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"Книга для домашнего чтения для студентов 2-3 курсов строительных специальностей"

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Министерство образования и науки Республика Бурятия

Государственное автономное образовательное учреждение среднего профессионального образования Республики Бурятия

«Техникум строительства и городского хозяйства»













HOME READING


Учебно-методическое пособие


Книга для домашнего чтения

для студентов 2-3 курсов

строительных специальностей





Составитель: Донгидон А.В.





Улан-Удэ

2014



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


ВВЕДЕНИЕ………………………………………………………………………..3


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ

ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ……………………………………………….4


ТЕКСТ 1 The House…………………………………………………………...…..6

ТЕКСТ 2 From History of building……………………………………………….8

ТЕКСТ 3 Basic Principles of Fire Protection and Design against Fire…………...9

ТЕКСТ 4 Some Building Professions………………………………………….....10

ТЕКСТ 5 Construction Work………………………………………………….….11

ТЕКСТ 6 Parts of a Building……………………………………………………..12

ТЕКСТ 7 Brick……………………………………………………………………13

ТЕКСТ 8 Prestressed Concrete……………………………………………….......14

ТЕКСТ 9 The Art of Architecture…………………………………………….......15

ТЕКСТ 10 Egyptian Pyramids…………………………………………………....16

ТЕКСТ 11 Acquiring Land for Industrial Construction……………………….....17

ТЕКСТ 12 Allocation of Land for Construction Project………………………....18

ТЕКСТ 13 Systems of Heating…………………………………………………...19

ТЕКСТ 14 Some Building Professions……………………………….…………..20

ТЕКСТ 15 Fire Research Work and Training of Fire Safety Engineers…….…....21


СЛОВАРЬ………………………………………………………………………...23


СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ……………………………..29



















ВВЕДЕНИЕ


Владение иностранным языком необходимо специалисту любого профиля, так как способствует поиску, извлечению и широкому практическому использованию информации из разных источников, обеспечивает возможность контактов с зарубежными коллегами. Процесс изучения иностранного языка чрезвычайно развивает мыслительные способности, тренирует память, расширяет кругозор.

Пособие представляет собой практикум по английскому языку, целью которого является развитие у студентов 2-3 курсов навыков чтения и перевода, извлечения необходимой информации и передачи ее на английском языке, овладение всеми четырьмя видами речевой деятельности: говорением, аудированием, письмом, чтением.

Задачами данного практикума является овладение английским языком на базовом уровне студентами техникума, как средством формирования и формулирования мыслей студентов, для общения в области строительной отрасли.

Практикум состоит из 15 адаптированных текстов на строительные темы. У каждого текста есть соответствующий лексический минимум и задание на понимание общего смысла текста, методические указания, словарь строительных терминов.

Практикум предназначен для самостоятельного домашнего чтения и способствует совершенствованию навыков чтения, расширению лексического запаса, опосредованному повторению и закреплению грамматического материала и способствует развитию у студентов аналитической, коммуникативной, метапредметной компетенций.


















Методические указания по организации дополнительного чтения

Дополнительное чтение литературы на английском языке способствует расширению словарного запаса, совершенствованию техники чтения, автоматизации навыка работы со словарем. Для понимания и расширения лексического запаса, при работе над текстами, следует все незнакомые слова и выражения выписывать в отдельную тетрадь-словарь в исходной (словарной) форме.

Для удобства пользования рекомендуется указывать номер страницы, с которой выписаны слова. Можно пронумеровать абзацы и отмечать те слова, которые студент отбирает для заучивания.

Для совершенствования навыков чтения нужно научиться быстро читать, и применять все виды чтения, а именно:


- для получения самого общего представления, о чем данный текст (skimming) читать со скоростью 160-180 слов в минуту,

- для более подробного ознакомления (fast reading) – 120-140 слов в минуту,

для поиска конкретной информации (scanning) – не ниже 200 слов в минуту.

Изучающее чтение (reading for detail), которое предполагает полное понимание и пользование при необходимости словарем, - 80-90 слов в минуту.

Эти виды чтения обычно используются при работе с газетными, журнальными или статьями, техническими текстами по специальности.


