Municipal educational institution
Secondary comprehensive school № 3
Nomination: «Informative project»
Topic: «Virtual excursion to Russian Federation for foreign tourists»
Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение
Одинцовская средняя общеобразовательная школа №3
Номинация: «Информационный проект».
Тема: «Виртуальная экскурсия по России для иностранных туристов».
учащиеся 11 класса
МБОУ «СОШ №3»
Голубева Марина Андреевна
Савельева Анастасия Максимовна
Щус Дарья Дмитриевна
Чернякова Татьяна Михайловна
Учитель английского языка
МБОУ «СОШ №3»
Одинцовского муниципального района
Ⅱ. The main body: 4- 5
Kaliningrad 5- 7
Murmansk 8- 11
St.-Petersburg 12- 17
Pskov 17- 19
Veliky Novgorod 19- 25
Kursk 29- 31
IV. List of literature.
The main aim of our project:
To tell about attractions of the most known towns of Russia, great monuments and Russian national culture ; to interest foreign tourist to visit interesting and useful places in Russia.
What we have done to reach the aim:
learnt many sources of information in Russian and English ( exercise-books, modern English and Russian magazines and newspapers, Internet sites, TV-News and programs);
found a lot of interesting pictures of Russian towns;
analyzed and systematized the information;
translated the text from Russian into English;
made a multi-media presentation to show the audience the main aspects of the work.
In this research we will offer you a virtual tour to Russia.
Russia is the largest country in the world, ranking first in area and ninth largest is populated . It covers a million square kilometers and is located in twelve time zones. Since the time of the Moscow principality occurs continuously expansion territory of Russia - the accession of new lands - mainly in the north, east and south - and their Russian colonization. Moscow is the capital of Russia. Official language is Russian.
We plan to show and tell about the main attractions of famous cities of Russia, as well as their culture, customs and history. We hope in this way to show the interest of foreign tourists to travel to Russia.
Thus, we begin our journey to the extreme point of the west - the city Kaliningrad.
Kaliningrad — the "amber" city in Russia. On a question where to descend in Kaliningrad, the answer will be ambiguous, after all this amazing city is rich with the numerous cultural and historical sights, a different variety, color and originality: numerous temples, cathedrals, museums, picturesque parks, monuments to great scientists and arts.
Kaliningrad — "capital" of the most western region of the country located on the coast of the Baltic Sea, between Poland and Lithuania. Kaliningrad — one of the most interesting and most beautiful Russian cities, attracting the tourist the richest and ancient history, a unique arrangement, and also proximity to cultural European traditions.
Cathedral — here where to descend in Kaliningrad it is necessary first of all. It is the city "card", the most interesting sight. Cathedral — the main historical and cultural monument constructed in style of the Baltic gothic style.
Now in the Cathedral of Kongsberg orthodox and Lutheran chapels, a concert hall in which pass concerts of a classical and organ music, and the museum work. The exposition of the museum tells about history of a cathedral, life and Kant's activity, along with cards, models and photos in it submitted about 200 ancient books from Vallenrodsky library.
Wrangel Tower – the large defensive works built in 1843. The tower was called in honor of the general field marshal F.E.H. fon Wrangelja who has proved during counter-revolutionary coup in Berlin. It represents the round and massive bastion which has been cut through by small windows loopholes, the top part of a construction a teeth crowns. Thickness of walls in it reaches 3 m.
The tower was part of a defensive ring of Kongsberg, and the last time it was used by armies at city storm during the Great Patriotic War. From three parties Wrangel Tower is surrounded by waters of the Top lake that does it almost unapproachable. So far the design reached in a good shape. Now in its rooms the antique shop, cafe and restaurant at which offer dishes of European cuisine work. Interiors of an institution are stylized semi-antique, and rooms are heated by original fireplaces. In the yard of a tower hold rock festivals, nearby there is the Central market of Kaliningrad.
Church of the Holy Family – the former Catholic temple built in 1907. It is considered the best creation of the architect Friedrich Heitmann. As prototype for this construction medal churches of East Prussia served. The building кирхи is built from a red brick in neogothic style. Her facade is decorated by a high tower belltower with the hour dial. Interiors quite modest, here the decorative effect creates contrast of the snow-white arches and a bricklaying, and also bright stained-glass windows.
As kirkh I reflected as the house where the spirit of Christ and his terrestrial parents has to reign, in it burial services, but only baptisms and weddings were never carried out. In 1980 in Church of the Holy Family the philharmonic hall opened, it was equipped with the perfect body, allowing to execute the most difficult works. Now in philharmonic hall regularly pass concerts of organ, classical and jazz music, speech of vocalists, annually in its walls some international festivals are held
King's Gates in Kaliningrad is the former defensive works which were a part of the fortification line of the city. Gate were constructed in the XVIII century, they received the present name in 1811 in honor of Kyonigshtrasse Street. At the beginning of the XX century after dismantle of defensive shaft of a collar turned into a separate structure and began to remind a triumphal arch.
King's Gates are built from a red brick and represent a single-span design with two lateral casemates. The top part of a construction is decorated with turrets and a teeth in pseudo-Gothic style. Three wall high reliefs representing the king of the Czech Republic of Ottokar Prshemysl II, the king of Prussia Friedrich I and the duke of Prussia Albrecht of I are of special interest. Slightly lower than statues their patrimonial coats of arms are represented. Now King's Gates in Kaliningrad belong to Museum of the World Ocean, in their internal rooms the exposition devoted to Great embassy of Peter I to Europe took place.
The Kalinigradsky Museum of amber is the only meeting in Russia, entirely devoted to this stone. Its exposition is divided into two parts: natural-science and cultural and historical. The first halls acquaint visitors with a variety of different types of amber, its origin and properties. In this part of an exposition some thousands of samples of "a solar stone" different shades and sizes, including one thousand pieces with animal inclusions are presented.
In cultural and historical part products from the amber, created during the period since a Neolithic era era are shown so far. Here it is possible to see highly artistic caskets, crucifixions, the decorative plates, the reduced copy of one of panels of the Amber room. Finish an exhibition of work of modern masters. Besides, the building of Kaliningrad Amber Museum is of interest also. It is located in a tower of Don (the XIX century). This fortification construction is built from a red brick and is similar to a medieval castle, from above a tower decorate an enormous teeth.
Murmansk - a city in north-west Russia, the administrative center of the region , the largest city in the world, located in the Arctic Circle . The distance from Moscow - 1970 km, from Saint - Petersburg - 1490 km . Murmansk stretched for 20 kilometers along the rocky eastern coast of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea . Basis of the economy - a seaport, which is one of the largest in Russia and the largest ice-free port of the Arctic coast of our country. Murmansk - the starting point of the Northern Sea Route , as well as many Arctic expeditions. To Murmansk port assigned "Sedov" - the largest sailboat in the world, as well as all Russian nuclear- powered icebreakers . The port consists of three parts: Fishing , commercial and passenger . In Murmansk developed fishing industry . Conducted exploration and development of the shelf of the northern seas . Warm Gulf Stream ensures that the severe frosts are rare ( average temperature in January and February, about 10 degrees). Summers are cool , as northern winds prevail from the Barents Sea. Murmansk climate is very different from other cities in climate in the Arctic Circle . Permafrost prevents build multi-storey building , the tallest - sixteen- hotel "Arctic" ( now closed ) . Interesting terrain, the city is located terraces with a height difference of 300 meters. At 24 km from the airport. Public transport , including buses and trolleybuses . In Murmansk there are some attractions that deserve the attention of tourists (although a relatively new city , also during World War II, he was badly damaged , and after rebuilt almost from scratch ) . Winter holidays in Murmansk organized an ice sculpture.
Page tragic history of the city is connected with the Great Patriotic War. Since going through the supply port of Murmansk USSR allied countries , was ordered to capture the city at any cost. However, after two failed attempts , it became clear that it is not so simple. Then the Luftwaffe began to make air attacks . Discharge of a huge number of bombs around three quarters of the buildings were destroyed . By the end of World War II , Murmansk was almost completely destroyed. Restoration of the city was considered a priority , so the case took seriously. Construction of new port facilities , there are industrial enterprises, residential development underway . By the early 1950s the city was restored . In 2016, Murmansk will celebrate its 100th anniversary .
