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Comparative analysis of types of sentences in English and Kazakh languages

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Алматинская область, г. Капшагай

СШ№12 с ДМЦ

Zhaparov Darkhan

Comparative analysis of types of sentences in English and Kazakh languages



The actuality and importance of the diploma work.

On the basis of we often need to communicate and permanent cooperation between countries in the modern cultural and economical relationships arises necessity in researches in different aspects of languages. Especially it concerns English and Kazakh languages, firstly, we are developing country and we need to learn foreign languages to raise competitive capacity of our people and country. Secondly, our president determined a goal to know three languages, as: Kazakh is our state language, Russian – official language and English – the language of international relations worldwide, that’s we should acquire this language in order to be more successful and to have a chance to learn in a modern world.

And in this respect the actuality of our work is determined by the comparison of difficult syntactical units and establishment of similar and specific characteristics of types of sentences in English and Kazakh languages. The actuality of the research is the comparatively-typological analysis of the sentence in English and Kazakh languages. Comparing and contrasting the types of sentences from theoretical and practical point of view is the actual problem of grammar. The aim of the research is to study the phenomenon of the sentence and reveal similarities and differences in pattern and character of manifestation of a given phenomenon.

The goal set above proposes the solution of the following objectives:

  1. to make much more understandable the term sentence for students and teachers;

  2. to display the characteristics of English and Kazakh sentences;

  3. to assist in understanding the concept and making correct decisions on its usage;

  4. to reveal the usage of the sentence in English and Kazakh languages;

  5. to define the peculiarities of the sentence in the scope of both languages.

The object of the research: different kinds of sentences in English and Kazakh languages taken from the works of different authors and various styles.

The subject of the research: types of sentence in English and Kazakh languages

The methods of the research: comparatively-typological and contrastive analysis were used according to the aim of the research.

The scientific novelty of the research: the scientific novelty of the research is that research work was conducted to reveal the similarities and differences of types of sentence in English and Kazakh languages by using comparatively-typological and contrastive methods.

The theoretical significance of the diploma work: types of sentence in English and Kazakh languages are researched by using comparative-contrastive analysis and important opinions are given by scientists about their characteristic features, their main types, similarities and differences. Opinions and conclusions told about the types of sentence in syntax are used in this work. Also, it gives opportunity to understand the features of the sentence, peculiarities of its usage.

Practical significance of the diploma work: the results of made analysis about the types of sentence would answer the question what peculiar properties English and Kazakh languages have in some aspects of syntactical system. The results can be taken into account in practice of teaching English as foreign languages and allow teachers and students to use it in their work and their future work in studying English and Kazakh sentences. It will help to understand sentences from theoretical and practical points of view.

The first part of the work considers the theoretical basis of carrying out of theoretical interconnection of grammar and syntax; theoretical interpretation of the term sentences; variations of the phenomenon “sentence” in other languages; conceptions of the sentence; the usage of sentence in English language.

The second part of the work is dedicated to the comparative-contrastive analysis of the sentence; sentences contrasted with English and Kazakh languages; comparison of types of sentences in English and Kazakh languages; comparison of “types of sentences” in English and Kazakh languages.

The structure of the work. The diploma work consists of an introduction, two sections, conclusion and the list of references. The significance of the theme, aims, objectives, the theoretical and practical significance of the diploma work are found in the preface of our work.













