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Один балл - это возможно!!!



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Медведева Т.А.























ОДИН БАЛЛ – ЭТО ВОЗМОЖНО!

(Все тонкости подготовки первого задания устной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку)





















Светлоград, 2015

Содержание

Введение ……………………………………………………………. 4

  1. Произношение ………………………………………………. 6

  1. Особенность графического обозначения ударения

в английской транскрипции ……………………………... 7

  1. Особенности написания звуков [ɪ]/[ɩ] и [e]/[ə] в

транскрипции некоторых английских слов …………….. 8

  1. Типы английских слогов ……………………………….... 9

  2. Особенности произношения некоторых звуков ……….. 14

  3. Чтение двух подряд идущих гласных ………………..…. 22

  4. Немые согласные …………………………………….…... 25

  5. Чтение буквы “r” в сочетании с гласными ………….….. 27

  6. Чтение буквы “c” перед гласными a, o, u и e, i, y ……... 29

  7. Чтение буквы Gg ……………………………………….…. 31

  8. Чтение буквы Qq и буквосочетания qu ……………… 33

  9. Чтение буквы Ss ………………………………..……… 35

  10. Чтение буквосочетаний некоторых согласных букв.. 37

  11. Чтение двойной буквы “c” …………………………….. 41

  12. Чтение буквы “o” ………………………………………. 41

  13. Чтение буквосочетания gu + e ……………………….... 42

  14. Чтение буквы Аа …………………………………….… 43

  15. Чтение буквы Оо ……………………………………… 44

  16. Чтение окончания –s – окончания множественного

числа английских существительных ……………...…. 45

  1. Чтение окончания –ed в глаголах прошедшего

времени ………………………………………………… 47

  1. Буква Yy на письме …………………………………… 48

  2. Удвоение согласной в некоторых случаях ……….… 49

  3. Чтение артикля the ……………………………………. 50

  4. Чтение дифтонгов ………………………………….….. 51

  5. Буквосочетания из трех гласных и их звуки ……..…. 53

  6. Особенности чтения некоторых суффиксов ……..…. 55

  7. Чтение безударных гласных ……………………….… 56

  8. Случаи выпадения буквы “h” и буквосочета-

ния “th” при чтении. Конструкция “neither…nor…/either…or…” …………………………. 57

  1. Чтение глаголов will, could, would.

Конструкция there is/there are …………………….…. 58

  1. Важность правильной расстановки ударения в

английских словах …………………………………....... 59

  1. Ударение в сложных словах ………………………….. 68

  2. Американский и британский варианты произно-

шения …………………………………………………... 73

  1. Паузы ……………………………………………………....… 75

  2. Ударение …………………………………………………….. 79

Словесное ударение ………………………………………... 80

Фразовое ударение ……………………………………….… 84

Логическое ударение …………………………………….… 87

  1. Мелодика английской речи …………………………….….. 88

Нисходящий тон (High Fall) …………………………….…. 89

Восходящий тон (Low Rise) …………………………….…. 96

Нисходяще-восходящий тон (Fall-Rise) ………………..... 104

Обстоятельства, слова-связки и вводные слова ………… 109

Вариативность употребления тонов и ее значение ……… 119

Слова со сдвинутым фокусом ударения …………………. 130

Тексты для отработки изученных тонов …………………. 136

Тексты для подготовки к экзаменам ……………………… 145

















Введение

2014-2015 учебный год ознаменовался кардинальными изменениями в самой процедуре сдачи ЕГЭ по английскому языку: полностью изменился формат устной части экзамена.

Привычная многим педагогам форма общения в виде монолога и диалога в формате “экзаменатор-экзаменуемый” сменилась компьютеризированной моделью формата “компьютер-экзаменуемый” с отличным от предыдущих набором заданий.

Новый комплект заданий на первый взгляд кажется несложным. Учащиеся неплохо научились справляться и с таким видом работы. Но сложность кроется в самом первом задании: выразительном чтении предложенного отрывка текста в течение полутора минут. И если с другими заданиями дело обстоит немного проще и у них все-таки имеется возможность набрать какой-то балл, то вот с первым заданием не все так гладко. Здесь всего дается один балл и требования, предъявляемые экспертами довольно жесткие.

На первый взгляд оно кажется просто невыполнимым. Но внимательно разобравшись с самой сутью задания, становится понятно, что при определенной подготовке даже здесь у ребенка есть шанс набрать этот пресловутый один балл. Конечно, у вас не получится с первого раза идеально выполнить это задание согласно всем представленным требованиям. Но вложив определенные усилия и время результат достичь можно.

Поэтому и готовиться к нему надо, на мой взгляд, уже с самого начала десятого, а может быть, и с девятого класса. Чем больше у вас в запасе времени, тем выше вероятность натренировать ваших учащихся и выработать определенные навыки выразительного чтения с учетом всех особенностей произношения, мелодики языка, пауз и тонов.

Данная книга охватывает все особенности и сложности, возникающие при подготовке выпускников именно к этому заданию. Именно поэтому, учтя весь свой опыт работы с такими детьми, я решила, что нужно начать подготовку с самых азов, постепенно переходя к более сложным моментам. Это оказалось очень важно, поскольку в процессе чтения дети порой делают ошибки в самых простых словах и не могут прочитать их правильно согласно простым правилам чтения английских слогов. Это свойственно даже сильным учащимся.

Данное пособие состоит из теоретической и практической частей. После объяснения теоретического материала в доступной форме я предлагаю выполнить ряд упражнений по данному разделу. Некоторые упражнения будут сопровождаться аудиозаписями для наглядной демонстрации того, о чем пойдет речь в том или ином разделе книги. Что качается текстов, приведенных в разделе “Texts for preparation”, то многие из них по своему объему немного больше тех, что предлагаются в устной части экзамена. Но не это главное. Целью текстов является практическая отработка всех изученных в этом пособии фонетических явлений. Для тренировки на время я предлагаю просто отсчитать одиннадцать-двенадцать строк текста и работать с ними и с часами с секундной стрелкой. Вот и все!

Поскольку я пользовалась различными источниками, то в конце книги я привожу полный список используемых ресурсов.

































I. ПРОИЗНОШЕНИЕ

В процессе обучения детей английскому языку любой учитель английского языка ОБЯЗАТЕЛЬНО сталкивается со следующими сложностями:

  • произношение;

  • интонация;

  • паузы;

  • мелодика речи;

  • фразовое и логическое ударения.

Каждый из этих вопросов содержит еще ряд подвопросов, на которые следует уделить пристальное внимание. Не забывайте: ЛЮБАЯ мелочь ВАЖНА. Детям нужно ПОСТОЯННО об этом напоминать.

В своей практике я учла все возможные такие вот мелочи, о которых и буду более подробно говорить далее.





















Особенность графического обозначения ударения в английской транскрипции

В английских словах, как правило, ударение падает на первый слог. Таким образом, можно сказать, что оно фиксированное во многих случаях в отличие от русского языка, где ударение можно наблюдать на различных слогах и предугадать его постановку невозможно.

В транскрипции английского слова ударение всегда ставится перед ударным слогом и расположено вверху, в то время как в русском языке мы ударение ставим на ударную гласную. Дети часто спрашивают меня, что это за запятая такая вверху:

[׳ prɪtɩ], [׳ twentɩ] и т.д.

Но в сложных словах можно иногда столкнуться с наличием двух “запятых”, двух ударений: одно стоит вверху, второе – внизу. Это вполне нормальное явление для английского языка. Как произносить? Имейте в виду, главным ударением будет то, которое расположено вверху, на него и делайте ударный акцент. Нижнее будет послабее:

naɩn ׳ ti:n].























Особенности написание звуков [ɪ]/[ɩ] и [e]/[ə] в транскрипции некоторых английских слов



[ɪ] и [ɩ] – это один и тот же звук [и]. Разница в его различном написании заключается только в его позиции в слове: если этот звук является ударным, то тогда мы видим версию [ɪ], когда же он оказывается в безударном положении (чаще в конце слов), то используется его обозначение [ɩ]:

pretty – [׳ prɪtɩ], pin – [pɪn], Lizzy – [ ׳ lɪzɩ].

Тот же принцип действует и в отношении звуковой пары [e]/[ə]: под ударением - [e], без ударения - [ə]. Звук [ə] встречается, как правило, в конце слов:

Ben – [ben], dentist – [ ׳ dentɩst], water – [ ׳ wɔtə].



Но таким тонкостям фонетики вас в школе не научат. Там стабильно на все случаи употребляется обозначение [ɪ] и [e].

























  1. Типы английских слогов

В английском языке существует классификация, состоящая из четырех типов слогов:

I – открытый (оканчивается на гласную);

II – закрытый (оканчивается на согласную);

III – гласная + r;

IV - гласная + re.



Тип слога

Гласная

a

e

i

o

u

y

открытый

make

Pete

kite

nose

muse

cry

закрытый

mad

pen

pin

pot

nut

gym





Слог

ahello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+r [a:]

ehello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+r [ɜ:]

ihello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+r [ɜ:]

ohello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+r [ɔ:]

uhello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+r [ɜ:]

Гласная + r

park

her

girl

form

burn





Слог

ahello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+re [ɛǝ]

ehello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+re [ɪǝ]

ihello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+re [aɩǝ]

ohello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+re [ɔ:]

uhello_html_m6f5e374a.gif+re [juǝ]

Гласная+re

hare

here

fire/tyre

store

pure









Revision exercises



  1. Открытый слог (I тип)

Pete, hate, wane, cute, Nike, line, site, music, muse, late, mate, note, vote, cycle, bike, Mike, plane, date, time, type, lime, tile, make, me, see, we, cry, tube, cubic, gate, tree, mute, fake.



  1. Закрытый слог (II тип)

Bed, pan, Dan, hat, nut, hot, pot, cotton, seven, pencil, pin, ping-pong, song, gong, tan, mint, hut, lot, but, net, gym, tin, cat, dog, cog, drag, pink, get, set, pet, Dick, bin, sent, gem, man, bun, rot, little, battle, bottle.



  1. Гласная + r (III тип)

form, park, firm, work, burn, surge, hurt, barn, car, sort, purr, corn, her, germ, harm, tartan, Bert, fur, bark, alarm, pork, port



  1. Гласная + re (IV тип)

here, hare, fare, pure, fire, tyre, sire, store, score



  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Aa:

pale, plate, name, take, table, made, behave, gate, tale, bat, pan, man, mad, apple, cattle, bad, fat, arm, alarm, car, dark, far, hard, art, farther, bare, care, dare, fare, hare, pare, prepare, square, ware.



  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Oo:

go, no, rose, nose, stone, bone, phone, pole, hole, sole, noble, joke, not, rock, cock, long, God, hot, dog, ox, fond, clock, fog, doctor, or, forty, horse, morning, orchard, corner, sport, fork, sort, ore, bore, more, before, adore, ignore, tore, wore, restore.

  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Uu:

blue, use, amuse, accuse, tulip, duke, Tuesday, tube, mute, student, but, sun, bus, cut, rub, fun, hunt, just, jump, burn, burst, hurt, church, fur, turn, curl, Thursday, purse, purpose, pure, cure, endure, mature, secure, demure, caricature. 



  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Ee:

me, he, these, even, complete, be, Egypt, pet, met, pen, men, chess, well, ten, intend, egg, bed, red, net, her, serve, perfect, perch, verse, berth, here, severe, sincere, mere, interfere.


  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Ii:

ice, pine, nine, five, ties mile, time, fine, rise, drive, big, fill, kiss, win, mint, mix, sing, ill, sit, is, lip, six, girl, shirt, skirt, birch, fir, first, circle, bird, dirty, fire, hire, tired, admire, wire, desire, retire. 


  1. Read aloud the words with the letter Yy:

bye, my, fly, buy, try, rye, dye, lye, deny, rely, supply, type, myth, Syd, physics, crystal, rhythm, symbol, system, myrtle, myrrh, tyre, lyre, pyre. 




Aa


[ei ] [æ ] [a:] [ə] = [еə]

name at am arm care

plate and dad carpet spare

gate cat that garden careful

late rap thanks sharp scared

table flat land farmer compare

face lamp England market square

make hand America March parents

baseball bat calender part

space bad Canada bar

eraser carrot salad farm

skate camp planet park

take bank hamster carton

hate sad packet dark

lake add sandwich darts

case happy badge art

place any black

game many dragon




Ee


[i:] [e] [з :]= [ə:] [iə ]

He me bell her here

She we let’s perfect mere

Street seven German

Green pencil iceberg

Three best serve

Week eleven person

Evening spell verse

Sweet next

Cheese chess




Oo


[ əʊ ] [ɔ ] [ɔ:] [ɔ:]

Go got sport more

Hello from or score

Coke dog corner explore

Home hobby morning shore

Nose prospect tortoise wore

Zero forest fork sore

Sofa strong sort bored

Toe holiday port

Telephone doctor



Ii /Yy


Hi,bye it is, this is, girl fire

Invite, his, six, in, bird tyre

Like, my, film, hit, sit, dirty

Five, type, pig, pink, mix, third

Minus, miss, swim,win, thirteen

Nine, fly, sing, spring, hill thirty

Fine, nice, river, bridge, city, birth

I, white, winter, village,fish, birthday

Time,wide, cinema, picnic, ship,

Rice, kite, visit, interest, pick,

Ice,hide, prickle, kitchen,

Ride, bike, dinner,window,

Life, cycle literature,history





Uu


Super sun,nut, turn pure

Blue cut ,cup, surname cure

Student bus ,run, purple

Music summer, curtain

Glue Russian burglar

Use lunch Thursday

Computer number

Museum hundred

Puma puzzle

June budgie



  1. Особенности произношения некоторых звуков

Долгота – краткость гласного звука.

Хотя большинство учителей и не обращают на этот фактор особого внимания, он очень важен на самом деле. “Почему?” – спросите Вы. И будете абсолютно правы, задавая этот вопрос. Дело в том, что эта особенность произношения кардинально влияет на значение слов. Давайте рассмотрим пример с приведением русской транскрипции слов:

shipsheep, duck - dark

Как вы видите, разница существует только в написании этих слов, а вот произношение практически совпадает. Мы часто игнорируем долготу и произносим эти слова на русский манер, чего ни в коем случае делать нельзя.





Широта- узость гласного звука.

Этого критерия также не существует в русском языке, поэтому нам все равно: будет ли это звук [] или же звук [e] Мы так и будем произносить все слова с этими звуками по-русски, т.е. со звуком [e], а разница и важность соблюдения правильного произношения также имеется. Приведу следующую пару слов в качестве наглядного примера:

bedbad





Межзубные звуки [ θ ] и [ ð ].

У данных звуков нет соответствующих аналогов в нашем языке. Звук [θ] - глухой. При его артикуляции язык полностью расслабляется, а его передняя часть в сочетании с кончиками зубов создает узкую щель, слегка прижимаясь, друг к другу. Выдыхаемый воздух сильно проходит сквозь эту щель. При этом кончик языка немного выступает за пределы верхних и нижних зубов и не прикасается к ним слишком плотно, так как может получиться совсем другой звук - [t].

Пример:

thick - [ θik ]

Timothy - [ ˊtiməθi ]

Существует только один вариант отображения данного звука в письменном виде - при помощи сочетания букв th, которое читается как звук [θ] в следующих случаях:

- в начале знаменательных слов: thanks, think, thought;

- в конце слова: path, north, south, teeth, both;

- также если данный звук в окончании числительного формирует порядковые числительные.



Артикуляция звука [ð] очень напоминает артикуляцию предыдущего звука [θ] - все органы артикуляционного аппарата занимают примерно то же самое положение. Единственным различием можно считать то, звук [ð] - звонкий.

При произнесении данного звука следует помнить, что губы никоим образом не обязаны прикасаться.

Примеры:

they - [ ðei ]

this - [ ðis ]

Так же, как и предыдущий, данный звук отображается в письменном виде при помощи сочетания букв th, которое читается как звук [ð] в следующих случаях:

- в артикле the;

- в начале местоимений: they, them, their;

- между гласными: mother, father, brother.







Пара звуков [w] – [v].

Игнорирование правильности произношения этой парочки иногда тоже может исказить смысл:

vetwet.



Пара звуков [ɔ:] – [ɜ:].

Неверное произношение этой пары звуков, намеренное или по ошибке, также способно полностью поменять смысл слова:

bornburn, walkwork.



Итак, подводя итог выше сказанному, соблюдение данных особенностей убережет вас от неловких, а порой и не очень приятных ситуаций, а также сделает ваше произношение красивым и приятным на слух.



























Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the words with the sounds [ɪ] and [i:].



A.

lead – lid bean - bin

beat – bit pill – peel

kill – keel sit - seat

did – deed feel - fill

pit – peat fit - feet

it – eat lid - lead

mill – meal fit - feat

steel – still



B.

be – been – bean me – meet – meat

see – seat – seed meal – seal – mean

pea – Pete – peat sea – see – meet

be – been – feet mean – lean – keen

meet – meat – ill bill – steel – feel



C.

I see a sea. I see lean meat. I eat meat. I like meat.

I like tea. I make tea. I take tea. I like fine tea. I like fine meals.





D.

Steal, still, seam, seem, kit, keep, ship, sheep, leak, lick, hit, heat, duck, dark, park, seat, sit, weep, whip.



Exercise 2. Read the words with the sounds [ʌ] and [a:]:



A.

[ʌ] run, jump, pulp, fun, but, nut, funny, duck, hug, sum, numb, hustle, rustle

[a:] dark, hard, barn, harp, mark, car, farm, farmer, dance, path, park, heart



B.

us – bus tub – mud

must – sum humble – tumble

sun – hunt trust – lust



C.

car – far – bar half – calf – bath

part – park – fart cart – barter – shark

spark – bath – mark park – raft - plant





Exercise 3. Read the words with the sounds [ɒ] and [ɔ:]:

[ɒ] pot, not, top, hot, dot, mop, got, Boston, Novgorod

[ɔ:] dawn, pork, port, roar, sort, naught, taught, brought, caught, door, for, because, floor



Exercise 4. Read the words with the sounds [æ] and [e].

A.

[æ] cat, fat, hat, tan, pa, Ann, have, can, bad, and, dad, am, lamp, sat, bat, rat

[e] ten, pen, hen, pencil, seven, red, end, pet, Jess, men, set, met, net, test

B.

tan – ten pan – pen

bad – bed land – lend

tanned – tent fan – fen

man – men pat – pet



C.

bat – bet pet – net – red

let – met ten – pen – hen – men



 

Exercise 5. Read the words with the sounds [θ] and [ð].

[ð] this, that, they, these, without, weather, gather, mother, bathe,

  breathe, rather

[θ]     thick, thin, width, length, thank, think, tooth, bath, healthy


A.

through – fifth – myth thief – booth - tooth

thank – think – thought theatre – theory – theft


B.

thermometer – thick – thin

thirst – thirty – thorough

threat – three – thunder

threw – throat – thumb

faith – hearth – path

bath – booth – broth


C.

this – that – those there – though - these

them – they – the



D.

TONGUE TWISTERS WITH “TH”

The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday.

There those thousand thinkers were thinking how did the other three thieves go through?

Through three cheese trees three free fleas flew. While these fleas flew, freezy breeze blew. Freezy breeze made these three trees freeze. Freezy trees made these trees’ cheese freeze. That’s what made these three free fleas sneeze.

Thirty-three thirsty, thundering thoroughbreds thumped Mr. Thurber on Thursday.

Three short sword sheaths.

I thought, I thought of thinking of thanking you.

Tom threw Tim three thumbtacks.

Then this mother soothed and bathed the other although the other didn’t want to be together.

Not these things here but those things there.

Ruth and Luther’s moose’s loosest tooth is uncouth.

I can think of six thin things, but I can think of six thick things too.

Room Three Hundred Thirty-Three on the third floor rents for thirty-three dollars and thirty-three cents every third Thursday.

Three free throws. Three free throws. Three free throws.



Exercise 6. Read the words with the sounds [w] and [v].

[w] whale, wheel, wheat, which, whether, where, why, whey, what, when, white

[v] vet, vail, vein, Venus, vineyard, vault, vacant, vacancy, vacuum, vary



Exercise 7. Read the words with the sounds [ɔ:] and [ɜ:]:

[ɔ:] more, core, score, born, floor, door, dawn, hawk, fork, pork, port, form, sport

[ɜ:] work, hurt, burn, dirty, murk, surge, Pert, third, her, expert, learn, lurk































  1. Чтение двух подряд идущих гласных

В английском языке часто встречаются слова, в которых две гласные следуют друг за другом. Как быть в таком случае? По какому принципу читаются тогда такие слова?

Существует негласное правило чтения двух гласных, действующее в 98% случаев.

Если в слове две гласные стоят подряд, то они будут читаться следующим образом: первая гласная читается так, как она называется в алфавите, а вторая – не читается.

Приведу наглядный пример:

heat [hi:t]

meat [mi:t]

meet [mi:t]

boat [bəʊt]

sail [seɩl]

toe [təʊ]

Но, как и в любом правиле, здесь есть исключения.

В некоторых словах это правило не работает, подряд идущие гласные дают другой звук и тогда нам остается посмотреть произношение в словаре.

Приведу лишь несколько слов-исключений:

field [fi:ld]

bread [bred]

breakfast [׳ brekfəst]

head [hed]

steady [׳ stedɩ]

ready [׳ redɩ]

wealth [welϴ]

wealthy [׳ welϴɩ]

health [helϴ]

healthy [ˊhelϴɩ]













































Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the words according to the rule given above:

Mean, weak, need, seed, wait, rain, heat, may, way, speak, boat, juice, meet, coat, hoax, green, speed.



Exercise 2. Read the following combinations of vowels correctly.

A.

ai        [ei]          ay           

aim                    pay

rain                   day

main                  say

train                  stay 


B.

ee        [i:]         ea

tree                  eat

meet                 clean

see                   tea

green                please

tree                   sea

street                read

teacher 


C.

oa       ʊ]    boat

                     soup

                     coat

goat

goal







  1. Немые согласные

Хочу обратить ваше внимание на наличие в английском языке так называемых “немых” согласных букв, которые встречаются в довольно распространенных словах.

Их лучше всего запомнить:

  • “немаяb в сочетаниях с mb, bt: a bomb, a comb, climb, a debt

  • “немая” d: handsome, Wednesday

  • “немаяg в gn, gm: sign, design, foreign, paradigm

  • gh в gh, igh: sigh, high, fight, bright. Но: laugh, enough, cough.

  • “немаяh: honour, an hour, an heir, white, where, why, what, when

  • “немая” k перед n в начале слова: know, knock, knit

  • “немая” w перед r в начале слова: write, wrong

  • “немаяl в lf, alk, lm, в глаголах (could, should, would): half, talk, walk, folk, calf,  chalk, palm, balm. Но:gulf.

  • “немаяn в mn: autumn, column, damn.

  • “немаяp в pn, pt: prompt, corps, psychology, pneumatic, receipt.

  • “немаяs в isl: isle, island, aisle.

  • “немаяt в ft, st: castle, rustle, whistle. Но: в слове “often” можно произносить или не произносить букву “f”, т.к. сейчас существует два варианта прочтения этого слова

  • “немаяw: answer, two, wrap












Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the words according to the rule given above:

Design, isle, wrong, whistle, whip, gnome, subtle, rustle, castle, pneumatic, two, know, write, sight, right, palm, knit, fight, Wednesday, sign, comb, foreign, climb, dumb, honour, hour, chalk, calf, half, heir, bomb, debt, handsome, psychology, answer, island, paradigm, high, bright, lamb, calm, numb, eight, talk, folk, knit, folk, hour, could, should, would.









































  1. Чтение буквы “r” в сочетании с гласными

Английские гласные буквы часто идут в паре с другими согласными или буквой Rr, которая полностью изменяет их произношение. Ниже мы и рассмотрим все возможные случаи гласных в сочетании с этой буквой.

Итак, как я уже сказала, меняется и произношение и появляется долгота гласного вновь образованного звука.

  1. a + r → [a:] park, farmer, car, are

Но после буквы w или буквосочетания wh читается как [wɔ:]: war, wharf, warrior.



  1. o + r → [ɔ:] sort, port, norm, storm, form



  1. i + r → [ɜ:]

  2. e + r → [ɜ:]

Буквосочетания ir, er под ударением читаются как [ɜ:]:

girl [gɜ:l]

her [hɜ:]

bird [bɜ:d]

В конце слов er, or не под ударением читаются как [ə] (звук краткий и безударный):

farmer [ ׳ fa:mə]



  1. u + r → [ɜ:] burn, purr









Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the words according to the rule given above:

a+r

arm, alarm, car, dark, far, hard, art, farther



o+r

or, forty, horse, morning, orchard, corner, sport, fork, sort, ore, bore, more, before, adore, ignore, tore, wore, restore



u+r

burn, burst, hurt, church, fur, turn, curl, Thursday, purse, purpose



e+r

her, serve, perfect, perch, verse, berth



i+r

girl, shirt, skirt, birch, fir, first, circle, bird, dirty



y+r

myrtle, myrrh



Exercise 2. Read and explain.

Occur, fur, term, girl, word, work, her, firm, turn, war, ward, burn, hurt, car, port, surgeon, sport, bird, farm, pork, sir, thirst, torn, born, corn, bark, alarm, fork, large.





  1. Чтение буквы “c” перед гласными a, o, u и e, i, y

Есть несколько согласных, у которых есть два звука и в разных случаях они читаются по-разному.

Начнем, пожалуй, по порядку. У буквы Cc два звука: [s] и [k].

Перед гласными a, o, u и согласными эта буква читается как звук [k]: cake [keɩk], coat [kəʊt], cute [kju:t], clock [klɒk].

А вот перед гласными e, i, y и между гласными буква c как звук [s]:

cereal [׳ sɪərɩəl]

cinema [׳ sɪnəmə]

cycle [saɩkl]

face [feɩs]





























Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the words according to the rule: c + e, i, y:

Cell, lace, pace, place, space, brace, race, face, fence, pence, hence, nice, mice, spice, price, slice, ice, icy.



Exercise 2. Read the words according to the rule: c + a, o, u:

Cap, clap, cab, cat, crash, cash, act, fact, cake, cape, cage, car, scar, cold, scold, cart, card, cast, casket, cut.



Exercise 3. In what ways will you read as [k], and when as [s]?

Place, cinder, pencil, icy, centre, central, can, cut, cotton, cube, came, cave, cane, contact, crystal, club, cubic, music, scraper, cat, city, camel, cinema, capital, clock, face, space, cycle.





























  1. Чтение буквы Gg

Буква Gg также читается по-разному. Перед гласными e, i, y она читается как звук [ʤ]:

gentleman [׳ ʤentlˏmᴂn]

genius [׳ ʤi: nɪəs]

gym [ʤɪm]

ginger [׳ ʤɪnʤə]

Перед гласными a, o, u, перед согласными и в конце слова эта буква читается как звук [g]:

go [gəʊ]

big [bɪg]

glad [glᴂd]































Revision exercises



Exercise 1. Read the words according to the rule: g + e, i, y.

Gem, gemma, general, gentle, gently, gin, gym, gypsy, age, agent, orange, cage, page, badge, sledge.



Exercise 2. Read the words according to the rule: g + a, o, u.

Gate, grate, grace, game, gale, gun, gum, gust, bag, leg, peg, log, fog, frog, hog, long, song, strong, big, pig, giggle, google.



Exercise 3.

Game, log, glad, judge, wage, gate, egg, huge, engine, globe, bridge, page, age, gentle, Egypt, gin, go, gave, gun, grade, big, flag, get, gender.



























  1. Чтение буквы Qq и буквосочетания qu

Буква Qq, как правило, всегда идет в паре с буквой u. Буква u при этом не читается. А вот буква Qq может передавать два звука: [kw] и [k]. Как же тогда быть?

