Hard and Hardly
Ann is a hard worker. (adjective)
Ann works hard. (adverb)
George asked Hilda to marry him. She was surprised because they had only
only known each other for two days. She said: “We can’t got married now! We hardly known each other”.
Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it.
My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk.
- How much money have you got?
I’ll have to go shopping. We’ve got hardly any food.
Fill in hard or hardly
He tried ____ to do it but wasn’t lucky.
You should work ____ to get good results.
He didn’t find any information, because he ____ tried to find one.
____ anybody passed the driving text.
Ann is a ____ worker, that’s why she’s made great success.
They are too weak, they ate ____ anything.
I can ____ read it, the water has spoiled the message.
The wind was so strong that the boys could ____ walk but they tried.
Open the brackets and use the verbs in correct form.
Jack (phone) me last night. He is on holiday in Germany. He (have) a nice time.
A) has phoned B) phoned C) had phoned
D) would phoned E) has been having F) has
G) is having H) has had
This time last year I (live) in Turkey.
A) lived B) had been living
C) had lived D) was living
Would you like something to eat? No, thank you, I just (have) breakfast.
A) had B) have had
C) have been having D) had had
I (look) for you for the last half hour.
A) have been looking B) is looking
C) look D) looked
It’s three years since I last (see) my uncle.
A) has seen B) saw
C) had seen D) would have seen.
Chris (leave) school in 1997.
A) has left B) had left
C) would have left D) left
The man I (see) yesterday (tell) me he never (use) a computer.
A) saw B) had seen C) has seen
D) would see E) had told F) has told
G) told H) was telling I) used
J) had used K) was using L) has used
I (stay) with my friends until I find a flat.
A) stay B) am staying
C)have been staying D) stayed
Choose the word which you think fits best to complete each complaint. Fill in the gaps with appropriate letters.
John’s father (1) ____ him not to stay out late again.
His parents never allowed him (2) ____ .
Deborah’s father won’t (3) ____ her drive his car.
My mum is very strict, so it will be difficult (4) ____ her to buy me a motorbike. She thinks I am too young.
My parents want (5) ____ to finish school first.
My parents don’t let me (6) ____ horror films. They say horror films are too violent.
My parents never allow me (7) ____ parties at home.
1) a) allows b) orders c) lets
2) a) smoking b) smoked c) to smoke
3) a) permit b) forbid c) let
4) a) to suggest b) to persuade c) to make
5) a) my b) them c) me
6) a) to see b) see c) seen
7) to let b) to spend c) to organise
Make sentences with hardly and translate them.
(known/ hardly/ we/ have/ each other)
(last night/ I/ slept/ hardly)
(hardly/ you/ can/ I/ hear)
(I/ him/ hardly/ recognized)
(could/ they/ speak/ hardly)
Fill in each gap with the appropriate word.
Some adults admit that teenagers have a great deal of _____ today.
Schools, the media and young people themselves place a lot of _____ on being independent.
The most popular topics for discussion chosen by teenagers are: part-time job, parents reaction to boyfriends or girlfriends, and ____
Most British parents say that they would like to _____ their children until they reach 16.
A lot of adults _____ about teenage ____ and cruelty.
Schools and the media should give more information about the danger of alcohol.
(addiction, violence, aggressiveness, to protect, independence, complain, importance)
Translate into English.
свидание с незнакомым человеком;
платить свою часть за угощение;
ходить вокруг да около;
сводить с ума;
разрешать кому-либо делать что-либо
запрещать кому-либо делать что-либо
For statements 1-7, decide which of them are True and which of them are False.
In Britain at the age of 13 you can’t go to prison.
In Britain you can get married before you can get a driving licence.
In Britain you can’t buy a pet without your parents’ consent if you are under the age of 12.
In Britain you can’t get your ears pierced without your parents’ permission if you are 15.
In Britain you can smoke at any age.
In Britain you can’t buy fireworks until you are 16.
In Britain you are considered to be an adult when you are 17.
Life in the 21st century
Discuss what the correct word is for each of these definitions.
a robot which looks like human a_______
a machine which behaves like a human h________
someone who usually believes that good things will happen o_______
a fictional scientist who created a famous monster F_______
a very small piece of silicon containing electronic information m______-
a small tool or machine that helps you to do something g_______
Read the text and check your answers.