THEORETICAL PART I. 1.1.THEORETICAL INTERCONNECTION OF

GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX

Works on grammar were written long before modern syntax came about; the Aṣṭādhyāyī of ini is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory [1]. In the West, the school of thought that came to be known as "traditional grammar" began with the work of Dionysius Thrax. In linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek σύνταξις "arrangement" from σύν syn, "together", and τάξις táxis, "an ordering") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. In addition to referring to the discipline, the term syntax is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in "the syntax of Modern Irish".Modern research in syntax attempts to describe languages in terms of such rules. Many professionals in this discipline attempt to find general rules that apply to all natural languages. The term syntax is also used to refer to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic. Although there has been an interplay in the development of the modern theoretical frameworks for the syntax of formal and natural languages, this article surveys only the latter. For centuries, work in syntax was dominated by a framework known as grammaire générale, first expounded in 1660 by Antoine Arnauld in a book of the same title. This system took as its basic premise the assumption that language is a direct reflection of thought processes and therefore there is a single, most natural way to express a thought. That way, coincidentally, was exactly the way it was expressed in French. However, in the 19th century, with the development of historical-comparative linguistics, linguists began to realize the sheer diversity of human language and to question fundamental assumptions about the relationship between language and logic. It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore logic could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language. The Port-Royal grammar modeled the study of syntax upon that of logic. Syntactic categories were identified with logical ones, and all sentences were analyzed in terms of "Subject – Copula – Predicate". Initially, this view was adopted even by the early comparative linguists such as Franz Bopp. The central role of syntax within theoretical linguistics became clear only in the 20th century, which could reasonably be called the "century of syntactic theory" as far as linguistics is concerned [2].

There are a number of theoretical approaches to the discipline of syntax. One school of thought, founded in the works of Derek Bickerton, [3]sees syntax as a branch of biology, since it conceives of syntax as the study of linguistic knowledge as embodied in the human mind. Other linguists (e.g. Gerald Gazdar) take a more Platonistic view, since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract formal system [4]. Yet others (e.g. Joseph Greenberg) consider grammar a taxonomical device to reach broad generalizations across languages. Andrey Korsakov's school of thought suggests philosophic understanding of morphological and syntactic phenomena. At foundations of their linguistic ideas, lies classical philosophy which treats reality as consisting of things, their qualities and relationships. From here the followers of Korsakov's school assert the subdivision of words by the parts of speech [5]. Syntactic problems also get their enlightenment in the terms of philosophic processes [6]. Regarding the proliferation of theoretical linguistics frameworks, van Benthem and ter Meulen wrote in their 1997 (1st edition) of «Handbook of Logic and Language»: [7]

The hypothesis of generative grammar is that language is a structure of the human mind. The goal of generative grammar is to make a complete model of this inner language (known as i-language). This model could be used to describe all human language and to predict the grammaticality of any given utterance (that is, to predict whether the utterance would sound correct to native speakers of the language). This approach to language was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. Most generative theories (although not all of them) assume that syntax is based upon the constituent structure of sentences. Generative grammars are among the theories that focus primarily on the form of a sentence, rather than its communicative function.

Among the many generative theories of linguistics, the Chomskyan theories are:

  • transformational Grammar (TG) (Original theory of generative syntax laid out by Chomsky in Syntactic Structures in 1957 [8])

  • government and binding theory (GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developed mainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s). [9]

  • minimalist program (MP) (a reworking of the theory out of the GB framework published by Chomsky in 1995) [10].

Categorial grammar is an approach that attributes the syntactic structure not to rules of grammar, but to the properties of the syntactic categories themselves. For example, rather than asserting that sentences are constructed by a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP) (e.g. the phrase structure rule S → NP VP), in categorial grammar, such principles are embedded in the category of the head word itself. So the syntactic category for an intransitive verb is a complex formula representing the fact that the verb acts as a functor which requires an NP as an input and produces a sentence level structure as an output. This complex category is notated as (NP\S) instead of V. NP\S is read as " a category that searches to the left (indicated by \) for a NP (the element on the left) and outputs a sentence (the element on the right)". The category of transitive verb is defined as an element that requires two NPs (its subject and its direct object) to form a sentence. This is notated as (NP/(NP\S)) which means "a category that searches to the right (indicated by /) for an NP (the object), and generates a function (equivalent to the VP) which is (NP\S), which in turn represents a function that searches to the left for an NP and produces a sentence). Tree-adjoining grammar is a categorial grammar that adds in partial tree structures to the categories.