Правила быстрого чтения:


1. Прежде чем читать текст, прочтите задание, которое определяет вид чтения.

2. Не возвращайтесь глазами к уже прочитанному (многим на первом этапе помогает закрывать прочитанное листом бумаги), не «застревайте» на отдельных незнакомых словах и старайтесь понять основное содержание или в случае поискового чтения – быстро пробегать глазами текст, отсекая все, что не касается искомой информации.

3. Сосредоточьте внимание на первом и последнем предложениях абзаца, которые чаще всего отражают основные мысли автора.

4. При просмотровом чтении следите за развитием основной мысли по ключевым словам, которые часто повторяются в тексте.


Совет при самоконтроле:


- при проверке понимания текста старайтесь выполнить задание, не заглядывая в текст.



Рекомендуется следующий алгоритм действий:

  1. Прочти текст

  2. Выпиши незнакомые слова в тетрадь-словарь

  3. Заучи слова из тетради

  4. Ответь на вопросы самоконтроля в конце текста (см.совет)

  5. Для работы с текстом воспользуйся словарем в конце пособия

  6. Обратитесь к списку использованной литературы для получения дополнительной информации.





































TEXT 1

The House

Man has always been a builder. The kind of house he built depended upon the climate, upon his enemies, and upon the building materials at hand. The first houses in many parts of the world were made of wood, for in those days the greater part of the earth was covered with forests. Men tied together the tops of several trees and covered them with the skins of animals or with leaves and grass. So, a tent or hut, was the first house of the primitive people who lived where there was much wood.

In other regions the most convenient building material was stone. Men began building houses out of stone very long ago. Although they were built without cement, the remains of a few of them still exist.

It appears that the most ancient homes on the territory of Russia were earthen houses. One such home was discovered near Voronezh in 1927. It consisted of a shallow hole of oval shape. The floor was covered with limestone slabs. The roof had been conical and stood on poles covered by branches or animal skins. Such dwelling existed in that part of the country in the Upper Paleolithic Period (from 40,000 to 12,000 years ago).

The ancient Egyptians built very simple houses, by present standards. Having dried the bricks in the sun, they put up four walls, and above these they placed a flat roof. The roof was flat because there was very little rain in Egypt. Although their buildings were simple in construction, the Egyptian art of building was very beautiful. Their pyramids and monuments, sphinxes and palaces arouse our admiration to this day. An important part in the history of building has been played by the column, and it was ancient Egypt that gave the world its first lesson in the art of making columns. The Greeks learned much from Egypt. But they didn’t borrow the flat roof. They built the slanting roof because there was much rain in their country. The Greeks made the roof slant in two directions from the middle. They also improved on Egypt’s columns and soon became the teachers of the world in column making.

The Romans, in turn, learned much from the Greeks. First of all they borrowed the slanting roof and the columns. But they added the arch, thus adding much strength and beauty to their buildings.

In ancient Russia architecture flourished for the first time in Kiev Russ. Unfortunately only a few of the church buildings of that period have remained, among them the famous Cathedral of St. Sophia, the cornerstone of which was laid in 1037 to commemorate the victory over Pechenegs. The churches of that time were strong buildings with thick walls and small windows. They often had to serve as fortresses against enemy invasions. During the Second World War the finest ancient architectural monuments were destroyed and great effort has got into restoring them.

In the Middle Ages in Europe numerous wars between different nations caused great damages to the houses of crowded Medieval towns. Therefore many monarchs and nobles built castles as a form of defence. Those castles had very strong walls, narrow windows and projecting fortifications.

The Renaissance, which was a European movement, lasted roughly from the 14th to the 17th century. During this Period, art and sciences underwent great changes. In architecture these changes were marked by a return to classical forms and proportions of ancient Roman buildings.

Buildings of the 19th century are characterized by the use of new materials and by a great diversity of architectural styles. From the end of the 18th century iron and steel became widely used as alternatives to wood, for by that time many countries experienced shortage of this material. Later the Industrial Revolution brought mass-production of building parts which were manufactured at a factory and then simply assembled at a site.