Если буквосочетание qu встречается в начале или в середине слова, то оно будет читаться как [kw]:

squirrel [׳ skwɪrəl]

quest [kwest]

question [׳ kwesʧən]

quarter [׳kwɔ:tə]

Но вот в конце слова мы имеем звук [k]:

antique [ᴂn ׳tik]

masque [ma:sk]

mosque [mɒsk]

technique [tek ׳nɪk]

unique [ju: ׳nɪk]



! Не забывайте, что буква е в конце слова не читается!!!

















Revision exercises



Exercise 1. Read the word. [kw] quake, quality, queen, quiz, equal, require, inquire, equipment, 

liquid, quite 



Exercise 2. Read the words according to the rule:

Quilt, quill, quick, quest, squint, squirrel, quack, quell, quicksand, quip.





































  1. Чтение буквы Ss

Буква Ss читается как [s] в начале слов, перед и после глухой согласной и в сочетании ss:

save [seɩv]

sudden [׳ sᴧdn]

spouse [spaʊs]

caps [kᴂps]

tips [tɪps]

best [best]

less [les]

chess [ʧes]

guess [ges]

Эта же буква читается как [z] между гласными, после гласных и звонких согласных на конце слов:

close [kləʊz]

choose [ʧu:z]

prays [preɩz]

photos [׳ fəʊtəʊz]

cells [selz]

pins [pinz]

beds [bedz]











Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the following words according to the rule:

[s]   scent, descent, scene, miscellaneous, scissors, science, fascinate, 

oscillate, test, best, chess, send.

[z] is, pens, bands, easy, wise, knives, visit, bees, teens, kids,



Exercise 2. Read the word and explain the way of their reading.

Stage, smog, seven, stop, is, his, maps, bags, sun, hats, dogs, nose, rose.



































  1. Чтение буквосочетаний некоторых согласных букв

А теперь я предлагаю вам рассмотреть наиболее распространенные согласные буквосочетания и звуки, которые они передают.

  1. ch → [ʧ]: chin, chess, chat, much, chop, chip.

Запомните  слово  machine [mə'ʃi:n].

Буквосочетание ch в словах греческого происхождения передает звук [к]: 'chemist, 'technical, 'character.

  1. sh → [ʃ]: ship, sheep, shop, shine, shell, brush.

  2. ck → [k]: cock, clock, chick, check, Nick, block

hello_html_m4c5c25b1.gif [w]

  1. whello_html_41056738.gifh

[h]

В буквосочетании wh читается только буква w:

when [wen],

whisper [׳wɪspə].

Но если это сочетание стоит перед гласной буквой о, то читается вторая буква:

who [hu:],

whole [həʊl],

whose [hu:s].



  1. ph → [f]: photo, physics, phonetic

  2. zh → [ʒ]: Zhuckov, Zhdanov, Zhidkov.

hello_html_m4c5c25b1.gif [f]

  1. ghello_html_m44c4cc3f.gifhello_html_41056738.gifh [g]

[---]

В конце слова буквосочетание gh читается как звук [f]:

laugh [lᴧf]

cough [kɒf]

rough [rᴧf] .

В начале слово оно дает звук [g]:

ghost [gəʊst]

ghoul [gu:l].

А вот перед согласной буквой Tt оно становится “немым”:

daughter [ ׳dɔ:tə].

Если это буквосочетание стоит после гласной буквы Ii, то оно также становится “немым”, а эта гласная читается по открытому слогу: light [laɩt].



  1. ng → [ŋ].

Этот звук носовой, т.е. мы не читаем его, как видим – [нг]. Это делает практически каждый. А какая разница? Все равно ведь поймут. Обязательно поймут, но все же…

Этот звук очень хорошо получается, когда у вас заложен нос. Вы не можете четко воспроизводить многие звуки, особенно звук [n]. Он так и просится стать выговоренным через нос, что, как правило, и происходит. Вспомните французов. Они же ведь тоже говорят через нос многие звуки. Итак, звук носовой. Потренируйте: вместо того, чтобы сказать [нг], скажите [n], но только через нос и получите красивый английский звук [ŋ]:

spring, sing, thing, song, wrong, wing.

  1. t+ch → [ʧ]: match, catch

  2. nk → [ŋk]: pink, link, think







Revision exercises



Exercise 1. Read the words with the sound [ʧ]:

Check, children, rich, inch, match, catch, much, chop, chips, chick, chin, bench, pinch, chess, chat, character.

Black, pick, chicken, rocket, knock, duck, deck, stomach, Christmas, Christ,

chemistry, mechanical.

Chiken, chair, which, achieve, cheap, church, match, watch, fetch, butcher,

catch, witch, itch, each.



Exercise 2. Read the words with the sound [ʃ]:

Shall, shock, sham, shell, shin, ship, sheep, shop, shift, trash, rush, brush, punish, publish, vanish.

Ship, sheep, shallow, shop,  shy,  shoe, shrub, wash,   cash, fashion, Russian, pressure, mission, issue, expression, moustache, machine, chassis, chalet  



Exercise 3. Read the words with the sound [k]:

Kick, Jack, black, cock, block, deck, lack, lick, neck, dock, lock, pack, rack, sock, sick, stock, speck, snack, tick, stick, duck, struck, wick, wedlock.



Exercise 4. Read the words with the sound [w] or [h]:

[w] What, why, when, who, whisky, whether, whisper, whose, whole, whale, wheel, wheat, which, weather, where, where, what, white

 

[ h ]   who, whom, whose, whole, whoop, whodunit



Exercise 5. Read the words with the sound [ŋ]:

Sing, swing, ring, song, thing, pink, ping-pong, thing, ring, song, belong, length, hang.

Exercise 6. Read the words with the sound [f]:

Dolphin, phone, telephone, phonetics, photo, physics, pheasant, phrase, philosophy, symphony, telegraph.













































  1. Чтение двойной буквы “c”

В случаях, когда буква “c” удваивается, она читается как звук [ks]:

success [sᴧk ׳ses]

access [׳ ᴂksəs].







  1. Чтение буквы “o”

Буква “o” читается как:


        [əʊ] перед сочетаниями “ld”, “nd”, “lt”, “st”:

                            old [əʊld]

                            holt [həʊlt]

                            post [pəʊst]


          [ʌ]   перед “m”, “n”, “th”, “v”:

                            come [cʌm]

                            month [mʌnθ]

                            another [ə׳nʌðə]

                            glove [glʌv]


          [əʊ] в конце слова:

                            potato [pə׳teitəʊ]

                            hero [׳hɪərəʊ]











Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the following words according to the rule:

ʊ] old, cold, bold, told, sold, gold, fold, hold, scold, bolt, colt, dolt, molten,  host, most, post, poster

 

[Λ   some, come, comfort, company, stomach, become, compass, none, 

money, monkey, son, ton, sponge, monk, month, Monday, London, front, won, among, done, tongue, monger, onion, dove, glove, 

love, above, cover, govern, oven, mother, brother, nothing, other, another.



















  1. Чтение буквосочетания gu + e

Данная комбинация букв будет читаться следующим образом: буква g дает звук [g] (г), буква u –“немая”, а буква e читается по закрытому типу слога, т.е. воспроизводит звук [e]:

guess [ges]

guest [gest]









  1. Чтение буквы Аа

Буква “a” читается как:

[ɔ:] перед сочетанием “l”+ согласная

(перед “k”+ согласная “l” не читается)

                              salt [sɔ:lt]

                              wall [wɔ:l]

                              chalk [t∫ɔ:k]

[a:] перед “f”, “n”, “s”, “t”+ согласная

                            staff [sta:f]

                            dance [da:ns]

                            past [pa:st]

                            path [pa:θ]

[a:] перед сочетаниями “lm”, “lf”. В этих сочетаниях согласная “l” не читается: half [ha:f]












Revision exercises

 [ɔ:]  also,false, salt, alter, bald, almost, already, always, walnut, all, ball, 

call, fall, gall, tall, wall, balk, calk, chalk, stalk, talk, walk

 

[a:] ask, answer, pass, grass, plant, bath, path, father, rather, fasten, can’t, after, class, chance, calm, half.











  1. Чтение буквы Оо

В большинстве случаев двойная буква “o” читается как звук [u:] перед любой согласной, кроме k, r и в конце слова, например: too, room, cool, spoon.

Но иногда она читается как звук [ʊ]. Это происходит только если оо стоит перед буквами k, d, t, l: book, good, foot, wool.









Revision exercises

Exercise.

[u:] too, soon, noon, afternoon, spoon, bloom, tool, pool, moon, food.

[ʊ] book, hook, look, good, wood, took.

























  1. Чтение окончания –s - окончания множественного числа английских существительных

Существует три варианта прочтения окончания s в зависимости от предшествующей ему буквы. Но, заметьте!!!, само оно не влияет на прочтение слова нисколько!

Если окончание s стоит после гласной или звонкой согласной, то оно читается как звук [z]:

beds [bedz]

cabs [kᴂbz]

dads [dᴂdz]

moms [mᴧmz]

toes [təʊz]

pins [pɪnz]



Если окончание s стоит после глухой согласной, то оно читается как звук [s]:

maps [mᴂps]

hats [hᴂts]

rats [rᴂts]

pets [pets]

nuts [nᴧts]

pots [pɒts]



Если окончание s стоит после таких согласных, как s, ss, sh, ch, x, т.е. после глухих шипящих звуков [s], [ʧ], [ʃ], то оно читается как звук [ɩz]. При этом между ним и словом появляется соединительная гласная е для удобства произношения, которая дает звук [ɩ]. Вот откуда вы будете читать окончание множественного числа в данном случае как [ɩz]:

foxes [ ׳ fɒksɩz]

buses [ ׳ bᴧsɩz]

bushes [ ׳ bʊʃɩz]

benches [ ׳ benʧɩz]

bosses [ ׳ bɒsɩz]

То же самое касается и глаголов третьего лица единственного числа.







Revision exercises

a)  pen  - pens            globe  -  globes        miner  -  miners 
     plan  -  plans         pole  -  poles           writer  -  writers
     pump  -  pumps      rate  -  rates            lake  -  lakes
     a name -  names    a lift  -  lifts             a student  -  students
     the name  -  the names   the lamp  -  the lamps

      the globe  -  the globes

b)  this tram - these trams          this map  -  these maps 
     that tram  -  those trams        that map  -  those maps

c)  a pen, the pen, my pen, this pen, that pen, pens, the pens, my pens, these pens, those pens, many pens, one pen, three pens, five pens, six pens, nine pens, ten pens, twelve pens, very many pens

d)  to stand  -  he stands               to sit      - he sits 
     to live   - he lives                    to write  -  he writes 
     to have  - he has                     to put    - he puts

e)  the driver  stops the tram        he stops the tram 
     the tram stops                        it stops

f)  Peter's plan                           the student's paper 
    Tom's map                             this student's paper
    the pupil's name                     these students' papers 
    my pupils' names                    those miners' lamps

  1. Чтение окончания –ed в глаголах прошедшего времени.

Существует три варианта прочтения окончания –ed в зависимости от предшествующей ему буквы. Но, заметьте!!!, само оно не влияет на прочтение слова нисколько!

Если окончание ed стоит после звонкой согласной или гласной, то оно читается как звук [d]:

banned [bᴂnd]

played [pleɩd]



Если окончание ed стоит после глухой согласной, то оно читается как звук [t]:

walked [wɔ:kt]

talked [tɔ:kt]

danced [da:nst]

balanced [׳bᴂlənst]



Если окончание ed стоит после звонкой согласной d или глухой согласной t, то оно читается как звук [ɩd]:

planted [pla:ntɩd]

minded [maɩndɩd]

limited [׳lɪmɩtɩd]

studied [׳stᴧdɩd]











Revision exercises

Exercise. Divide the following verbs in Past Simple Tense in three columns and explain your choice:

[d]

[t]

[ɩd]






Listened, walked, opened, loved, looked, hated, enjoyed, cleaned, smiled, played, cooked, jointed, thanked, watched, worked, counted, lived, kissed, helped, showed, dressed, liked, stopped, tried, watered, painted, wanted, studied, hissed.











Буква Уу на письме

Чаще всего букву Уу можно встретить в конце слова, хотя она бывает и в начале и в середине слова.

Так, когда эта буква встречается в конце слова и по каким-либо причинам, когда слово меняет свою форму, она переходит с конечной позиции внутрь слова, мы должны ее заменить на букву Ii, дающую такой же звук, что и буква Yy. Это делается потому, что буква Ii в отличие от Yy не пишется в конце слова (исключение составляет слово “ski” “кататься на лыжах”). И наоборот, буква Уу не пишется внутри слова (исключение – “bicycle” - “велосипед”):

baby – babies

city – cities

lady – ladies.





Удвоение согласной в некоторых случаях

Иногда можно встретить двойную согласную: swimmer. Когда это происходит и как читать ее в таком случае?

Данное явление наблюдается тогда, когда в слоге стоит краткий ударный звук (слог при этом закрытый). Чтобы сохранить этот слог закрытым, при изменении слова требуется просто удвоить эту согласную букву:

swim (закрытый слог) – swimmer

hot – hotter

bigbigger

Двойная согласная передает один звук:

swimmer [ ׳ swɪmə]































Чтение артикля the

Английский артикль the имеет два варианта прочтения:

- [ðə] перед существительным, начинающимся на согласную букву.

Пример: the cat, the dog.

  • [ðɩ] перед существительным, начинающимся на гласную букву.

Пример: the apple, the ant.







Revision exercises

Exercise.

a)  the apple      the name       the sun       the mill       the end 
     the egg         the time         the globe    the mine     the item
     the mill and the mine,     the map and the globe 
     the plan and the time,     the writer and the student

b)  a man   a tram an end          a big mill 
     a flag   a stop an item          a red flag

c)  a flag - the flag - that flag 
     a plan  - the plan  - my plan
     a name  -  the name  -  my name  -  that name

d)  a red flag        - the red flag        - that red flag
     a big red flag - the big red flag  -  that big red flag













Чтение дифтонгов

Дифтонгами в английском языке называются двойные гласные звуки.

Буквосочетания “oi” и “oy” читаются как звук [ɔɩ]: point, boy.

Буквосочетание “ow” имеет два варианта чтения:

а) под ударением в односложных словах оно часто читается как звук [aʊ]: now [naʊ].

б) В конце двусложных слов в безударном положении это сочетание читается как звук [ǝʊ]: yellowjelǝʊ], Moscowmɒskǝʊ].

Буквосочетание “ou” читается как звук [aʊ]: out [aʊt].

Буквосочетания “er” и “or” в конце слова в безударном положении читаются как звук [ǝ]: teacherti:ʧǝ], doctordɒktǝ].

Буквосочетание “ey” в конце слова читается как звук [eɩ]: grey [greɩ].

Буквосочетания eu , ew, iew передают звук [ju:]: feud, new, view.










Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the following words according to the rule:



                                      [ɔɪ]

spoil                   coin                  enjoy                   joy

point                     oil                 destroy                 toy

                                                                            boy  









           [ɔɪ]                                                       [aʊ]

boil             voice                                clown            owl                              

noise          loyal                                 bow                blouse

soil              exploit                              trousers          mouth

joy              choice                               pound            town 




[ǝʊ]                  [aʊ]

low ground            down

grow  count              how

fellow  mouse            cow

 follow house 

bellow





eu        ew        iew

           [ju:]

feud    new       view

stew

mew

few



















Буквосочетания из трех гласных и их звуки



ehello_html_12d5eb6d.gifre there

ehello_html_647fc87c.gifhello_html_m3258657d.gifar [ɛə] a bear

are a hare



hello_html_1399564b.gif[ɪə] near, clear, fear

ehello_html_15bc42cb.gifhello_html_m58745753.gifar [ɛə] bear, wear

[ɜ:] learn, a pearl



air → [ɛə]: air, chair, fair

eir → [ɛə]: their, heir (буква “h” – “немая”)

eer → [ɪə]: beer, deer, engineer

oar → [ɔ:]: board, cupboard, hoar, hoard

hello_html_m3fd75b71.gif[aʊə]: our, hour (буква “h” – “немая”), flour

ohello_html_m4668dfa8.gifur

[ɔ:]: source, four

hello_html_m3fd75b71.gif[ɔ:]: floor, door

ohello_html_m3ffb49c6.gifor

[ʊə] (редко): poor



!!! С данными буквосочетаниями необходимо быть предельно осторожными: у них нет особого правила под каждый случай прочтения. Самый лучший совет – проверять себя по словарю в таких случаях!



Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the word according to the following rule and explain:

1. beer – bare – bore

2. pair – peer – pure

3. care – cure – core

4. chair – cheer – chore

5. share – shire – shore

6. fire – fear – fore

7. gear – gyre – gore

8. hire – here – hair

9. tyre – tear – tare

10. deer – dare – dear

11. jeer – mere – hear

12. queer – clear – declare

13. roar – rare

14. where – there – their



Exercise 2. Read the following word correctly.

Soar, sour, roar, shower, hour, pure, here, mare, bear, hare, hair, heir, door, shore, beer, weird, spear, pierce, deer, scare, fear, flour, board.











Особенности чтения некоторых суффиксов

Некоторые суффиксы могут иногда вызывать определенные затруднения при прочтении, т.к. состоят из сложных буквенных комбинаций. Мы рассмотрим наиболее распространенные из них:

-tion → [ʃn]: nation, invitation, invention

-sure → [ʒə]: treasure, pleasure, measure

-sion → [ʃn]: profession

-cial → [ʃəl]: racial, social, facial

-cient → [ʃənt]: proficient, efficient, deficient

-ous →[ǝs]: glamorous, famous

-age → [ɩʤ]: marriage, usage

-ance/-ence → [ǝns]: brilliancy, frequency

-ician → [ɩʃn]: academician, physician

-ique → [ɪk]: technique, boutique

-ure/-ture → [ʧǝ]: creature, picture

-xion → [ʃn]: complexion

- iour → [jǝ]: behaviour







Revision exercises

Division, activity, importance, communication, pollution, destruction, starvation, extinction, exhaustion, foundations, protection, competition, complexion, creation, creature, picture, dangerous, attractive, comfortable, famous, industrial, fluently, frequent, civilization, proclamation, nation, national, organization, tradition, behavior, imitation, conclusion, disastrous



Чтение безударных гласных:

В безударном положении гласные буквы “e”, “i”, “y” обычно передают звук [I], если после них не следует согласная буква “r”:

prefer [pri`fɜ:]

divide [di`vaid]

ferocity [fǝ’rositi]

Гласные в безударном положении, стоящие перед “r” (чаще всего в конце слов), передают звук [(r)]:

doctor [`doktǝ(r)]

player [`pleɩǝ]

martyr [`ma:tǝ]

sulphur [`sʌlfǝ]

mortar [`mɔ:tǝ]

Гласные “a”, “o”, “u” в безударном положении, а также в суффиксах и префиксах передают звук [ǝ]:

paradox [`pǽrǝdɒks]

economy [ɩˊkɒnǝmɩ]

gloriousglɔ:rɩǝs]

Буква “i” в безударном положении перед гласной передает звук [j]:

union [`ju:njǝn]

immediate [i`mi:djǝt].







Случаи выпадения буквы “h” и буквосочетания “th” при чтении. Конструкция “neither…nor…/either…or…”

(информация для общего развития)

Есть еще некоторые незначимые для нас особенности в произношении английских слов, делающие вашу речь приятней и правильней на слух и выделяющие вас на фоне остальных в лучшую сторону.

Здесь я не могу не упомянуть такую особенность в современном произношении самих носителей языка, которая все чаще и чаще начинает прослушиваться на записях к заданиям по аудированию. Обратите на произношение буквы h и буквосочетания th в личных местоимениях, стоящих в конце предложения. Они опускаются при произношении, т.е. вместо [him] в слове him носитель языка произносит [im]. Или вместо [them] – [em].

Ex.: I told him not to go there.

Tell them to come in time!

Интересными для меня также являются 2 пары выражений со значением альтернативы: eitheror, neithernor. Все мы знаем, что читаются они со звуком [ai] в первом слове. Но сейчас во многих записях я все чаще и чаще слышу вместо звука [ai] звук [i:]. Особенно это четко прослушивается в речи американцев.

Пример: The cat is neither black nor red.

[׳ni:ðə]

















Чтение глаголов will, could, would. Конструкция there is/there are.

С глаголами would, could и will также иногда не все так просто. В современном английском языке носители часто нарушают классический вариант произношения и вот что мы тогда получаем:

Would you like some milk? [ ׳wʊʤʊ laɩk …]

Could you do me a favour? [׳kʊʤʊ …]

I want you to go with me. [ … ׳wɒnʧʊ …]

What you want is impossible! [׳wɒʧʊ …]

Что касается глагола will, то мы обычно произносим его в вопросительном предложении с присущей нам твердостью звуков:

Will you go to school tomorrow? [ wɪl ju: …]

вместо

Will you go to school tomorrow? [wɪlju: …]

Второй вариант звучит приятнее и по-английски!

Также обратите внимание на произношение оборота there is/there are, в котором буква “r” будет озвучиваться:

there is – [ðɛə rɩz]

there are – [ðɛə ra:]



















Важность правильной расстановки ударения в английских словах

Словесным ударением называется артикуляционное выделение одного из слогов в двусложном или многосложном слове.

Ударению нужно уделять достаточно внимания, поскольку неправильная его постановка является частой причиной недопонимания при общении не английском языке. Причин для этого несколько:

  • выделение не того слога в слове может привести к тому, что для собеседника будет проблематичным услышать и понять сказанную вами фразу;

  • ударение может изменить смысл слова (сравните слова ‘dEsert’ (пустыня) и ‘desErt’ (десерт), написание слов одинаковое, а вот значение в зависимости от ударного слога – разное);

  • даже если говорящий будет понят, ошибки в ударении могут повлиять на развитие разговора (некоторых это раздражает, других веселит – в общем, нужно стремиться произносить слова правильно).

Три эти причины показывают нам, что ударение  — это важная часть английского языка.



Ударные слоги в английском языке – характеристика

Когда мы делаем ударение в слове, мы используем комбинацию определенных действий. Покажем это на примере слова ‘computer’, в котором ударным является второй слог. Что нам нужно сделать, чтобы наш собеседник услышал ударение?



Ударный слог имеет пять основных характеристик:

  • он длиннее: ‘com p-u-ter’;

  • он громче: ‘comPUter’;

  • он произносится с большим придыханием, чем слоги, стоящие перед ним и после него;

  • он произносится более четко – гласный звук более чистый в ударном слоге;

  • он произносится с большей мимикой (особенно заметно, если взглянуть на челюсти и губы).

Соответственно, безударные слоги имеют прямо противоположные характеристики.



Правила расстановки ударений в английских словах

Знать представленные ниже правила, конечно же, нужно, но полностью на них полагаться не стоит, поскольку из них существует очень много исключений.

Общие правила:

  • в существительных, прилагательных и наречиях ударение, как правило, будет стоять на первом слоге;

  • в глаголах с приставками ударение ставится на втором слоге (на первом слоге корня, идущего после приставки);

  • в английском языке не может быть два неударных слога в начале слова, один из них будет ударным;

  • если слово имеет четыре и более слога, то оно имеет два ударения – главное и второстепенное;

  • приставки часто являются ударными в существительных;

  • суффиксы в конце слов, как правило, неударные (исключение составляют несколько суффиксов прилагательных и глаголов);

  • окончания неударные.



Ударение в производных словах

В производных словах ударение может оставаться на том же слоге, что и в слове, от которого оно образовано, либо же переместиться. В том случае, если существительные образуются от глаголов, глаголы от существительных, могут возникать следующие ситуации:

Не смещается

Смещается

ofFEND – ofFENCE

reFER – REFerence

deNY – deNIal

preSENT – PREsent

HOSpital — HOSpitalize

inCREASE – INcrease

reVIEW – reVIEW

exTRACT – EXtract

PREview — PREview

OBject — obJECT


Если говорить о других частях речи, то они, образованные от глаголов или существительных, имеют типичные модели ударных слогов:

  • в прилагательных ударение ставится на первом слоге или повторяется ударение тех существительных, от которых они образованы (COlor – Colorful), однако в более длинных прилагательных оно может смещаться (ARgument – arguMENtative);

  • в наречиях ударный слог, как правило, первый или такой же, как у прилагательного, от которого оно образовано (WONderful – WONderfully);

  • в герундиях и причастиях ударение глаголов повторяется (CANcel – CANceling – CANceled).



Ударение в словах в зависимости от количества слогов

Определение словесного ударения в английском слове представляет определенную трудность.

Во-первых, нужно определить наличие в слове префиксов (приставок) и суффиксов, так как префиксы глаголов, прилагательных, наречий, предлогов  не принимают на себя ударения (смещают его на корень), а некоторые суффиксы влияют на положение ударения в слове.

Во-вторых, в английском языке, особенно в многосложных словах, существует расхождение между количеством графических слогов (которое формально равно количеству гласных букв, считая реальные гласные диграфы, читаемые комплексно и всегда входящие в состав одного слога, за одну букву) и количеством фактически произносимых слогов (каждый из которых содержит один гласный звук или дифтонг). Распределение же ударения зависит прежде всего от фактически произносимых слогов. Например: literature['lɪtrɩʧǝ] - литератураinteresting ['ɪntrǝstɩŋ] - интересный.

Однако большинство наиболее употребительных английских слов одно-трехсложные и распределение ударения в них подчиняется следующим правилам.

Ударение в подавляющем большинстве английских двусложных слов падает, как правило, на начальный слог, если только он не представляет собой префикс.

В подавляющем большинстве трехсложных и многосложных слов ударным слогом является третий слог, отсчитываемый от конца слова, если слово двусложное, то ударен второй от конца слог.



Если в слове более четырех слогов, то левее через один слог от ударного располагаются второстепенные ударения, например: responsibility [rɩsˌpɒnsɩ'bɪlɩtɩ].

Для правильного определения ударения нужно, как уже говорилось выше, знать суффиксы и, прежде всего, префиксы английского языка.

В словах, оканчивающихся на суффикс  типа -ion, ударение падает на слог, непосредственно предшествующий суффиксу. К суффиксам этого типа относятся: -i+on, -i+ous,  -i+al, -i+an, -i+ant, -i+ance, -i+ent, -i+ence.

Всегда ударен слог, предшествующий суффиксу -ic (-ical): republic [rɩ 'pʌblɩk], periodical [pɪǝrɩ 'ɒdɩkl].

Ударение сохраняет свое первоначальное место в словах, образованных с помощью суффиксов и окончаний: -ly, -ful, -less, -nees, -ism, -ing, -er, -or, -(e)d, -(e)s.

 Префиксы (приставки) наиболее часто встречаются у глаголов, у прилагательных, у наречий и предлогов. Эти префиксы остаются безударными:



Неизменяемые префиксы:

Префиксы

Примеры

a-

about [æ 'baut]

along [æ 'lɒŋ]

be-

begin [bɩ 'gɪn]

behind [ 'haɩnd]

de-

defend [dɩ 'fend]

default [dɩ 'fɔ:lt]

for-

forget [fǝ 'get]

mis-

mistake [mɩs 'teɩk]

per-

permit [pǝ 'mɪt]

pre-

prepare [prɩ 'pɛǝ]

pro-

produce [prǝ 'dju:s]

re-

repeat ['pi:t]

un-

unhappy [ʌn 'hæpɩ]

 

Префиксы, уподобляющиеся корню или сокращающиеся (историческая ассимиляция конечного согласного префикса, а также выпадение некоторых букв):

Префиксы

Примеры

abs-   (ab-, a-)

abstract [æb'strækt]

ad-   (ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-)

admit [æd 'mɪt]

accept [æk'sept]

affect [æ 'fekt]

arrive [ǝ'raɩv]

assist [æ 'sɪst]

con-   (co-, col-, com-, cor-)

conduct [kǝn 'dʌkt]

collect [kǝ 'lekt]

correct ['rekt]

dis-  (di-, dif-)

discover [dɩs 'kʌvǝ]

divide [dɩ 'vaɩd]

en-   (em-)

enliven [ɩn 'laɩvn]

embrace [ɩm 'breɩs]

ex-   (e-, ef-)

excuse [ɩks 'kju:z]

elect [ɩ 'lekt]

effect [ɩ 'fekt]

in-   (il-, im-, ir-)

invisible [ɩn 'vɪzɩbl]

illegal [ɩ 'lɪgǝl]

impossible [ɩm 'pɒsɩbl]

irregular [ɩ' regju:lǝ]

ob-   (o-, oc-, of-, op-)

observe [ǝb'zɜ:v]

occur [ǝ'kɜ:]

offence [ǝ'fens]

sub-   (suc-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus-)

submit [sǝb'mɪt]

success [sǝk'ses]

support [sǝ'pɔ:t]

suppose [sǝ'pǝʊz]

trans-   (tra-)

translate [træns 'leɩt]

traduce [trǝ 'dju:s]

 

Для распознавания префикса в случае удвоенной согласной в середине слова рекомендуется следующее правило: удвоение звонких согласных после co-, i-, глухих согласных после o-, su-, di-, e-, любых согласных после a- говорит о наличии префиксов con-, in-, ob-, sub-, 

dis-, ex-, ad-. Например: connect, collect, immerse, oppose, suppose, diffuse, attest.