What sights should be inspected when visiting Murmansk ? Stroll near Semenovski Lake - a favorite vacation spot for locals and tourists . In the middle of the lake there is a fountain . On the shore of a small park with rides and cafes. Nearby is the Oceanarium , which opened in 1992 ( it is the most northerly oceanarium in the world) .
Green Cape on the hill is one of the most interesting sights in Murmansk city - a memorial complex dedicated to the defenders of the Soviet Arctic during the Great Patriotic War. This complex includes a huge monument (one of the largest in Russia ) , which is popularly called "Murmansk Alyosha ." The majestic sculpture of a soldier in a cloak - tent with a gun over his shoulder can be seen from different points of the city . Height of the pedestal is 7 m, and the height of the sculpture - 35 pm For its size second only sculpture Motherland (Volgograd) . Gaze soldier faces the countryside, which is called " Valley of glory" ( here were the most fierce battles ) . At the foot of the monument laid two capsules . One of them contains the seawater from the place where the legendary ship sank "Fog" , another capsule contains the ground of the "Valley of Glory." Memorial Complex to the defenders of the North Polar Region was founded in 1974 ( the 30th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi troops in the Arctic ) . Besides the monument " Murmansk Alyosha " complex includes an eternal flame memorial plates alley hero-cities ( under each plate - capsule with soil from the city ) , anti-aircraft guns of the Great Patriotic War. Here is the stele with the inscription: " Defenders of the Arctic - the soldiers of the 14th Army , 19th Army , the Northern Fleet , 7th Air Force , border detachments number 82 , 100, guerrilla groups " Soviet Murman " , " Bolshevik Arctic ' " polar explorer ", " Stalinist ", " Bolshevik" . Glory to defend this land ! "
Many attractions are located on the main avenue - the main street of the city. Here you can find some of the monuments, buildings with interesting architecture , as well as a snack at one of the cafes . It is along this street in 1962 was the first trolleybus. Lenin Avenue at an acute angle to the central part of Murmansk area , probably for this reason is called the Five Corners area .
Here is the tallest building in the city , built in 1980 . Since permafrost in Murmansk not build tall buildings , so sixteen-storeyed building of the former Hotel Arctic by local standards is considered a skyscraper . At Five Corners area is Monument to victims of foreign intervention in 1918-1920 . This memorial was opened in 1927 ( one of the oldest in Murmansk ) and is designed as a platform.
Another attraction is located near Murmansk Regional Library - a monument to Saints Cyril and Methodius . An interesting fact is that this monument was donated to the city by Bulgaria in recognition of rebirth Days of Slavonic Literature . The sculpture is a copy , the original is placed near the National Library of Bulgaria.
You can visit the museum attractions Murmansk Regional Museum. The building , which houses the collection mentioned above . Museum was founded in 1926 . Part of the exhibition is devoted to the nature of the region . Some of the exhibits devoted to the life of the peoples who inhabited the Kola Peninsula in ancient times. Presented household items, fishing gear , the interiors of dwellings. Also covered and later periods : the revolutionary events , development of the Northern Sea Route , the Great Patriotic War , the postwar years.
Murmansk Regional Museum of Art , which opened in 1989. The building , which houses the collection is a curious architectural landmark , this is the first stone building in Murmansk ( built in 1927 ) . The museum's collection of more than 4 thousand exhibits. Wide range of contemporary art . There are many works of Murmansk artists .
Naval Museum of the Northern Fleet , the collection of which has collected more than 65,000 exhibits. In the museum you will see the flags , banners , medals, documents and personal belongings of sailors and interesting to look at other models of military ships and submarines over the years. Visiting the museum , you'll learn about the history of the Northern Navy and its role during the Great Patriotic War , as well as in times of peace after the war. Another very interesting and unusual museum is also associated with the Northern Fleet - the nuclear icebreaker "Lenin" . This is the first ship civilian nuclear power plant. Icebreaker "Lenin" in 1989 it was decommissioned and placed into the parking lot . Is now a museum .
Leisure can brighten up in one of the theaters, in their several . Murmansk Regional Puppet Theater , Murmansk Oblast Drama Theatre , the Drama Theatre of the Northern Fleet . Well, classical music lovers may be interested in the Murmansk Philharmonic .
St. Petersburg - is the northernmost metropolis in the world and the second largest city in Russia residents . St. Petersburg was founded on 16.05.1703 by Peter I, when, after the victory over the Swedish army of the king decided to build on Hare Island fortress. With XVIII to the beginning of the XX century , it was the capital of Russia.
St. Petersburg is located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland , and is located in the east of Lake Ladoga, because this city is called " Venice of the North ." The climate here is special, quite humid, with warm summers and moderately cold winters . Tourists often prefer to stay in St. Petersburg in the summer, when the time of white nights. They continue with the middle of May until the middle of July.
The main waterway of the city - the Neva River , which flows through the territory of St. Petersburg for 32 km . Across the Neva bridges spanned set . The longest of them - Alexander Nevsky Bridge . Its length is 909 meters. The most famous bridge - the Palace . Its silhouette is composed of two halves divorced , has long been a hallmark of this wonderful city . The oldest bridge in St. Petersburg - Anytchka. He is famed for its magnificent sculptural groups .
However, this amazing city is famous not only for its bridges and white nights , there are many unique attractions that you must visit while on tour in St. Petersburg . Stroganov Palace , Lutheran Church of St. Peter and St. Paul , the majestic Cathedral of Kazan , " Engelhardt house ", the Church of St. Catherine , Beloselsky - Belozersky Palace Anichkov area Rebellion , Alexander Nevsky Monastery , Temple " Savior on Spilled Blood ," Peter and Paul Fortress , Menshikov Palace , Peterhof, Tsarskoye Selo ...
During a trip to St. Petersburg, be sure to visit the most famous sights - the Winter Palace , which was built in 1754-1762 years. by architect Rastrelli. It was conceived as the winter residence of the Russian emperors. However, in 1837 there was a fire in the building and all the rooms were destroyed. Now here is the State Hermitage Museum with a unique exhibition of paintings, ancient monuments and the Scythian- Sarmatian antiquities.
Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia. The name of the city, originally spelled "Pleskov", may be loosely translated as "[the town] of purling waters". Its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married a local lady, St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, and in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary.
The first prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great s youngest son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months later during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie.
In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia. His remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, and the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town".
By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic. Its most powerful force was the merchants who brought the town into the Hanseatic League. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years later, the veche promulgated a law code (called the Pskov Charter), which was one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497.
For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe; for Europe, it was a western outpost of Russia. Importance of the city made it a subject of numerous sieges throughout its history. The Pskov Krom (or Kremlin) withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city practically impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, and local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov.
Finally, in 1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces. The deportation of noble families to Moscow is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka (1872). As the second largest city of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War (1581–1582). The king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, which was defended mainly by civilians. Even after one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege.
Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior. As a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined dramatically, although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777.
During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines. It was at at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, and after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference (December 22, 1917 – March 3, 1918), the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was also occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov. He personally ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He also put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers.
Under Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings, particularly churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, and Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. Though a huge portion of the population died during the war, Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia.
Pskov still preserves much of its medieval walls, built from the 13th century on. Its medieval citadel is called either the Krom or the Kremlin. Within its walls rises the 256-foot (78 m)-tall Trinity Cathedral, founded in 1138 and rebuilt in the 1690s. The cathedral contains the tombs of saint princes Vsevolod (died in 1138) and Dovmont (died in 1299). Other ancient cathedrals adorn the Mirozhsky Monastery (completed by 1152), famous for its 12th-century frescoes, St. John's (completed by 1243), and the Snetogorsky monastery (built in 1310 and stucco-painted in 1313).
Pskov is exceedingly rich in tiny, squat, picturesque churches, dating mainly from the 15th and the 16th centuries. There are many dozens of them, the most notable being St. Basil's on the Hill (1413), St. Kozma and Demian's near the Bridge (1463), St. George's from the Downhill (1494), Assumption from the Ferryside (1444, 1521), and St. Nicholas' from Usokha (1536). The 17th-century residential architecture is represented by merchant mansions, such as the Salt House, the Pogankin Palace, and the Trubinsky mansion.