Dependency grammar is a different type of approach in which structure is determined by the relations (such as grammatical relations) between a word (a head) and its dependents, rather than being based in constituent structure. For example, syntactic structure is described in terms of whether a particular noun is the subject or agent of the verb, rather than describing the relations in terms of phrases.

Some dependency-based theories of syntax:

Theoretical approaches to syntax that are based upon probability theory are known as stochastic grammars. One common implementation of such an approach makes use of a neural network or connectionism. Some theories based within this approach are:

  Syntax is an area of traditional strength at USC. Syntacticians at USC work primarily within the generative tradition, seeking to develop models of syntax as part of the human mental faculty of language and to express generalizations about the empirical domain of syntax as explicit formal statements embedded within a computational model of the human linguistic ability. Fundamentally, they share the belief that the investigation of language cannot be conducted outside of a well-articulated theoretical framework and without rigorous empirical research.

Faculty members with a central interest in the area of comparative syntax include Hagit Borer, Hajime Hoji, Audrey Li, Roumyana Pancheva, Mario Saltarelli, Andrew Simpson, Jean-Roger Vergnaud, and Maria Luisa Zubizarreta.

Over the past two and a half decades, the accumulated record of the research produced by the current USC syntax faculty has given rise to major contributions to the development of syntactic theory, including the development of, by now, widely used concepts such as Case Theory, Generalized Binding, the Lexical Parameterization Hypothesis, Prosodically Motivated Syntactic Movement, Neo-constructionist approaches to event structure, and others.

An essential aspect of the construction of formal models is accomplished through a thorough examination and analysis of particular languages and after extensive parts of their structure have been carefully studied and formulated. At that point, it becomes possible to ask questions about the ways in which differences and similarities among languages can be formally captured. As a result, much of the task of the syntactician is to conduct a comparative study of specific structures within and across languages. Comparative syntax continues to be one of the mainstays of USC Linguistics, with an unusually broad range of language areas covered. Language areas studied in detail at USC are: East Asian languages, including Chinese, Japanese, and Korean; Southeast Asian languages, including Thai, Burmese, and Vietnamese; South Asian languages, including Bengali and Hindi; Romance, including French, Italian, Romanian, and Spanish; Semitic languages, in particular Arabic and Hebrew; and Slavic languages, in particular Bulgarian, Old Church Slavonic, and Russian, as well as Balkan languages. Specific phenomena studied by syntacticians here include but are not limited to WH-movement and resumptive pronouns in Arabic and in Chinese (Li); quantifier scope and anaphoric relations in Japanese (Hoji); the interaction of morphology and syntax in Hebrew and in English (Borer); the interaction of focus and movement in Germanic and Romance languages (Zubizarreta); the structure of nominal phrases in Romance (Vergnaud, Zubizarreta), Hebrew and English (Borer), and Southeast Asian languages (Simpson); and clitics and phrase structure in Slavic and Balkan languages (Pancheva) [11].

Fundamentally, syntax is a computational system that interfaces between sound and meaning. While some work at USC deals almost exclusively with the properties of that computational system, other work focuses on the interface between the syntactic computational system and other linguistic systems, such as semantics, phonology, morphology, and the lexicon. Work on the properties of syntax as a computational system includes the study of the relations between chains and phases (Vergnaud) and a refinement of the notion of syntactic head (Borer). Work on the syntax-phonology interface includes the relations between focus and phrasal stress (Zubizarreta), prosodic constraints on clitic placement (Pancheva), and phases and tone sandhi (Simpson); work on the syntax-semantics interface includes anaphora and scope dependencies (Higginbotham, Hoji, Li), focus (Zubizarreta, Guerzoni), questions (Li, Guerzoni, Higginbotham, Simpson, Vergnaud), intervention effects (Guerzoni, Li, Vergnaud, Zubizarreta), comparatives (Pancheva), grammatical aspect (Pancheva), and event structure (Borer, Higginbotham, Schein, Zubizarreta). Work on the syntax-lexicon interface includes the study of the grammatical properties, if any, of lexical representations (Borer, Zubizarreta). Work on the syntax-morphology interface includes the development of formal systems of word formation (Borer). Pancheva and Simpson study diachronic syntax and grammatization.