 Двусложные префиксы, сохраняющие ударение на корне при ударности и самого префикса, а также префиксы, часто несущие на себе отдельное ударение:

Префиксы

Примеры

dis-  +  a-

allow [ǝ'lau]

disallow [ˌdɪsǝ'laʊ]

inter-

interspace ɪntǝˊspeɩs]

over-

overpay [ˌǝʊ'peɩ]

re-

remake [''meɩk]

super-

superfine ['sju:pǝ'faɩn]

un-

unmoved ['ʌn'mu:vd]

under-

understand [ˌʌndǝ'stænd]

 

В английском языке существуют глаголы с префиксами, графически не отличающиеся от существительных. Единственным средством различия служит ударение, которое в глаголе падает на корень, а в существительном - на префикс, например:





Глагол

Существительное

dictate [dɩk'teɩtдиктовать

dictate ['dɪkteɩtпредписание

increase [ɩn'kri:sвозрастать

increase ['ɪnkrɩs] возрастание

conduct [kǝn'dʌkt] - вести

conduct ['kɒndʌkt]- поведение

objectbekt] - возражать

object ['ɒbʤǝkt] - предмет

permit ['mɪt] - позволять

permit ['pɜ:mɩt] - разрешение

 



Слова с нетипичным ударением:

apparatus [ˌæpǝ'reɩtǝs] 

barricade[ˌbærɩ 'keɩd]

canal [kǝ'næl] 

ceremony ['serɩmǝnɩ]

cigar [sɩ'ga:] 

create [krɩ'eɩt] 

diploma [dɩp'lǝʊmǝ] 

European[jʊǝrǝ'pɪǝn]

hotel [hǝʊ'tel] 

July [ʤʊ'laɩ] 

machine [mǝ'ʃi:n] 

magazine[ˌmægǝ'zɪn]

moustache [mǝ'sta:ʃ] 

museum [mju:ˊzi:ǝm] 

parade [pǝ'reɩd] 

police [pǝ'lɪs] 

polite [pǝ'laɩt] 

potato [pǝ'teɩtǝʊ] 

sincere [sɩn'sɪǝ] 

tobacco [tǝ'bækǝʊ] 

tomato [tǝ'ma:tǝʊ] 

unite [ju:'naɩt] 


Слова с четырьмя и более слогами лучше проверять в словаре, поскольку порядок расстановки ударений может быть очень разнообразным.



Revision exercises

Упражнение. Отметьте ударение и прочитайте следующие слова:

(a) completion, efficient, invasion, financial, advantageous, vivacious, photogenic, scientific, materialistic, musical, geographical, technical, psychology/psychological, meteorology/meteorologist, ideology/ideologist, Viennese, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Cantonese, Balinese.



(b) photograph, photographer, photographic;

politics, political, politician;

competing, competitor, competition;

analyse, analysis, analytical.



(с) insult — to insult; object — to object,

subject — to subject; present — to present;

protest — to protest; outlay — to outlay,

outgo — to outgo; record — to record.





Ударение в сложных словах

Сложными (составными) словами называются слова, состоящие из раздельных корневых морфем. Среди таковых можно найти

а) составные существительные: ˊsunflower,

б) составные прилагательные: ˊgoodlooking,

в) составные глаголы: to ˊput ˊoff,

г) составные наречия: ˊoutˊside,

д) составные числительные: ˊthirtytwo, ˌthirˊteen.

У всех этих составных частей речи имеется два ударения, одно из которых может теряться в связной речи под влиянием ритма.

Среди составных слов только составные существительные представляют определенные трудности. Во-первых, отличается их произношение. Они могут оставаться самостоятельными словами. а могут присоединяться друг к другу с помощью дефиса или вообще писаться слитно, как единое слово.

Когда же главное ударение ставится на первое слово (далее “элемент”), а когда – на второе? Ведь возможны оба варианта. Ниже приведены некоторые правила постановки ударения в составных словах, хотя на них нельзя особо надеяться во всех случаях (как и в случае с правилами чтения слогов).

а. В большинстве составных существительных главное ударение ставится на первый элемент:

typewriter [ˊtaɩpraɩtǝ] suitcase [ˊsu:tkeɩs]

car-ferry [ˊka:ferɩ] tea-cup [ˊti:kʌp]

sunrisesʌnraɩz]

NB1 Но если второй элемент двусложный или многосложный, тогда у такого существительного может быть и второстепенное ударение:

ˊgrass-˳hopper, ˊpost-˳office, ˊoil-˳company, ˊtone ˳unit.

NB2 Главное ударение, ставящееся на первом элементе, отличается составные существительные от обычного словосочетания, в котором у каждого слова имеется главное ударение:

Compound Nouns Free Collocations

a ˊblackbird – дрозд a ˊblack ˊbird – черная птица

a ˊblackboard – классная доска a ˊblack ˊboard – черная доска

a ˊgoldfish – золотая рыбка a ˊgold ˊfish – рыбка золотого цвета

a ˊstrong-box – сейф a ˊstrong ˊbox – крепкий ящик



б. Когда два существительных образуют словарную единицу, значение которой можно объяснить с позиции “б, сделанное из а (материал)”, тогда у обоих этих существительных будет свое главное ударение:

a ˊpaper ˊbag (a bag made of paper)

a ˊleather ˊbelt (a belt made of leather).

в. Когда два существительных образуют словарную единицу, значение которой можно описать как “б, используемое для а (функции, цели или для другого назначения)”, тогда главное ударение падает на первый элемент:

a ˊtea cup (a cup for tea)

a ˊwatch strap (a strap for watch)

a ˊtennis ˳racquet (a racquet used for tennis).

г. Когда два существительных образуют словарную единицу, где “а является прямым дополнением для б”, тогда главное ударение падает на первый элемент:

a ˊhair ˳drier (to dry hair)

a ˊcoffee ˳grinder (to grind coffee).

д. Когда существительное имеет при себе определение, выраженное герундием, ударение ставится на герундий (позиция “для чего-то”):

a ˊwriting desk (a desk for writing)

a ˊwalking stick (a stick for walking)

е. Существительные, образованные от фразовых глаголов, как правило, имеют одно главное ударение на первом элементе:

to make up – a ˊmake-up

to set up – a ˊset up

to set back - a ˊset back

ж. “Одинаково ударные” составные существительные сравнительно редки. В таких существительных оба элемента одинаково важны:

ˈtopˈhat, ˈtailˈcoat, ˈheadˈmaster, ˈgarden ˈcity, ˈbankholiday, ˈscience ˈfiction, ˈshopwindow, ˈhillˈside.

Имейте в виду, что одно из ударений теряется под влиянием ритма.

Главное ударение существительных на втором элементе встречается крайне редко.



Случаи постановки главного ударения на второй элемент

а. Главное ударение ставится на второй элемент в составных словах, в которых первым элементом является прилагательное, а вторым – причастие II:

bad-ˊtempered dry-ˊcleaned

half-ˊtimbered long-ˊawaited

heavy-ˊhanded far-ˊfetched

б. В составных словах, первым элементом которых является цифра/число, ударение может падать как на первый, так и на второй элементы:

His ˈfirst-class ˋwork.

His ˈwork is first-ˋclass.

в. Составные слова, выполняющие функцию наречий, ударны во второй части:

downˊhill, outˊside, upˊhill, upˊstairs, inˊside, North-ˊEast.

He went upˊstairs.

Но: те же самые слова, выступающие в роли теперь уже прилагательных, являются ударными в первой части:

The ˊupstairs room has an ˊoutside staircase.

в. В составных словах, вторым элементом которых является “цвет”, ударение в конце:

ash-ˊblonde, bottle-ˊgreen, jet-ˊblack, brick-ˊred.





































Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Read the following compounds. explain the placement of the stress in them:

ˊfishing-boat, ˊtennis ˳racquet, ˊboating ˳costume, ˊdinner-plate, ˊdoor ˳handle, ˊplayingfield, ˊnursery-school, ˊopera-house, ˊfactory ˳worker, ˊrailway-˳station, ˊsticking-˳plaster, ˊairmail ˳envelope, ˊtypewriter, ˊcushion ˳cover, ˊpaper ˳fastener, ˊtraffic con˳trol,ˊ toothbrush ˳holder, ˊsports ground, ˊsymphony-˳orchestra, ˊpencil ˳sharpener, ˊhandbag, ˊradio tech˳nician, ˊshoe re˳pairer, ˊbroadcasting ˳station, ˊsmoking com˳partment, ˊwalking stick, ˊafterthought, North-ˊWest, ˊon˳looker, light-ˊhanded, to upˊgrade, hot-ˊtempered, ˊwholesale de˳partment, up-ˊstream.

Exercise 2. Which element does the stress fall on? Why?

Booking-office, writing-table, looking-glass, gas-meter, playwright, a key-hole, silver polish, newspaper, honeymoon, chamber-maid, time-table, downhill, upstairs, bottle-green, oval-shaped, wall-paper, arrival platform, mailman, drinking-water, a butter-knife, hanging cupboard, second-hand/second hand, chewing-gum, window-sill, Oxford road, language society.



Exercise 3. Mark the stress and read the following words.

Teapot, washstand, mail-bag, grandfather, handwriting, shopkeeper, office-boy, waiting room, tape-recorder, ground-floor, crossquestion, flat-footed, second-hand, post-graduate, vice-president, greenish-looking, underpopulated, ultra-modern, non-payment, antinational, non-stop, re-read, misuse, put on, fix up, pick out, make up, bluebell, black-face, bread-and-butter, red-book, blue-stocking.















Американский и британский варианты произношения

Ни для кого не секрет, что существует множество вариантов английского языка. Основными среди них являются классический британский (на котором говорит всего лишь примерно 5% населения Великобритании), американский и австралийский.

Но в этом разделе я остановлюсь на американском и британском вариантах.

При сдаче всей устной части экзамена (а не только первого задания) я очень рекомендую всем сдающим использовать классический британский вариант: вы избежите на самом деле множества проблем, связанных с произношением и отношением экспертом к американскому или какому-то другому варианту английского языка.

В школе всех учащихся стандартно обучают классическому варианту английского языка. Более того, я лично столкнулась с тем, что пользуясь американским вариантом языка, дети не всегда правильно произносят звуки, что также может оказаться для них минусом.

Приведу лишь несколько примеров, которые могут вам встретиться при чтении и ответе монологов.

В американском варианте английского языка разница между “can” и “can’t” иногда бывает еле различима, в то время как в стандартном британском английском вы можете явно увидеть эту разницу.

Американцы произносят букву "a" как [æ] вместо [a:] в словах: ask, answer, past, can’t, half, after, dance, grass, example и другие.

Американцы произносят [hʌt], [nʌt], [tʌp], [′kʌmon], [ʌn] в словах hot, not, top, common, on.

Опускается [h], как правило, в начале слова: his, him, her, humor, humidity, history и другие.

Американцы часто произносят [r] в позиции, где это не произносится в Британском Английском: car, hare, port.

Произношения слогов в каждом варианте иногда изменяется. Например, со словом «advertisement»:
/ad-ver-‘taɩz-ment/ (американский английский)
/ad-ˊver-tɩz-ment/ (британский английский)

Тем не менее, не смотря на то, что я советовала выше касательно выбора варианта произношения, учащиеся должны знать эти вещи.















































  1. ПАУЗЫ

Наличие пауз в речи – неотъемлемая характеристика любого языка. А их правильная расстановка в предложении и между предложениями – залог успешного общения собеседников.

В каждом языке существуют определенные правила расстановки пауз. В русском языке все гораздо проще, поскольку мы всегда выделяем знаками препинания те места, где необходимо сделать паузу. В английском языке с этим моментом немного сложнее: английская пунктуация ОЧЕНЬ сильно отличается от русской. Вы не всегда увидите причастный оборот, обозначенный в письменной речи запятыми, и он может быть включен в самую середину сложного предложения. Вам может встретиться предложение внутри предложения. Это явление нередкое для данного языка, но учащиеся, не совсем хорошо владеющие навыком распознавания возможных пауз, могут и пропустить это.

Прежде всего нужно знать, что каждое английское предложение делится на несколько тонических единиц (интонационных групп) – “tone units”, разделенных между собой небольшими смысловыми паузами. Тонические единицы или синтагмы – объединенные по смыслу группы слов. В каждой такой единице содержится один-два ударных слога, иногда и больше. Последний ударный слог в тонической единице называется “тоническим слогом”, а слово, его содержащее, - “тоническим словом”. Тоническое слово – самое важное слово в тонической единице, т.к. его слог несет главное ударение. Тоническое слово также содержит самую важную информацию в тонической единице.

It is ˈvery ˋwindy to˳day.

ˈWhere is ˋJohn?

ˋWonderful!

Тонические единицы отделяются друг от друга паузами. Графически пауза изображается вертикальной чертой.

Количество смысловых групп в одном высказывании зависит от намерения говорящего, смысла высказывания, темпа речи, длины смысловых групп и т.д.

Смысловая группа, выражающая относительно законченную мысль, произносится с нисходящим тоном; незаконченная мысль произносится с восходящим тоном или нисходяще-восходящим тоном.



Некоторые особенности интонационных моделей в английском языке


Первый безударный слог произносится на самом низком уровне диапазона.

Первый ударный слог шкалы имеет самый высокий уровень голоса (выше середины нормального диапазона).

Начальные безударные слоги до первого ударного произносятся постепенно повышающимся тоном или на самом низком уровне диапазона.

Общее понижение голоса в шкале происходит на ударных слогах и продолжается на следующих за ними безударных.

Повышение голоса происходит только на последнем ударном слоге.

Если за последним ударным слогом следуют безударные, он произносится ровным тоном, а повышение голоса происходит на последних ударных словах.



Так как же правильно интонационно разделить эти смысловые группы (синтагмы) паузами?

Ниже я приведу основные правила, когда мы должны сделать паузу в английском предложении, даже если там отсутствует запятая или другой знак препинания.

Прежде всего учащиеся должны запомнить: ЛЮБОЙ знак препинания – ПАУЗА!

Если в предложении кроме точки больше нет других знаков препинания, это не означает вовсе, что их здесь вообще нет. Присмотревшись повнимательнее, можно обнаружить следующие случаи расстановки пауз в предложении:

  1. Паузой, как правило, разделяют такие основные синтаксические единицы как подлежащее и сказуемое (особенно если подлежащее распространенное):

My friend and I ׀ went to the cinema yesterday.

  1. Если внутри подлежащего или сказуемого есть уточняющая фраза (фраза, дающая нам дополнительную информацию), тогда она также выделяется паузами:

For Julius Caeser, the news ׀ that there was salt in Britain ׀ provided a good reason for invading the country.

  1. При наличии элементов перечисления:

I like apples, melons, pears and apricots.

  1. При наличии причастного или деепричастного оборота, который не обязательно будет выделен запятой на письме и может занимать позицию внутри предложения, но который необходимо выделить паузой в устной речи:

Lying on the sofa Mary was reading a book.

  1. Вводные слова в начале предложения:

First of all, I’d like to tell you about … .

  1. Приложение в конце предложения:

This is my friend, an artist.

  1. Обращение:

Pete, where is your pen?

  1. В разделительном вопросе после первой его части:

You know him, don't you?



  1. Обстоятельство в начале предложения:

Last year there was a lot of snow in the streets of our town

  1. Придаточное предложение, стоящее перед главным:

As soon as I arrive at the hotel, I will let you know.



Звуки (слова), составляющие тонические единицы (интонационные группы), разрывать неправильно сделанной паузой нельзя. Вы делите предложение на интонационные группы, и именно вы определяете продолжительность каждой сделанной вами паузы. Но внутри интонационной группы пауза недопустима!

However, ׀ for those ׀ badly affected by SAD, ׀ problems can start ׀ as early as August ׀ and last right through till spring. ׀

Как вы видите, все интонационные группы я разделила вертикальной чертой и для более наглядного эффекта подчеркнула каждую из них.

































  1. Ударение

В английском языке существует три типа ударений.

Словесное ударение - выделение отдельного слога в слове. В английской транскрипции словесное ударение обозначается специальным знаком [ˊ], который ставится перед слогом под ударением.

Фразовым ударением называют более сильное воспроизведение отдельных слов предложения в сравнении с другими словами. Зачастую под данное ударение попадают только знаменательные слова:

- существительные;

- наречия;

- вопросительные местоимения;

- указательные местоимения;

- существительные;

- прилагательные;

- причастия;

- смысловые глаголы.

А притяжательные и личные  местоимения и все служебные слова, как правило, не могут быть под ударением.

И, наконец, логическое ударение. Бывают случаи, когда возникает необходимость выделения конкретного слова в предложении, которое кажется наиболее важным говорящему человеку. Именно в данном случае под ударение могут подпадать те слова, которые в обычной ситуации являются неударными, а некоторые знаменательные слова могут потерять фразовое ударение.





Словесное ударение

Словесное ударение - это выделение одного или нескольких слогов в пределах одного слова. При этом произношение ударного слога более энергичное, мышцы более напряженные. Словесное ударение - это одна из самых важных частей слова, поскольку оно помогает отличать грамматические формы друг от друга. Кроме того, в английском языке при помощи словесного ударения можно отличить одну часть речи от другой. Пример:

`export - имя существительное, означает "экспорт";

to ex`port - это уже глагол, означающий экспортировать.

Отличительной чертой английского языка является еще и то, что ударение в слове ставиться перед ударным слогом, а не на гласном звуке, как в русском языке. Слова, в составе которых имеется четыре-пять слогов, могут иметь сразу два или даже три ударения. При этом одно из них все равно будет главным и будет обозначаться знаком ударения сверху, а все второстепенные - таким же знаком ударения, но только снизу. Пример:

ˏdemon`stration - показ, демонстрация.

 



Случаи изменения словесного ударения

В английском языке все слова, которые состоят из трех или более слогов, обязательно имеют два равнозначных ударения.  Кроме того, составные прилагательные, глаголы с наречиями и многие составные существительные также могут иметь два ударения.

Также некоторые числительные могут иметь два ударения (имеются в виду числительные от тринадцати до девятнадцати). Одно ударение будет падать на первый слог, а второе - на суффикс teen.

Пример:

ˏFifˊteen.

ˏSevenˊteen.

Часто слова, имеющие два ударения, могут терять одно из них под воздействием соседних слов. Например, если перед ним находится ударное слово, то останется только второе ударение.

Пример:

My number is eighˊteen.

Но если после слова, имеющего два ударения, следует ударное слово, то у первого из них пропадает второе ударение.

Пример:

She has ˈsixteen pens.





Словесное ударение в словах с отделяемой приставкой

Иногда в английском языке формирование слов происходит при помощи приставок, какие изменяют смысловое значение слова, хотя и не меняют его принадлежность к той или другой части речи. Каждая из представленных ниже приставок обладает своим собственным значением. Поэтому слова с подобными приставками могут иметь два значения, равноценных друг другу: одно из них на самом слове, а другое - на слове с приставкой.

Самые часто используемые приставки английского языка следующие:

1. Приставки, обладающие отрицательным значением:

perfect - imperfect

fortunately - unfortunately

appear - disappear

2. Приставка re-, значение которой - "заново", "снова" (соответствует приставке пере- в русском языке):

write - rewrite

3. Приставка miss-, значение которой - "неверно":

understand - missunderstand

3. Приставка pre-, значение которой - "раньше", "перед":

hystory - prehystory

4. Приставка inter-, значение которой - "среди", "между":

national - international

5. Приставка ex-, значение которой - "бывший":

president – ex-president

6. Приставка sub-, значение которой - "под":

divide - subdivide

7. Приставка  ultra-, значение которой - "сверх", "ультра":

light - ultralight

Следует также отметить, что в английском языке существует великое множество приставок, которые целиком или же частично потеряли свое истинное значение. Такие слова зачастую не делятся и не воспринимаются человеком как единица с приставкой: discuss, refuse, repeat и так далее.



Случаи ударения в составных словах

Составные слова - это  такие слова, которые имеют в своем состав два разных корня. Существует несколько вариантов написания подобных слов:

- слитно;

- через дефис;

- отдельно.

Но, невзирая на это, в смысловом плане они являют собой одно целое. В русском языке также встречаются составные слова: сине-желтый.самолет, огнеупорный и так далее.

В большинстве своем ударение в составных словах должно падать на первую его часть:

a `sitting-room

Но также могут существовать сразу два равных друг другу ударения:

`down`stairs

Если обе части составного слова - прилагательные, то в них тоже будет два ударения:

'nice-'looking

Глагол с последующим наречием-послелогом также всегда имеют одинаковые ударения. Это объясняется тем, что сам послелог изменяет смысл глагола:

to go

to go out

to go away













Фразовое ударение

Фразовое ударение - это выделение голосом отдельных слов в фразе или в предложении. По сравнению с английским языком, в русском языке нет столь ярко выраженного выделения слов - ведь ударение падает почти на каждое слово. Наша речь кажется более плавной. Но в английском языке происходит своеобразное чередование безударных и ударных слогов, что задает предложению необходимый ритм. И хотя в нашем языке также есть довольно большое количество сложных слов, ритм предложений не настолько выделяется, как в случае с английскими предложениями, если мы будем произносить английскую речь, опираясь на русские правила, то наше чтение будет казаться чтением по слогам. Именно поэтому так необходимо знать все особенности и правила фразового ударения английского языка.

Части речи английского языка, которые могут выступать ударными:

- существительные

The ˈteacher is in `classroom.

- прилагательные

The table is `red.

- числительные

I'm `twenty.

- наречия

I feel `good.

- смысловые глаголы

I ˈwant to be your boyfriend.

- вопросительные и указательные местоимения

ˈWhen will you come?

ˈThis is a pencil.

Неударными в английском языке являются:

- притяжательные и личные местоимения

Give ˚me ˚your pen.

- артикли

˚The notebook is red.

- союзы

Your cake is good, ˚but I like candies.

- частицы

I want ˚to see you again.

- предлоги

We will go ˚to Paris.

- глагол to be

He  ˚is a good driver.

- модальныеглаголы

I ˚can speak Spanish rather good.

- вспомогательные глаголы

How ˚do you do?

Иногда модальные и вспомогательные глаголы также могут быть ударными. Это происходит в таких случаях:

- в конце синтагмы и предложения в позиции после безударного слога:

I know who you `are.

- в кратких формах отрицательного характера:

I `can't give it to you.

- в ответах на общие вопросы:

Yes, I `am.

- вначале общего вопроса:

ˈAre you serious?

Если отрицательная форма - полная, то ударной в таком случае будет лишь частица, но не глагол:

I do ˈnot like you!

В английском языке всякое ударение обозначается на письма символом "ˈ", который ставиться непосредственно перед ударным слогом.





























Логическое ударение

Помимо фразового и словесного ударения, которые существуют в предложении на постоянной основе, в английском языке имеется еще и логическое ударение - это тоже выделение определенного слова в предложении сильнее остальных при помощи ударения. Такой тип ударения используется для некого противопоставления того слова иному, а также для того, чтобы усилить значение слова. Пример:

ˋI ˳saw ˳this ˳picture.

В данном случае мы противопоставляем "Я" другим местоимениям "Вы" и "Ты".

Основываясь на том, что логическое ударение выходит за границы простого фразового ударения, мы можем сделать так, чтобы в предложении выделялось именно то слово, которое было бы безударным в другой ситуации - к примеру, артикль, предлог и так далее.

She sit 'on chair not 'on the bed.

Следует отметить, что в пределах одного предложения может быть ровно столько вариантов логического ударения, сколько в нем находится слов. В данном случае все будет зависеть от того, какое именно слово хочет выделить говорящий человек, а это, соответственно, зависит от цели произнесения.



















  1. МЕЛОДИКА АНГЛИЙСКОЙ РЕЧИ

Теперь, когда мы разобрались с паузами, произношением и видами ударения, мы можем перейти к разбору, пожалуй, самого сложного элемента английской интонации, речь пойдет о мелодике речи. Мелодика речи - это чередование повышения и понижения тона голоса. Начало повышения или понижения голоса как раз приходится на ядро смысловой фразы. Такое изменение тона голоса передает определенный смысл, как было сказано в самом начале темы. Неправильное создание мелодики речи в английском языке может привести к серьезным недоразумениям. В английском языке встречается два основных тона:

  • нисходящий (по умолчанию используется в законченных утверждениях, восклицаниях, приказах и специальных вопросах) 

  • восходящий (по умолчанию используется в незаконченных утверждениях и простых вопросах) 

Кроме того существуют различные комбинации двух основных тонов:

  • нисходяще-восходящий

  • восходяще-нисходящий

  • высокий нисходящий

  • низкий восходящий

Из второго списка необходимо выделить нисходяще-восходящий тон, как более самостоятельный. 

Но даже сами носители языка не используют постоянно такой широкий спектр английских тонов в своей речи. Самыми основными для них являются следующие три вида: нисходящий тон, восходящий тон и нисходяще-восходящий тон.

Характерной чертой ритма английского языка считается то, что в предложении ударные слоги произносят приблизительно через одинаковые промежутки времени. Именно поэтому скорость, с которой произносятся неударные слоги, напрямую зависит от количества неударных слогов, расположенных с обеих сторон ударного. Если неударных слогов меньше, то они произносятся гораздо быстрее.

Письменное изображение ударения и мелодики в английском языке:

['] - располагается перед ударным слогом лишь в том случае, если он не является конечным.

Знаки []  и [] - используется перед конечным слогом как замена знака ударения. Стрелка, указывающая вниз, обозначает понижение голоса в том слоге, перед которым она стоит. Стрелка, указывающая вверх, обозначает поднятие голоса в конечном слоге и в последующих неударных. К примеру: Tell me.

Я пользуюсь немного другой разметкой, примеры которой вы увидите ниже:

(тоны показаны на словах, чтобы было понятнее)

ˋWow! - нисходящий тон (High Fall)

ˌonly - нисходящий тон (Low Fall) – его менее эмоциональная версия и менее громко

For ˇcenturies - нисходяще-восходящий тон (Fall-Rise)

ˏdance and ˏmusic - восходящий тон (Low Rise)

ˊAre you? - восходящий тон (High Rise) – его более эмоциональная версия, выражающая неподдельное удивление

ahuge success так называемый усилитель (это очень эмоциональный усилитель в речи и слова с ним произносятся с сильными эмоциями )

Английский язык отличается разнообразием тонов. Мы рассмотрим лишь наиболее употребляемые, те, с которыми нам приходится чаще всего сталкиваться при чтении текстов и воспроизведении диалогической речи в рамках школьной программы.

Таковыми являются нисходящий (High Fall), восходящий (Low Rise) и нисходяще-восходящий (Fall-Rise) тоны.



Нисходящий тон (High Fall) представляет собой постепенное понижение тона на ударных слогах, (как будто ударные слоги спускаются по лесенке) причем на последнем ударном слоге голос довольно резко опускается вниз. Все утвердительные предложения произносятся с нисходящим тоном. Он также употребляется в повелительных предложениях.