Among the sights in the vicinity of Pskov are Izborsk, a seat of Rurik s brother in the 9th century and one of the most formidable fortresses of medieval Russia; the Pskov Monastery of the Caves, the oldest continually functioning monastery in Russia and a magnet for pilgrims from all over the country; the 16th-century Krypetsky Monastery; Yelizarov Convent, which used to be a great cultural and literary center of medieval Russia; and Mikhaylovskoye, a family home of Alexander Pushkin where he wrote some of the best known lines in the Russian language. The national poet of Russia is buried in the ancient cloister at the Holy Mountains nearby. Unfortunately, the area presently has only a minimal tourist infrastructure, and the historic core of Pskov requires serious investments to realize its great tourist potential.
Begin his acquaintance with the Great Novgorod Kremlin with best - its main attractions.
Another great attraction in the Novgorod Kremlin - a monument "Millennium of Russia ". It was opened on September 8, 1862 , at the opening ceremony attended by Alexander II. This monument was erected in honor of the millennium calling on Russia and the Vikings is a complex sculptural composition . On a large round pedestal covered with high reliefs , set the ball . On the ball figure of an angel with a cross that symbolizes Orthodoxy before the angel - the slope on one knee Russian woman in national costume , symbolizing Russia , angel blesses it . Below are six sculptures that tell of the most important stages in the history of Russia. Bas-reliefs on the pedestal represent the most important in politics, science and the arts (X-XIX cc.) . Its height over 15 meters , diameter pedestal - 27 m
Also in the Novgorod Kremlin , tourists can see some interesting museum exhibitions . Located on the territory of Facets (or as it is called Episcopal ) chamber with an interesting Gothic architecture . This building was built in the XV century . German architects. Inside presented objects of decorative art and jewelry . The building government offices exhibited exposure Novgorod State Museum : "History of Novgorod Region", " Old Russian iconography ", " Russian Art XVIII-XX centuries ." Particularly noteworthy are the works of great masters of iconography, the width of the coverage provided here is a collection of icons is comparable to the largest museums of Russia . Amongst the showrooms are located here museum collections , restoration workshops , an art school .
Let us enumerate some of the sights of the Kremlin in Veliky Novgorod. Also Sophia Cathedral in its territory located temples such as the church Andrew Stratelates (XVII-XVIII cc.) And the Church of the Entry into Jerusalem (XVIII c. ) . Zlatoust tower next to the eternal flame in the memory of the fallen defenders of the city during the Great Patriotic War. A park in the Kremlin is a fountain with a statue of the famous epic hero Sadko.
4 km from the lake near Veliky Novgorod Myachin have a wonderful museum of wooden architecture , called Vitoslavlitsy . Museum of wooden architecture - a unique architectural reserve, here recreated the unique atmosphere of the Russian countryside , which perfectly conveys the identity of our people . Visiting the museum is fascinating and informative. In addition, a great place for recreation and entertainment. Here love to visit the inhabitants of Novgorod the Great and tourists from other cities.
The museum hosts several different thematic tours : " Iconic architecture Novgorod edge XVI-XX centuries . " " Uses and customs of the Russian people ", " Holidays and weekdays peasants ", " Art Culture Region", " Farm " and others. The museum hosts various events - mass festivities (for example, Christmas and Pentecost ) , folk festivals, concerts bell music , organized folk fun. Museum administration is trying every possible way to save Russian tradition. Also developed trade here , you can buy various souvenirs : clay toys, fabric , crafts , carved out of wood or woven from birch bark, and much more. On the territory Vitoslavlitsy by gardens and orchards .
St. Sophia Cathedral was built in the XI century . and is one of the oldest stone buildings that have been preserved in the north- west Russia . In those days cathedrals built a very long time , but the St. Sophia Cathedral was built in just five years . Construction began in 1045 , and by 1050 its golden domes ascended above the huts of slaves and boyar . It was the first Cathedral in Veliky Novgorod. Very long cathedral is a place where going to religious and political parties of the time, here gathered messengers from the Grand Duke and from foreign diplomats. Hence, after prayers went to fight Novgorod warriors defending the north- western borders of the country.
Sophia Church interior at first glance looks very simple , and at the same time severe. Long time Sophia Cathedral influenced the architecture of the great city . Novgorod not brightened his hut moldings and different patterns . Their strict and simple structure , what , according to historians and chronicles, were themselves Novgorod . The walls of St. Sophia Cathedral flat as a canvas sheet. Flat protrusions from the wall breaks the monotony of a smooth space. Cathedral looks very powerful , but because of its domes seem airy.
Until now, no one knows how to initially looked Cathedral. It is clear that the huge windows and portals could arise only in the XVI-XVII . , Domes were in the form of hemispherical shape and helmets - lukovok acquired after 1408 , when was the first time the main gilded dome of the cathedral .
Inside the temple is divided by 5 huge pillars elongated naves , three of which end altar semicircular protrusions. Cathedral originally had a luxurious finish, but only part of it managed to recover after the abduction by the Germans during World War II.
Two kilometers south of Veliky Novgorod is a unique attraction - Rurikovo mound . It is located on the right bank of the Volkhov River near its source from Lake Ilmen. On the left bank - skyline Yuriev Monastery . What is the Rurikovo settlement ? It is a small hill located in a very scenic area, at the top - the majestic ruins of the Cathedral of the Annunciation . The cathedral was built in 1103 Novgorod Prince Mstislav - son of the famous Vladimir Monomakh ( in the XIV century . Rebuilt) and was one of the first stone churches in Russia . Unfortunately, during the Great War Oetchestvennoy it was destroyed . The architecture of St. George's Cathedral of the Annunciation recalls , which is the main church of St. George monastery , it can be seen on the opposite bank . Hill dismembered Siversovym channel connecting Volkhov Mstu channel was dug in the XIX century . In the settlement located a few houses that are still inhabited.
It is clear that Rurikovo mound , having such an interesting story is of great interest among scientists. For nearly 100 years, with breaks here conducted archaeological excavations. According to the excavation , the area was inhabited before our era , there have been found ancient things, some of them are quite well preserved. Among the finds come across quite exotic objects , which are not characteristic of these places , this can be explained by the fact that the mound was located on major trade routes , and these items were brought by traders from distant countries. Now archaeological studies have been completed . Within the urban tourism development program in place Rurik settlement is planned to create a tourist center , as well as the organization of natural and historical reserve , while under the protection will be taken and the surrounding territory. Now mound looks abandoned , but maybe in the future everything is going to be different and it will turn into one of the most popular tourist sites .
Bryansk - an ancient city with a legendary history . The first mention of it belong to the 3rd century AD It is a city of Partisan Glory , which knows practically every Russian . The main wealth of the Bryansk region - impenetrable , majestic forests , which gave the city the first name " Debryansk ." It consists of four areas , but the main attractions are concentrated in Bryansk in the Soviet area , which starts from the square Partizan .
Be sure to visit during a tour of Mound of Immortality , located in the park "Nightingales ", which is the highest hill , consisting of the earth taken from the soldiers' graves.
In addition, tours in Bryansk suggest visiting the Pokrovsky Cathedral , Horn Nicholas Church, the house of the merchant Abram and Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin.
Surely you remember the trip to " Bryansk forest " and walk in the park - museum of A. Tolstoy , where you can admire the wonderful wooden sculptures .
After a walk , go to one of the many cafes and restaurants , for example, "Leo Pizza ", " Mc Duck ", " Chin- Chin ", " Sunrise" , "Bear" , etc.
If you do not seduce historical and architectural attractions, visit shopping centers and entertainment complexes. In particular, the popular "Iceberg" , "Fair" , "Line", "M" , etc.
The city has many hotels to suit all tastes and budgets - from simple but comfortable 2-3 * to respectable and expensive 4 -5- zvedochnyh hotels. Most Popular Hotels Bryansk - "Desna" , "Virage ", " Bryansk ", " tower ", etc.
Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE. The settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the 8th century CE.