The investigation of language as a mental human ability is central to the generative approach, and as a result, interest in the relations between the study of the brain and the study of syntax is a significant part of the interest of most generative syntacticians in general and at USC in particular. Interfacing with the area of Neuroscience, Pancheva studies the breakdown of functional structure in aphasia patients as well as the electro-physiological correlates of such structures in normal adults. Interfacing with psycholinguistics, Borer studies the acquisition of functional structure and event structure in first language learners, and Zubizarreta studies the acquisition of lexico-syntactic structures by second language learners of different ages. Interfacing with computational neuroscience, in collaboration with Arbib of Computer Science and Neuroscience, Vergnaud investigates the relations between syntax and models of neural architecture developed in the context of visual and motor systems, with particular view towards constituent structure and the structure of LF.





















CONCLUSION

The notion of a predicative line; simple sentence as a monopredicative construction. Nominative division of the sentence into syntac­tic and semantic constituents. The traditional classification of notional parts (members of the sentence): principal (subject, predicate), secondary (object, attribute, adver­bial modifier), detached (apposition, address, parenthesis, inter­jection). The notions of surface and deep (conceptual) structures of the sentence; the classification of ‘se­mantic cases’, or ‘semantic roles’ (“case grammar” theory of Ch. Fillmore). Parsing of the sentence into its ‘immediate constitu­ents’. Verb as the predicative centre of the sentence. The notion of the “elementary” sentence. Expanded and unexpanded simple sentences. The problem of sentence completeness: complete and incomp­lete (elliptical) sentences. The two axes of the sentence; one-axis and two-axis sentences, their correlation with complete and ellip­tical sentences. Free and fixed one-axis sentences; their direct or indirect (‘vague’) associations with two-axis sentences. Fixed one-axis sentence-representatives. Semantic classification of simple sentences: personal (definite and indefinite) and impersonal (factual and perceptional) sentences; process featuring (verbal actional and verbal statal) and substance featuring (nominal factual and nominal perceptional) sentences; subjective, objective and neutral (“potentially” objective) sentences.

Thus, the classification of the communicative sentence types, in addition to three cardinal communicative types, includes six intermediary subtypes of sentences of mixed communicative features; first, mixed sentence patterns of declaration (interrogative-declarative, imperative-declarative), second, mixed sentence patterns of interrogation (declarative-interrogative, imperative-interrogative), and, third, mixed sentence patterns of inducement (declarative-imperative, interrogative-imperative). Most of the intermediary communicative types of sentences perform distinct stylistic functions, and can be treated as cases of transposition of the communicative types of sentences presented in oppositions, paradigmatically.















REFERENCES:

1.Иванова И.П. Последовательность времен английского языка, ЛГУ, 1958, 329 стр.

2. Internet:http://www.en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Sequence_of_tenses

3.Merriam-Webster “sequence of tenses”. Merriam-Webster’s dictionary of English Usage. Merriam-Webster, 1994, 383 p.

4.Иванова И.П., Бурлакова В.В., Почебцов Г.Г. «Теоретическая грамматика современного английского языка» - Москва, 1981. 66 стр.

5.Lyda E. Lapalombara “An introduction to Grammar” – Cambridge Massachusetts, 1976.

6.Internet:http://www.web.ku.edu/~edit/sequence.html

7.Internet:http://www.englishpractice.com/improve/sequence of tenses

8.Internet;http;//www.usefulenglish.ru/.../ sequence -of-tenses

9.Эпштейн Г.А., Казанская Н.М. «Глагол. The Verb» - Санкт-Петербург, 2001.

10.Вейхман Ф.А. English Grammar “Новое о грамматике современного английского языка” – Москва, 2002.