Нисходящий тон используется для выражения законченности высказывания и категоричности. Поэтому он обычно используется в следующих случаях:

  1. в конце восклицательных предложений:

ˋWow!

ˈHow very ˋstrange!

  1. в высказываниях, передающих законченный, уверенный, утверждающий или авторитетный тон:

ˈLisa is from ˋNew York.

She ˈarrived ˋyesterday.

  1. В конце кратких повествовательных предложений (утвердительных и отрицательных):

I will come soon. 

It’s difficult to say. 

I don’t know where he is. 

She didn’t call me

  1. В конце повелительных предложений, выражающих команду, приказ или запрещение:

Keep ˋsilent!

Stop ˋpanicking!

  1. В конце вопросительных предложений:

а) в конце специальных вопросов, начинающихся с вопросительных местоимений:

How ˋold are you?

When did you ˋarrive?

Why didn’t you ˋtalk to her?

б) в конце второй части альтернативного вопроса, предполагающего выбор из двух возможных вариантов:

Were you at the cinema or at the ˋtheatre yesterday? 

в) в конце первой части разделительного вопроса, который представляет собой повествовательное предложение:

You ˋknow him, don’t you?

г) в конце второй части разделительного вопроса, когда спрашивающий уверен в правильности сообщения первой части и не ждет никаких дополнительных сведений, а только выражает желание подтвердить, что данное суждение верно:

You didn’t work ˋhard, ׀ ˋdid you?

д) произнося приветствие при встрече, выраженное формальным деловым тоном:

ˋHello!

Good ˋafternoon!

е) приветствия при встрече в форме вопроса:

How do you ˋdo?

How ˋare you?

ж) выделяя обращение в начале предложения:

Pete, where is your pen?

з) выделяя приложение в конце предложения:

This is my friend, an artist.

и) в конце придаточного предложения, стоящего перед главным, если последнее предложение произносится с восходящим тоном:

When you come ˋhome, will you ˏcall me? 

Придаточные предложения причины, следствия, цели и результата, наоборот, произносятся с нисходящим тоном. Они достаточно независимы в значении и тоне:

They ˇadvertised the ˚concert ǀ so that ˋeverybody should ˳know a˳bout it. (Purpose)

I ˈlent him some ˋmoney ǀ beˌcause he ˋneeded it. (Reason)

The ˈcar ˋcrashed ǀ beˌcause the ˈdriver was ˋcareless. (Cause)

He ˈran out of ˋmoney ǀ and, ˇtherefore, ǀ ˈhad to ˚look for a ˋjob. (Result)

I ˈdidn’t ˋmarry him ǀ because of his ˋlooks.



  1. В прощании с целью отвязаться от собеседника по типу “всё, разговор окончен”, “нам не о чем больше говорить”:

ˋGood bye!

7.В укороченных вопросах, по типу “неужели?”, с целью подчеркнуть скептицизм, сарказм:

I love you so ˋmuch. – ˋDo you?

She said that she was very ˋbusy ˳yesterday. – ˋWas she?

8.В утвердительных восклицаниях:

What a ˋpity!

What a lovely ˋday!

It’s really ˋnice!

9. Чтобы сообщить новости:

We’d ˈgot to the ˋterminus ǀ and ˈeveryone ˚got ˋout.

  1. Чтобы что-то выяснить:

ˈIs there an ˋearlier ˳train? (I need to know before deciding what to do).

ˈAre you the ˈnew ˋsecretary? (I don’t know you. Please tell me who you are).

  1. В запросах, начинающихся с “perhaps” и “I wonder”:

I’m ˈlooking for ˋMarket Street. I ˈwonder if you could ˋhelp me. – I’m ˋbusy. Perˈhaps you ˈwouldn’t mind ˋwaiting for a ˳while.

  1. В ответах на вопросы, в которых вы предоставляете информацию, о которой вас спрашивают:

  • ˈWhere have they ˋgone?

  • To Aˋmerica.









Revision exercises

Exercise 1. В конце восклицательных предложений:

What a horrid little flat!


What a shocking answer!


What a fantastic picture!


How wonderful!


How terrifying!



Exercise 2. В конце кратких повествовательных предложений:

I have a lot of time to spare.


He knows nothing about it.


She gets up early as a rule.


I didn’t see him yesterday.


We haven’t been here before.


Exercise 3. В конце повелительных предложений:

Do as you are told!


Don't interrupt me!


Clean the mess on your desk!


Take your umbrella!


Don’t make so much noise!


Exercise 4. В конце специальных вопросов:

What has happened to you?


When did she come home?


Why aren’t you at work?


How much are the tickets?


Who was present at the meeting?






Exercise 5. В конце первой части разделительного вопроса:

You can come to the party, can’t you?


His English is limited, isn’t it?


The day wasn’t frosty, was it?


They have never spoken to you, have they?


She doesn’t know him from Adam, does she?


Exercise 6. В конце второй части разделительного вопроса:

The station is far, isn’t it?


Hilda doesn’t live alone, does she?


Nora gave you her address, didn’t she?




Exercise 7. Произнося приветствие при встрече:

Good morning!


Good afternoon!


Good evening!


How do you do?


Exercise 8. Выделяя обращение в начале предложения:

John, will you help me please?


Kelly, can I take your magazine?


George, don’t be late for work.


Children, do you know this rule?


Boys, stop fighting please.


Exercise 9. Выделяя приложение в конце предложения:

This is my teacher, Miss Vivien.


I want you to meet Jim Crow, an actor.


Do you know Sarah Mage, a nurse?


This is my niece, Mary Ferrows.


I’d like to see Mr. Dadson, your boss.




Exercise 10.В конце придаточного предложения:

When you see her, will you tell her to come?


If you find my textbook, will you let me know?


As soon as the rain stops, will you go out?


Until the postman comes, will you stay at home?


After you arrive in London, will you call me?




















В следующем тоне имеется две разновидности: низкий восходящий тон и высокий восходящий тон. Первый из них используется наиболее часто в речи. С него мы и начнем.

Низкий восходящий тон (Low Rise) в английском предложении отличается от русского восходящего тона тем, что первый ударный слог произносится на довольно низком уровне, а подъем голоса происходит постепенно на последнем ударном слоге.

Восходящий тон – это тон неуверенности, незаконченности, неопределенности, сомнения. Поэтому с восходящим тоном обычно произносят:

  1. распространенное подлежащее:

My brother and ˏI ׀ went on an excursion.

  1. обстоятельство в начале предложения:

ˈLast ˏyear ׀ there was a lot of snow in the streets of our town.

  1. каждый из перечисляемых однородных членов предложения, кроме последнего, если он является концом повествовательного предложения:

There are books, exercise books, pens and pencils on the desks.

  1. в вопросах:

а) общие вопросы, начинающиеся со вспомогательных или модальных глаголов и требующие ответов “да” или “нет”:

Have you ever been to London?

Is it a ˏdesk?

Do you live in ˏMoscow?

Do you like ˏtea?

Have you got a ˏsister?

б) вторая часть разделительного вопроса, если спрашивающий выражает желание получить какую-либо информацию, т.к. он не уверен в правильности сведений в первой части вопроса:

You’ve got this book, ˏhaven’t you?

в) первая часть вопросов, предполагающих выбор (альтернативные вопросы), т.к. эта часть вопроса, по сути, является общим вопросом:

Have you seen this film on ˏTV or at the cinema?

г) повелительные предложения, выражающие вежливую просьбу:

Come ˏin.

Sit ˏdown.

д) вежливые просьбы в форме вопроса:

Will you lock the door please?

May I come ˏin?

Shall I ˏread?

Can I speak to ˏAnn?

е) придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным:

As soon as I arrive at the ˏhotel, ׀ I will let you know.

As ˈsoon as the water ˏboils, ׀ ˈpour it on the ˋtea.

ˈWhen he ˏcame ǀ I ˈasked him to ˋwait.

ˌSince you reˈfuse to ˏhelp ǀ I must ˈdo it aˋlone.

ж) слова прощания, благодарности, а также выражение all right: 

Good-bye! 

See you tomorrow. 

Thank you. 

All right. 

Если выражение all right произнести с нисходящим тоном, то оно может быть воспринято как угроза.

Goog ˏnight!

See you toˏmorrow!

Good ˏbye!

  1. В укороченных вопросах, по типу “неужели?” “что, правда?”, выражающие как скуку, рутину, так и удивление:

She is a ˋlawyer. – ˊIs she?

I’m going ˋabroad. – ˊAre you?

  1. В зависимых (придаточных) предложениях, если они идут после главного высказывания. Главное высказывание имеет в этом случае нисходящий тон:

Id ˋreject it ׀ if I were ˏyou.

I’ll make it ˋlater if you ˏlike.

I’ll ˈeat ˋsteak when I can ˏget it.

I ˌthought you’d be ˋhome for the ˳day ǀ when I ˌsaid ˏthat.

Придаточные предложения в конечной позиции произносятся с восходящим тоном (Low-Rise), если предоставляют какую-либо дополнительную информацию. А вот придаточные предложения причины, следствия, цели и результата, наоборот, произносятся с нисходящим тоном. Они достаточно независимы в значении и тоне.

  1. Вводные обстоятельства (наречия типа usually), если они идут после главного высказывания. Главное высказывание имеет в этом случае нисходящий тон:

I was ˋbusy yesterday, ˏactually.

  1. во фразах, предполагающих продолжение общения (беседы):

ˈCan I ˏhelp you?

  1. В предложениях помощи, указывая направление, давая совет или инструкции:

ˈShall I ˏwrap it for you?

ˈMore ˏcoffee?

    1. Дополнения “afterthoughts”, которые произносятся в конце высказывания и добавляют ему некоторую долю неуверенности со с стороны говорящего:

I’ll ˈask him myˋself ǀ if ˏnecessary.

That’s the ˋlast ǀ I ˏthink.

She ˈlunches ˋearly ǀ ˏusually.

ˈNothing can ˈsave her ˋnow ǀ exˌcept a ˏmiracle.







































Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Распространенное подлежащее:

My wife and I went to Italy for our holidays.


Jim and his sister lived in a small town.


Linda and her husband came home late.


Her family and she moved from town to town.


The children and their mother were at home.


Exercise 2. Обстоятельство в начале предложения:

In the middle of the room there was a table.


Late at night there was a knock on the door.


Long ago there used to be a big forest here.


Every weekend he goes to the country.


As a rule I go to work by bus.


Exercise 3. Общие вопросы:

Do you have your meals at home?


Did she tell you about her problem?


Has Dina sent a letter to her parents?


Are you going to leave soon?


Can we meet outside the cinema at six?


Exercise 4. Первая часть альтернативного вопроса:

Is your daughter at home or at school now?


Would you like tea or coffee for breakfast?


Is he an engineer or a mechanic?


Have you read the book or seen the film?


Will you take this magazine or that one?


Exercise 5. Вторая часть разделительного вопроса:

The room is not very comfortable, is it?


Felix is a decent guy, isn’t he?


You will stay in your office till six, won’t you?


Ann went to Spain last summer, didn’t she?


You haven’t done all the work yet, have you?


Exercise 6. Однородные члены предложения:

I’d like to buy milk, bread, butter and cheese.


This year he’s been to Italy, Spain, France and Germany.


There are forks, knives, spoons and plates on the table.


I have a sister, two brothers and three nephews.


Exercise 7. Вежливая просьба:

Will you tell me the time, please?

Would you mind my closing the window?


Can you help me carry this heavy box?


Could you show me the way to the station?


May I use your telephone?


Exercise 8. Придаточные предложения, стоящие перед главным:

When it’s time to go to bed, kids usually become very naughty.


As soon as I receive his letter, I’ll tell you.


Unless we hurry, we’ll be late for school.


If she doesn’t take a fast train, she won’t arrive in time.


After I have read this book I’ll give it to you.


Exercise 9. Слова прощания, благодарности, а также выражение all ; ">

Good-bye!


See you tomorrow!


Thank you!


Thank you very much.


All right!










А теперь давайте рассмотрим еще один вариант данного тона: высокий восходящий тон.

Высокий восходящий тон (High-Rise) выражает очень сильную эмоциональную реакцию говорящего на происходящие события. Именно поэтому им пользуются достаточно редко даже в разговорной речи. Этот тон требует ответной реплики:

The ˌdoctors ˊcoming?

Общие вопросы с этой разновидностью тона могут выражать:

а) удивление:

- ˊIs it?

б) беспокойство, заботу:

- Will he ˊcome?

в) беспокойство, тревогу:

- ˌCan we aˊfford it?

Высокий восходящий тон часто используется, когда говорящий пытается выиграть для себя время:

а) просьба повторить:

- He went to Spain. - ˊWhere did he ˚go?

б) просьба объяснить что-либо:

- John went to Paris. – To ˊParis?

в) запрос дополнительной информации:

- Dickens used to live here. - ˊCharles ˚Dickens?

г) в эхо-вопросах:

- ˈWhere would you ˈlike to ˋgo? - ˌWhere would I ˌlike to ˊgo?

Его также можно встретить в эллиптических (неполных) вопросах:

ˈFeel like a ˊwalk this ˚morning?

и в укороченных вопросах, по типу “неужели?” “что, правда?”, выражающие как скуку, рутину, так и удивление:

She is a ˋlawyer. – ˊIs she?

I’m going ˋabroad. – ˊAre you?

Но помните! Высокий восходящий тон – эмоциональный тон, используемый в неофициальной беседе. Вряд ли вы встретите его при чтении текста задания №1 в устной части ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Но знать о его существовании вам необходимо!

























Нисходяще-восходящий (Fall-Rise) тон часто употребляется в английской разговорной речи для выражения различного рода эмоций от сомнения до дружеского возражения.

Нисходяще-восходящий тон используется в:

  1. высказываниях, несущих в себе неуверенность, оговорку, сомнение, контраст:

ˈHow did it ˋgo? – ˈAll ˋright, ׀ I ˇthink.

I know her ˇface, but I don’t know her ˋname.

  1. выражении частичного согласия или частичного несогласия:

You are from London, ˏ aren’t you? – Well, ˇMartha is, but I’m from ˋManchester.



The party was ˋgreat! – Well, the ˇfood was great, but the evening was ˋboring.

  1. ответах на общие вопросы, выражающих неуверенное возражение:

Are you going to contradict? – Yes, I ˇam (but not now).

  1. побуждениях в форме предостережения:

ˇWatch out!

Be ˇcareful!

  1. побуждениях, выраженных в отрицательной форме:

Don’t open the ˇdoor!

Don’t tell me I was ˇwrong!

  1. обращениях, с целью привлечения внимания:

Professor ˇStone, may I have a word ˏwith you?

ˇJane, let me show you ˋsomething.

  1. высказываниях, с целью вежливо поправить собеседника, указать ему на его ошибку. Если такое указание звучит с нисходящим тоном, оно звучит грубо:

She is coming on ˋMonday. – No, on ˇTuesday.

It’ll take you only a few ˋminutes. – No, about ˇhalf an hour.

  1. ограничениях какого-либо элемента:

She didn’t do it because she was tired.

  1. зависимых предложениях:

If I were ˇyou, I’d ˋreject it.

  1. выражении вводных обстоятельств (наречиях типа usually), если они идут перед главным высказыванием. Главное высказывание в этом случае звучит с нисходящим тоном:

ˇActually, I was ˋbusy ˳yesterday.

  1. отрицательных высказываниях:

She wasn’t very ˇpleased.

I don’t think that’s ˇtrue.

It’s not just ˇme.

  1. выражении прощания в форме See you:

ˇSee you!

  1. прося о помощи для себя:

ˈMay I use your ˇphone?

  1. со словами-связками, которые обычно стоят в начале предложения:

ˈAs a ˇresult, ׀ we can present our final report on the topic.

ˇSecondly, …

To beˇgin with, …

  1. чтобы удостовериться, убедиться в чем-либо:

ˈIs there an ˇearlier train? (I expect there will be – I know there is one, but I want to make sure, to check).

  1. в общественных запросах (они звучат более приятно. Мы задаем вопросы, звуча приветливо):

ˈAre you the new ˇsecretary?

ˈDid you have a ˈgood ˇjourney?

  1. когда собеседник избегает прямо отвечать на вопрос:

ˈWhere have they ˎgone? - ˋSomewhere ˏquiet.

  1. В разговорных формулах:

  • Exˇcuse me …

  • ˇThank you.

  1. Вежливые просьбы:

- ˋDon’t be ˏlate.

20) Настойчивое предупреждение:

- ˈDon’t be ˇlate.

21) Выделите в отдельную синтагму (тоническую единицу) ту часть предложения или длинную фразу, действующую как подлежащее:

ˈWhat we ˇneed ǀ is ˈplenty of ˋtime.

What John ↑really ˇneeds ǀ is a ˋwife.

22) Вводное предложение (Comment clause):

- When will he be out of the hospital?

- The ˇdoctor ˚thinks ǀ in ˈten ˚days ˋtime.



  • ˈWhose ˋfault was it ˳then?

  • ˇTerry ˚says ǀ it was ˋyours.

Comment clauses в начальной позиции предложения характерны только для разговорной речи. Находясь в начальной позиции они работают как обстоятельства:

- To be ˇhonest, ǀ I’m ˈnot ˚sure what to ˎdo.

- To ˈspeak ˇfrankly, ǀ ... .





Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Произнесите фразу «Not very» с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить мягкое, дружелюбное возражение:

This radio set is good, isn’t it?
- Not very.


That question is difficult, isn’t it?
- Not very.



That novel is new, isn’t it?
- Not very.


The bag is heavy, isn’t it?
- Not very.


The room is narrow, isn’t it?
- Not very.


The lake is shallow, isn’t it?
- Not very.


Exercise 2. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить уточнение:

- The photos are in the box, aren’t they?
- In the album.


- The children are at school, aren’t they?
- In the yard.


- The books are in the bookcase, aren’t they?
- On the bookshelf.


- The pupils are at the lesson, aren’t they?
- At the library.


- Eva and David are married for ten years, aren’t they?
- For fifteen.


- Sam is leaving today, isn’t he?
- Tomorrow.


Exercise 3. Произнесите вторую часть предложения с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить противопоставление:

I want to go to the village, but not in winter.


I want to go to the park, but not in the afternoon.


I want to go to the library, but not today.


I’d like to play tennis, but not right now.


I’d love to watch TV, but not in the day time.


We’d like to visit this museum, but not on Sunday.


Exercise 4. Произнесите реплики в диалогах с нисходяще-восходящим тоном, чтобы выразить предположение:

- Where is my hat?
- It may be on the armchair.


- Where is Sally’s bag?
- It may be near the door.


- Where is our map?
- It may be on the wall.


- Where is Lisa’s belt?
- It may be in the wardrobe.


- Where are my pencils?
- They may be in the pencil-box.


- Where are the children’s toys?
- They may be in the bedroom.


- Where are the students?
- They may be at the lecture.




Обстоятельства, слова-связки и вводные слова

Очень часто английское предложение изобилует помимо главных и второстепенных членов предложения всевозможными интересными словечками, которые в зависимости от своей занимаемой позиции в предложении произносятся с разным тоном. Среди таковых различают обстоятельственные слова (adjuncts), слова-связки (conjuncts) и вводные слова (108isjuncts).

Adjunct переводится на русский язык как “определение, обстоятельственное слово, обстоятельство” и предоставляет дополнительную информацию. Оно входит в состав структуры предложения, но при этом не является ее обязательной частью. Оно выделяется в отдельную синтагму только в том случае, если занимает необычную для себя позицию:

  • How do you get to the college?

  • ˇOften ǀ I ˋwalk.

Они включают в себя:

  • обстоятельства местаin the hall

  • обстоятельства направленияto the hall

  • обстоятельства времени – at 8 oclock, for 10 days

  • обстоятельства относительного времениjust

  • обстоятельства частотыoften, seldom

  • наречия степени (to what extent) – almost

  • обстоятельства образа действияcarefully, willingly, naturally, frankly



Функцией слов-связок (conjuncts) является формирование логической связи между предложениями. Многие из них называются “предложными наречиями” (sentence adverbials). Они выпадают из структуры предложения, а если они многосложные, то еще и выделяются в отдельную тоническую группу с запятой на письме в любой позиции в предложении. Обычной занимаемой позицией для них является начальная.

К таковым словам-связкам относят:

first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), therefore, in short, that is, besides, nevertheless, yet, in all, by the way, finally, all together, in other words, for example, that is to say, to begin with, to conclude, in conclusion, last(ly), last of all, correspondingly, equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, further, furthermore, in addition, above all, on top of it all, to cap it all, thus, to sum up, to summarize, namely, in other words, for instance, for example, consequently, as a result, accordingly, somehow, now, so, rather, more precisely, alternatively, on the contrary, in contrast, by contrast, in comparison, by comparison, by way of comparison, anyhow, anyway, nonetheless, still, though, in any case, at any rate, at all events, in spite of that, for all that, incidentally, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, eventually, subsequently, originally.

To beˇgin with, ǀ they ˈfear the ↑outbreak of ˎwar.

And to conˇclude, ǀ they ˌfeel frusˈtrated in their aˏttempts ǀ to ˈinfluence the poˈlitical deˎcisions.

Our reˇport ǀ is very satisˎfactory, ǀ ˏtherefore, ǀ …



Вводные слова (109isjuncts) выполняют функцию передачи отношения говорящего к тому, что он говорит. Они выпадают из структуры предложения, а еще и выделяются в отдельную тоническую группу с запятой на письме в любой позиции в предложении.

В эту группу слов входят:

certainly, naturally, candidly, flatly, honestly, seriously, strictly, truthfully, confidentially, privately, approximately, bluntly, briefly, broadly, crudely, frankly, generally, roughly, simply, admittedly, assuredly, definitely, indeed, indisputably, obviously, plainly, clearly, decidedly, allegedly, apparently, possibly, quite likely, most likely, perhaps, presumably, technically, basically, essentially, fundamentally, formally, officially, ideally, actually, really, correctly, incorrectly, justly, rightly, wrongly, cleverly, artfully, reasonably, sensibly, wisely, unwisely, surely;

in all fairness, frankly speaking, in all frankness, to be frank, putting it frankly, to put it frankly, to tell the truth, of course, to be sure, etc.

If I may say so, if I may be frank, if you don’t mind my pointing out, etc.

ˇFrankly, ǀ I ˈdon’t ˋtrust him.

I ˈdon’t ˋtrust him, ǀ ˏfrankly.

Некоторые Conjuncts и Disjuncts произносятся с падающим (нисходящим) тоном в начальной позиции, но это только тенденция:

as a matter of fact, on the contrary, by the way, to crown it all, to top it all, as a result, in general, to be sure, still, above, in fact, besides, certainly, anyhow, anyway, after all, for example, yet, namely, etc.















Revision exercises

Exercise 1. Practise the adverbials.

Adjuncts:

  1. He worked quietly at home.

  2. He worked at home that day.

  3. The plane arrived uneventfully at Honolulu by midnight.

  4. By midnight the plane arrived uneventfully at Honolulu.

  5. He greeted the Bishop formally.

  6. They treated their friend badly.

  7. He put the point well.

  8. Very quickly my brother came to despise his school.

  9. She fixed it perfectly.

  10. All of a sudden, I felt free again.

  11. She gave me an answer rapidly.

  12. He stopped the car suddenly.

  13. Suddenly, he stopped the car.

  14. I go to school by bus.

  15. We are travelling to Washington (by) first class.

  16. He always writes in a carefree manner.

  17. She spoke from notes.

  18. He chopped the parsley with a knife.

  19. They played the game in a different way.

  20. The news was heard by millions.

  21. These linguistic units were separated intonationally.

  22. He did it for his son.

  23. She returned home early because of his insistence.

  24. She performed a recital out of charity.

  25. She is applying for a better job.

  26. They attacked the police as a protest.



Conjuncts:

  1. First, the economy is beginning to recover, and secondly unemployment figures have not increased this month.

  2. She has high responsibilities and, eventually, a high salary.

  3. Firstly he is my friend, and secondly he is in desperate need.

  4. She had her novel published this year, but too, she’s written some interesting articles on acupuncture.

  5. He lost his watch, his car broke down, and he got a letter of complaint from a customer, all in all, he had a bad day.

  6. They took with them some chocolate cans of beer, and fruit juice, a flask of coffee, in other words, enough refreshments.

  7. He was irritable, unjust, unreliable and so became increasingly unpopular.

  8. You haven’t answered my question; in other words, you disapprove of my proposal.

  9. She didn’t get the award after all. Still, her results were very good.

  10. I want to tell you about my trip, but, by the way, how is your mother?

  11. To conclude, it was a great success.

  12. Anyway, do you know the answer?

  13. Dont try, whats more, to justify yourself.



Disjuncts

  1. Briefly, there is nothing more I can do about it.

  2. I don’t want the money, confidentially.

  3. You ask me what he wants. Quite simply, he wants to move to a better climate.

  4. In short, he is mad but happy.

  5. There were 12 people present, to be precise.

  6. Generally speaking, the raining season has already begun.

  7. Speaking purely for myself, I find the music too arid.

  8. Technically our task is to recycle the waste products.

  9. Rightly, Mrs Jensen consulted her lawyer.

  10. Remarkably, Mrs Jensen consulted her lawyer.

  11. Certainly, he had very little reason to fear the competition.

  12. Obviously, nobody expected us to be here today.

  13. Really, the public doesn’t have much choice in the matter.

  14. To be sure, we have heard many such promises before.

  15. Of course, nobody imagines that he will repay what he borrowed.

  16. Understandably, we were all extremely annoyed when we received the letter.

  17. Wisely, Mrs McDonald didn’t want to have anything to do with them.



Exercise 2. Adjuncts, conjuncts or 113isjuncts?

  1. The police, however, thought he was guilty.

  2. They are enjoying themselves, or rather, they appear to be.

  3. He was extremely tired, but he was, nevertheless, unable to sleep.

  4. Naturally, he didn’t accept the invitation.

  5. He didn’t accept the invitation, naturally.

  6. Surprisingly, no one objected to the plan.

  7. She has visited the National Gallery lately.

  8. – When do you go to sleep? – Generally after midnight. – And you? – Normally, at about 11 p.m.

  9. To my regret, he didn’t accept our offer.

  10. Surely, you can find other people to play golf with.

  11. I’m lost here, to tell the truth.

  12. Actually, he happens to be the best chess-player.

  13. I thought he was speaking frankly.







The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 1. Practise the adverbials.

Adjuncts:

  1. He ˈworked ˈquietly at ˋhome.

  2. He ˈworked at ˋhome ˳that ˳day.

  3. The ˈplane ˈarrived uneˋventfully ǀ at Honoˋlulu ǀ by ˋmidnight.

  4. By ˇmidnight ǀ the ˈplane ˈarrived un˚eventfully at Honoˋlulu.

  5. He ˈgreeted the Bishop ˋformally.

  6. They ˈtreated their ˈfriend ˋbadly.

  7. He ˈput the ˈpoint ˋwell.

  8. ˈVery ˇquickly ǀ my ˈbrother ˈcame to deˈspise his ˋschool.

  9. She ˈfixed it ˋperfectly.

  10. All of a ˇsudden, ǀ I ˈfelt ˋfree a˳gain.

  11. She ˈgave me an ˈanswer ˋrapidly.

  12. He ˈstopped the ˈcar ˋsuddenly.

  13. ˇSuddenly, ǀ he ˈstopped the ˋcar.

  14. I ˈgo to ˈschool by ˋbus.

  15. We are ˈtravelling to ˈWashington (by) ˈfirst ˋclass.

  16. He ˈalways ˈwrites in a ˈcarefree ˋmanner.

  17. She ˈspoke from ˋnotes.

  18. He ˈchopped the ˈparsley with a ˋknife.

  19. They ˈplayed the ˈgame in a ˈdifferent ˋway.

  20. The ˈnews was ˈheard by ˋmillions.

  21. ˈThese linˈguistic ˏunits ǀ were ˈseparated intoˋnationally.