The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032. It was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "As to my Kurskers, they are famous knights—swaddled under war-horns, nursed under helmets, fed from the point of the lance; to them the trails are familiar, to them the ravines are known, the bows they have are strung tight, the quivers, unclosed, the sabers, sharpened; themselves, like gray wolves, they lope in the field, seeking for themselves honor, and for their prince, glory."
The seat of a minor principality, Kursk was raided by the Polovtsians in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and destroyed by Batu Khan around 1237. The city was rebuilt no later than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360 and 1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, becoming its southern border province. It was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. It was raided frequently by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean Khanate until late of 17th century and was ruled Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1611 and 1634. It was bounded to successively Kiev Governorate (1708–1727), Belgorod Governorate (1727–1779), and Kursk Viceroyalty (1779–1797). Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779. It became the administrative center of Kursk Governorate in 1797.
The Soviet government prized Kursk for rich deposits of iron ore and developed it into one of the major railroad hubs in the Russian Southwest. During World War II, Kursk was occupied by Germans between November 4, 1941 and February 8, 1943. Again in World War II, the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk was the center of the Battle of Kursk, a major engagement between Soviet and German forces which is widely believed by historians to have been the largest tank battle in history and was the last major German offensive mounted against the Soviet Union.
The oldest building in Kursk is the upper church of the Trinity Monastery, a good example of the transition style characteristic of Peter the Great's early reign. The oldest lay building is the so-called Romodanovsky Chamber, although it was erected in all probability in the mid-18th century, when the Romodanovsky family had ceased to exist.
The city cathedral was built between 1752 and 1778 in the splendid Baroque style and was decorated so sumptuously that many art historians attributed it to Bartolomeo Rastrelli. Although Rastrelli's authorship is out of the question, the cathedral is indeed the most impressive monument of Elizabethan Baroque not to be commissioned by the imperial family or built in the imperial capital.
The cathedral has two stories, with the lower church consecrated to St. Sergius of Radonezh and the upper one — to the Theotokos of Kazan. The upper church is noted for an intricate icon screen which took sixteen years to complete. The three-story cathedral bell tower derives peculiar interest from the fact that Seraphim of Sarov, whose father took part in construction works, survived an accidental fall from its top floor at the age of seven. The Resurrection Church is also shown where St. Seraphim was baptized.
The monastery cathedral of the Sign (1816–26) is another imposing edifice, rigorously formulated in the purest Neoclassical style, with a cupola measuring 20 meters (66 ft) in diameter and rising 48 meters (157 ft) high. The interior was formerly as rich as colored marbles, gilding, and frescoes could make it. During the Soviet period, the cathedral was desecrated, four lateral domes and twin belltowers over the entrance pulled down. There are plans to restore the church to its former glory.
The modern city is a home for several universities: Kursk State Medical University, State Technical University, Kursk State University (former Pedagogical University) and Agricultural Academy, as well as the private Regional Open Social Institute (ROSI). There are also modern shrines and memorials commemorating the Battle of Kursk, both in the city and in Prokhorovka.
The Command Station Bunker & Museumwas built specifically in memorial of the courageous Russian T-34 tank units that fought in the Battle of Kursk, where a T-34 tank is on display. Over 6,000 armored vehicles fought in close range over the open territory near Kursk in 1943. This battle stopped the German advance into the Kursk Salient, and was a turning point of World War II on the Eastern Front.
Kursk played a role in the Cold War as host to Khalino air base.
Nearby is Tsentralno-Chernozemny Zapovednik, a large section of steppe soil that has never been plowed. It is used for a variety of research purposes.
Moscow - a city of many faces , but solid , with ancient history and traditions . Moscow is changing every year and growing up, while remaining Russian in spirit city.
Moscow's history is preserved in its architecture , the center of which was and remains the Kremlin . Only to marvel at this magnificent , perfect ensemble , created by the genius of Italian architects , as well as creative and physical labor in obscurity remaining Russian masters worth visiting Moscow for one day .
Moscow earns the title of theatrical and musical capital of Russia. Here are the main theater in the country - Bolshoi Theatre and the oldest Russian theater - Small theater, played annually over a hundred premieres. One of the best venues for classical music world and the most prestigious in Russia is considered Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory. In the days of the many festivals and celebrations Moscow streets turn into open stage scaffolding !
Moscow Sports - the capital of the XXII Summer Olympic Games in 1980 and the World Youth Games in 1998 . In Moscow competitions at all levels and in virtually all sports. 10 athletics and football stadiums, over 200 swimming pools, 40 sports arenas and more than 20 indoor ice arenas take athletes, spectators and athletes.
Museums and galleries are open for lovers of art and history , ancient mansions and parks invite for a stroll
Tula - an ancient city and a major regional center . The first mention of it relate to 1146 guests are drawn to the city to get acquainted with its history and culture . Virtually every one of us have heard about the famous Tula samovars and gingerbread , as well as the ancient Kremlin and the legendary battle on the Kulikovo Field , near Tula , which took place in 1380 It became the beginning of the liberation of Russia from the Mongol yoke.
Relatively close proximity to Moscow Tula allows you to quickly get to the city on the trains , trains or buses .
Familiarity with the city should start with a visit to the Kremlin , built on a regular plan . Within its walls is the Assumption Cathedral , designed in the Baroque style and Cathedral of the Epiphany , which now houses a museum of weapons .
Tour Tula can also be devoted to walks through the historical center of the city - planted, where ancient buildings of stone and wood . Also, fans will appreciate the greatness of Russian architecture and urban identity temples - Annunciation and St. Nicholas Church Zaretsky , and Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh , made in neo- Byzantine style .
Visitors can tour during visit numerous museums , in particular, Estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana " museums " Tula samovars " and " Tula gingerbread ."
Tula hotels offer the service to suit all tastes . In particular, the popular hotel "Premier ", "History ", " Wellness Hotel", "Tula" , etc.
Voronezh - a city located 250 km . from the border with Ukraine, which despite the many testimonies and monumental buildings of the Soviet period , begins to acquire a modern look , yet retaining the charm and beauty of a provincial town . History and culture are presented Voronezh sights and museums , as well as a great - Alekseevo Akatova monastery.
During the tour, guests can stay in hotels 2-5 * Voronezh . The most popular of these " Apart -Hotel ", " Yar", "Petrovsky Passage" , etc.
Tours in Voronezh - is primarily a walk along the avenue Revolution and Lenin Square , where you can see monuments to Peter the Great Yesenin . Pushkin , Bunin and ridiculous kitten Lizyukova Street , which is on the same street .
Guests also attracts Voronezh old church in which Peter the Great consecrated their ships .
Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies to the southeast of the East European Plain, on the Don River, 32 kilometers (20 mi) from the Sea of Azov. The southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. Population: 1,089,261
From establishment to the early 20th century
Since ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants include the Scythian, Sarmat, and Savromat tribes. It was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire.
On December 15, 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey. It was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don, gradually lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" (Kupecheskaya Sloboda) on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of previously Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post.
In 1796, the settlement was chartered and became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, its name was changed to Rostov and later Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade center and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was competed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz.
Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began. Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with approximately 140 industrial businesses. The harbor was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia, especially for the export of wheat, timber, and iron ore.
In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don The two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged. The former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighboring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia.
In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon.
During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don, then the most heavily industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don (for seven days from November 21, 1941 after attacks by the German first panzer army in the battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 24, 1942 to February 14, 1943). The town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the ruins of World War II.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks, St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1908) and St. George Cathedral (1783–1807).
Rostov-on-Don hosts higher educational establishments, including universities, academies,] secondary schools of vocational training including colleges, technical schools, specialized schools, and elementary schools of vocational training including lyceums, professional colleges[ and schools of general education.
There is also is a French cultural centre (Alliance Francaise), a British Council and German Goethe Institute (DAAD and Bosch foundation), and a Korean Cultural
The most conspicuous architectural feature of the central part of the city is the Cathedral of Virgin's Nativity (1860–1887), designed by Konstantin Thon.
In the Academic Drama Theater named after Maxim Gorky works Mikhail Bushnov, who is the national artist of the USSR and an honorary citizen of Rostov-on-Don.