Scientists are racing to build the world’s first thinking robot. This is not science fiction: some say they will have made it by the year 2020. Carol Packer reports.
Machines that walk, speak and feel are no longer science fiction. Kismet is the name of an android which scientists have built at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Kismet is different from the traditional robot because it can show when it feels happy, sad or bored. Kismet is one of the first of a new generation of androids – robots that look like human beings – which can imitate human feelings.
Cog, another android invented by the MIT, imitates the action of a mother. However, scientists admit that so far Cog has the mental ability of a two-year-old.
The optimists say that by the year 2020 we will have created humanoids with brains similar to those of an adult human being. These robots will be designed to look like people to make them more attractive and easier to sell to the public. What kind of job will they do? In the future, robots like Robonaut, a humanoid invented by NASA, will be doing dangerous jobs, like repairing space stations. They will also be doing more and more of the household work for us. In Japan, on the other hand, where humanoid robots are appearing faster than in America, the Japanese are designing androids that will entertain us by dancing and playing the piano.
Some people worry about what the future holds: will we have created another Frankenstein’s monster? What’s more worrying is whether people themselves are becoming increasingly like robots. Experts predict that more and more people will be wearing micro-computers, connected to the Internet, in the future. People will have micro-chips in various parts of their body, which will connect with them to a wide variety of gadgets. Perhaps we should not exaggerate the importance of technology, but one wonders whether, in years to come , we will still be falling in love, and whether we will still feel pain. Who knows?
Read the text again and choose the correct answer A, B, C or D.
Kismet is different from other robots because
A. it thinks for itself B. it is not like science fiction
C. it can walk and speak D. it seems to have feelings
What makes Cog special?
A. It looks like a mother B. it behaves like a child
C. it does things a mother does D. It has a human brain
In 20 years’ time robots
A. will behave like animals B. will be able to express ideas
C. will look exactly like humans D. will think like humans
In the future robots will
A. entertain people B. explore space
C. move much faster D. do all of the housework
What is the writer’s attitude to robots in the future?
She welcomes the new inventions
She believe we may create a monster
She is worried that they make us less human
She thinks people will need to use them more.
Find the words in the text which have a similar meaning to these definitions. The last syllable of each word is given to help you.
copy someone’s behavior _______tate
connected with the mind ________al
reluctantly say that something is true _____mit
made something new _______ated
connected to the home _______hold
make something seem better or worse than it is ________ate
Complete these sentences using the future perfect simple form of the verbs in brackets
By the end of the 21st century most illness _______ (disappear).
In five years’ time, we _______ (find) a cure for cancer.
In 20 years’ time, politicians ______ (ban) all nuclear weapons.
By the year 2015, we _____ (find) a cure for baldness.
By the year 2025, AIDS _____ (kill) billions of people.
In the year 2020, traffic accidents ______ (become) the third most common cause of death.
How different the world is!
Russia is a huge country which covers an area of 17 million square kilometers.
What is special about the geographical position of Russia? Fill in the blanks with the geographical names from the box. Add articles where necessary.
Arctic Ocean Baltic Sea Sea of Japan Mount Elbrus Black Sea Barents
Kara Chukchee Okhotsk Sea Urals Bering Sea Laptev East Siberian
White Sea Azov Caspian Sea Caucasus Great Russian Plain Baikal
Western Siberian Plain Ladoga Onega Volga Ob Lena Yenisei Amur
North Dvina Moscow Magadan
Russia is washed in the north by _______ and its seas: ________ , _______ , ______ , _______ , _______ , and _______ , in the south by _______ , _______ , and _______ Seas; in the east by _______ , _______ , and _______ ; in the west by _______ . The size of Russia is hard to imagine. A flight from ______ to ______ takes eight hours. Russia is a land of long rivers and large lakes. Among the world’s longest rivers rank _______ , the three mighty Siberian rivers: _______ , _______ , and _______ , and _______ . The largest of all Russia’s rivers is _______ . The three largest lakes in Russia are _______ in South-Eastern Siberia and _______ and _______ in Northern Siberia. The relief of Russia is mostly flat. It’s located on two plains: _______ and ______ . There are three main mountain ranges in Russia. _______ stretch from the Black sea to the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain is _______ . ______ extend from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes. They divide the European and Asian parts of Russia.