  22. He ˋdid it ǀ for his ˋson.

  23. She reˈturned ˈhome ˋearly ǀ because of his inˋsistence.

  24. She perˈformed a reˋcital ǀ out of ˋcharity.

  25. She is aˈpplying for a ˋbetter ˳job.

  26. They aˈttacked the poˈlice as a ˋprotest.



Conjuncts:

  1. ˇFirst, ǀ the eˈconomy is beˈginning to reˋcover, ǀ and ǀ ˏsecond(ly) ǀ unemˈployment ˚figures have ˈnot inˋcreased this ˳month.

  2. She ˈhas ˈhigh responsiˎbilities and, ǀ eˏventually, ǀ a ˈhigh ˋsalary.

  3. ˇFirstly ǀ he is my ˋfriend, ǀ and ˏsecondly ǀ he is in ˈdesperate ˋneed.

  4. She ˈhad her ˈnovel ˋpublished this ˳year, ǀ but ˋtoo, ǀ she’s ˈwritten ˚some ˈinteresting ˋarticles on ˳acupuncture.

  5. He ˈlost his ˎwatch, ǀ his ˈcar ˈbroke ˎdown, ǀ and he ˈgot a ˈletter of comˋplaint ǀ from a ˎcustomer, ǀ all in ˏall, ǀ he ˈhad a ˋbad ˳day.

  6. They ˈtook with them ˚some ˏchocolate, ǀ ˈcans of ˏbeer, ǀ and ˏfruit ˚juice, ǀ a ˈflask of ˏcoffee, ǀ in ˈother ˋwords, ǀ eˋnough re˳freshments.

  7. He was irˏritable, ǀ unˏjust, ǀ unreˏliable ǀ and ˏso ǀ beˈcame inˈcreasingly unˋpopular.

  8. You ˈhaven’t ˈanswered my ˋquestion; ǀ in ˈother ˋwords, ǀ you disaˋpprove of my pro˳posal.

  9. She ˈdidn’t ˈget the aˋward ˳after ˳all. >Still, ǀ her reˇsults ǀ were ˈvery ˋgood.

  10. I ˈwant to ˈtell you about my ˋtrip, ǀ ˏbut, ǀ by the ˋway, ǀ ˈhow is your ˋmother?

  11. To conˇclude, ǀ it was a ˋgreat ˳success.

  12. ˋAnyway, ǀ ˈdo you ˈknow the ˋanswer?

  13. ˈDon’t ˇtry, ǀ ˈwhat’s ˏmore, ǀ to ˋjustify yourself.



Disjuncts

  1. ˇBriefly, ǀ there is ˈnothing ˋmore ǀ I can ˋdo about it.

  2. I ˈdon’t ˈwant the ˋmoney, ǀ confiˏdentially.

  3. You ˈask me ˈwhat he ˋwants. ǀ Quite ˇsimply, ǀ he ˳wants to ˈmove to a ˋbetter ˳climate.

  4. In ˇshort, ǀ he is ˋmad ǀ but ˋhappy.

  5. There were ˈ12 ˋpeople ˳present, ǀ to be preˎcise.

  6. ˈGenerally ˇspeaking, ǀ the ˈraining ˏseason ǀ has ˈalready beˋgun.

  7. ˈSpeaking ˇpurely for myself, ǀ I ˈfind the ˇmusic ↑too ˋarid.

  8. ˇTechnically ǀ our ˈtask is to reˈcycle the ˋwaste ˳products.

  9. ˇRightly, ǀ Mrs ˈJensen conˈsulted her ˋlawyer.

  10. Reˇmarkably, ǀ Mrs ˳Jensen conˋsulted her ˳lawyer.

  11. ˋCertainly, ǀ he ˈhad ˈvery ˋlittle ˳reason ǀ to ˈfear the compeˋtition.

  12. ˇObviously, ǀ ˈnobody exˈpected us to be ˋhere ˳today.

  13. ˇReally, ǀ the ˈpublic ˈdoesn’t ˈhave ˚much ˈchoice in the ˋmatter.

  14. To be ˋsure, ǀ we have ˈheard ˚many ˈsuch ˋpromises be˳fore.

  15. Of ˋcourse, ǀ ˋnobody ˳imagines ǀ that he will reˋpay ˳what he ˳borrowed.

  16. Underˇstandably, ǀ we were ˈall ↑extremely anˋnoyed ǀ when we reˈceived the ˋletter.

  17. ˇWisely, ǀ Mrs McˈDonald ˈdidn’t ˈwant to ˈhave ˋanything to ˳do with them.



Exercise 2. Adjuncts, conjuncts or isjuncts?

  1. The ˈpolice, ǀ howˏever, ǀ ˈthought he was ˋguilty.

  2. They are ˋenjoying themselves, ǀ or ˏrather, ǀ they ˋappear to ˳be.

  3. He was ˈextremely ˋtired, ǀ but he was, ǀ ˏnevertheless, ǀ unˈable to ˋsleep.

  4. ˇNaturally, ǀ he ˈdidn’t acˈcept the inviˋtation.

  5. He ˈdidn’t acˈcept the inviˋtation, ǀ ˏnaturally.

  6. Surˇprisingly, ǀ no ˚one obˈjected to the ˋplan.

  7. She has ˈvisited the ˈNational ˋGallery ˳lately.

  8. – ˈWhen do you ˈgo to ˋsleep? – ˇGenerally ǀ after ˋmidnight. – And ˊyou? – ˇNormally, ǀ at about ˋ11 p.m.

  9. To ˇmy regret, ǀ he ˈdidn’t acˈcept our ˋoffer.

  10. ˇSurely, ǀ you can ˈfind ˋother ˳people ǀ to ˈplay ˋgolf with.

  11. I’m ˋlost ˳here, ǀ to ˌtell the ˏtruth.

  12. ˇActually, ǀ he ˈhappens to be the ↑best ˋchess-˳player.

  13. ˇI thought ǀ he ˋwas speaking ˏfrankly.



























Вариативность употребления тонов и ее значение

Иногда бывает так, что одно и то же предложение можно произнести с разной мелодикой с выражением определенного значения.

  1. Фразы типа let me see; you know; oh, that reminds me; mm; well; I say; you see; on the contrary (так называемые “initiators”) выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся иногда по-разному:

а) a Level Tone – наиболее обычен

> Let me see …

> Mm …

б) a Low-Rise

в) a Fall-Rise – при наличие контраста

г) a High-Fall – акцент на чем-либо

  1. Прямое обращение (vocative) в начале предложения выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится четырьмя разными способами:

Low-Riseнебрежно

ˏBoys, ǀ have you seen my ˇbag ˚anywhere?

High-Fall – вежливо и официально/формально

ˋMadam, ǀ ˌsit ˋclose to the ˏfire. You ˈmust be ˎfrozen.

Fall-Riseдружелюбно

ˇHarry, ǀ would you ˈlike to ˚give me a ˇhand beˌfore you ˌgo out?

Low-Fall – слишком важно

Будучи расположенными в середине или в конце предложения, они не выделяются в отдельную синтагму и произносятся безударным “хвостиком” предыдущей синтагмы. Но после нисходящего тона они могут получить восходящий тон и тогда они станут звучать вежливее и более значимее:

ˋMove out of my ˏway, ˚Peter. / ˈMove out of my ˋway, ˳Peter.

ˈWhat’s the ˋsalt for, ˏMum? / ˈWhat’s the ˋsalt for, ˳Mum?

I ˋsay, ˳Mike, ǀ will you ˈgive me a ˏhand? / I ˋsay, ˏMike, ǀ will you give me a hand?

  1. Слова автора, вводящие прямую речь, выделяются в отдельную синтагму в начале предложения и произносятся с

Level Tone – самая обычная ситуация

Low-Rise – также для обычного употребления

Fall-Rise – для передачи контраста

нисходящим тоном – когда слова автора грамматически и семантически закончены. Приведу ниже для примера ситуацию:

ˈJoan ˎgrumbled ǀ ˈstifling a ˎyawn: “I’m ˈtoo ˎsleepy”.

But my ˈaunt ˚said ˏsuddenly: ǀǀ “There is ˈno ˚smoke without ˋfire”.

  • ˋWho can do it?

>Johnny said: “ˋI can”/ ˏJohnny said: “ˋI can”

>Ben ˳said: “ˋI can do it”.

ˇTim ˚said: “You’ll ˋnever be ˳able to ˳do it”.

Но если они расположены внутри предложения или в его конце, тогда мы не выделяем их в отдельную синтагму, а произносим как безударный “хвостик” предыдущей синтагмы:

To ˈtell the ˏtruth” he said ˚shyly, “I ˈdon’t ˋtrust these ˳people”.

Of ˋcourse”, he re˳torted rather ˳rudely.













Упражнения для отработки изученных тонов

(Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”)



Exercise 1. Read subordinate clauses in initial and final position.

a)

    1. ˈWhen he ˏcame ǀ I ˈasked him to ˋwait.

    2. ˈAfter the ˏgame ǀ he ˌhad some ˋtea.

    3. ˈWhen he ˏsaw us ǀ he ˈran aˋway.

    4. ˌSince you reˈfuse to ˏhelp ǀ I must ˈdo it aˋlone.

    5. Just as the ˈtrain was ˏstarting, ǀ he ˈjumped ˋin.

    6. Whenˈever I had a ˏheadache ǀ I ˌtake a ˈcup of ˈstrong ˋtea.

    7. Unˈless it ˈrains in the ˈnext ˈfew ˏdays ǀ we shall ˈhave a ˈvery ˈpoor ˋharvest.

    8. Beˈfore ˏdinner ǀ he ˈused to ˈsmoke a ciˋgar.

    9. Beˈfore I ˈhad ˚time to ˈopen the ˏdoor ǀ she ˈknocked aˋgain.

    10. ˈAfter we’ve ˈhad our ˏdinner ǀ we ˈcan’t ˈsit ˋoutside.

    11. ˈAs he was ˈcoming ˈdown the ˏstairs ǀ her ˈfoot ˋslipped.

    12. In ˈspite of the ˏrain ǀ they ˈall ˋcame ǀ as they had ˎpromised.

    13. ˈIf it’s ↑all the ˏsame to you ǀ you’d ˈrather ˋwalk.

    14. ˌSince ˌearly ˏmorning ǀ I’ve been preˈparing to the ˋparty.



b)

  1. I ˈeat ˋsteak ǀ when I can ˏget it.

  2. I preˈfer to ˚go to the ˋseaside, if I can aˏfford it.

  3. We can ˋbuy ǀ it if there’s eˌnough ˏmoney.

  4. I’d ˈlike some ˋtoo, ǀ if you can ˏfind ˚any.

  5. I should ˈlike to ˋread it ǀ ˌwhen you have ˏfinished.

  6. They’ll ˈhave to ˈcross by ˋboat ǀ ˌuntil the ˌbridge is ˏbuilt.

  7. You’ll be ˈdead ˋtired ǀ beˌfore the ˌday is ˏout.

  8. You’ll be ˋlate ǀ ˌif you ˌdon’t ˌhurry ˏup.

  9. It’s ˈno ˈuse ˋgoing ǀ ˌuntil the ˌlibrary is ˏopen.

  10. ˈLet’s ˈswim out to ˋthat ˳rock ǀ ˌif it’s ˌnot ˌtoo ˏfar.

  11. ˇMad ǀ but ˋhappy ǀ as the ˌphrase ˏgoes.

  12. I’ll ˈbuy a ˋnew ˳one ǀ ˌif I can aˏfford it.



Exercise 2. Read the following sentences convincingly. Divide them up into tone units. Give your reasons and explain the intonation used.

    1. Just as train was starting, he jumped in.

    2. Whenever I have a headache, I take a cup of strong tea.

    3. We can walk there, if there’s time.

    4. I prefer red if you’ve got it.

    5. I couldn’t tell him because his wife was there, damn her.

    6. Looked at politically, it was a defeat – morally, they have won.

    7. It’s no use going until the Supermarket is open.

    8. As I was coming down, my foot slipped.

    9. (Cigarette? – Thanks.) – Oh, that reminds me, I’ve given up smoking.

    10. He was very tired, but he was, nevertheless, unable to sleep.

    11. Whoever wrote this book is a genius.

    12. Ill have finished by the time you get back.

    13. She comes late, usually.

    14. And don’t answer me back, you cheeky little devil.

    15. (Do you need the book at once?) – Let me see … no, I don’t need it, honest I don’t.

    16. – At first he was dead against it.

  • Later, however, he decided to join us.

    1. While we are waiting, partner, let’s go through our notes again.

    2. Surely, you can find other people to play golf with. Why do you have to choose him?

    3. In fact, we’re still quite-quite-strangers round here, and well, I’m rather lost, to tell you the truth.

    4. Madam, sit close to the fire. You must be frozen.

    5. “Haven’t you got any change?”, asked the conductor, feeling in his bag.

    6. – Did you enjoy the play yesterday?

  • You see, I can’t say it was interesting.

    1. A change of air and surroundings will work wonders, I suppose.

    2. Mrs Bennet, my aunt, was thrilled by the latest events, naturally. Therefore, she blushed and flushed, and couldn’t utter a word.

    3. – How are you getting on with your English?

  • The teacher says, I’m making a lot of progress.

    1. She was there – all huddled up and-and-and cold, terribly cold.

    2. Well, see you on Saturday at your birthday party.

    3. – Can you manage it?

  • I must manage it, somehow.

    1. – She’ll do anything, if you ask her nicely.

  • I think she’s very obstinate, to put it mildly, and I don’t have the nerve to ask her, I’m afraid.

    1. She can be absolutely charming, when she chooses to be.

    2. – How about brandy?

  • Personally, I never touch the stuff.

    1. Generally, it rains a lot here in spring.

    2. He left early in case he should miss the last train.

    3. She didn’t leave home because I was watching the house all day.

    4. She didn’t leave home because her father told her not to.



Exercise 3. Read the following sentences and explain what the choice of tonicity depends on in them.

  1. ˇMum, ǀ this ˌcake’s terˆrific!

  2. – This ˈgroup plays ter↑rific ˚music for ˋdancing.

  • ˋRight. It’s ˈtoo ˋloud for ˏlistening ǀ and ˈsitting is ˎboring. – I ˋadore ˳dancing.

  1. I ˈlook ˋawful.

  2. ˈParking is ˋterrible in ˏLondon.

  3. – I’m ˈthinking of ˚having ˋair-con˳ditioning.

  • But it’s ˆfrightfully ex˳pensive to inˇstall.

  1. – ˈHow do you ˚find this ˋbook?

  • It’s ˋdreadfully ˳dull.

  1. ˈPoor and ˎproud. It was eˋxactly how he ˳felt.

  2. ˇSuddenly ǀ I ˌfelt ˈquite ˋyoung a˳gain.

  3. You’ve ˌdone ˇthis ˚exercise ˈquite acˋceptably.

  4. ˈThank you for a ˆwonderful ˳evening, ǀ ˏClare.

  5. – ˈWhat a ˋgame!

  • They ˌplay ˆwonderfully ˳well.

  • >Well, ǀ they ˈsometimes ˇlose ǀ but they ˈusually ˋwin.

  1. – Are you ˈstill ˋhungry?

  • I’m ˋalways ˳hungry.

  • You’re ˋjoking, ǀ of ˋcourse.

  1. - ˈJane’s ˚passed her ˋdriving ˳test.

  • ˈHow ˎmarvelous!

  1. – The ˈwhole thing was a tre↑mendous sucˎcess.

  • ˋYes. It was ˋperfectly all ˏright.

  1. – I exˈpect the ˈexam was ↑far too ˋdifficult.

  2. – She’s ˋdreaming of going to ˏLondon, ǀ to ˌdo the ˏsights.

  • She’ll have ˋheaps of ˏopportunities, ǀ I ˚think.

  1. – The ˈPrime-ˌminister was ↑killed in an ˋair ˳crash.

  • We were ˋterrified when we ˏlearnt the ˚news.

  1. – ˊKnow him?

  • ˈRather ↑too ˎwell.

  1. We ˈcouldn’t ˋsqueeze through the crowds of ˏfans.

  2. He is ˈthoroughly absent-ˋminded.

  3. Marˊtini? – I ˋrather ˏlike this ˚drink.

  4. – ˈWhat a ˈwonderful ˎday!

  • ˋYes, ǀ the ˌday is ˋreally ˳lovely.

  1. – ˈDo you reˈmember their ↑huge ˎcar?

  • I ˈutterly disˎlike it, ǀ ˏactually.



Exercise 4. Read and explain the way of tonetical marks.

  1. – ˈCould we ˏhelp him?

  • ˋYes, ǀ he’s ˋterribly ˳hard ˳up.

  1. – >Well, ǀ ˈhow did you ˈtwo ˈget ˋon?

  • ˆWonderfully ˳well.

  1. – ˈWhat do you ˈthink of this ˋactress?

  • ˋOh, ǀ she’s ˈdefinitely ˋbrilliant.

  1. – It was an ˋaccident, ˏwasn’t it?

  • A ˋterrible ˳accident.

  1. There’s ˈsomething ↑definitely ˋstrange about the ˳man.

  2. The ˈboy is an ↑awful ˋliar.

  3. – ˈWho’s she with ˋnow?

  • ˋAlbert. A ˈvery unˋpleasant ˳sort of ˳person.

  1. ˈWhat ˈshocking ˋtreachery!

  2. It’s ˋappalling ǀ the ˌway ˈSheila’s ˇhusband ˋtreats her.

  3. I ˋhate ˳being inter˳rupted.

  4. – You can ˈborrow it ˋany ˳time.

  • ˈThat’s ex↑tremely ˋkind of you.

  1. – ˈToo ˊold?

  • She is ˈonly ˋthirty.

  1. – Postˊpone it?

  • I’d ˈrather you ˈdid it ˋtoday.

  1. ˈWhat a ˈlovely ˋvoice!

  • ˋHer ˳voice is ˳lovely!

  1. – I am ˋhungry.

  • ˈNo ˇproblem. There are ˋtons of food in the ˏfridge.

  1. ˈWhy ˈall that ˋrush, ǀ ˋanyway? We’ve ˈgot ˋheaps of ˏtime.

  2. He ˈlives ↑miles ˋaway, I’m ˏsure.

  3. – ˈThink we’ll ˋcatch the ˏtrain?

  • ˋEasily. ˋLoads of time to ˏspare.

  1. ˈHave I ˈever ˈbeen to ˊLondon? I’ve ˌbeen ˌthere ˋscores of ˏtimes.

  2. The ˈpoor ˈfellow ǀ was a ↑mess of ˋbruises.

  3. ˈSome ˈpeople ǀ ↑just ˈlove ˚mountain ˋclimbing.

  4. ˈSeventy ˈpeople ˈmeans a ↑huge ˋparty.

  5. Our ˈventure ↑ was a ↑huge sucˋcess.

  6. ˈMaria ˈmade a de↑licious ˈcake and ˈdropped ˚some ↑dreadful ˈpoison ˋin at the ˳end.

  7. ˊLost it? ˋRather a ˳pity.

  8. – ˈStop ˋbreathing down my ˏneck, ǀ for ˈheaven’s ˋsake.

  • I was ˈonly ˈtrying to be a ˈbit ˋhelpful.

  1. ˊObstinate? ˋAll ˏright. ˈThen ˋI’ll be ˳obstinate, ǀ ˋtoo.

  2. ˈDon’t you ˏlike it, ǀ ˋeither?

























The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences convincingly. Divide them up into tone units. Give your reasons and explain the intonation used.

  1. ˈJust as ˈtrain was ˏstarting, ǀ he ˈjumped ˋin.

  2. Whenˈever I ˈhave a ˏheadache, ǀ I ˌtake a ˈcup of ↑strong ˋtea.

  3. We can ˋwalk ˳there, ǀ if there’s ˏtime.

  4. I preˈfer ˋred ǀ if you’ve ˏgot it. (it’s an adverbial clause of condition)

  5. I ˈcouldn’t ˋtell him ǀ beˌcause his ˋwife was ˳there, ǀ ˋdamn her. (qualifying comment clause)

  6. ˈLooked at poˏlitically, ǀ it was a deˋfeat ǀ – ˏmorally, ǀ they have ˋwon.

  7. It’s ˈno ˈuse ˋgoing ǀ unˌtil the Supermarket is ˏopen.

  8. ˈAs I was ˈcoming ˏdown, ǀ my ˈfoot ˋslipped.

  9. (Cigaˊrette? – ˇThanks.) – ˋOh, ǀ ˇthat ˏreminds me, ǀ I’ve ˈgiven up ˋsmoking.

  10. He was ˈvery ˋtired, ǀ but he was, ǀ ˏnevertheless, ǀ unˈable to ˋsleep.

  11. Whoˈever ˈwrote ˈthis ˇbook ǀ is a ˋgenius.

  12. I’ll have ˋfinished ǀ by the ˌtime you ˌget ˏback.

  13. She ˈcomes ˋlate, ǀ ˏusually.

  14. And ˈdon’t ˈanswer me ˋback, ǀ ˌyou ǀ ˌcheeky ˌlittle ˏdevil.

  15. (ˈDo you ˈneed the ˈbook at ˇonce?) – >Let me see … ˋno, ǀ I ˋdon’t ˳need it, ǀ ˋhonest I ˳don’t.

  16. – At ˇfirst ǀ he was ˋdead a˳gainst it.

  • ˇLater, ǀ howˋever, ǀ he deˈcided to ˋjoin us.

  1. ˈWhile we are ˏwaiting, ǀ ˚partner, ǀ ˈlet’s ˈgo ˚through our ˈnotes aˋgain.

  2. ˇSurely, ǀ you can ˈfind ˋother people ǀ to ˈplay ˋgolf with. ˋWhy do you ˳have to ˳choose him?

  3. In ˋfact, ǀ we’re ˈstill ˈquite-ˈquite-ˋstrangers round ˳here, ǀ and >well, ǀ I’m ˈrather ˋlost, ǀ to ˌtell you the ˏtruth.

  4. ˇMadam, ǀ ˈsit ˋclose to the ˏfire. You ˈmust be ˋfrozen.

  5. “ˈHaven’t you ˈgot any ˇchange?”, ˚asked the con˚ductor, ǀ ˌfeeling in his ˏbag.

  6. – ˈDid you ˈenjoy the ˋplay ˳yesterday?

  • You >see, ǀ I ˋcan’t say it was ˏinteresting.

  1. A ˈchange of ˈair and ˏsurroundings ǀ will ˈwork ˋwonders, ǀ I ˏsuppose.

  2. Mrs ˇBennet, ǀ my ˏaunt, ǀ was ˋthrilled by the ˳latest e˳vents, ǀ ˏnaturally. ˇTherefore, ǀ she ˎblushed ǀ and ˎflushed, ǀ and ˈcouldn’t ˈutter a ˋword.

  3. – ˈHow are you ˈgetting ˈon with your ˋEnglish?

  • The ˇteacher ˚says, ǀ I’m ˈmaking a ˈlot of ˋprogress.

  1. She ˋwas ˳there ǀ – all ˈhuddled up and-and-and ˋcold, ǀ ˋterribly ˳cold.

  2. >Well, ǀ ˈsee you on ˋSaturday ǀ at your ˋbirthday ˳party.

  3. – ˈCan you ˋmanage it?

  • I ˋmust ˳manage it, ǀ ˋsomehow.

  1. – She’ll ˈdo ˋanything, ǀ ˌif you ˌask her ˏnicely.

  • I ˈthink ǀ she’s ˈvery ˋobstinate, ǀ to ˌput it ˏmildly, ǀ and I ˈdon’t ˈhave the ˋnerve to ˳ask her, ǀ I’m ˏafraid.

  1. She can be ˈabsolutely ˋcharming, ǀ when she ˏchooses to be.

  2. – ˈHow about ˋbrandy?

  • ˇPersonally, ǀ I ˈnever ˋtouch the ˳stuff.

  1. ˇGenerally, ǀ it ˈrains a ˋlot ˳here ǀ in ˋspring.

  2. He ˈleft ˋearly ǀ in ˌcase he should ˌmiss the ˌlast ˏtrain.

  3. She ˈdidn’t ˈleave ˋhome ǀ beˈcause I was ˈwatching the ˈhouse ↑all ˋday.

  4. She ˈdidn’t ˈleave ˋhome ǀ beˌcause her ˌfather ˌtold her ˏnot to.

Слова со сдвинутым фокусом ударения

Некоторые слова иногда бывают безударными, т.е. со сдвинутым фокусом ударения. Это происходит в следующих случаях:

      1. причастие или прилагательное в конечной позиции выпадает из фокуса ударения, если его можно предугадать или додумать:

You must ˈhave your ˋhair ˳cut.

You ˈmust have had your ˋnails ˳done.

ˈHas the ˏpost a˚rrived?

ˈShall I ˚let the ˏdog ˚loose?

ˈGet the ˏpapers ˚ready.

      1. сказуемое в конечной позиции выпадает из фокуса ударения, если его можно предугадать или додумать:

(Nora?) The ˋkettle is ˳boiling.

(I ˋsay, David) A ˋtap is ˳running.

Fanˆtastic it ˳looks.

      1. обстоятельства времени и места в конечной позиции обычно выпадают из фокуса ударения в общих вопросах (“да/нет” вопросах):

ˈIsn’t he ˏcoming to˚morrow?

ˈIs ˏmother at ˚home ˚yet?

ˈFeel like a ˊwalk this ˚morning?

ˈGot any ˊvisitors ˚coming this after˚noon?

ˈTaking the ˊletter to the ˚post? And ˈcan you ˈbuy me a ˏnewspaper while you are ˚out?

NB! Но они расцениваются как вспомогательная, второстепенная информация в утверждениях в разговорной речи:

He is ˋcoming toˏmorrow.

I am ˋoff ˏnow ˚then.

I ˈmet your ˋmother at the ˏSupermarket.

Иногда обстоятельства места и времени могут передавать важную информацию и поэтому являются ударными:

You’ll ˈfind them ˈall upˎstairs.

We ˈhaven’t ˎseen them ǀ for ˋhours.











Revision exercises

Exercise 1. How are final “place and time” adverbials treated in these sentences?

  1. You ˋcan’t go by ˳tube toˏnight.

  2. I’m ˈoff to ˋIndia in a ˏmonth.

  3. >Brr… It’s ˋchilly a bit in ˏhere.

  4. I ˋshan’t be ˳very ˏlong.

  5. She ˈhasn’t been ˈvisiting ˋLondon beˏfore.

  6. His ˋbirthday’s ˏsoon.

  7. He was in the ˌgarage a ˋminute ˏago.

  8. The ˈwaiter’s ˋcoming ˏnow.

  9. I’m ˋworking toˏday.

  10. We’ve ˈarranged to ˚stay at ˋLeo’s place for the weekˏend.

  11. We’re ˋbusy at the ˏmoment.

  12. ˋLook! ˇMoore’s ǀ in the ˋpenalty ˳area ˏnow.

  13. I ˈhope to ˚work for an ˋadvertising ˳agency one ˏday.

  14. I’ve ˈgot to ˚go to ˋCambridge ˳next ˏweek.

  15. The ˈmountains ˈaren’t ˋfar from ˏhere, ǀ ˏare they?



Exercise 2. Mark the intonation, read the sentences correctly and explain how the underlined words behave tonetically.

  1. Do you know it’s my birthday today?

  2. Will you go to the laundry today or tomorrow?

  3. – I see that you’ve had your hair waved.

  • Not waved, but permed.

  1. – Did you see Othello on television last night?

  • Yes, I did.

  1. I saw your sister at the theatre.

  2. The doctor has called. Do be quick.

  3. I’m off now then.

  4. I thought of going for a walk on Sunday.

  5. Feel like a walk this morning?

  6. The dog is barking. Don’t move.

  7. At that very moment the phone rang.

  8. As I was coming down, my foot slipped.

  9. Isn’t he coming tomorrow?

  10. You must have had your nails done.

  11. Have your photograph taken yet?

  12. Has the mail arrived?

  13. I’m ready now.

  14. Is Peter at home, Dad?

  15. We are busy at the moment.

  16. Parking is terrible in London.

  17. She hasn’t visited London before.

  18. I ought to be at Tim’s by half past seven.

  19. – How long will you be staying in Geneva?