The small collections of the Art Gallery and the Museum of Arts include some works by Repin, Surikov, Perov, Levitan, Aivazovsky as well as of modern Rostov artists.
Other facilities include seven stadiums, a Palace of Sports, a circus, a zoobotanical gardens and parks. Rostov-on-Don hosts the North Caucasian Science Center and research institutes. The city is also home to a Starbucks coffee chain, a true rarity in this geographical area of Russia.
The Administration of Rostov and Novocherkassk Eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church is located in Rostov. In Rostov-on-Don are the Roman Catholic "Church of the Lord's Supper", the Old Believers' temple, a synagogue[ a mosque, Armenian and Greek churches, and the Diamond Way Buddhist Center of the Karma Kagyu Tradition.
Sochi - a city resort which is preparing to host the 2014 Winter Olympics . There is an active development and modernization of the resort, but the hospitality and comfort can already feel already . Guests on a tour in Sochi offers comfortable hotels and holiday homes .
The structure consists of Sochi Adler Lasarevskoye , hosta and other areas.
In Sochi, a subtropical climate. Warm and humid. North Caucasus mountains protect it from the cold north and east winds . It is difficult to distinguish four seasons , usually distinguish two periods: a warm , which lasts from May to October , and cool - November - April. That is why treatment and rest in Sochi could be scheduled at any time of year .
Many resorts offer Sochi treatment of almost all body systems .
However, to gain strength and relieve stress during the holidays , it is not necessary to issue treatment. Sochi itself is healing , thanks to the unique climate . Even regular walks along the coast will present a session aerotherapy . The local air comprises a plurality of salts useful chemicals. At the same tours in Sochi suitable for everybody, not just people with poor health . In the resort a lot of places where you can relax and have fun.
In Sochi, you can see many sights. The most popular are : Riversky Bridge and Park Riviera , Michael Archangel Cathedral , a monument to " Anchor and Cannon ," aquarium - terrarium , Sochi National Park with Agura waterfalls , garden Sino- Russian friendship , Art Museum, White Cliffs and mysterious Vorontsov Caves .
Volgograd - the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast , located 1073 kilometers south- east of Moscow, on the bend of the lower reaches of the Volga .
During its existence, Volgograd changed several names . Until 1925 it was called Tsaritsyn until 1961 - Stalingrad . This is one of the most popular Russian cities that tourists visit for the sake of historical attractions.
The main attraction Volgograd - Mamaev Kurgan - a place most brutal battles of the Great Patriotic War. Here tourists will see the monument to the heroes of Stalingrad and the sculpture " The Motherland Calls ". Also will be interesting museums "Memory" and " The Battle of Stalingrad ."
By architectural curiosities of the city, which are of interest during the tour include the central watchtower Tsaritsin firehouse , Kazan Cathedral , Church of St. John the Baptist and Nikitinsky temple and hotel building "Capital Numbers" , built in 1890
However tours in Volgograd can be devoted not only examined historical and architectural monuments , but also to get acquainted with local restaurants and cafes. The most popular bars and restaurants are "Mayak", "Four Seasons ", " operate ", " Shura - panky ," " Juliet" , etc.
Tourists can stay in numerous hotels in Volgograd , but the most popular ones are the Volga- Don , Volgograd and Christina . At the hotel's bars, restaurants, parking , security.
Ryazan - one of the most ancient cities of Russia , which is only 200 km . from Moscow. In the past, the capital of the Ryazan principality only in the XVI century became part of the Russian state. Thanks to the ancient history here many old attractions that draw visitors.
Tours in Ryazan is difficult to imagine without a visit to " the Ryazan Kremlin " - architectural complex located at the confluence of Trubizh and Swans . Here are Assumption and Archangel Cathedral , Palace of Prince Oleg and other ancient buildings . On the first Sunday of July on the territory of the Kremlin is a historic festival . At this time, you can free to visit museums and attend the fair.
Ryazan besides historical sights attracts guests with its modern shopping malls , restaurants and comfortable hotels . The most popular shopping malls, which recommend that you visit during the tour - it's "Victoria Plaza" , "Raspberry" , "Bars at the Moscow ", etc.
You can satisfy your hunger in the many cafes , restaurants and bars, which are about 170 Ryazan . You will surely get pleasure from the kitchen and interior dining " Ivan ", " Sherwood ", " Stables yard ," etc. Then wonderfully relax in one of Ryazan hotels , such as the "Forum ", " Lovech " "In a kingdom ... " etc.
Vladimir - the ancient city gate called " Golden Ring ." It is a city with a rich history , which for 250 years has been the capital of ancient Russia. Vladimir was founded in the 10th century by Prince Vladimir of Kiev . The glory of the city brought Vsevolod Third , Alexander Nevsky , Andrew Bogolyubskii etc.
Due to the relatively close location to get from Moscow to Vladimir is easy. To do this, you can choose express and commuter trains and buses .
Tours to Vladimir selected admirers history and Russian culture. Here , numerous monuments, some of which are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List .
For example, thousands of travelers from around the world come to admire the priceless frescoes and paintings of Daniel Black and Andrei Rublev and rarities white stone architecture.
During the rest of Vladimir sure to visit the Golden Gate Nativity Monastery , Cathedral of the Assumption of the 12th century , with an amazing Demetrius white stone carving of Christ and the Church - Christmas , as well as the house-museum Stoletovs where tourists can learn about the life of a merchant of the 19th century .
Vladimir - a popular tourist destination , so there are hotels of different categories are presented and price range , and souvenir shops offer original products from birch bark , fabric and wood, stone jewelry , crystal and souvenirs depicting Vladimir attractions.
Nizhny Novgorod - an ancient town , which is also called the third capital of Russia . It was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich as a border fortress . It survived many unique historical and architectural monuments , so tours in Nizhny Novgorod are popular with fans of antiquities. However, it is less well known museums of Novgorod , and gourmets will appreciate the presence of numerous restaurants and cafes.
Nizhny Novgorod hotels offer a variety of accommodation , based on financial capabilities and preferences vacationers.
One has only to walk from the hotel to the street Big Intercession , you can visit the pub "USSR" or "Shelter tired tractor driver " cozy European cafe «Veranda» or a pathetic institution as " Vitalich " serving boar meat, hare and other delicacies .
Satisfy your hunger , you can go on a tour through the historic center of the city, which has preserved many buildings of 18-19 centuries .
Dmitrovskaya tower is the starting point for a tour of the historic center. Besides buildings mid 20th century , cafes, museums and shops , here every 100 meters you can see the amazing sculpture - a cat on the ledge , flirt , lyubuyuschuyusya in a mirror, the photographer or the policeman of the 19th century .
However, the main attraction of the city is the Kremlin, which is the most perfect medieval stone fortress . The Kremlin has 13 towers and its territory is Archangel Michael 's Cathedral , built in the 16th century.
In addition, the remarkable ancient churches and monasteries - Pechersky, Annunciation , Smolensk Church , Alexander Nevsky Cathedral , etc.
City brides , Ivanovo, known far beyond Russia . Although the city celebrated its centenary in 1971 only , but the village of Ivanovo existed in 1561 and was known for its printed and a linen cloth that were in great demand , as in Russia and abroad.
Ivanovo offers to get acquainted with the history and culture of the region in numerous museums such as : regional historical and art museums, the Calico Museum of Ivanovo , etc.
Also during your holiday in Ivanovo recommend that you inspect the old stone church - Vvedenskuju , Kazan , Elias and the Temple of the Assumption , built in the 17th century.
If you prefer , instead of studying attractions stay in nightclubs and entertainment centers , then we recommend you visit: " Taganka ", " Sugar-Boy ", " bomb " , as well as a major center of family entertainment " A113 ".
Ivanovo Hotels are comfortable and pleasing to a wide price range . Perhaps worth noting such hotels as " Seating yard ", " Pine Forest ", " Sheremet Park Hotel" , etc.
During the tour, Ivanovo travelers can buy as souvenirs gorgeous batiks and stoles, scarves, shawls and traditional costumes.