11.Исмаил Н.М., Жумадиллаева О.А., Хамитова Г.Д., Кулекенова Ж.Г. “The sequence of tenses. Indirect speech” – Almaty, 2002. - 53c.

12.Бархударов Л.С. Структура простого предложения современного английского языка. М., 1966. - 200 с.

13.Борабаш Т.А. «Грамматика английского языка. English». – Москва, 2001. 119 стр.

14.Blokh M.I. “A Course in Theoretical English Grammar” – Mосква 2000.

15. Rysbaeva G.K. “English Grammar. Ағылшын тілі грамматикасы” – Алматы, 2009. 144 бет.

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Краткое описание документа:

The actuality and importance of the diploma work.

    On the basis of we often need to communicate and permanent cooperation between countries in the modern cultural and economical relationships arises necessity in researches in different aspects of languages. Especially it concerns English and Kazakh languages, firstly, we are developing country and we need to learn foreign languagesto raise competitive capacity of our people and country. Secondly, our president determined a goal to know three languages, as: Kazakh is our state language, Russian – official language and English – the language of international relations worldwide, that’s we should acquire this language in order to be more successful and to have a chance to learn in a modern world.

       And in this respect the actuality of  our  work is determined by the comparison of difficult syntactical units and establishment of similar and specific characteristics of types of sentences in English and Kazakh languages. The actuality of the research is the comparatively-typological analysis of the sentence in English and Kazakh languages. Comparing and contrasting the types of sentences from  theoretical and practical point of view is the actual problem of grammar. The aim of the research is to  study the phenomenon of  the sentence and  reveal  similarities and differences in pattern and character of manifestation of a given phenomenon.

The goal set above proposes the solution of the following objectives:

1.     to make much more understandable the term sentence for students and teachers;

2.     to display the characteristics of  English and Kazakh sentences;

3.     to assist in understanding the concept and making correct decisions on its usage;

4.     to reveal the usage of  the sentence  in English and Kazakh languages;

5.     to define the peculiarities of  the sentence in the scope of  both languages.

  The object of the research: different kinds of sentences in English and Kazakh languages taken from the works of  different authors and various styles.

   The subject of the research: types of sentence in English and Kazakh   languages

   The  methods  of  the  research:  comparatively-typological and contrastive analysis were used  according to the aim of the research.

   The scientific novelty of the research: the scientific novelty of the research is that research work   was conducted  to reveal the similarities and differences of  types of sentence in English and Kazakh languages  by using comparatively-typological and contrastive methods.

 The theoretical  significance of the diploma work: types of sentence in English and Kazakh languages are researched by using comparative-contrastive analysis and important  opinions are given by scientists about their  characteristic features, their main types, similarities and differences. Opinions and conclusions told about the types of sentence in syntax   are used in this work. Also, it  gives opportunity to understand the features of  the sentence, peculiarities of its usage.

  Practical significance of the diploma work: the results of made analysis about  the types of sentence would  answer  the question what peculiar properties English and Kazakh languages have in some aspects of syntactical system. The results can be taken into account in practice of teaching English as foreign languages  and  allow  teachers and students to use it in their work and their future work  in studying English and Kazakh  sentences. It will help to understand   sentences  from theoretical and practical points of view.

      The first part of the work considers the theoretical basis  of carrying out of  theoretical interconnection  of grammar and syntax; theoretical interpretation of the term sentences; variations of the phenomenon “sentence” in  other languages; conceptions of the sentence; the usage of  sentence in English language.

  The second part of the work is dedicated to the  comparative-contrastive  analysis of  the sentence; sentences contrasted   with English and Kazakh languages; comparison of  types of sentences in  English and Kazakh languages; comparison of  “types of sentences”   in English and Kazakh languages.

 

        The structure of the work. The diploma work consists of an introduction, two sections, conclusion and  the list of  references.  The significance of the theme, aims, objectives, the theoretical and practical  significance of the diploma work are found in the preface  of our work.

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Дата добавления 20.01.2015
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