The geography of Russia varies from one place to another.
1) Which facts show the influence of geography on the life of Russian people? Combine the sentences using because, thanks to (the fact that), due to (the fact that), so, that’s why.
Example: Russia is a huge country. It has several different climate zones.
Because Russia is a huge country, it has several different climate zones.
Russia is a varied land of forests, mountains, high flat lands and fertile plains. Almost every kind of climate may be found in Russia.
Russia is situated in the north and far from the warming effect of the oceans. Russia has long and cold winters.
In Southern Russia there are the seas, beaches, and the mountains. Millions of tourists visit the South every summer.
Most of Russia has a more or less four-season climate. The rhythms of everyday life tend to follow the seasons.
Central Russia has a mild climate and rich soil. The region has some very rich agricultural land.
Russia is rich in forests and mineral resources. They help Russia to be a world leader in manufacturing.
There are many fruit and vegetable growing regions in Russia. Such items as tomatoes, cucumbers, apples and various berries are not imported.
Russia cover an area of 17 million square kilometers. Airplane is a major factor in mass transport.
2) Which information is true for the place where you live? Add T (true) or F (false).
How different the world is!
Weather can affect the people’s lives greatly. The article below describes an extreme natural event.
Look through the article and answer the questions.
The harshest winter in a decade lashes (охватывать) Europe, disrupting (разрушать) travel by air, land and sea – and claims (угрожать) the lives of hundreds.
The new year made a stormy entrance last week, lashing the Continent with the severest cold snap (похолодание) in a decade. Snow, ice and subfreezing temperatures spelled (означать) chaos, and sometimes death, from the Mediterranean to the Urals. More than 220 deaths, mostly among the homeless and the elderly, were reported as far south as Valencia, Spain.
Travel became a Homeric task. In the Caucasus, an avalanche (лавина) sealed (окружить кольцом) 300 people in a mountain tunnel connecting Russia and Georgia for days. Air traffic was disrupted as was train travel. A Paris-bound Eurostar train carrying some 500 passengers got stuck in the Chunnel for more than two hours, its engine stalled (останавливать) by snow. Ice clogged (препятствовать) river traffic on the Loire, Elbe, Main and Danube. Even England’s Thames froze in places for the first time since 1963.
The brutal weather put a damper (действовать угнетающе) on New Year celebrations. Those who booked holiday trips to resorts on the Adriatic found snow, not sun, on beaches. Parisians ice-skated in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower early in the week, but the New Year’s day the city was a ghost town as its citizens hid from the chill (прохлада). In London, the freeze even muzzled (заставлять молчать) the chimes of Big Ben for a few hours on New Year Eve.
The cold snap didn’t spoil all the fun. In London, brave bathers still took the annual New Year’s Day dip (ныряние) in Hyde Park’s Serpentine.
And in the Netherlands, some 16,000 Dutch donned (надевать) ice skates Saturday for 200-kilometer race across the frozen lakes and canals in Friesland. That’s marking the best of a bitter situation.
Newsweek, January 13, 1997
What is the title of the article?
Where was the article published?
What section was it published in?
What extreme natural event is it about?
What is the main idea of the article?
Homeric [hou’merik] гомеровский, гомерический
Mediterranean [,meditereinien] Средиземное море
Chunnel (Channel + Tunnel = chunnel) тоннель под Ла-Маншем
Danube [‘daenju:b] р. Дунай
Elbe [elb] р. Эльба
Loire [lwo:] р. Лаура
Thames [temz] р. Темза
How different the world is!
Places get their names in a variety of different ways. Sometimes, a place is named after the people who live there. Other times, allocation is named after the person who discovered it or after a famous person. There are even places that are named after the way they look.
The states of the USA also got their names in different ways. Read the information about the nicknames of some of the states and fill in the table.