The 20th century is notable for widespread use of steel – reinforced concrete. Huge reinforced concrete units manufactured in heated factory premises are brought to the site which becomes something like an assembly shop. This technique has many advantages over other building methods. First of all it cuts the labour needed for building by 60 to 70 % and extends the building season what is very important for countries where winter lasts for many months. Furthermore the duration of building is greatly cut. All this makes the building process less expensive and much less laborious.

Architecture of the 20th century is characterized by very high buildings – particularly skyscrapers – and by great diversity of styles which completely differ from those in the past


Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What were the first houses made of?

2. The ancient Egyptians built very complex houses, didn't they?

3. Where did Russian architecture flourish for the first time?

4. What are buildings of the 19-th century characterized by?

5. When did reinforced concrete appear?

6. What is the main peculiarity of the 20-th century buildings?



















TEXT 2

From history of building

Many thousands of years ago there were no houses such as people live in today. They made their houses in trees and caves. Later people began to build houses of different materials such as mud, wood or stones.

Then people found out that bricks made of mud and dried in the hot sunshine became as hard as stones in ancient Egypt especially people learned the use of these sun-dried mud bricks. Some of their buildings are still standing after several thousands of years.

The ancient Egyptians discovered how to cut stone for building purposes. They erected temples, palaces and huge tombs. The greatest tomb is the stone pyramid of Khufu, King of Egypt.

The ancient Greeks also understood the art of building with cut stone, and their buildings were beautiful as well as useful. They often used pillars, partly for supporting the roofs and partly for decoration.

During the last hundred years many new methods of building have been discovered. One of the most recent discoveries is the usefulness of steel as a building material.

Nowadays when it is necessary to have a very tall building, the frame of it is first built in steel and then the building is completed in concrete. Concrete is an artificial kind of stone, much cheaper than brick or natural stone and much stronger than they are.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). What did the ancient Egyptians discover?

b). Who used pillars for decoration?

c). What is cheaper concrete or natural stone?

d). Where did people live when there were no houses?

e). What is the one of the most recent discoveries?




















TEXT 3

Basic Principles of Fire Protection and Design against Fire

Fire hazard in buildings may be divided into internal, in the building itself, and external, arising from a fire in adjoining property. The internal hazard may be subdivided into danger to occupants of the building and damage to structure and contents. The basic principles of fire protection may be set out under three broad headings:

- every building should be designed and constructed to reduce the risk of ignition of any part of the building and the spread of fire inside the building, or into or out of it;

- the parts of the building are required to withstand the effects of fire long enough to avoid any structural collapse that would increase the risk of fire spread;

- the safety of the occupants within the building.

The fire safety problem concerns with some fire precautions. These precautions must be considered at an early stage of the building design process. There are some essential principles of fire design:

- the building should be constructed from building materials that will not contribute to the spread of fire;

- there should be adequate provision to prevent an arson attack;

- the building should be fitted with an appropriate automatic fire-alarm system;

- all fire-protection systems should be installed by adequately trained specialists.

Fire safety engineer has two duties: to protect the lives and to safeguard property within the building.


Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How is fire hazard in buildings divided?

2. What are the basic principles of fire protection?

3. When must fire precautions be considered?

4. Building materials shouldn’t contribute to the spread of fire, should they?

5. What should the building be fitted with?

6. What are the duties of fire safety engineer?















TEXT 4

Some building professions

A man, who has been an apprentice for some years in building trade and has therefore enough skill to be considered a skilled worker at his trade, is called tradesman or craftsman.

He may be carpenter-and-joiner, bricklayer, mason, plumber, electrician, house painter, floor-and-wall tiller, plasterer, paper-hanger, hot water fitter and so on.

Bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork, lays and joints salt glazed stoneware drains, chimney pots, manhole frames and fireplaces.

Carpenter is a man who erects wood frames, fits joints, fixes wood floors, stairs and window frames, asbestos heating and other wallboard. He builds and dismantles wood or metal formwork.

Joiner is a man who makes joinery and works mainly with the bench of wood which has been cut and shaped by the machinists. His work is finer than the carpenter’s, much of it being highly finished in a joining shop which is not exposed to weather.