  • I’ll be staying there for nine days.

  1. I hope to work for an advertising agency one day.

  2. Look! Moore’s in the penalty area now.

  3. I’ve got to see a client in Dover this afternoon.

  4. I hope it won’t be too hot in the theatre.

  5. I’m working today.

  6. He’ll be here soon.

  7. Did you talk to John last night?

  8. The light isn’t working, please bring a new bulb.

  9. Mrs Hunt’s going to the hairdresser’s to have her hair done. Then we are going to the cleaner’s to have some clothes cleaned.

  10. – Can I have my coat pressed here?

  • Yes, it’s possible to have clothes pressed and cleaned very quickly here.

  1. While I was playing, this telegram was delivered.

  2. If we’re sure that we’d stay here, we could have a house built.

  3. Do you sell stamps in here?

  4. – What should I do with this luggage?

  • First have it labelled.

  1. Since the traffic is very heavy, delays of up to 30 minutes are expected.

The correct way of reading the sentences

Exercise 2. Mark the intonation, read the sentences correctly and explain how the underlined words behave tonetically.

  1. ˈDo you ˚know it’s my ˋbirthday ˏtoday?

  2. ˈWill you ˈgo to the ˈlaundry ˇtoday or ˋtomorrow?

  3. – I ˈsee ǀ that you’ve ˈhad your ˋhair ˳waved.

  • Not ˇwaved, ǀ but ˋpermed.

  1. – ˈDid you ˈsee Oˇthello ˚on tele˚vision last ˚night?

  • ˏYes, ǀ I ˋdid.

  1. I ˈsaw your ˋsister at the ˏtheatre.

  2. The ˈdoctor has ˋcalled. ˋDo ˳be ˳quick.

  3. I’m ˋoff ˏnow ˚then.

  4. I ˈthought of ˈgoing for a ˈwalk on ˋSunday.

  5. ˈFeel ˈlike a ˊwalk ˚this ˚morning?

  6. The ˋdog is ˳barking. ˈDon’t ˇmove.

  7. At ˈthat ˈvery ˇmoment ǀ the ˋphone ˳rang.

  8. ˈAs I was ˈcoming ˏdown, ǀ my ˋfoot ˳slipped.

  9. ˈIsn’t he ˏcoming to˚morrow?

  10. You must have ˈhad your ˋnails ˳done.

  11. ˈHave your ˋphotograph ˳taken ˳yet?

  12. ˈHas the ˋmail ˳arrived?

  13. I’m ˋready ˏnow.

  14. ˋIs Peter at ˏhome, ˚Dad?

  15. We are ˋbusy at the ˳moment.

  16. ˈParking is ˋterrible in ˏLondon.

  17. She ˈhasn’t ˈvisited ˈLondon beˋfore.

  18. I ought to be at ˈTim’s by ˈhalf past ˋseven.

  19. – How ˋlong will you be ˳staying in Ge˳neva?

  • I’ll be ˌstaying there for ˈnine ˋdays.

  1. I ˈhope to ˈwork for an ˋadvertising ˳agency one ˳day.

  2. ˋLook! ˇMoore’s ǀ in the ˋpenalty ˳area ˏnow.

  3. I’ve ˈgot to ˈsee a ˋclient in ˏDover ˚this after˚noon.

  4. I ˈhope it ˈwon’t be ↑too ˋhot in the ˏtheatre.

  5. I’m ˋworking to˳day.

  6. He’ll be ˈhere ˋsoon.

  7. ˈDid you ˈtalk to ˋJohn ˳last ˳night?

  8. The ˋlight ˳isn’t ˳working, ǀ please ˈbring a ˋnew ˳bulb.

  9. Mrs ˈHunt’s ˈgoing to the ˋhairdresser’s ǀ to ˈhave her ˋhair ˳done. Then we are ˌgoing to the ˋcleaner’s ǀ to ˈhave ˚some ˋclothes ˳cleaned.

  10. – ˈCan I ˈhave my ˋcoat ˳pressed ˳here?

  • ˋYes, ǀ it’s ˋpossible to ˳have ˳clothes ˳pressed and ˳cleaned ˳very ˳quickly ˳here.

  1. While I was ˏplaying, ǀ ˈthis ˋtelegram was de˳livered.

  2. ˈIf we’re ˏsure ǀ that we’d ˏstay ˚here, ǀ we could ˈhave a ˋhouse ˳built.

  3. ˈDo you ˈsell ˋstamps in ˳here?

  4. – ˈWhat should I ˈdo with ˇthis ˚luggage?

  • ˇFirst ǀ ˋhave it ˳labelled.

38. Since the ˈtraffic is ↑very ˏheavy, ǀ ˈdelays of up to ˈ30 ˋminutes are ex˳pected.





Тексты для отработки изученных тонов

(Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособиеПрактическая фонетика”)



Mark your own intonation where necessary:

  1. - It ˈsays here the ˋQueen’s ˳coming.

  • ˋWhere?

  • ˋHere.

  • I ˋdo hope ǀ we’ll be ˈable to ˇsee her.

  1. - ˈWhat are your ˈchildren ˋfighting a˳bout?

  • It’s ˋMy ˳book.

  • ˋHis book’s ǀ ˌover ˋthere.

  • ˋHer ˳book’s ˳over ˏthere. ˈThis one is ˋˋMine.



  1. Mrs. Newell has gone to see the doctor and is discussing her problem with him.

Doctor: - ˈWhere’s the ˋpain, Mrs. ˏNewell?

Mrs. Newell: - ˎHere, ˏDoctor, ǀ in my ˎchest.

Doctor: - I ˎsee. ˇHere?

Mrs. Newell: - ˎYes, ˳Doctor.

Doctor: - ˈDoes it ˈhurt when you ˏcough?

Mrs. Newell: - ˋYes, ǀ it ˆdoes.

Doctor: - How ˈlong have you ˋhad it?

Mrs. Newell: - ˈSix or ˈseven ˎweeks.

Doctor: - ˌSix or ˌseven ˎweeks. As ˈlong as ˋthat?

Mrs. Newell: - I ˋthink ˏso.

Doctor: - ˈHave you ˈtried ˏtaking ˚anything ǀ – for the ˌcough I ˏmean?

Mrs. Newell: - >Well, ǀ the ˈusual ˈhoney and ˈhot ˇlemon. And then I ˈbought ˚some ˋcough ˳syrup.

Doctor: - ˈDid it ˏhelp?

Mrs. Newell: - ˋNo, ˳Doctor. ˳That’s ˳why I’ve ˳come to ˳see ˎyou.





  1. Jack Marsden has arranged to see his bank manager because he wants to borrow enough money to start buying a flat.

Bank manager: So, you’re interested in some sort of loan, Mr Marsden?

Mr. Marsden: That’s right. You see, I want to raise enough money for a deposit on a small flat.

Bank manager: Do you mean to buy?

Mr. Marsden: Yes, I don’t want to go on renting.

Bank manager: I see. Do you think you can get a mortgage?

Mr. Marsden: Yes. I’ve seen about that, You see, I’ve got a secure job with a good salary.

Bank manager: Is the flat for yourself? Will you be living there alone?

Mr. Marsden: Yes, for the moment, anyway. Why? Does that make any difference to the loan?

Bank manager: No. No. Just interested. That’s all.

Mr. Marsden: Do you need to know anything else? I’ve brought my contract with details of my salary.

Bank manager: Good. Yes. Fine. And have you got any securities? Shares in any companies? Insurance policies? Things like that?





  1. Step by step

It seemed to get an age to get there. But eventually the bus stopped. We got the terminus and everyone got out. We were somewhere in the commercial district, but I wasn’t sure where. I couldn’t recognize anything. The others hurried off. I hesitated, wondering which way to start. I ought to have asked someone, but it was too late. They had gone. The street was empty. Even the bus driver had gone. I hurried across, and turned into an alleyway, and started to walk. It was dark and drizzling a little. I went through an archway and into another street where there were street lights. It was one of those pedestrian precincts – no cars admitted – with concrete benches to sit on and concrete tubs for plants. But the benches were wet. It was winter and there wasn’t a plant to be seen. I passed some shops, bright lights, and bargains and fashionable dresses on plastic figures, videos and fridges and hundreds of shoes at give-away prices, left over gift wrapping, and holly, and snowmen. I walked along, looking in the windows. The last of the shop assistants was just closing the doors. “Could you tell me, please, where Market Street was.” She had no idea. She was a student doing a holiday job and she didn’t know the district yet. She thought there was a pub in the first street on the left. Perhaps they’d know there. It was all very odd. There was just nobody about. I walked on and took the left turning, where she’d said, and found the pub. But, of course, they didn’t open till seven. And it was just half past five. I went round to a side door and rang a bell.



  1. At the railway Station

Traveller: Can you help me, please? I’m travelling to York, but apparently, the train I was to catch has been cancelled.

Assistant: The train to York. When were you hoping to travel?

Traveller: On the eleven forty-eight. And on the indicator board it says it’s cancelled.

Assistant: Eleven forty-eight to York. That’s right. There seems to be some trouble on the line… they’ve had to take it off. The next direct train is at thirteen-twenty.

Traveller: Thirteen-twenty. And when does it get to York?

Assistant: It gets to York … at … fifteen ten.

Traveller: Oh, Lord! Perhaps I could go by another route, by an earlier train?

Assistant: Just a moment. How much luggage do you have?

Traveller: Only this bag?

Assistant: Because if you don’t mind changing, you could go via Manchester. There’s a train due out in – hang on – just five minutes.

Traveller: Which platform will that be?

Assistant: From platform two. But you’ll have to change.

Traveller: I don’t mind that. But what about your ticket? Can I use the same ticket?

Assistant: Let me look. That’s OK, yes. It’s just the same fare.

Traveller: And what time will that get me there?

Assistant: At fourteen forty-eight. About twenty minutes before the direct train. But you’ll have to hurry! Platform two – change at Manchester.





  1. Oscar wants to know (by Mike Quin)

  • Papa, what does opportunity mean?

  • “Opportunity is a chance to make some money”, Mr Darcey answered.

  • “Papa, how do people make money?” asked Oscar.

  • People make money by going into business.

  • Papa, can everybody go into business?

  • Of course, everybody can go into business.

  • If everybody goes into business, will they all be businessmen?

  • Everybody can’t go into business.

  • Why can’t they, Papa?

  • Because they haven’t got enough money.

  • If they get enough money, and if they all go into business, will they all be businessmen?

  • They will, naturally.

  • But if everybody is a businessman, who will do the work, Papa?

  • They can’t all be businessmen.

  • “Even if they have enough money?” asked Oscar.

  • “Even if they have enough money,” said Mr Darcey. “Somebody must do the work”.

  • How many people can be businessmen, Papa?

  • One out of a thousand.

  • But Papa, a few men can become businessmen, what can the rest of the people do, if they don’t want to be workers?

  • The rest can be businessmen too, if they are clever enough and if they have enough initiative.

  • But you said only a few of them can. Most of them must be workers…



















The correct way of reading the sentences



  1. Jack Marsden has arranged to see his bank manager because he wants to borrow enough money to start buying a flat.

Bank manager: >So, ǀ you’re ˈinterested in ˚some ˈsort of ˋloan, ˏMr Marsden?

Mr. Marsden: ˈThat’s ˋright. You >see, ǀ I ˈwant to ˈraise ˈenough ˋmoney ǀ for a ˋdeposit ǀ on a ˈsmall ˋflat.

Bank manager: ˈDo you ˈmean to ˇbuy?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes, ǀ I ˈdon’t ˈwant to ˈgo ˋon ˳renting.

Bank manager: I ˋsee. ˈDo you ˈthink you can ˋget a ˏmortgage?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes. I’ve ˋseen about ˏthat, You >see, ǀ I’ve ˈgot a ˈsecure ˇjob ǀ with a ˈgood ˎsalary.

Bank manager: ˈIs the ˚flat for ˏyourself? ˈWill you be ˈliving there aˏlone?

Mr. Marsden: ˋYes, ǀ for the ˎmoment, ǀ ˎanyway. ˋWhy? ˈDoes ˈthat ˈmake any ˋdifference ǀ to the ˇloan?

Bank manager: >No. >No. ˈJust ˋinterested. ˈThat’s ˋall.

Mr. Marsden: ˈDo you ˈneed to ˈknow ˈanything ˇelse? I’ve ˈbrought my ˇcontract ǀ with ˈdetails of my ˇsalary.

Bank manager: ˋGood. ˋYes. ˋFine. And ˈhave you ˋgot any seˏcurities? ˏShares in ˚any ˚companies? ˏInsurance ˚policies? ˈThings like ˏthat?



  1. Step by step

It ˌseemed to ˌtake an ˎage to ˳get ˳there. But eˇventually ǀ the ˈbus ˋstopped. We ˈgot the ˋterminus ǀ and ˈeveryone ˚got ˋout. We were ˈsomewhere in the ˋcommercial ˳district, ǀ but I ˌwasn’t ˌsure ˎwhere. I ˈcouldn’t ˈrecognize ˋanything. The ˇothers ˈhurried ˋoff. I ˋhesitated, ǀ ˈwondering ǀ ˈwhich ˚way to ˎstart. I ought to have ˈasked ˋsomeone, ǀ but it was ˈtoo ˋlate. They had ˋgone. The ˈstreet was ˎempty. ˈEven the ˋbus ˳driver had ˳gone. I ˈhurried ˎacross, ǀ and ˈturned into an ˎalleyway, ǀ and ˈstarted to ˎwalk. It was ˎdark ǀ and ˎdrizzling a ˳little. I ˈwent through an ˎarchway and into another ˋstreet ǀ where there were ˎstreet ˳lights. It was one of ˈthose peˈdestrian ˋprecincts ǀ – ˌno ˎcars ad˳mitted ǀ – with ˈconcrete ˈbenches ǀ to ˚sit on ǀ and ˈconcrete ˋtubs ǀ for ˎplants. But the ˌbenches were ˎwet. It was ˎwinter ǀ and there ˌwasn’t a ˎplant ǀ to be ˎseen. I ˌpassed ˳some ˏshops, ǀ ˌbright ˏlights, ǀ and ˏbargains ǀ and ˌfashionable ˌdresses on ˌplastic ˏfigures, ǀ ˌvideos and ˏfridges ǀ and ˌhundreds of ˌshoes at ˌgive-away ˏprices, ǀ ˌleft ˳over ˏgift ˚wrapping, ǀ and ˏholly, ǀ and ˎsnowmen. I ˈwalked ˋalong, ǀ ˈlooking in the ˎwindows. The ˈlast of the ˈshop as˚sistants was ˈjust ˈclosing the ˋdoors. “ˈCould you ˇtell me, ǀ ˚please, ǀ ˌwhere ˋMarket ˳Street ˳was.” She ˈhad ˈno ˎidea. She was a ˋstudent ǀ ˈdoing a ˋholiday ˳job ǀ and she ˈdidn’t ˋknow the ˳district ˳yet. She ˈthought ǀ there was a ˈpub in the ˋfirst ˳street on the ˳left. Perˈhaps they’d ˚know ˎthere. It was ˈall ˈvery ˋodd. There was ˌjust ˈnobody aˋbout. I ˈwalked ˎon ǀ and ˈtook the ˈleft ˎturning, ǀ where she’d ˋsaid, ǀ and ˋfound the ˳pub. But, ǀ of ˋcourse, ǀ they ˈdidn’t ˈopen till ˋseven. And it was ˈjust ˈhalf ˚past ˋfive. I ˈwent round to a ˋside ˳door ǀ and ˈrang a ˎbell.



  1. At the Railway Station

Traveller: ˈCan you ˇhelp me, ˚please? I’m ˈtravelling to ˋYork, ǀ but apˇparently, ǀ the ˈtrain ǀ I was to ˇcatch ǀ has been ˋcancelled.

Assistant: The ˌtrain to ˌYork. ˈWhen were you ˈhoping to ˋtravel?

Traveller: On the ˈeleven ˈforty-ˋeight. And on the ˇindicator ˚board ǀ it ˈsays ǀ it’s ˋcancelled.

Assistant: ˌEleven ˌforty-ˌeight to ˎYork. ˈThat’s ˋright. There ˈseems to be ˚some ˈtrouble on the ˋline… they’ve ˈhad to ˈtake it ˋoff. The ˈnext ˇdirect ˚train ǀ is at ˈthirteen-ˋtwenty.

Traveller: ˌThirteen-ˎtwenty. And ˈwhen does it ˈget to ˋYork?

Assistant: It ˈgets to >York … >at … fifˈteen ˋten.

Traveller: ˈOh, ˋLord! Perˈhaps I could ˈgo by aˈnother ˋroute, by an ˋearlier ˳train?

Assistant: ˈJust a ˋmoment. ˈHow ˈmuch ˋluggage do you ˳have?

Traveller: ˈOnly ˇthis ˚bag?

Assistant: Beˌcause if you ˈdon’t ˈmind ˇchanging, ǀ you could ˌgo ˈvia ˋManchester. There’s a ˇtrain ǀ due ˚out in ǀ – >hang on ǀ – ˈjust ˈfive ˋminutes.

Traveller: ˋWhich ˳platform will ˳that ˳be?

Assistant: From ˌplatform ˋtwo. But you’ll ˈhave to ˋchange.

Traveller: I ˈdon’t ˋmind ˳that. But ˈwhat about your ˋticket? ˈCan I ˈuse the ˋsame ˳ticket?

Assistant: ˈLet me ˎlook. ˈThat’s ˇOK, ǀ ˋyes. It’s ˈjust the ˋsame ˳fare.

Traveller: And ˈwhat ˚time will ˈthat ˋget me ˳there?

Assistant: At ˈfourteen ˈforty-ˋeight. About ˈtwenty ˈminutes before the ˋdirect ˳train. But you’ll ˈhave to ˇhurry! ˇPlatform ˚two ǀ – ˈchange at ˋManchester.



  1. Oscar wants to know

  • ˋPapa, ǀ ˈwhat does opporˋtunity ˳mean?

  • “Opporˇtunity ǀ is a ˈchance to ˈmake ˚some ˎmoney”, Mr ˳Darcey ˳answered.

  • “ˋPapa, ǀ ˋhow do ˳people ˳make ˳money?” ˳asked ˳Oscar.

  • ˳People ˳make ˳money by ˈgoing into ˎbusiness.

  • ˋPapa, ǀ ˈcan ˋeverybody ˳go into ˳business?

  • Of ˋcourse, ǀ ˋeverybody can ˳go into ˳business.

  • ˏIf ˳everybody ˳goes into ˳business, ǀ ˋwill they ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen?

  • ˌEverybody ˋcan’t ˳go into ˳business.

  • ˋWhy ˳can’t they, ˳Papa?

  • Beˌcause they ˈhaven’t ˈgot ˋenough ˳money.

  • If they ˏget ˚enough ˚money, ǀ and ˏif they ˳all go into ˳business, ǀ ˋwill they ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen?

  • They ˋwill, ǀ ˏnaturally.

  • But ˏif ˚everybody is a ˚businessman, ǀ ˈwho will ˈdo the ˋwork, ˳Papa?

  • They ˋcan’t ˳all ˳be ˳businessmen.

  • “ˊEven if they ˚have ˚enough ˚money?” ˚asked ˚Oscar.

  • “ˋEven if they ˳have ˳enough ˳money,” ˳said Mr ˳Darcey. “ˈSomebody ˋmust ˳do the ˳work”.

  • ˈHow ˋmany ˳people can ˳be ˳businessmen, ˳Papa?

  • ˈOne out of a ˋthousand.

  • But ˋPapa, ǀ if ↑only a ˇfew ˚men can ˚become ˚businessmen, ǀˈwhat can the ˋrest of the ˳people ˳do, ǀ if they ˈdon’t ˋwant to ˳be ˳workers?

  • The ˌrest can ˌbe ˌbusinessmen ǀ ˋtoo, ǀ if they are ˋclever ˳enough ǀ and if they ˌhave ˌenough ˎinitiative.

  • But ˇyou ˚said ǀ ˳only a ˇfew of them ˚can. ˋMost of them ǀ ˋmust be ˳workers…





















Тексты для подготовки к экзаменам

(Открывая мир с английским языком. Говорение. Speaking. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва;

Открывая мир с английским языком. Современные темы для обсуждения. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва)





Text 1

Dance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, often rhythmic and to music. Most people like dancing and they dance for different reasons. It is difficult to say when dance became an important part of human culture. Dance has been used during different ceremonies, rituals and celebrations since prehistoric times. In the past people danced to tell stories and to show feelings for one of the opposite gender. Dance plays a vital role in many of the world’s religions. People have used dance in praise of their gods, in celebration of the seasons, and simply as an outward expression of joy or grief.

For many people dance is an excellent opportunity to have fun, to express their emotions, to relieve stress, to experience music and to improve their health and fitness levels. Also, dance can be a form of nonverbal communication. It helps two people say “I love you” to each other. That is why many couples celebrate their unions with a wedding dance, which is the symbol of their love and affection.





Text 2

There are lots of different dancing styles. Some of them can be practiced alone (solo dance), as a couple (partner dance), or as a part of a much larger group (group dance).Many people dedicate their lives to dancing and spend years perfecting their dancing skills. But it is not necessary to be a professional. The most important thing is just to love dancing. There are many reality television shows and movies that have made ballroom dancing popular and appealing to the average person. Some people take dance lessons or just buy videos and DVDs that teach different dance steps.

While dancing, people try to express their emotions or to tell a story through their movements and facial expressions. Dance fills your body with energy and makes you feel happier. Dancing is a wonderful way to exercise while having fun. Besides, it has a lot of health benefits. It increases your muscle tone, lowers blood pressure and enhances the release of endorphins. It helps you burn calories and lose weight. But of course many people dance simply for the sake of dancing.



Text 3

Comedy films are designed to amuse and entertain the audience and to make people laugh. They often humorously exaggerate situations, ways of speaking, the action and characters. Many comedies are light-hearted stories which have a happy end.

Action film is a film genre where characters are thrust into a series of challenges that require physical feats. Action films usually feature explosions, car chases, villains, fist fights and other acts of violence. Stunt men are employed to take the place of an actor when something dangerous has to be done in a film. Action films often employ visual effects and computer animation.

Romance films are love stories that focus on passion and emotion. They make the love story or the search for love the main plot focus. Occasionally, lovers face obstacles such as finances, physical illness, various forms of discrimination, psychological restraints or families that threaten to break their union of love. Tensions of day-to-day life and temptations enter into the plots of romantic films. Romantic films often explore the essential themes of love at first sight, unrequited love, forbidden love or tragic love.





Text 4

Horror films often feature scenes that startle the viewer. They may deal with the viewer’s nightmares, hidden fears, revulsion and terror of the unknown. Plots with the horror genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage, commonly of supernatural origin, into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts, aliens, vampires, werewolves, curses, demons, monsters, zombies, cannibals, and serial killers.

Thriller is a film genre that uses suspense, tension and excitement as the main elements. The aim of a thriller is to keep the audience alert and on the edge of their seats. Thrillers heavily stimulate the viewers’ moods giving them a high level of anticipation, expectation, uncertainty, surprise, anxiety or terror. The concealing of important information from the viewer, as well as fight and chase scenes are common devices used in all of the thriller subgenres. Others such as red herrings, plot twists and cliffhangers are also used extensively. Thrillers tend to be adrenaline-rushing, fast-moving, psychological, threatening, mysterious and sometimes involve espionage, terrorism and conspiracy.





Text 5

Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic, supernatural events, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. They often have an element of magic, myth, wonder, escapism, and the extraordinary. Flying carpets, magic swords, spells, dragons, and ancient religious relics or objects are common elements. Some fantasy films may include supernatural characters such as magicians, fairies, dwarves and elves. In fantasy films, the hero often undergoes some kind of mystical experience and must ask for assistance from powerful, superhuman forces.





Text 6

Everybody likes watching movies. Movies are a source of entertainment for people of all ages and professions. They stir emotions and stimulate conversation.

Movies introduce us to cultures, historical events, and stories with which we are unfamiliar. They can bring families together. Family movie night is a fun activity that encourages parents and children to spend more time together and discuss different things.

Besides, movies can be used in classrooms to enhance learning. For example, watching the original versions of a foreign movie is an effective way of improving one’s language skills. Those who learn foreign languages seldom have an opportunity to talk to native speakers. Original movies give us a chance to listen to fluent speech and introduce us to new vocabulary and grammar.

Text 7

Everybody likes watching movies. Movies are a source of entertainment for people of all ages and professions. They stir emotions and stimulate conversation.

However, not all films are good. Watching violent films or horror movies can lead to nightmares, disruption to concentration or a fearful view of the world. Many films feature scenes that startle the viewer, including blood and injuries, environmental disasters or scary animals. Besides, films may contain rough or abusive language.

In addition, watching movies can interfere with basic physical activity. People who spend too many hours in front of a television have little time for exercise and outdoor activities. Some people eat fast food while watching a movie, which can result in excess weight gain.

Last but not least, watching a movie is a one-sided activity. People look at the screen and don’t look at each other during the film. They dip into exciting adventures of the main characters and don’t pay attention to what their friends or family members do or say. For this reason, watching a movie may be a disadvantage for dating or other relationship-building activities.





Text 8

People often read books for pleasure. Reading can be one of the cheapest and most satisfying forms of entertainment. But books have the power to educate, too. History, science, art, sport, geography, philosophy and relationships are topics that books cover in detail. Books can tell us about different countries and people as well as their customs and traditions. Besides, reading can help you improve your vocabulary and develop your critical thinking and analytical skills. Reading requires a great deal of concentration and teachers readers to focus.

Reading is an excellent way to reduce stress and a healthy means of escapism. Books transfer you to other countries, continents or even to other worlds, introduce you to amazing people, and make you laugh and cry. Reading fires your imagination. Just open a book and you will dip into exciting adventures of the main characters. You will hardly feel lonely or bored with an interesting book in your hands. A book is faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. That is why many people cannot imagine their lives without books.





Text 9

Many people say that listening to music is their favourite pastime. They close their eyes and begin to surf on the waves of rhythm and to dive into the sea of pleasant sounds. Scientists say that listening to either soothing or upbeat music can have psychological and physical effects. Music helps you relax and eases anxiety even in moments of great stress. Music can help change your mood when you are feeling excessively up or down. Also, it can bring back memories you may have forgotten.

Music can challenge us intellectually. People listening to music tend to feel more creative in the task they are doing, such writing, painting or even cleaning the house. Music can help calm a person down, but it can also give a person energy. Many people listen to an MP3 player when exercising. They say that music increases the enjoyment of exercise.

Exploring different types of music can broaden your experience. Listening to music improves your concentration and increases productivity. What s more, music often touches us more deeply and reaches us more profoundly than any words.



Text 10

Computer games are growing in popularity. But they are meant not only for entertainment. Educational games teach players using the game as a vehicle. They help children develop reading skills, strategic thinking and planning skills. It has been noticed that gamers don’t realize they are learning. So if educational games could be used at school, education would enjoy significant benefits. Some computer games increase players’ attention capacities because they require a great deal of patience and focus from the player. Also, they can improve your visual skills and help you develop coordination. Certain types of computer games can improve gamers’ dexterity and their ability to solve problems.

However, computer games have a lot of disadvantages. Their developers have been accused of the depiction of graphic violence, sexual themes, consumption of drugs, alcohol or tobacco, bad language, propaganda, profanity and advergaming (a form of advertising in games). Many games encourage violent behavior, blur the difference between right and wrong and can lead to addiction. Computer games make children and teenagers unsociable and passive. Time spent in front of the computer has increased, while time spent reading, playing outside or exercising has decreased. Children can play for hours without eating or sleeping. That is one of the reasons why levels of obesity among children and teenagers are rising.