The way the state got its nickname(s)
Four-fifth of Maine [mein] is covered by forests that feed its wood-processing industry. Hence (отсюда) its nickname the ‘Pine-Tree State’.
The official nickname of New Hampshire [nju: ‘haemp e] is the ‘granite State’ because of her extensive granite quarries (карьер), and the people there are called ‘Granite Boys’.
Vermont [ve’mont], the only New England state lacking an ocean coastline, is famous for its green mountains. Vermont is generally, by simple translation of the original French name, called the ‘green Mountain State’ and Vermonters – ‘Green Mountain Boys’.
The name ‘Rhode Island’ [‘roud ailend] is derived from the Dutch, and means ‘the island’. Rhode Island, the nation’s smallest state, is not an island. ‘Little Rhody’ is the nickname of Rhode Island.
Because more than one-third of the area of the state are the Allegheny [,aeli’geini] Mountains, West Verginia [,west ve’d inie] is called the ‘Mountain State’. It’s also known as the ‘Panhandle State’ because the shape (форма) of the state is like a pan with a handle on it.
The palmetto (карликовая пальма) grows abundantly in South Caroline [,sau kaere’laine], especially along the coast, and is pictured on her coat of arms (герб); as a result it has given the nickname to South Caroline – the ‘Palmetto State’.
Florida [‘floride] was named by Ponce de Leon in 1512 due to the fact that the whole region which he saw was covered with flowers. Florida’s nicknames are: the ‘Alligator State’, the ‘Evergalde State’, the ‘Land of Flowers’, the ‘Mocking-Bird State’, the ‘Orange State’.
The state Virginia [ve’d inie] is named after the Queen of England Elizabeth I (the ‘Virgin Queen’). The names the ‘Ancient Dominion’ and the ‘Old Dominion’ are still widely applied to Virginia, having originated in colonial days, when Virginia was the oldest British colony in America. Because Virginia is the most northern of the South Atlantic States, located south of the Potomac River, radio broadcasters call it ‘Down Where the South Begings’. Her nickname the ‘Mother of presidents’ is thanks to the fact that so many of the elderly presidents of the United States were native Virginians, and because Virginia has produced such a great number of statemen, she is called the ‘Mother of Statemen’.
Pennsylvania [,pensl’veinie] was named after William Pemm, the founder of the colony. The term means ‘Penn’s woods’, or ‘penns forests’. Five nicknames are given to the State of Pennsylvania: the ‘Coal State’, the ‘Keystone State’, the ‘Oil State’, the ‘Quaker State’ and the ‘Steel State’.
Answer the questions:
Do you like reading newspapers?
What newspapers do the members of your family prefer reading?
Is reading newspapers popular in Britain?
Do you know the titles of British newspapers?
Read and translate the new words and word combinations:
level of education
As you read the text find the English equivalents to the following:
Важная роль, они сообщают читателям, публиковать свои статьи, попасть в автобус или поезд, польза и уровень образования, дневные и воскресные газеты, члены этнических групп, двое из трёх человек, издаваться тиражом, общая выборная компания, большие издательские группы прессы.
Read the text and answer the following questions:
What do press tell us?
What kind of papers do you know?
“Popular” papers are usually smaller that “quality” ones, aren’t they?
What can be read in “quality” newspaper?
Who is the owner of newspapers in Britain?
Press. Newspapers in Britain.
Newspapers and magazines play a very important role in the life of a person. They inform the readers of the latest home and foreign news, publish accounts of important political events. The leading specialists and famous writers publish their articles on economy, culture and other vital topics on the pages of different newspapers.
If you get on a bus or catch a train in Britain, especially during the morning and evening “rush hour”, you’ll see a lot of people reading newspapers. The press tells about various political views, interest and levels of education. Papers are usually divided into “quality” papers which are serious with long, informative articles and “popular” which have smaller size. They are less serious and contain more human interest stories than news.
More daily newspapers, national and regional are sold in Great Britain than in most other developed countries. There are about 135 daily papers and Sunday papers, 2000 weekly papers and about 100 papers produced by members of ethnic groups.