Mason is a stone worker or stone setter. In Scotland and the USA a bricklayer is also a mason. A fixer or a fixer-mason or a builder mason is a mason who sets prepared stones in wall, whether the stone be on the facing or to the full wall thickness.

Plasterer is a tradesman who may be a fibrous plasterer or a plasterer in solid work. The latter lays successive coats of plaster or rendering and fixes fibrous plaster such as mould cornices and wall pattern. He can use a horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster...


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). What does carpenter do?

b). Who makes joinery?

c). Who is a stone worker?

d). Who is called a craftsman?

e). Is bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork?












TEXT 5


Construction work


The buildings erected in nowadays can be divided into two general classes: buildings for housing and industrial buildings.

As far as materials concerned buildings can be divided into brick, wood, concrete and steel buildings. Brick is an artificial building material made of clay, which is then burnt for hardening. Natural stone (rubble masonry) is used for footing and foundations for external walls carrying the load. Buildings made of stone are durable and fire resisting.

The floors divide a building into stories. They may be either of timber or, in brick buildings, of reinforced concrete details of big and small sizes.

The coverings or upper parts of buildings meant to keep out of rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to weather are called roofs. They tie the walls and give the construction strength and firmness.

Every building must have a beautiful appearance. The interior should be planned to suit the requirements of the occupants while the exterior must be simple with nothing superfluous.

Every building should be provided with water, electricity, ventilation and heating systems. The water supply and sewerage systems are called plumbing.

Careful consideration must be given to the amount of money which is going to the amount of money which is going to be spent in building the house. An estimate depending upon the design of the building must be calculated after which work on the building can be started.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). How are the buildings classified nowadays?

b). Is brick an artificial building material?

c). Are buildings made of stone durable and fire resisting?

d). What parts divide a building into stories?

e). When must an estimate be calculated?













TEXT 6


Parts of a building

Almost everyone saw the construction of a building and followed its progress with interest. First the excavation is dug for a basement, then the foundation walls below ground level are constructed, after this the framework is erected and clothed with various finishing materials and protected by several coats of paint.

The part upon which the stability of the structure depends is the framework. It is intended for safety carrying the loads imposed. The floors, walls, roofs and other parts of the building must be carefully designed and proportioned.

The architect or designer must decide what the size of the walls, the floors, the beams, the girders and the parts which make up the framework will be and how they will be placed and arranged.

Here are the main parts of a building and their functions.

Foundations serve to keep the walls and floors from contact with the soil, to guard them against the action of frost to prevent them from sinking and settling which cause cracks in walls and uneven floors.

Floors divide the building into stories. They may be either of timber or of a fire-resisting material. Walls are built to enclose areas and carry the weight of floors and roofs. The walls may be solid or hollow. The materials used for the walls construction can be brick, stone, concrete and other natural or artificial materials.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). What is dug first when building a house?

b). What is the framework protected with?

c). Which does the stability of the structure depend upon?

d). Do floors divide the building into stories?

e). What materials can be used for the walls construction?















TEXT 7


Brick


A brick is best described as “a building unit”. It may be made of burnt clay, of concrete, of mortar or of a composition of sawdust and other materials; in shape it is a rectangular solid and its weight is from 6 ½ to 9 lb.

The shape and convenient size of a brick enables a man to grip it with an easy confidence and, because of this, brick building has been popular for many hundreds of years. The hand of the average man is large enough to take a brick and he is able to handle more than 500 bricks in an eight-hour working day.

It is necessary, therefore, for the “would-be” bricklayer to practice handling a brick until he can control it with complete mastery and until he is able to place it into any desired position.

By placing the hand over the surface of the upper part of a brick and by placing the thumb centrally down the face of the brick with the first joints of the fingers on the opposite face, the brick may be securely handled. It is necessary to protect the thumb and the fingers with leather pads which also prevent the skin from rough bricks.