Text 11

Making a good career choice is a problem which worries many people today. Employers demand perfect knowledge, work experience, a range of transferable skills and such qualities as efficiency, punctuality, practicality, creativity and many others. If you want to get a good job, you should know your employer’s requirements and you need to convince your employer that you are the best candidate for it.

If you want to become a good specialist, you should be competent. Competence is a requirement for a person to properly perform a specific job. In other words, it is a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior and the ability to carry out a specific role. Many companies need people who can work effectively in different countries and cultures. Therefore, it is important to acquire intercultural competence. Employees should understand people of other cultures and work effectively with them.



Text 12

Making career is something that everybody has to do at some point or another. A career choice is a very important decision that affects the rest of a person’s life. However, choosing a career can take a lot of time, thought and energy.

Many people find it difficult to choose a career, but certain factors influence their decision. Some young people think that they’d better follow in their parents’ footsteps when choosing a job. They choose careers that mirror their family members’ professions because they can see the benefits and disadvantages of their parents’ careers and receive their help and advice. Others choose a career just because “everyone else is doing it”.

First of all, you should ask yourself what you really love doing. Do you enjoy travelling and meeting new people? Do you love crunching numbers? Do you need to be creative in your work? You should think of a career that will be intellectually rewarding and personally fulfilling.

However, not everyone is fortune to find a job that they will like. Many people say that money plays a key role in career decisions, especially if they have families to support.

But doing something you hate will make you unhappy despite the possible financial gains. If your work is too boring or difficult, you will feel dissatisfies and depressed.

Besides, when you choose your future career, you should consider your current level of education. Most jobs require at least a high school diploma, and many jobs require specific training, college or university degrees. In general, the more education you have, the wider your career options are.





Text 13

English has become a global language. Millions of people speak English today. It is used by at least 750 million people. Some estimates have put that figure closer to one billion.

The historic and economic dominance first of England and then of the United States have made English the most widespread language for both business and leisure. English is the primary language for global commerce and it it the primary language used in international affairs. For example, when a Chinese businessman and his German clients meet in an international location, they communicate in English. English is the medium of communication in such fields as aviation and science. Therefore, there is no sense in looking for jobs in these fields if you don’t speak English. Knowledge of English is important for diplomats and high-ranking officials. Knowing English can provide you with a job advantage over non-English speakers and opens employment opportunities in many countries and markets.

A lot of movies, songs and books are in English. Three-quarters of the world’s mail is in English, so are more than half of the world and scientific periodicals. The largest broadcasting companies in the world, including BBC and CNN, transmit in English to audiences that regularly exceed one hundred million. What is more, 80 per cent of all information stored in the world’s computers is in English.





Text 14

Learning foreign languages has a lot of benefits. If you don’t speak foreign languages, you’ll probably have difficulty in finding a well-paid job.

It can make you an attractive candidate for many jobs and improve your chances of career development. Besides, knowledge of a foreign language is important for those who do business around the globe.

And it is also important for those who are fond of travelling. Nor knowing the language of a country you’re visiting can be annoying and even dangerous. If you are able to communicate with the locals, read signs and understand your surroundings, travelling will be much easier.

What is more, those who learn foreign languages are introduced to other cultures, which results in broader understanding of the world, politics, history and human interactions.





Text 15

Learning foreign languages has a lot of benefits.

However, learning a foreign language can be a challenging task for many people. It is necessary to memorize thousands of words and to learn grammatical rules to master a language. Besides, one may face pronunciation problems. Learning a foreign language takes a lot of time, patience, dedication and hard work.

It requires a significant investment of your time, effort and money. You could do something else with those resources, such as spend time with your family and friends, read books, exercise or take up a new hobby such a photography or painting.

In addition, learning a foreign language can be expensive, especially if you take college courses or pay for private tutoring. It’s possible to learn a new language from self-study, but practicing speaking with others makes learning more effective and enjoyable.

As a matter of fact, knowing a foreign language isn’t useful to everybody. For example, if you can’t afford to travel, you might never get to speak the language with natives. Knowledge of a foreign language is not essential for some jobs either. So there’s no need to learn a foreign language if you are not planning to use it.





Text 16

Etiquette is a set of formal rules for polite behavior in a given social situation. Nowadays good manners are becoming even more important. Common courtesies such as saying ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ or holding doors open for women make the world a nicer place to live in. Good manners cost nothing, and it takes little extra time to practice them.

People should treat others as they wish to be treated. Our behavior and manners help form the perception people have of us. If you display proper etiquette, you are considered polite and well-bred. Demonstrating etiquette can help to make the right first impression and build personal and professional relationships. Using good manners shows your respect for others. It also shows that you are a person to be respected. Good manners help people make friends and make social interactions more pleasant.

Etiquette, good manners and communication skills are essential for success in business. Businessmen need to understand how best to deal with their clients and business partners. Customers and other businessmen would rather deal with someone who exercises manners and professionalism. Using business etiquette can help improve business interactions with co-workers and clients. Besides, a businessman with good manners is likely to earn a reputation as a calm and competent professional.





Text 17

Jealousy is a powerful emotion that can be damaging to relationships. When you commit your love to one person, you want a deep commitment in return. Anything that threatens that commitment provokes jealousy. Jealousy usually arouses negative emotions like sadness, anger, anxiety, fear and a feeling of insecurity. It also involves suspicion of betrayal, distrust, uncertainty, fear of separation and low self-esteem. We often feel jealousy when we are afraid of losing the person we love. Jealousy occurs in romantic relationships, but it can also occur in friendship, family and work relationships or in almost any form of human interaction.

Some people say that mild jealousy heightens passion for one’s partner and keeps a relationship alive. It can encourage people to appreciate each other. But if jealousy becomes irrational, it can be destructive. Jealousy is often triggered by our imagination and assumptions. Having a jealous partner is exhausting because everything you do will be interpreted wrongly. When we are jealous, common sense and rationality matter very little and our emotions get out of control. In extreme cases jealousy can lead to aggressive behavior and violence. Excessive jealousy can cause significant damage to relationships, and can even cause them to end.





Text 18

Different situations and events arouse either positive or negative emotions. Events like a wedding or the arrival of a new baby usually make us happy. However, there are some unpleasant and stressful events in our lives like divorce, job loss or illness. They often result in feelings of anger, bitterness, despair or hopelessness. Holding on to negative emotions harms your health and well-being. It can cause stress and lead to health problems. That’s why people try to avoid negative emotions.

If you are in a bad mood, you can try to spend your time outdoors. Having a picnic or walking your dog in the park can turn your negative emotions into positive energy.

If not, find an interesting or favorite book. Reading helps your mind and body relax and escape from the negativity of bad emotions.

If you’re constantly in low spirits, engage in some activities that can elevate your mood. For example, exercising will help you relieve the stress associated with negative emotions. Dancing, jogging, running, swimming or weight lifting are beneficial to the body and mind. Exercising lowers stress-producing chemicals. That’s why it’s the best remedy for insomnia, depression and stress.





Text 19

Our life would be hard without rest and recreation. People have quite different ideas of how to spend their free time. For some of them the only way to relax is watching TV or drinking beer. But other people use their spare time getting maximum benefit from it. If you enjoy doing some activity in your free time, then you have a hobby. Person’s hobbies are not connected with his profession, but they are practiced for fun and enjoyment. A hobby gives one the opportunity of acquiring substantial skill, knowledge and experience. A hobby is a kind of self-expression and the way to understand other people and the whole world. Person’s hobbies depend on his age, intelligence level, character and personal interests. What is interesting to one person can be trivial or boring to another. That’s why some people prefer reading, cooking, knitting, collecting, playing a musical instrument, painting, photography, fishkeeping or playing computer games while others prefer dancing, travelling, camping or sports.





Text 20

Ecotourism is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the tourism industry. The International Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as ‘responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people’. Ecotourism has a save-the-planet goal. Unfortunately there are very few pristine and unpolluted areas left in the world and they must be protected. Ecotourism is a travelling to natural destinations with rare flora and fauna.

Ecotourism is for environment-conscious people who love Nature, understand the negative influence of conventional tourism on the environment and want to minimize it. Ecotourism promotes recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, safe disposal of waste and garbage and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities.





Text 21

Ecotourism is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the tourism industry. It has a lot of advantages in comparison with usual tourism.

However ecotourism may have some negative aspects. The increasing number of tourists may damage the local environment. Some tourists don’t understand the negative consequences of their visits. Many of them don’t know how to behave and don’t follow the main rule of ecotourism ‘Leave nothing behind you except footprints and take nothing away except photographs’. They pollute drinking water, pick up rare flowers, disturb wild animals, purchase souvenirs made from the skin of endangered animals or leaves of rare plants. Searching for ‘untouched places’ tourists move off the beaten path and scare away animals.

First and foremost ecotourism is education. That is why before visiting some remote area tourists should learn as much as they can about its flora, fauna, local people, history, culture and traditions. It is also useful to learn a few words of the local language. The more information you learn, the more you will get out of your trip. It is very important to be open-minded and respectful.





Text 22

People of all nationalities celebrate festivals to mark a religious event, to commemorate some significant occasions in their history, to preserve their traditions and just for merry-making. Festivals are organized to unite people and to provide entertainment. Every country has its own unique customs and events. There are many famous festivals around the world such as the Carnivals in Rio de Janeiro and Venice. They are very large and colorful events which draw huge crowds of local people and tourists. But there are a lot of smaller festivals going on in different countries every day of the year. Some of them are quite usual. Others are bizarre and crazy.

There are a lot of bizarre festivals in the world such as Great American Bathtub Race in Alaska, the USA, the World Sauna Championships in Heinola, Finland, the World’s Biggest Liar Competition in Wasdale, England, Camel Wrestling in the Aegean region, Turkey and many other festivals in different parts of the world. Maybe some of them are silly and crazy but they remind us that life is not boring at all and we should derive as much pleasure as we can from it. Besides laughter makes us healthier and lengthens our lives.





Text 23

What is a dream? The dictionary defines this word as ‘a series of thoughts, images, and feelings that you experience when you are asleep’. In other words dreams are imaginary sleeping visions. People spend one third of their lives asleep but they don’t fully understand the purpose of dreams. Some scientists think that dreams allow us to solve problems, to create new ideas and to find answers to the most complicated questions. There are some corroborations of this theory. For example a famous Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev invented the periodic table after he had seen it in his dream. The modern theory is that dreams are the brain’s way of organizing the events of the day and deleting the information that doesn’t need. It is like the cleaning-up operations of computers.





Text 24

Some of our dreams are very strange and don’t make any sense at all. When we sleep, some areas of our brain are active while others are not. Scientists have proved that the frontal lobes that control emotion, memory, and experiences are active, but the areas that control rational, logical thought are not active at all. Our dreams depend on our emotional state as well. When we are depressed, we usually have dreams which make our sleep disturbed. When we fear something, we may have a nightmare. We can experience intense feelings while sleeping: a sense of exhilaration, joy and excitement or anxiety, trepidation and alarm. The more we think about a person, the more likely we are to dream about him. If we are preoccupied with some problems, we will continue thinking about them while sleeping. That’s why Chinese say ‘What you think during the daytime you will dream at night’.





Text 25

People’s dreams have various scripts but there are some common themes. For example most people dream about flying, being chased, falling or not being able to move. People have always sought meaning in dreams and considered them to be predictions of the future. There are a lot of books trying to interpret our dreams and to explain what the future holds. So if we dream about being chased, we are running away from something in real life. A dream about crossroads symbolizes that soon we will have to make an important decision about business or love. Finding money may symbolize a birth. Crossing a river means a fundamental change of lifestyle. Dreaming about a rainbow predicts good news.

Doctors assert that if a person wants to be healthy and to live long, he must sleep 8 hours per night. But some people (for example night-shift workers) are deprived of normal sleep. Some of us suffer from insomnia because of the distortion of the natural rhythm of sleep occasioned by noise, anxiety, excessive tiredness or excitement and many other factors. But a person needs his amount of sleep and he can do without it only temporarily. If he has missed a lot of sleep, he looks tired, becomes absent-minded and makes many mistakes. So sleep is important both to our body and mind.





Text 26

Artificial intelligence (AI) is invading the world. In the 90-s and early 21 century AI achieved its greatest success. There are more and more jobs which humans leave to robots such as exploring another planet, defusing bombs, exploring inside a volcano or just doing boring household chores like cleaning. Computers can perform a lot of functions: they can control cars and planes, give us the news, play chess and football or compose music. Many factory jobs are performed by industrial robots nowadays. It has led to cheaper production of various goods, including of automobiles and electronics. Industrial robots have little resemblance to a human being.

Artificial intelligence has successfully been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, scientific discovery and toys. Industrial robots are also used for packaging of manufactured goods, transporting goods around warehouses or hospitals or removing tiny electronic components with great accuracy, speed and reliability. Robots can move around, sense and manipulate their environment, predict the actions of others and exhibit intelligent behavior. Scientists are interested in designing robots that resemble a human.





Text 27

Mobile phones have changed people’s lives. They give us an opportunity to stay in touch and to be reachable everywhere. If you are going to be late, you can just call your relatives, friends or colleagues or send them a text message. It is very easy and comfortable, especially for the busy modern lifestyle. So a mobile phone has become a vital part of our daily lives and it is difficult to imagine how people lived without mobile phones in the past.

The modern mobile phone is a more complex version of the two way radio which was a very limited means of communication. As soon as the callers moved out of range of each other’s broadcast area, the signal was lost. In the 1940s, scientists began using a number of radio masts located around the countryside to pick up signals from two-way radios. A user would always be within range of one of the masts. If he moved too far away from one mast, the next mast would pick up the signal. Scientists called each mast’s reception area a separate ‘cell’; this is why mobile phones are called ‘cell phones’.



Text 28

Nowadays the mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (after cinema, TV and PC screens as the first three). It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet as the first six).

The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is Short message service (SMS). It is a wireless service that enables to send and receive short messages to and from mobile telephones. It is interesting to know that the first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS fro phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. SMS messages have a number of advantages. Firstly, SMS is a rather cheap and quick method of communication. Secondly, SMS messages are non-intrusive. In comparison with a call they do not interrupt a person if he or she is in the middle of a meeting and can’t answer you right now.

The 160-character limit on text message has led to a new, abbreviated version of English similar to a rebus. There are no standard rules for writing SMS messages, and a lot of words can be shortened. Sending SMS messages can be time consuming. The objective of SMS is to convey a comprehensible message as quickly as possible. That is why traditional rules of grammar, spelling and punctuation are largely ignored when you are hurriedly typing to your friend that you are going to be late.





Text 29

All parents want their kids to be successful and happy and they try to find names with characteristics. Some parents choose names which mean richness such as Darius, Daria, Edwina, Pluto, Richmond and Donald. They believe that a name can mold a child’s personality, give strength, wealth or wisdom. Nowadays parents are more likely to search out less common names for their children. For example a girl in Washington was christened Merry Christmas and her surname was Day. Most names have a meaning. For example Victoria comes from a Latin word ‘victoria’ meaning ‘victory’. Margaret derived from Latin Margarita, which was from Greek ‘margarites’ meaning ‘pearl’. Diana means ‘heavenly, divine’.

Choosing your baby’s name is a very difficult decision because it will become an important part of his life and self-image. Bruce Lansky, an author of eight books on baby names, say that ‘when you pick the right name, you are giving your child a head start’. Psychologists say that common names elicit positive reactions, while unusual names bring negative responses. A person’s name can create a positive or negative image. Having a popular name may be an advantage, for example when a person submits a job application.

Text 30

Stress is the emotional and physical strain caused by people’s response to pressure from the outside world. Stress causes tension, irritability, anxiety, alarm, loss of concentration, sensations of fear and panic as well as headaches and a fast heartbeat. It can result in a real breakdown of health. Stress can even cause heart disease and cancer.

There are a lot of stressful events in our lives, such as divorce, losing a job or having difficulties at home or at work. But changes for the better can also cause stress, like a new baby, a wedding, and a new house. Pupils and students often face stress from problems at school, poor relationships with peers, strict and demanding teachers, exams and many other problems.

Feeling stressed many people try to find some distraction and to escape their problems. They begin overeating, smoking, drinking, and even taking drugs. But junk food, cigarettes, sleeping pills and alcohol don’t help. On the contrary, they make things much worse and more difficult to patch up.





Text 31

What makes young people smoke, drink, take drugs or lead a dissolute life? As a rule they don’t think about the risks they run and the terrible consequences of such a dissolute life. But they’d better stop it before it’s too late.

Smoking is practiced by more than 1 billion including women, teenagers and children. Smokers should know that nicotine is a drug that causes addiction like heroin or cocaine and it is very harmful to their health. Besides in nicotine there are over 400 chemicals in one cigarette that are known to be harmful. Smoking is among the leading causes of many serious diseases such as many forms of cancer including lung cancer, heart attacks, cardiovascular disease, asthma, bronchitis, cataracts, etc. It can lead to birth defects and reduces memory. Tobaco-related diseases shorten life and cause premature death. Regular smokers are estimated to live up to 10 years fewer than non-smokers. Besides all these facts people who smoke have yellow teeth, bad breath, dry skin and premature wrinkles. So what is it that makes people light up a cigarette in spite of all warnings? Some of them say that they enjoy smoking because they like the taste or smell of cigarettes or because it helps them steady their nerves and think. Others say that it helps them make friends and feel relaxed in a company of smoking people. For many children and teenagers smoking is the first step out of childhood and the way to show off. But the game is not worth the candle!





Text 32

Some people are sure that alcohol helps them relax, feel more confident, communicate with people and enjoy life. As a result they have a hangover and feel pangs of conscience the next day. A drunk person is characterized by a tipsy gait, slurred speech and silly or indecent behavior. He is not responsible for his actions and everything may happen to him. For example, he may lose his purse or fall and break his leg. A drunk person is often subject to violence and public disorder. He is extremely dangerous when he drives a car as it can lead to terrible accidents. Alcohol misuse causes physical, social and moral harm to the drinker. Overdosing can be fatal as it causes alcohol poisoning. Large amounts of alcohol impair normal brain development. A person who drinks loses everybody’s respect and it affects his family and friends. Besides, it is very difficult to stop drinking especially for a woman.





Text 33

Millions of people throughout the world have AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) which is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). HIV makes a person’s body unable to defend itself against diseases and infections. Thousands of young people are infected with AIDS every day. 9 out of 10 people are unaware that they are infected. The disease is passed through leading a dissolute life, blood transfusion or breastfeeding from mother to her baby. People taking drugs infect each other exchanging needles and syringes. There is still no cure for AIDS, but some medical treatments have made it possible for the infected people to live for much longer than before as they slow the course of the disease. Everybody should care about AIDS as it can touch anyone.





Text 34

In other words publicity is public notice or attention. Many people dream of being famous. They admire different celebrities whose photographs are published on almost every page of many newspapers and magazines, who appear in numerous talk shows and act in different films. The mass media have created ‘the cult of celebrity’. Some actors, singers or musicians become famous not because they are very talented but because there are a lot of articles about them in the press and they constantly appear in reality TV shows. But fame doesn’t only mean expensive cars, luxurious houses, crazy parties and everybody’s admiration. There is also the other side of the coin. Sometimes people have to pay a high price for publicity.

A celebrity is a person whose private life is discussed by journalists, TV-viewers and newspaper and magazine readers. If you are a star you can forget about privacy as everybody will interfere in your life and pry into your affairs. The deepest secrets of your family may become public property. Paparazzi follow famous people around in order to take unflattering photographs of them in their most intimate moments making it impossible for them to have a private life. Newspapers and magazines publish unreliable information and spread rumors. I don’t think it’s easy to work and rest being constantly chased by journalists and photographs.





Text 35

Friendship is considered one of the central human experiences and for many people it may be as important as love. It is an essential component of many people’s daily lives. It is rather difficult to describe the main features of friendship in one phrase. Friendship means devotion, faith, complete trust and unselfishness. A friend is a person who understands and supports you in times of need or crisis, shows kindness and sympathy, as similar tastes, interests and life philosophies.

Your friend is your helper, adviser and supporter. You can always trust him and share your hardships with him. Friends are absolutely disinterested and they help you without being asked to and without the expectation that you will have to repay them. A true friend can always acknowledge his fault if he is wrong and apologize. Besides, a true friend can forgive you if you have hurt his feelings or if you have given him a lot of trouble.

Text 36

There are different types of friendship. For example not every friend is called your best or close friend. Your best friend is a person with whom you share strong interpersonal ties. Your soulmate is someone who is considered the ultimate, true, and eternal half of your soul. An acquaintance is a person with whom you don’t share emotional ties, for example your coworker. A person with whom you share a ‘postal’ relationship and communicate through letters is your pen pal. Nowadays it is very popular to make friends online. Friendship that takes place through the Internet is called Internet friendship.

Most people have friends, regardless of gender, age, education, financial position and residency. But they tend to form friendships with representatives of their own social circle and with people of their own age. There is often a gap between people with different educational level, life experience and financial standing. In other words people understand friendship as a union of the equal. However some of us have friends who are much younger or older than we are, who are poorer or wealthier and whose level of education is much higher or lower than ours.





Text 37

What is love? Even in this advanced age of science, when people conquer space, do the shopping via the Internet, clone animals and transplant organs, they still don’t fully understand the nature and purpose of love. Love is a mixture of complex and extremely powerful feelings. It’s a major theme in philosophy, literature, music, poetry and cinematography.

Scientists affirm that love has a chemical basis. Recent studies in neuroscience have shown that when people fall in love, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals that stimulate the brain’s pleasure centre and cause increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. This stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years. So it’s not unusual that passion which characterizes the first stage of love disappears with the passing of time and other feelings such as respect, tenderness and affection set in. Only true love stands the test of time. People who are truly in love and who have been together for years don’t grow apart but draw closer to one another.

Text 38

The word ‘money’ is believed to originate from a temple located on the Capitoline, one of Rome’s seven hills. On one of the Capitoline’s peaks, the temple of Juno Moneta stood where the mint of Ancient Rome was located.

Modern money consists mainly of paper bills, coins and cheques. But before coins and banknotes were introduced, other things such as precious metals, gold, beads, beans, rice, metal disks or shells served as money. In the fourth millennium BC the Egyptians used gold bars of a set weight as a medium of exchange. According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins. Modern scholars think that the first stamped coins were minted around 650-600 BC. The first banknotes appeared in China in the 7th century.

In the past people also used a barter system (a system of exchanging goods and services directly for other goods and services rather than using money). But the process was extremely difficult and time-consuming. That is why it was decided to invent a unit of account to specify price.





Text 39

Fashion has become an important part of our daily lives. A lot of people pay much attention to what they wear. Clothes do not only protect the human body from extreme weather, insects, chemicals and other hazards. They also serve to attract attention and to indicate status. People usually choose clothes according to their age, social class, financial position, ethnic and religious affiliations and occupation. They also choose clothes according to their tastes, character and preferences. Sometimes a single item of clothing or a single accessory declares a person’s occupation or marital status.

The word ‘fashion’ has become a synonym for beauty, style and glamour. The dictionary defines ‘fashion’ as ‘the way of dressing or behaving that is usual or popular at a certain time’. Fashion is constantly changing. New styles and materials appear every year. Every shop offers a wide choice of fashionable clothes and it is hard to resist the temptation to buy a new item of clothing.



Text 40

Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), such as genetically modified crops or genetically modified fish. GM crops are developed by changing a plant’s genetic structure in order to help the plant resist against diseases caused by insects or viruses or to produce larger crops. Scientists first discovered that DNA can transfer between organisms in 1946. The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1983.

There are controversies around GM food. There is no scientific conclusion so far to prove its safety for human consumption. Producers of genetically modified food say that it has a number of advantages in terms of price, durability and nutritional value. They claim that there is no risk to human health. There are also some supporters that see GM crops as providing benefits to the environment through a reduction in the use of pesticides.

The European Union, Australia, China and other countries require GMO labeling. Such labeling is not required in the United States and in Russia, although possible side effects connected with the use of GM products have not been studied.





Text 41

The greenhouse effect causes the temperature on Earth to rise. It happens because heat cannot escape through the upper levels of the air surrounding the Earth. The consequences of the greenhouse effect may be disastrous: arctic ice is gradually melting, sea-level is rising. As a result, all coastal areas may be flooded.

Global warming is the result of overheating of the air. It is caused by carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels which collect in the space around the Earth.

Acid rain contains harmful quantities of acid. It is mostly caused by emissions which react in the atmosphere to produce acids. Acid rain can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and buildings. Besides, it has adverse impacts on human health.

Ozone depletion refers to the slow decline of ozone in the Earth’s stratosphere. Ozone is a protective layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which is produced by the Sun. Ultraviolet radiation may cause skin cancer and affect the growth of plants. CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) is believed to be responsible for damaging the ozone layer. This gas is used in refrigerators, fire extinguishers and in some aerosols.





Text 42

SALT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT. Life depends on it as much as on water or oxygen. Human beings and animals need salt for the proper functioning of their bodies. But it is strange to think that a mineral as cheap and commonplace as this has played such an exotic and dramatic role in history. Salt sparked off wars in 250 BC; it caused North American Indians to hand over land and furs to European settlers; and in Tibet, Ethiopia and Rome it was so highly valued that it became a form of money.

However, people were not aware of just how much they needed salt until they discovered that it had a very practical use. If meat or fish could be kept in a barrel of salt, or brine, the food could be stored for months without it going bad. So salt became very valuable, and demand began to exceed supply. For Julius Caesar, the news that there was salt in Britain provided a good reason for invading the country. And Roman soldiers were even paid in salt – the origin of the word “salary”.





Text 43

It is one thing to land instruments on Mars; however, it’s quite another to establish a base for humans to explore the planet. Even if we did, we would probably freeze to death. Living on Mars would be a bit like living in a giant fridge, just colder. Daytime temperatures can rise above freezing, but because of the thin atmosphere, the sun’s heat radiates back into space. Even at the equator, the temperature drops to -50ºC at night. In fact, there is no ozone layer to keep out ultraviolet radiation and hardly any oxygen for breathing. It is not possible to burn conventional fuels either, which is yet another problem. But despite all these issues, at the present time scientists are working on transport and clothing for Mars and an artificial environment in which colonists will be able to live. Teams from around the world are sharing their experience and expertise. So far scientists have achieved substantial success in their research. However, the potential cost makes the idea of human life on Mars nothing more than a fantastic dream.







Text 44

There is much controversy over whether language is a gift which only humans enjoy. Naturalists have known for a long time that apes, our nearest relatives in the animal kingdom, communicate with one another through gestures, sounds and facial expressions. But it was thought that only human beings could use words and sentences. In the 1960s, however, researchers set themselves the task of teaching chimpanzees to communicate with humans. At first the scientists tried to make them speak. But no chip ever managed to acquire a vocabulary of more than four words and even these were spoken with great difficulty. The breakthrough came when two scientists from the University of Nevada decided to try American Sign Language, a system of gestures used by deaf people. After four years, they had taught their first chimps to use 132 signs correctly to communicate their wants and needs. Some people may argue that this isn’t very impressive by comparison with a human four-year-old’s 3,000 or so words but it’s still much more than many people had previously considered possible.







Text 45

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a depressive condition which affects one in every 20 people during the winter months. In the northern hemisphere, January to March are the months when sufferers feel the worst. However, for those badly affected by SAD, problems can start as early as August and last right through till spring. The condition is believed to be the result of a lack of sunlight. SAD sufferers feel increasingly tired and depressed, and want to sleep and eat more. Light travels to the part of the brain which controls moods and appetite, and if not enough light is received, then the chemical reactions in your body slow down. The condition was first recognized in 1987, but so far medical science hasn’t come up with a cure for it. There is a treatment called “light therapy” which involves sitting in front of a light box for anything up to two hours a day. SAD sufferers can also help themselves to relieve their symptoms by wearing a special visor around the head which acts like a portable light box. Interestingly, SAD is less common when there is snow on the ground. Scientists have also noticed that SAD is about four times more common in women than in men.