Yaroslavl - an ancient city founded in the 11th century by the legendary Prince Yaroslav the Wise . Initially it was a walled city, situated on the right bank of the Volga . Beginning with the 16th century Yaroslavl became an important trading center between Western and Eastern countries and Moscow. However, a golden age for the development of the city was the 17th century . At this time, not only experienced significant economic growth , but also appears in his own style of painting and architecture , dubbed " Yaroslavl School" and rebuilt temple ensembles and magnificent buildings .
Modern Yaroslavl - a clean city with a well- developed tourist infrastructure. Tours in Yaroslavl selected fans of history and culture , as well as pilgrims . However , young people and admirers of nightlife will appreciate the local clubs , discos and bars .
The main attraction is considered Yaroslavl Transfiguration Monastery - a unique monument of Russian architecture. Also, visitors to the city while relaxing in Yaroslavl can recommend a visit to the Church of the Epiphany, the temples of Elijah the Prophet and the Nativity. Surely , you will appreciate the art and artifacts of historical and architectural museum , the Museum of History of Yaroslavl and house museum Sobinova . Memorable and romantic stroll along the promenade .
Yaroslavl Hotels delight its diversity. In the city center there are budget hotels "Sport ", " tourist ", "Sail " , as well as prestigious hotels "Utah" , "Volga Pearl" , etc. Also several tourist facilities can be found on the outskirts of the city. They attract people traveling by car .
Kostroma is a historic city and the administrative center of Kostroma Oblast, Russia. A part of the Golden Ring of Russian towns, it is located at the confluence of the Volga and Kostroma Rivers. Population: 268,742 .
The city was first recorded in the chronicles for the year 1213, but historians believe it could have been founded by Yury Dolgoruky more than half a century earlier. Like other towns of the Eastern Rus, Kostroma was sacked by the Mongols in 1238. It then constituted a small principality, under leadership of Prince Vasily the Drunkard, a younger brother of the famous Alexander Nevsky. Upon inheriting the grand ducal title in 1271, Vasily didn't leave the town for Vladimir, and his descendants ruled Kostroma for another half a century, until the town was bought by Ivan I of Moscow.
Kostroma was twice ravaged by the Poles; it took a six-month siege to expel them from the Ipatiev monastery. The heroic peasant Ivan Susanin became a symbol of the city's resistance to foreign invaders; several monuments to him may be seen in Kostroma. The future Tsar, Mikhail Romanov, also lived at the monastery. It was here that an embassy from Moscow offered him the Russian crown in 1612.
It is understandable why the Romanov Tsars regarded Kostroma as their special protectorate. The Ipatievsky monastery was visited by many of them, including Nicholas II, the last Russian Tsar. The monastery had been founded in the early 14th century by a Tatar prince, ancestor of the Godunov family. The Romanovs had the magnificent Trinity Cathedral rebuilt in 1652; its frescoes and iconostasis are a thing of beauty. A wooden house of Mikhail Romanov is still preserved in the monastery. There are also several old wooden structures transported to the monastery walls from distant districts of the Kostroma Oblast.
Town status was granted to Kostroma in 1719.
The First Workers' Socialist Club based in Kostroma was one of the best documented workers' clubs run by Proletkult. Organized around the principle of a "public hearth" (obshchestvennyi ochag) this club combined both practical support for workers in need of accommodation, food or furniture, as well as providing a focus for popular education.
Ipatiev Monastery gives its name to the Hypatian Codex of the Russian Primary Chronicle.
The Resurrection Church (1652) is a superb example of the 17th-century Russian art. Color photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in 1910 (Library of Congress)
Apart from the monasteries, most of the city churches were either rebuilt or demolished during the Soviet years. The only city church that survives from the 17th-century "golden age" is the of gold instead. He resolved that the unearned gold was the devil's gift and decided to spend it on building a church, beautiful within and without. Two other 17th-century temples, of rather conventional architecture, may be seen on the opposite side of the Volga.
Among the vestiges of the Godunov rule, a fine tent-like church in the urban-type settlement of Krasnoye-na-Volge (formerly an estate of Boris Godunov's brother) may be recommended.
Arkhangelsk - the historic capital of Pomerania , the cradle of northern culture and traditions. Arkhangelsk River Station is known to every Russian as it is depicted on the 500 - ruble banknote .
Relax in the city prefer to fans of history and culture , recreation and winter sports .
Major attractions that we advise travelers to explore during the tour in Arkhangelsk - Museum of Fine Arts is a wooden sculptures of 16-17 centuries . and the Museum of Wooden Architecture , located in the Lesser Korely . Here preserved ancient belfry , churches, houses and mills of wood.
In addition, you will surely be remembered for a walk along the waterfront of the Dvina , and Lenin Square with many restaurants , cafes and pizzerias .
At 180 km . from the city is Pinezhsky Reserve . Let the road there will seem long , but people are not indifferent to the natural beauty is worth seeing bicentenary larch , waterfalls and caves with underground rivers .
Winter holiday in Arkhangelsk many tourists take the opportunity to ski or ride snowmobiles .
Of the tour, you can bring famous curly gingerbread called Roe , which are sold in the museum and the arcade .
Arkhangelsk hotels offer holidays for all tastes . Many tourists prefer to stay in hotels , " the capital of Pomerania ", " Dvina ", " Pur-Navolok Hotel " etc.
Just a few years ago Kazan celebrated its millennium . To this date, many of the buildings and historical monuments were restored , open shopping malls and city appeared foreign investors . Therefore, the Muslim- Orthodox appearance added another European features , which have enhanced the interest of tourists .
By the number and preservation of cultural and historical curiosities Kazan equate to St. Petersburg and Moscow and Kazan Kremlin taken under the protection of UNESCO. Therefore tours in Kazan selected for sightseeing history and culture. Also, the city offers a wellness vacation in numerous boarding houses and sanatoriums such as " Santa ", " Livadia ", " Vasilevsky " etc.
Kazan combines various images and culture. There are about 20 mosques , Orthodox church, a Catholic chapel , a synagogue , a Lutheran church ... In 2013 Kazan Universiade host international .
The city attracts not only tourists , but also businessmen , so Kazan hotels are presented at various levels. The most prestigious hotels of Kazan - Suleiman Palace , Mirage , etc. Riverai
The most popular attractions in travelers are : Kazan Kremlin , Kul -Sharif , "The House of Shamil ," Bauman Street , where the pharmacy is located Breninga copy coach of Catherine II , Printing House and numerous sculptures . Also during the tour you can visit the city's museums and theaters.
Ekaterinburg History began in 1723 , when the city was founded by historian Tatischev . It is located on the river Iset and still call it many familiar Sverdlovsk, as the original name of the city regained only in 1991
25 km . from the city airport is located . There is also good transport links , so get to the Ekaterinburg hotels and attractions easily enough.
Now tours in Ekaterinburg selected fans of history, architecture and archeology. Here , numerous buildings 18 - 19th centuries.
Archaeologists and lovers of natural phenomena is certainly worth visiting Shartashskaya Stone Tents , which are rock age of 300 million years. They were once a place of pagan sacrifices, and place of metallurgical production .
History fans during the tour is worth a stroll on Hierarchical street preserved section of ancient merchant city.
In terms of architecture attracted the attention of tourists Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, home Malakhov , Novo- Tikhvin Nunnery , homestead Zheleznova etc.
Moreover, from Ekaterinburg hotel you can go on a ski trip or visit the natural reserves in the Urals .
Ushayka - a small river in the Tomsk region , the right tributary of the Tom Tom falls into the 68 km Wyke originates in the northern spurs of the Kuznetsk Alatau , near the stopping site 41 km railway line Taiga - Tomsk , between the villages and Basandayka Mezheninovka . According to local legend, the name of the river comes from the boys Ushaya beloved beauties Thomas , which , in turn , according to legend , gave the name of the river Tom .
Currently Ushayka navigable , although in the XIX century was used for transportation of goods . Decoration waterfront Ushayki is Stone Bridge ( architectural monument of federal importance ) , built in 1916 by architect Konstantin Lygina in place of the Duma wooden bridge , built in 1819 , designed by Gabriel Baten'kov exiles . Four corners of the bridge decorated rostral columns.
