on May 9 in Berlin in the presence of Soviet, British, American and French representatives of Field Marshal Keitel signed the unconditional surrender of Germany. On the part of the Soviet command act signed GK Beetles.
Causes of the Soviet victory in World War II: Unparalleled courage and heroism of Soviet soldiers. High potential for mobilization of the Soviet economy. Feat of the Soviet partisans. Labor exploit workers in the Soviet rear. High generalship skills command of the Soviet army. Military and economic superiority of the Soviet Union over Germany. Was influenced by geographic (a huge area) and climate (cold winters) factors. Economic and military-technical assistance to allies, carried out under the Lend-Lease.
Most major battles of World War II: Arctic Defense ( June 29, 1941 - November 1, 1944) Battle of Moscow ( September 30, 1941 - April 20, 1942 ) The Siege of Leningrad (September 8, 1941 - January 27, 1944 ) Rzhevskaya battle (January 8, 1942 - March 31, 1943 ) The Battle of Stalingrad (July 17, 1942 - February 2, 1943 ) Battle for the Caucasus ( July 25, 1942 - October 9, 1943 ) The Battle of Kursk (July 5 - August 23, 1943) Battle for the Right-Bank Ukraine ( December 24, 1943 - April 17, 1944) Belorussian operation ( June 23 - August 29, 1944 ) Baltic operation (14 September - 24 November 1944) Budapest operation ( October 29, 1944 - February 13, 1945 ) Vistula- Oder operation (12 January - 3 February 1945) East Prussian operation (13 January - 25 April 1945) Battle of Berlin (April 16 - May 8, 1945)
losses . General demographic losses (including lost civilians) - 26.6 million people; Casualties USSR - 6.8 million soldiers killed and 4.4 million taken prisoner or missing.
Property losses During the war on Soviet territory was destroyed 1,710 cities and towns and more than 70 thousand villages , 32 thousand industrial enterprises , destroyed 98 thousand farms , 1,876 farms. The State Commission has determined that the material damage amounted to about 30 percent of the national wealth of the Soviet Union , and in areas affected by the occupation - about two-thirds . In general, the material losses of the Soviet Union are estimated amount of about $ 2 trillion. 600 billion rubles . For comparison, the national wealth of England fell by only 0.8 percent , France - 1.5 per cent , while the U.S. material losses substantially avoided .