Text 46

The banya (steam bath) is very important to Russians and it’s just as popular in summer as in winter. For centuries the banya has played a big part in the culture of Russia. There is often a banya in or next to country houses, but plenty can be found in towns and cities too. The banya used to be a very practical solutions to the tough conditions Russians faced. If you had lived in Russia a century ago, the communal banya would have been the warmest and cleanest place around. It’s not surprising then that the banya was once the place where babies were born!

With the arrival of modern conveniences, the banya today is more about fun and relaxation than keeping yourself clean. But it’s also a healthy use of your leisure time. What could be better than drinking tea with lemon after a hot banya and exchanging the latest gossip with your friends? Therefore, it’s not surprising that there are millions of banyas in Russia. Big and small, new and old, they continue a very important tradition.



Text 47

It’s difficult to imagine our world without what many consider to be the greatest discovery of the 20th century. However, only 85 years ago, antibiotics weren’t available. Perhaps this key breakthrough in medical history wouldn’t have happened if Alexander Flemming had been more careful about keeping his laboratory clean! Like many scientists, Flemming was not the tidiest person and even a bit forgetful. He left a glass plate coated with bacteria lying around, and a passing mould spore landed on it and performed its amazing bacterium-killing act. No one was more surprised than Flemming at what he saw when he got back to the laboratory. One dirty plate forced Flemming to rethink everything he had known about bacteria before. That was in 1918, but it took another 11 years before the mould’s magic killer ingredient, penicillin, was found. Since then, this first antibiotic has saved millions of lives and is perhaps the single most important discovery known to medical science. The significance of this cannot be overstated.

Text 48

A lot of people have got most of their information about American Indians from the movie world of Hollywood. Many adults, after watching Western films as children, grew up believing that American Indians could communicate with smoke signals almost as easily as people nowadays talk on the telephone. Sadly, the idea that the individual puffs of smoke easily represent complex messages is typical of the kind of exaggeration that Hollywood loves. Smoke signals were indeed used, but their content was limited to a few simple messages. For example, returning Peman fighters in Arizona might signal the end of a successful battle by sending up a column of smoke, at the village would reply with two columns of smoke. One or two unbroken columns of smoke were all that was needed to send a message. It was the place that the signal came from – whether the fire was on a hill or in a valley – that was important. When Apaches, while hunting, spotted another group of Indians in the distance, they lit a fire well to the right of their own group, which meant “Who are you?” The others, in order to let the Apaches to know that they were friends, would send a prearranged reply.





Text 49

Very few people choose their name, but what you are called has a very big impact on your life. Just think of how many times you say or write your name on all those application forms. First name have a relatively long tradition in every society.

Not every society uses surnames and even in Europe they are comparatively recent. They usually developed from people’s profession or location, so Smith, Miller and North are typical British examples. People used to choose quite traditional names for their children. Things have changed now and children can be given quite bizarre names. One football fan named his daughter after every player in the Arsenal football team.

One piece of practical advice for ambitious new parents – choose a name with the first letter from the first half of the alphabet as this is a predictor of success: almost all American presidents fall into this category from Abraham Lincoln to Barack Obama.





Text 50

It is always interesting to know what other people think about us. This is particularly the case with Russia because our country was closed for most of the 20th century. Russia is much more open for outsiders now. Unfortunately, however, there are still a lot of myths and misconceptions about who we are and how we live. To give an example, foreigners are often under the impression that Russians are cold and reserved. In fact, we are very warm-hearted and generous when you get to know us. Next, there is the mistaken belief that winters are unbearably cold everywhere. In fact, the south of Russia has a very mild climate and there are many days in winter when the temperature is above zero, even in Moscow. Then there are critics of our cuisine who say that it bland and tasteless: a diet of bread and potatoes. These people have not tried delightful dishes like the wonderfully named “herring under a fur coat”. As mentioned above, such myths are understandable.







Text 51

You might think that time travel is the stuff of science fiction. So far it is, but scientists begin to challenge the idea that it’s impossible. Time travel is a familiar concept to us. It has been the subject of books by famous figures such as H.D.Wells and Mark Twain. However, researchers today are taking time travel seriously. Developments in theoretical physics show that time, speed and distance interact in a complex way which may allow humans to do the impossible. In fact, the main barriers to time travel are probably technological rather than theoretical. If we were able to travel faster than light, time travel would be a possibility. But at present we are simply incapable of developing such a vehicle. This raises the fascinating question of what we would do if we could travel back and forth in time. Would we be spectators or could we change our past and future? Could time travel damage the present somehow? It’s fun to think about such questions, but if you are a realist you will accept that time travel is still some way off in the future.







Text 52

The length of Queen Victoria’s reign gave an impression of continuity to what was actually a period of dynamic change as Britain grew to become a powerful industrialized trading nation. The queen sympathized with some of these changes – such as the camera, the railroad, and the use of anesthetics in childbirth. She felt doubtful about others, however, such as giving the vote to many more people, establishing tax-supported schools, and allowing women into professions such as medicine. During her reign, the popularity of the British monarchy underwent both ups and downs but ultimately increased. Victoria was important because she brought morality, good manners, and a devotion to hard work to her role as constitutional monarch. She took pride in her role as formal head of the world’s largest multiracial and multireligious empire, and her honesty, patriotism, and devotion to family life made the queen an important symbol of the Victorian era.





Text 53

English is said to have one of the most difficult spelling systems in the world. Take a look at these four words: anxious, fission, fuchsia, and ocean. They all spell the sh sound differently. English has 14 different spellings for the sh sound. Throughout history, the spelling of English words hasn’t changed as much as their sounds have. For example, people once pronounced the k in knife and the gh in right. We no longer say these letters, but we’ve kept the old spelling. English also tends to hold on to the spelling of words it borrows from other languages.

The most striking examples of differences between spelling and pronunciation in English are the six different pronunciations of ough. Say these words aloud: bough, cough, thorough, thought, through, and rough. Some spellings have lasted from a time when the gh sound was pronounced in English. The English language is unusual in the way it borrows and grows. New words are constantly being introduced. The word “to google” is a new word that means “to do a fast Internet search”. It comes from the widely used Internet search engine, Google.







Text 54

Many nations around the world have been influenced by British history and culture. With each passing year, English comes closer to being a world language for all educated people, as Latin once was. The prominence of English can be traced to the spread of the British Empire during the last three centuries. In the early 20th century, a quarter of the world’s people and a quarter of the world’s land surface were controlled in some way by Britain. Some parts of the world received substantial numbers of British emigrants and developed into what were called daughter nations. These colonies eventually became self-governing areas called dominions. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand fit this pattern. For a long time India was the most important colony in the British Empire, but after a long anti-colonial struggle with Britain, independent India today is the world’s most populous democracy. The British Empire once included substantial portions of southern, western, and eastern Africa; important areas in Asia, such as Hong Kong; a few holdings in America; and a large number of island in the Pacific.





Text 55

Music – along with drama and dance – is one of the performing arts. Its history runs further into the past than written language, but because it was not written down or recorded, nearly all music is lost to us.

Today music is everywhere. So it was many centuries ago. When man first began to notice surroundings, there was a kind of music already there. And then when he wanted to express great joy, when he wanted to jump and shout and somehow express what he felt, he felt music in his being, perhaps before he was able to express it.

Eventually man learned to sing, and this was the first man-made music. The first songs ever sung were love songs. Now we can’t imagine our lives without music. No special knowledge is required to listen to music, but much study is required to become a performer. All great musicians combined talent and hard work to become really famous.









Text 56

Architecture, as you know, is the art and science of planning, designing and constructing buildings. It is also a particular style in which a building is constructed – Gothic or Baroque for example. We can also speak about the architecture of New York, Moscow or London. Different cities look different due to their architecture, which gives them individuality.

But can we always recognize beauty when we see it? And is beauty a universal phenomenon never changed? What is more important for buildings – to be beautiful or to be functional? To answer these we should remember that architecture is not all about beauty: the graceful lines of buildings, perfect proportions and elegant decoration. It is also about people and their comfort, because buildings are constructed for use. When we speak about architecture we mainly think of big cities, cities with their numerous problems – pollution and overpopulation, heavy traffic and alienation, fast tempo of living and nearly bearable stress city dwellers have. Yet many people believe that “there is only in cities all that life can afford”.





Text 57

Devon is a large county in the south-west of England. Agriculture and fishing have always been important parts of the local economy, but it is tourism these days which is the main source of income. Nearly 5 million people visit the area each year, many of them coming to enjoy Devon’s beaches. Apart from the beaches, Devon is also well known for its beautiful countryside and old, traditional cottages. Many coastal towns in Britain have suffered as more and more people go abroad on holiday.

However, on the south Devon coast, resort towns such as Brixham and Torquay are enjoying new life as the English Riviera, offering mild weather and sandy beaches. Another reason for its popularity is that it’s possible to get to Devon from London in a short time by car. Two motorways, the M4 and the M5, connect the capital to Devon and in just four or five hours Londoners can be enjoying a cream tea or a relaxing country walk.







Text 58

In 122 AD, the Roman Empire stretched across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In Britain, it reached to the far north of England. However, many Scottish tribes resisted the Romans. So, in that year, Emperor Hadrian decided to build a huge wall across the island in order to keep them out. The wall ran all the way across England, from what is now Carlisle in the west to Newcastle in the east – 73 miles in total.

It was built by Roman soldiers, and was a useful way of keeping them busy. Local people also benefited, since the soldiers and craftsmen working on the wall needed to buy supplies which were under Roman control at the time. It took six years to build and was a very clear symbol of the strength of the Romans. Today, this wall is known as Hadrian’s Wall. It’s still possible to see its parts, although most of it has disappeared. The Romans built forts along the wall for the men to live in and some of these buildings have survived. The best example is the fort at Chesters House on the River Tyne.







Text 59

Hamburgers are one of the most popular kinds of fast food in the world today. The name, however, can be misleading, as the burger in a hamburger is made of beef rather than ham. Although the name “hamburger” almost certainly comes from the town Hamburg in Germany, the history of the hamburger is unclear.

There was a popular dish in Hamburg several hundred years ago which was basically a roast pork sandwich. It’s possible that, in time, that became the hamburger as we know it today. However, the town of Seymour in Wisconsin in the USA is just one of several other places that claim to have created the concept. Their story goes back to 1885, when a man called Charlie Nagreen tried to sell meat balls at a county fair. They weren’t popular, though, as customers had difficulty eating them while walking. Nagreen came up with the idea of flattening out the meat balls and putting them in a bread roll. He called this meat sandwich a “hamburger”. Why he chose that name is unclear, and it seems likely that he was not actually the first to use it.



Text 60

High in the mountains of Peru can be found the ruins of the city of Machu Picchu. Built in around 1440, it was inhabited for nearly a hundred years and then was forgotten until it was rediscovered in 1911. What is the story behind this amazing “lost city”?

It was once lined in by a people called the Incas. The Incas started in the twelfth century AD as a small group of people who built a city called Qosqo. From the middle of the fifteenth century onwards, the Incas began to take control of other areas. They built a large empire, which included the modern-day countries of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia and parts of Argentina, Chile and Colombia. They had a very developed society and were expert builders, engineers, artists and farmers. Then, in 1532, the Spanish arrived in South America. This was the one reason why the Incas never grew further as a civilization and why they disappeared.





Text 61

Birmingham is England’s second city. It has always had a good supply of water and the easy access to coal and iron meant that it became an important industrial centre. Today, heavy industry is less important to Birmingham. Other parts of the local economy, such as shopping and tourism, now provide jobs and an income for many people.

One of the highlights of the year is the Birmingham Carnival. This takes place one day in August and includes music, dancing and food. It is a great opportunity to find out about the many different cultures that make up modern-day Birmingham. The city has Chinese, Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities, all with their own cultural traditions.

A great place to visit in the local area is Aston Hall. Completed in 1635, the hall contains examples of furniture and paintings from different historical periods. Every two years, you can attend “Aston Hall by Candlelight”, when the house is lit by candles and actors recreate a 17th century Christmas.





Text 62

What time is it? To answer that question today, all we have to do is look at a watch or clock. It wasn’t always that simple, however. For thousands of years, people have wanted an accurate way of telling the time, apart from looking at the position of the sun.

We know that the ancient Egyptians had sundials, which required sunlight to work. It is thought they also had a way of measuring time using running water. The ancient Chinese also developed non-mechanical ways to measure the passing of time. The first mechanical clock appeared around the 9th century. This didn’t have hands as modern clocks do, but rang a bell to tell the time. The first reasonably accurate clocks were developed in Italy in the 13th century. Unlike the modern clocks they didn’t tell the time to the nearest minute; rather, they announced when an hour had passed. Table clocks became popular in the 1500s. They usually only had one hand, which had four possible positions each hour, allowing you to tell the time to the nearest fifteen minutes.





Text 63

Today many people, including children and teenagers, are overweight or obese. It is extremely dangerous to their health because carrying extra weight puts them at risk of developing many diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. New weight loss diets are constantly coming out, making it difficult to determine which diet is the right one for your personal needs and body type.

People should consult a doctor or a nutrition expert before starting to lose weight. The doctor can give advice about which diets will suit your personal health needs, and which diets to avoid. According to doctors, the best diets promote slow and steady weight loss. One should remember that a healthy diet plan should lower your caloric intake, but shouldn’t lower vitamins, minerals or protein. Diets that do not contain a sufficient amount of nutrients can cause fatigue, irritability and a lack of energy together with such eating disorders as anorexia or bulimia and weaken the body’s immune system. Remember that a diet will help you to lose weight, but healthy weight loss results from both diet and exercise.





Text 64

Nowadays most people are concerned about the food they eat because it’s closely connected with the way they look and feel. Food is essential to your body which is continually wasting and requires new energy. That’s why the food you eat should be taken with due regard to the exercise and waste of the body.

Today more and more people try to avoid fast food and food which contains chemicals, additives and GM ingredients. They want their food to be healthy and low in fat, sugar and calories. However, those who try to eliminate fat completely are wrong because we need fat to live. What we have to do is to cut down on sugar, salt and saturated fats found in red meat, butter, chocolate, cheese and many prepared foods.

We should eat more fruit and vegetables which are necessary for maintaining a healthy body. Scientists say that if we want to stay healthy, we should eat five different portions of fruit and vegetables every day. Besides, we should eat more nuts, seeds, olives and oily fish because they contain unprocessed fats.





Text 65

Different people have different attitudes towards shopping. Some of them find it enjoyable, while others think it’s just a waste of time and money. Some people love shopping no matter what they’re buying, some enjoy it on occasion, and others don’t like going shopping at all.

Quite a lot of people say that shopping has become a stress-relieving activity for them. As a result, when they’re in a bad mood, they go to the store and end up with a lot of things they don’t need. People who are addicted to shopping are called shopaholics. Such people love shopping because it makes them feel happier and takes their mind off their problems. Shopaholics can’t control their urge to shop. It’s very difficult for them to walk away from something they want to buy even if they can’t afford it. People who are addicted to shopping say that the act of buying things gives them a high like a drug. So shopaholism isn’t like gambling, smoking, and alcohol or drug abuse.





Text 66

Different people have different attitudes towards shopping. Some of them find it enjoyable, while others think it’s just a waste of time and money. Some people love shopping no matter what they’re buying, some enjoy it on occasion, and others don’t like going shopping at all.

Quite a lot of people say that shopping has become a stress-relieving activity for them. As a result, when they’re in a bad mood, they go to the store and end up with a lot of things they don’t need. People who are addicted to shopping are called shopaholics. Such people love shopping because it makes them feel happier and takes their mind off their problems. Shopaholics can’t control their urge to shop. It’s very difficult for them to walk away from something they want to buy even if they can’t afford it. People who are addicted to shopping say that the act of buying things gives them a high like a drug. So shopaholism isn’t like gambling, smoking, and alcohol or drug abuse.




Text 67

Most teenagers want to stand out in a crowd. They dye their hair bright red or purple, wear baggy clothes and bright makeup or put on shoes on enormous platform. Teenagers often protest against society or the older generation and they try to wear things which help them show their individuality and express their ideas about life.

Some styles can surprise and even shock people. For instance, gothic fashion includes dark clothes, black fingernails and dyed black hair. Goths sometimes have piercing and wear symbols such a Christian cross or an Egyptian ankh. Punks wear razor blades and safety pins instead of earrings, style their hair to stand in spikes and adorn their clothes with different symbols. Heavy metal fashion means wearing studded belts and bracelets, spiked gauntlets and combat boots. Hip hop fashion includes sports wear, basketball and skateboarding shoes, leather jackets, hoodies, sleeveless shirts, saggy pants and crop tops for girls. Hip hop artists are setting new trends in hip hop fashion such as tattoos covering their bodies from head to toe or the asymmetrical hair cut.





Text 68

Today many town dwellers want to leave crowded cities with their noise, garbage and traffic jams and to return to a slower pace of life. They go to the country where they benefit from the peace and quiet and breathe clean air. In the countryside people are surrounded by the beauty of nature and they can grow fruit and vegetables, keep animals and enjoy walking, gardening and other simple pleasures of rural life. Life in the countryside is quiet, peaceful and healthy and it is especially good for those who want to be close to nature.

Of course life in the countryside has its drawbacks as well. Some people find rural life rather boring. They say that in the country people often lack basic infrastructure such as roads, railways, or banks and amenities such as shops, cinemas, parks, or restaurants. In the countryside the level of unemployment may be rather high and those who are looking for work often have to go to big cities. In rural areas people often lack educational, medical, transportation and recreational facilities.





Text 69

It’s rather difficult to imagine our lives without money. Money serves many important purposes that allow us to function as a society. We buy and sell different things, receive salaries, fees, pensions or subsidies, send money orders and exchange currency. We earn money, save it for a rainy day, borrow and lend it and consider money to be the best present.

Many boys and girls learn to earn money at an early age. Most children and teenagers are given pocket money. Thus parents teach them how to budget and save. Also, pocket money can help children become responsible and independent. But pocket money can cause a number of problems, too. For example, if children have less pocket money than their friends, they may feel depressed or they may be tempted to steal. Unfortunately, many parents give pocket money to their children as compensation for not spending enough time with them.

Today many people abuse money. Still, some people can use it for noble goals such as for helping the poor and needy.





Text 70

Overpopulation is the condition of having more people than can live in comfort, happiness and health on Earth. It can result from an increase in births, a decline in mortality rates and an increase in immigration. Today people live longer because of better medical care and nutrition. At the present time the Earth accommodates more than 6 billion people.

Overpopulation may cause a lot of problems. The world’s population increases faster than the food supply. Each year millions of deaths occur from malnutrition and starvation, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. If the world’s population continues growing, it’ll be very difficult to produce enough food and goods. More people need more water, minerals, shelter and clothes.

Population growth is another reason for environmental problems. Global warming, pollution and deforestation are aggravated by population expansion. The more people there are on Earth, the more they pollute. They drive cars, throw away litter, cut down forests, use electricity, build roads and plants and consume natural resources. What is more, overpopulation may result in unemployment, poverty, elevated crime rate and conflict over scarce resources.





Text 71

Youth is a very complicated period when young people are undergoing the painful transition from childhood to adulthood. There are many reasons why a teenager’s behavior may become violent. Young people are facing psychological problems that may cause aggression and lead to the rejection of adult values and experiences or to rebellion. Wishing to prove their maturity and independence young people may commit various offences, or run away from home and use violence against their peers. Sometimes young people’s antisocial behavior disappears with the transition to adulthood. But some of them create criminal groups or become involved in the activities of adult criminal groups.

Young people’s lives and behavior are greatly influenced by many factors: their family, friends, neighborhood, adults and peers as well as by the social, economic, political and cultural conditions prevailing in the country they live in. many children and adolescents suffer from parental neglect, humiliation, child abuse or domestic violence. If a teenager’s parents are hostile to each other, to their children or family members, the teenager is likely to exhibit similar behavior.







Text 72

Some people think self-education is not very effective. Others say that it’s only productive way of learning. They say people can learn without schools and teachers. You can read books, speak to educated people or spend a lot of time in libraries or on educational websites. You can surf the Net and find textbooks and training films that can be downloaded for free.

Self-education has a lot of advantages. Firstly, self-taught people are not dependent on others for knowledge. Secondly, self-education can help you be anything you want to be or do anything you want to do. Finally, it usually costs nothing and it doesn’t require a fixed lifestyle.

However, some people depend on teachers and tutors for guidance. They want someone to help them and to show them the way to acquire information and knowledge. Others admit they are too lazy to choose self-education. Indeed, most people need somebody who will constantly make them study and encourage their efforts to learn. Self-education is for those who are able to motivate and discipline themselves.







Text 73

The rapidly changing world of technology influences our everyday lives. Technology has afforded people all around the world flexibility and conveniences in their everyday communication and overall lifestyle. Nowadays we cannot do without such gadgets as mobile phones, PCs, laptops, iPods or GPS. Most people believe technologies facilitate their lives and save much time. For instance, electric equipment, such as microwave ovens, washing machines or vacuum cleaners, makes housework much easier.

Computers help us to do the most difficult sums and to store and process large amounts of data. Laptops make the job mobile when necessary. The Internet has revolutionized the way people live and work. We do business, communicate and purchase different things through the Internet. Many people say the technological boom of personal computers and the proliferation of the Internet helped them find a good job or gave them an opportunity to work from home. The telephone and the Internet have facilitated communication. The cell phone gives us access to people that we want to contact instantly.



Text 74

Education has been undergoing major changes since the advent of the Internet. The Internet gives students an opportunity to take classes from a college or university anywhere at any time through online education programmes. Students can complete assignments to suit their own timetable and save money on travel expenses. However, students cannot enjoy person-to-person interaction with their professors and peers. Besides, online education can be a major challenge for those who find it difficult to manage their time wisely.

The Internet provides teachers and students with instant access to information on thousands of different topics and allows them to meet people from all over the world at the click of a button. Students use the World Wide Web for doing homework assignments or projects. The Internet has made the information search much faster. Also, the Internet gives schoolchildren a unique opportunity to take virtual trips without leaving their classroom. They can go to an online museum or virtual zoo. They can see the sights of world-famous cities and travel to other countries and continents.





Text 75

Everyone’s family has problems every once in a while. A family consists of people of different ages, personalities and tastes. When children, parents and grandparents live together, there is often lack of understanding between older people and younger people, which is called the generation gap. Poor communication and discipline problems are common in many families. Intolerance of differences can lead to innumerable arguments and quarrels.

Today many people work so hard and want to succeed so much that they move their families to the background. They feel emotional and physical strain which causes tension and irritability and may result in depression and nervous breakdowns. Other family problems include constant battles between siblings, separation or divorce, financial difficulties, drug or alcohol problems, domestic violence and many others. Sometimes even joyful events such as a new baby, a wedding, a new house or a job promotion can disrupt a family with unexpected consequences.





Text 76

Radio comprises music, talk shows and commercials. Before the advent of cable television, DVDs and the Internet, radio was the dominant form of entertainment at home. Because radio uses only sound, it lets us perform other activities at the same time, such as driving or working. Radio is the cheapest form of electronic entertainment in terms of cost and energy use. Besides, it can amuse a large crowd, while other activities, such as reading magazine or browsing the Internet usually provide entertainment for only one person. The disadvantage of radio is that it cannot transmit images, video or text, which makes it less entertaining than visual video forms.

Television displays moving images as well as sound. It provides entertainment for millions of people. It informs us of the latest international and local events, gives us an opportunity to “travel” all over the world and helps us enrich our experience. Television spreads cultural values, gives us food for thought and introduces us to new ideas and activities.





Text 77

What is success? People define this notion in many different ways. Success may mean the achievement of what one wants or intends, a high position in one’s job, course, sport, in society, etc. Some people believe that success is connected with the amount of money they earn, the house they live in and the car they drive. But is success really measured in dollars and is it just making money and being well-known? In reality success means finding personal satisfaction in your work and loving what you do. It is a sense of personal accomplishment and self-satisfaction. If people want to be successful, they should have a goal to strive for and constantly raise the bar. When their ambition is reached, another one is created. The meaning of success may vary at different points of life.

Of course not everybody manages to succeed in life. All successful businessmen, actors or musicians face a number of challenges at the beginning of their career. They have hard times overcoming many difficulties but they don’t give up. At last their persistence leads to success. One must be hard-working, patient, strong-willed, persevering and self-confident if one wants to be successful. Success always goes hand in hand with hard work and great efforts and very often one faces a lot of obstacles, troubles, disappointment and failure on the way to success.

По всем возникающим вопросам и с пожеланиями вы можете писать на мой почтовый ящик:

tatyana-english9031@yandex.ru

Буду рада помочь.



Хочется выразить искреннюю благодарность авторам таких учебников и интернет-статей, которыми я воспользовалась при написании моей книги:



Список использованных источников

  1. Репетитор по английскому/ И.П. Агабекян. – Изд. 6-е, стер. – Ростов н/Д: Феникс, 2012. – 318 с. – (Абитуриент).

  2. Enjoy English-1: Учебник англ.яз. для нач. шк. / М.З.Биболетова, Н.В.Добрынина, Е.А.Ленская. – Обнинск: Титул, 2005. – 144 с.: ил.

  3. Бонк Н.А., Котий Г.А., Лукьянова Н.А. Учебник английского языка. В 2-х ч. Часть 1. – М.: ДеКонт – ГИС, 1997. 637[3] с.

  4. ЕГЭ. Английский язык. Грамматика и лексика/Л.И.Романова. – 2-е изд. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2009. – 192 с. – (Домашний репетитор. Подготовка к ЕГЭ).

  5. Авербух М.Д. Учебное пособие “Практическая фонетика”. Изд-е 2 – исправленное и дополненное. Издательство ПГЛУ. Пятигорск. 2001

  6. Английский язык: 2-й год обучения. 6 кл.: учеб. для общеобразоват. учреждений./ О.В. Афанасьева, И.В.Михеева. – 9-е изд., стереотип. – М.: Дрофа, 2011. – 252, [4] с.: ил. – (Новый курс английского языка для российских школ)

  7. Открывая мир с английским языком. Говорение. Speaking. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва. – Москва: “Интеллект-Центр”, 2013. – 168 с.


  1. Открывая мир с английским языком. Современные темы для обсуждения. Готовимся к ЕГЭ./С.А.Юнёва. – Москва: “Интеллект-Центр”, 2012. – 136 с.



Список использованных интернет-источников

  1. http://infourok.ru/trenirovochnye_uprazhneniya_dlya_otrabotki_pravil_chteniya_angliyskogo_yazyka-455643.htm

  2. http://www.the-world.ru/english-language/lingvistika/phonetics/635-fonetika-anglijskogo-yazyka

  3. http://engblog.ru/pronunciation-rules-consonants

  4. http://englishstory.ru/raznochtenie-angliyskih-soglasnyih-bukv-c-g.html

  5. http://www.english-usa.ru/urok2.html

  6. http://www.alleng.ru/mybook/2read/pt1.htm

  7. http://greatstudy.ru/udarenie-v-anglijskom-yazyke/

  8. http://www.vevivi.ru/best/Sravnitelnyi-analiz-britanskogo-i-amerikanskogo-variantov-angliiskogo-yazyka-ref196008.html

  9. http://liteka.ru/post/58

  10. http://www.the-world.ru/english-language/lingvistika/phonetics/635-fonetika-anglijskogo-yazyka










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Краткое описание документа:

Данная книга была создана для подготовки учащихся 10-11 классов к успешной сдачи устной части экзамена по английскому языку (а именно, первого задания на выразительное чтение предложенного отрывка текста). 

Данная разработка очень подробно рассматривает все аспекты, которые учитываются экспертами при проверке первого задания: произношение, мелодика речи (тоны), паузы и ударение. Здесь также представлены после каждого раздела упражнения для закрепления теоретического материала. В конце после всей теории даны тексты для практической отработки изученного материала. 

В дополнение к некоторым упражнениям, связанным с мелодикой я постаралась сделать записи для более наглядного примера.

Желаю удачи в подготовке и также я искренне желаю Вам и Вашим детям заработать Ваш 1 БАЛЛ!!!

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Дата добавления 08.05.2015
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