West of the temple, on the edge of the cliff , was built on a low bell stone piers for tysyachepudovogo bell cast in 1896 at the initiative of the Tomsk merchant Andrei Vasilyev , loans smelting bell three thousand silver rubles . The bell was cast in honor held 14 ( 26) May 1896 coronation of Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna. Tomsk " Tsar Bell " was made by the famous bell Olovyanishnikova plant in Yaroslavl and delivered to Tomsk in the second half of November 1896 by rail and by toboggan . Tragic for the Church of the Resurrection became the twenties and thirties of the XX century . Thus, according to the act of the provincial commission to seize church property on April 5, 1922 from Church of the Resurrection was withdrawn part silver church plate - large and small crosses, candlesticks, incense , lamps , etc.
Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU ) - the oldest technical university in the Asian part of Russia , founded in 1896 . He had a significant influence on the development of science, education , industry and culture of the country . This is achieved by the efforts of scientists, teachers , students, and more than hundreds of thousands of graduates.
TPU leading role and its impact on the culture of society marked the inclusion of the University "Code of valuable objects of cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia" Presidential Decree of 2 April 1997. During its existence, TPU has trained more than 130,000 professionals , including more than 500 became academicians , laureate of Lenin and State prizes and other prestigious awards.
In university students: 22,365 students in all forms of education, 568 graduate students and 48 doctoral students. There are 14 specialized councils for doctoral and 4 - for PhD theses . Training is carried out by 25 directions and 86 specialties , masters - to 22 destinations. In addition, the University has developed and implemented in English eight training programs : Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Chemical Engineering, Environmental Protection, Management, Linguistics and Education, Linguistics and Translation.
The idea of creating a public museum in Tomsk came from intellectuals of the city. At her insistence city government in 1911, taking the decision to open the Siberian Scientific Regional Art Museum. Alexander II and determine the location for the construction of the museum building. Making it happen was interrupted by military and revolutionary events (1914 - 1919 ) . 02.14.1920 , after inspection of the Bishops of the house ( the former estate of a gold I. D. Astasheva ) Commission decided to open it " Museum of antiquity and the revolution." Ways of creating the museum collections were varied. Intelligent , highly educated artists, architects, university professors on grain collected scattered by war and revolution subjects had artistic and historical value . The first exhibition was opened on 03.18.1922 It was only in October 1922, the museum received corresponding to the direction of his work name " Tomsk Regional Museum ." In 1999. the structure of association : Tomsk Regional Museum , Kolpashevsky museum, Asinovsky museum, Podgornesky museum.
The museum is a complex of buildings located on the estate . One-story wooden building with a thematic exposition of the museum faces the street. In the yard - Area Selkup antiquities moved here memorial built: Narymskaya katalazhnaya camera and home Alekseev , who lodged IV Stalin in 1912 Narym is world renown as a place to link political and criminal offenders. Taiga ; unbearable mosquitoes in summer and severe frosts and snowstorms in winter , rare villages, roads . Large rivers , streams and lakes during the spring flood turn into a real sea ! For it was Narym apt name - "prison without bars ". One of the first exiles were members of the peasant uprisings of Stepan Razin and Pugachev . Later here were exiled Decembrists two - Paul Nicholas Mozgalevskaya Duntsov - Vygodovsky . Spent several years in exile Narym Boleslav Shostakovich - the grandfather of the famous composer . Not willingly visited here later became prominent leaders of the Communist Party and the Soviet state Valerian Kuibyshev , Yakov Sverdlov , Nikolai Yakovlev , Alexei Rykov, Joseph Dzhugashvili (Stalin) . Alexeyev preserved house in which he lived in the summer of 1912. Here , in Narym , family political exiles born writer Vadim Kozhevnikov . Hundreds of thousands of people were sent to the region in Narymsky years of Stalinist repression. The museum photographs, portraits, personal belongings of historical figures that lived here once and left their mark in the history of our country. You can touch to their fate, having been in our museum.
The main attraction of the city - an amazing wooden architecture. Walk around Tomsk on a sunny day becomes a real treat . Houses are cleaned in a festive outfit carved . Rich, refined, he draws all the elements of the building , combining traditions of wooden architecture of the Russian North and classic features Baroque and Classicism . The high altitude and spacious houses , tall windows , often double and triple , with large windows , sound amazing to Tomsk - the city long and harsh winter. In this quest for grandeur and " Khoromny " exhibit the features typical for Tomsk masters. The simplicity and conciseness of street facades contrast with the complexity of the configuration of walls facing the courtyard and outbuildings abound , bay windows , balconies , galleries - affects peculiar architecture of Russian classicism manor approach to planning courtyards with their intimacy and closure , as well as the influence of local climatic features .
Urban construction have cut corners, and extended bay windows and balconies, roofs with a silhouette completes superstructure. In Tomsk, formed a special type of wedding buildings , widely spread in urban architecture - classical cornice, rhythmically cut by several small sharp gables , which are often completed with decorative turrets and spies . Tomsk wizard could not ignore such a deep and distinctive form of complete buildings as tall and slender tent ( originating from the famous tent churches of the Russian North ) . Wooden log houses are often left unlined , and the wall seems solid , so careful tightly fitted logs. Frequent alternation of horizontal shadow stripes perfectly reveals window decoration . A row of houses , on the contrary , it is sheathed with boards , creating a smooth background with a barely perceptible rhythm of horizontal lines Rust . To create a total vertical system in some cases horizontally sheathed only window piers . Intercommunication belt sheathed vertically . For wide piers plating solution changes, it is curly - herringbone and sometimes relief . Plane facades often are outlined on the edges of pilasters. Interesting solutions input porches with awnings , sup ¬ alive large carved wooden brackets , well drawn and beautifully executed . Bay windows, balconies and loggias with subtly contoured parts of window frames , fences , railings often end with exquisite form parapets , with intricate carvings invoice , gables , in the style of the building , and sometimes paper cutted roofs - tents. Fences, gates with wickets , service courtyards are also subject to overall artistic ¬ for thought. Particularly interesting gate . Sometimes they are solved in simple and severe , with deaf planes paintings , in other cases, trim table ¬ CWA members identifying the base and headroom , which is given a character profiled completion. Wooden architecture is characteristic of only one drawback - the overall flavor of dark wood aging . Dark brown and gray houses look on clear days , when their parts are highlighted in chiaroscuro , but in cloudy weather they lose their clarity and expressiveness.
Stone bridge over the river. Ushayku was built in 1915-1916 . construction company " Lubinsky and Wecker " in place of the old wooden bridge , built in 1819, designed by Batenkov . Member of the Patriotic War of 1812 , a talented engineer , future Decembrist , he did much for the improvement of Tomsk.
In early 1817, he was appointed engineer of the third class X Counties Railways with center in Tomsk, my friend immediately proceeded to carry out their duties. Under his leadership in Tomsk was built highway and bridge in the city center and along the river embankment Ushayki was carried out at the yurt finish uphill, built a pool - water abstraction, wooden bridge across the river Ushayku etc.
The idea of building a new wooden bridge across the river Ushayku, instead of the old, old man treated with particular interest. In a letter to his friend AA Yelagin on May 24, 1817 Baten'kov wrote: " Now doing a project and I want to build a bridge aforesaid arkoyu of iron on stone piers ." But instead of the planned iron , my friend built a wooden , solid bridge , Tomsk citizens lasted almost a hundred years .
By the end of the XIX century. Bridge gradually began to come into disrepair. But between the idea of building a new stone bridge and its practical realization has been a long time. In May 1891 Tomsk provincial engineer together with the chief of police at the request of Tomsk Governor Herman Avgustovich Tobizena inspected the parliamentary and bridges. On examination, it turned out that both structures have considerable damage and require urgent repair. Tomsk governor appealed to the City Council with a request to discuss the issue of the construction on the site of an old wooden , stone or new iron bridges , in order to avoid permanent repair costs. But the question of the construction of a new iron or stone bridge in place of the old wooden remained open.
Installed in place of the alleged grounds of Tomsk on the southern cape mountains of the Resurrection . The event took place October 7, 1966 The monument is a lump of hematite , which strengthened a marble plaque with gold letters : " At this point in 1604 founded the city of Tomsk ... " .