A lot of people buy a morning paper, an evening paper and a couple of Sunday papers. On an average day two out of three people over the age of 15 read a national morning paper, about three out of four read a Sunday paper. So it’s not surprising to learn that national newspapers have a circulation of 15.8 million copies on weekdays and 19 million on Sundays.
Newspapers are almost always financially independent of any political party. However, during general election campaigns many papers recommend their readers to vote for particular political party. Ownership of the national London and regional daily newspapers is concentrated in the hands of large press publishing groups.
Read the following text:
Radio is, in a sense, the Cinderella of the media: it is often left out of discussions, or, as in this chapter, left until last. Television is more glamorous, and everyone watches it. But 90 per cent of people say that they listen to the radio in their spare time – in fact, it is the third most popular leisure activity after watching TV and visiting friends. But in spite of prediction when television first arrived, radio has not died, in fact its popularity has risen.
Because radio is comparatively inexpensive, it can fill far more niches than television: there is local radio even in small communities, and there are hundreds of specialist stations. People living in Birmingham, for example, can receive 27 stations on FM, including no fewer than nine BBC stations (national and local), a Welsh language station, and a variety for pop music. At one time, the BBC had a monopoly on radio in Britain, whereas today it has to compete with lots of commercial stations, both local and nationwide. Radio 3, the BBC’s classical music station, is very academic and serious, but it used to do quite well because it had no competition. Then in 1992, Classic FM came on the air, with Vivaldi, Mozart, jokes and recipes all day long, and Radio 3 lost most of its audience.
Surprisingly, however, in the pop-music field, BBC Radio 1 fought back against fierce competition, and it remains the favourite music station for young people in Britain.
As you read the text find the English equivalents to the following:
в известном смысле, Золушка, более эффектный, слушать радио в свободное время, несмотря на предсказание, сравнительно недорогой, подходящее место, маленькое сообщество, конкурировать со многими коммерческими станциями, общенародный, конкуренция, выходить в эфир, весь день, бороться против сильной конкуренции, оставаться любимой музыкальной станцией.
Answer the following questions:
Do you listen to the radio much?
What sort of programmes work well on the radio?
Do you know any radio stations in your country?
Do your parents or grandparents listen to the radio?
What can you say about the main function of the radio in your country?
How many people say that they listen to the radio in their spare time?
What advantages does radio have?
Will television oust radio in the future?
How different the world is!
Game “Learn about the USA!”
Student A. Look at the card A. Write and ask your partner polite questions to find out the missing information on your card. Answer his (her) questions.
Where/the Great Lakes?
Which/the biggest state of the USA?
Which state/Disney World?
How many/time zones?
Which/the highest mountain?
Which/the largest of the Great Lakes?
Which states/separated from the others?
What and whrere/first National Park?
California/redwood (or sequoia)
Death Valley (CA)
e.g. Do you know where the Great Lakes are situated?
Student B. Look at the card B. Write and ask your partner polite questions to find out the missing information on your card. Answer his (her) questions.
On the boundary between the USA and Canada
What city/1996 Summer Olympics?
Where/the Niagara Falls?
What/the first capital?
Mt. McKinley (6,198m)
Alaska and Hawaii
Which four state/begin with the word new?
Which/the longest river?
The smallest state?
What/the lowest spot?
e.g. Do you know where the Niagara Falls are situated?
What help you to enjoy yourself?
Cinema combines different arts. That’s why people of different profession are involved in film making.
Who are these people? Match the name of the profession and what they do.
has general control of the money for a film but he doesn’t direct the actors
is the boss and tells everybody what to do. He works very closely with the actors in particular.
looks through the camera, and operates the equipment.
decides the position of the camera, and everything to do with the light, colour, quantity and direction.
writes scripts for films, shows
holds the microphone
does all the dangerous things on the screen instead of actors
chooses the best bits of the shooting film, cuts film and puts the bits together
operates the microphones and gets very angry with people who make noises during the filming
pretends to be another person and acts in a film
prepares costumes: dresses, suits for film
can make a new face for an actor
A boom operator is a man who holds the microphone.
What kind of film do you know? Add the word film where necessary.