Excursions to Lake Baikal
Trip to one of the most beautiful lakes in the world should devote a few days. Experienced travelers are advised to choose to visit this lake the end of July - August. The fastest way to get to Lake Baikal by plane, but some tourists prefer leisurely way by train. Journey to Lake Baikal can be combined with a visit to Irkutsk.
Irkutsk guest will be easier to navigate in the stands " Green Line ." Such stands are installed next to each significant architectural object . They indicated that this building is how to continue the route , which are located near the monuments . You can stay in Irkutsk in one of the hotels in the city ( "Delta", "Europe", "Victoria" , etc.)
From Irkutsk fortress buildings , which gave rise to the town , preserved Redeemer Church ( the first church in Irkutsk ) . It is located next to a Catholic church , which now houses the organ Philharmonic Hall .
Almost in the city center there is an embankment of the Angara. Irkutsk train station, by the way, is right on the river bank. From Irkutsk to Lake Baikal can be reached by boat or by bus .
Large mountainous peninsula , whose maximum height - nearly 1,900 meters. In the forests of the peninsula are wild animals and birds , diverse flora. Often arranged ascent to the plateau - the top of Holy Nose , which offers beautiful views of the bay . Undertake such an ascent better people with no health problems and special shoes (often very steep trail , its length - 24 km ) .
Of course, this is not a complete list of what to look at and near Lake Baikal. These are just some of the "pearl" of the many. Each guest may itself make Baikal route, guided solely by their preferences and the time of year.
Khabarovsk - one of the largest cities in the Russian Far East , administrative, industrial and cultural center of Khabarovsk Krai. The city is divided into five districts : Rail, Industrial , Kirov, Krasnoflotskiye and Central.
History Khabarovsk Russia relate to the development banks of the Amur and the Pacific . May 31, 1858 soldiers of the Siberian line battalions under the command of Captain Y. Dyachenko established a military post called Khabarovka - in honor of the XVII century explorer Yerofei Habarova . Just five years since its inception in Khabarovka was 167 buildings. October 30, 1880 Khabarovka received city status. Unbeatable location at the junction of two rivers and river port had already contributed to the rapid development of trade here.
1894 was a key to the cultural life of Khabarovsk. The city was established department of the Russian Geographical Society , whose members opened a museum and a library. Newspaper began publication " Amur lists ." In the fall of Khabarovsk first came to the theater . This was made possible thanks to the creation of the partnership dramatic actors and organization of amateur drama club . Already in the first season of Khabarovsk saw six plays . Soldier appeared and theater.
Local history museum with the first days of a matter of concern and pride of the local intelligentsia and authorities. In the accumulation of its collections attended by prominent scientists Radakov V. , V. Margaret, N. Grodekov , P. Shimkevich and many others. And in 1901 at the initiative of the governor-general N. Grodekov , contact the Academy of Fine Arts to allocate paintings Art Museum was opened .
In the beginning of the century and has developed a system called
of people's education. In 1915 in Khabarovsk were two secondary educational institution - a real school and college technical railway , 8 secondary schools, cadet corps and Teacher Training Institute , Commercial College. Created by local intellectuals Folk House Pushkin led outreach to citizens.
The city is the largest transport hub in the Far East region . Khabarovsk railway junction - the largest in the region. River port - one of the largest on-Amur.
Khabarovsk - cultural center. Here are 4 museums, 4 professional theaters , lots of creative organizations - writers , composers , artists unions , theater workers, filmmakers, journalists.
Theatres of Khabarovsk:
Khabarovsk Regional Drama Theatre ..
House of Folk Art .
Far Eastern Art Museum .
Khabarovsk regional museum of local lore . NI Grodekov .
Khabarovsk Geological Museum .
Shrine of St. Innocent of Irkutsk .
The second occurred after the birth of the church exactly one hundred years after the consecration of the church was built of stone Innocent - in 1998 at the temple were set gilded domes with crosses .
Holy Transfiguration Cathedral. Opening of the cathedral took place in 2004. It is the third largest church of the Orthodox churches in Russia after the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and St. Isaac's - St. Petersburg . Its height from the ground to the top of the golden dome from the altar is 95 meters.
Temple of St. Seraphim of Sarov . Opening of the temple took place on the eve of the 150th anniversary of the Far East of the capital.
The architecture style is taken as a basis for Russian Orthodox architecture . Pure white appearance of the temple , crowned with golden domes and bell tower of the church , devoid of pretentiousness and pomposity front - he rationally elegant, austere and solemn .
Monuments - this is part of the history of the city. If walking around the city , you are tired of the everyday bustle of the city , want to relax and get some fresh air in some beautiful and peaceful place - please choose ...
Parks of Khabarovsk
Central Park of Culture and Recreation . Located in the picturesque area on the banks of the Amur River in the heart of the city. At the disposal of tourists attractions , cafes , the beach . In the evenings, discos for young people.
Urban recreation park "Dynamo". A large park in the city center . Adjacent to the park is the city ponds.
City Park of Culture and Recreation . Yuri Gagarin . This park - a place of recreation for residents of the Industrial district.
Children's park named after AP Gaidar. This is a favorite place of kids all over the city . Colorful inflatable skittles, swings, slides - it has everything to young Khabarovsk not bored . Meanwhile, their parents can relax in the shade of trees.
Lenin Square . The central area of the city, which is constantly being improved by the City to , despite the name, to be a modern holiday destination for residents of all ages.
Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city, according to the 2010 Census, is 592,034, down from 594,701 recorded in the 2002 Census.
The city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean.
Peninsula, which is about 30 kilometers (19 mi) long and approximately 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) wide.
The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 meters (843 ft). Eagle's Nest Hill is often called the highest point of the city; however, with the height of only 199 meters (653 ft), or 214 meters (702 ft) according to other sources, it is the highest point of the downtown area, but not of the whole city.
The Port of Vladivostok is the eastern last stop on Russia's Northern Sea Route that stretches from the country's northwestern shores at the border of Norway. It is the principal base for supplies for Russia's Arctic ports to the east of Cape Chelyuskin.
The arrival of the Chinese Eastern Railway in 1903 connected the Port of Vladivostok to Manchuria and gave the port a better connection to the rest of the Russian Empire and enhanced its importance as a major center in eastern Russia. The Port of Vladivostok was important as a military port that received supplies from the United States during World War I.
When the Russian Revolution of 1917 began, the Port of Vladivostok was occupied by foreign forces, primarily the Japanese, who stayed there until the early 1920s. After they left the city, the Port of Vladivostok became important to the new Soviet Government.
The Port of Vladivostok continued to be the home of Russia's Pacific Fleet after the USSR took control. It grew considerably after World War II as a military base, and the Port of Vladivostok was closed to foreign shipping between 1952 and the and 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.
After the fall of Communism in Russia, the Port of Vladivostok emerged as a commercial port with links to other eastern Russian ports as well as countries of the Far East. It began to import consumer goods from Japan, China, and other nations. The port is ice-free all year round, and in 2002 had a foreign trade turnover worth $275 million.
Maxim Gorky Academic Theater, named after Russian author, Maxim Gorky, was founded in 1931 and is used for drama, musical and children's theater performances.
There is a beautiful new opera and ballet theatre.
Now, it's the end of our virtual tour to Russia. Russia is union, but very diverse country. it can be understood through its diversity of nature, people and culture. Russia is a beautiful country, to explore its sights very interesting. Also, every city, every nation inhabiting Russia has its own culture is not similar to the others. why our country so interested for foreign tourists wanting to know the "mysterious Russian soul."
We hope that our tour you are interested and you want to visit those places that have learned.
The list of literature and internet resources
География России. Под редакцией А.И. Алексеева. - М., Дрофа 2011
Краткое описание документа:
Russia is the largest country in the world, ranking first in area and ninth largest is populated . It covers a million square kilometers and is located in twelve time zones. Since the time of the Moscow principality occurs continuously expansion territory of Russia - the accession of new lands - mainly in the north, east and south - and their Russian colonization. Moscow is the capital of Russia. Official language is Russian.
We plan to show and tell about the main attractions of famous cities of Russia, as well as their culture, customs and history. We hope in this way to show the interest of foreign tourists to travel to Russia.