I like different films: _____________________________________________
I like _________________________________________________________
My favourite films are ____________________________________________
I hate _________________________________________________________
Musical love story
Documentary science fiction
Detective screen version of a novel
The longest continuous run of any show is of the Mousetrap by A. Christie. The thriller opened on November 25, 1952.ead some interesting information about art from the Guinness Book of World Records. Which impressed you most of all?
The character most frequently appearing on the screen is Sherlock Holmes, created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Seventy actors portrayed Holmes in 197 films between 1900 and 1988
The largest building used for theatre is the National People’s Congress Building in Peking, China. It covers an area of 12.9 acres. The theatre has 10000 seats.
The longest play is Hamlet, with 4042 lines and 29551 words, 1242 words longer than Richard III
“Oscar” – the award of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was instituted on May 6, 1929. Oscars are said to have been named after Oscar Pierse of Texas. When the figurines were first delivered to the executive officers of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the executive secretary exclaimed, “Why, they look just like my Uncle Oscar”. And the name stuck.
The National Coalition on Television Violence has listed 123 deaths and 245 separate acts of violence in 109 min of Rambo III
What do these geographical names stand for? Write the correct information. Add articles where necessary.
Mississippi biggest lake in England
Pacific Ocean river in USA
Lake Windermere is largest ocean in world.
Mt. McKinley most populous city in Australia
Volga highest mountain in North America
Sydney longest river in Europe
The Mississippi river is a river in the USA.
Which is odd word out? Why?
Forest, wood, river, tree.
Sea, coast, beach, field.
Valley, mountain, park, prairie.
Ocean, sea, river, mountain.
Make the indirect questions.
Why is Scotland called the Land of Loch and River and Mountain?
Why do people call Canada the Land of Maple Leaf and Mountains?
What country is the phrase “The tyranny of distance” referred to?
What are the nicknames of Russia?
What country is called the Land of cakes?
Translate into English.
Засуха, уникальный, способность, пустыня, гористый, компромисс, каньон, глубокий, океан, предсказуемость, морской берег, бесполезный, терпение, наводнение, подвижность, малонаселенная местность, лес, равнина, самоуверенность, покорность, самонадеянность, степь, граница.
Read the transcription of the following words.
Arm [a : m] рука (кисть) head [hed] голова
Back [b k] спина health [hel ] здоровье
Body [‘bodi] тело heart [ha : t] сердце
Cheek [t i : k] щека leg [leg] нога
Chin [t in] подбородок lip [lip] губа
Ear [I ] ухо mouth [mau ] рот
Eye [ai] глаз neck [nek] шея
Face [feis] лицо nose [n uz] нос
Finger [fi ] палец руки skin [skin] кожа
Foot [fu : t] нога, ступня smile [smail] улыбка
Hair [he ] волосы tongue [t ] язык
Hand [h nd] рука tooth [tu : ] зуб
Read and translate the text
Appearance and Manners
When we speak about somebody’s figure, face, hands, feet we mean his or her appearance. A person may be tall, middle-sized or short, thin or plump. A face may be round, oval or square. In summer some people may have freckles on their faces. Old people have wrinkled faces.
People’s hair may be long or short, thin or thick, good or bad, straight or curly. If it is long it is often plaited.
Its colour may be black or fair, chestnut or red. Old people have grey hair.
Eyes may be large or small. They may be of different colour, grey, green, black, blue, or hazel (brown)
Cheeks may be rosy or pale (if a person is ill), plump or hollow (if a person is very ill). Some people have dimples in their cheeks when they smile.
Woman usually have their hair done at their hairdresser’s.
The manner of walking is called the walk (gait). One’s step may be: light, heavy, firm. Old people often shuffle their feet, have a shuffling gait.
Freckle - веснушка
Wrinkled face - морщинистое лицо
Shuffle - шаркать, волочить ноги
Shuffling gait - шаркающая походка
Firm gait - твёрдая походка
As you read the text find the English equivalents to the following:
Человек может быть высоким; веснушки на лице; сморщенные лица; заплетать волосы; иметь седые волосы; глаза могут быть большими; различного цвета; впалые щёки; ямочки на щеках; делать причёску в парикмахерской; походка; часто шаркать ногами; шаркающая походка.