The sides of a brick are called: top bed, bottom bed, heading face and stretching face. The section between headers and stretchers is called frog.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). What can a brick be made of?

b). What is its shape and weight?

c). How many bricks is an average man able to handle in an 8-hour working day?

d). What are the sides of a brick?

e). Is it necessary to protect the thumb and the fingers with leather pads?

















TEXT 8


Prestressed concrete


Prestressed concrete is not a new material. Its successful use has been developed rapidly during the last two decades, chiefly because steel of a more suitable character has been produced.

Concrete is strong in compression but weak when used for tensile stresses.

If, therefore, we consider a beam made of plain concrete, and spanning a certain distance, it will at once be realized that the beam’s own weight will cause the beam to “sag” or bend. This sagging at once puts the lower edge of the beam in tension, and if the cross-sectional area is small, causes it to break, especially if the span is relatively large.

If, on the other hand, we use a beam of similar cross-section, but incorporate steel bars in the lower portion, the steel will resist the tensile stress derived from the sag of the beam, and thus assist in preventing it from breaking.

In prestressed concrete steel is not used as reinforcement, but as a means of producing a suitable compressive stress in the concrete. Therefore any beam (or member) made of prestressed concrete is permanently under compression, and is consequently devoid of cracks – under normal loading, or so long as the “elastic limit” is not exceeded.

Prestressed concrete is not only used for beams but is now employed extensively for columns, pipes, and cylindrical water-towers, storage tanks, etc.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). Is prestressed concrete a new material?

b). Why has its successful use developed rapidly during the last two decades?

c). Is steel used as reinforcement in prestressed concrete?

d). Prestressed concrete is not only used for beams, is it?

e). Where is it also used?















TEXT 9


The art of architecture


Architecture is the art and the technique of building, employed to fulfill the practical and expensive requirements of civilized people. Almost every settled society that possesses the techniques for building produces architecture. It is necessary in all but the simplest cultures; without it, man is confined to a primitive struggle with the elements; with it, he has not only a defense against the natural environment but also the benefits of a human environment, a prerequisite for and a symbol of the development of civilized institutions.

The characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures are (1) the suitability of the work to use by human beings in general and the adaptability of it to particular human activities; (2) the stability and permanence of the work’s construction; and (3) the communication of experience and ideas through its form.

All these conditions must be met in architecture. The second is a constant, while the first and the third vary in relative importance according to the social function of buildings. If the function is chiefly utilitarian, as in a factory, communication is of less importance. If the function is chiefly expressive, as in a monumental tomb, utility is a minor concern. In some buildings such as churches and city halls, utility and communication may be of equal importance.


Ответьте на вопросы:

a). What is architecture?

b). Does every settled society produce architecture?

c). What are the characteristics that distinguish a work of architecture from other man-made structures?

d). Is the second condition constant?

e). When is communication of less importance?















TEXT 10


Egyptian Pyramids


Architecture is the art which makes buildings beautiful to look at as well as useful. There have been many different styles or kinds of architecture in the past and there are many different styles today in different parts of the world.

Houses are built for dwelling; large buildings are constructed for industrial purposes; theatres, museums, public and scientific institutions are built for cultural activities of the people. Primitive stone structures, huts and tents are the earliest types of human dwellings. The oldest monuments which are met within architecture are the colossal pyramids of Egypt most of which were constructed about 6,000 years ago. The pyramids are large triangular buildings which were placed over the tombs of Egyptian kings. The best known of the pyramids are a group of three built at Giza south of Cairo. The largest of these is 482 feet high. The country was rich in hard and durable stone, but poor in timber and metal, so that the main material used for construction was granite, and this was the reason for the durability of the pyramids. Large blocks of stone were transported over long distances by land and water, and placed into position with the help of the most primitive equipment.


Ответьте на вопросы

1. What are the purposes of different buildings?

2. Primitive stone structures were the earliest types of dwellings, weren’t they?

3. What are the oldest monuments met within architecture?

4. What kind of buildings are pyramids?

5. Was timber or stone the main material used for construction in Egypt?

6. How were large blocks of stone transported and placed?

















TEXT 11


Acquiring Land for Industrial Construction


Recent trends in the real estate market show that increasing numbers of manufacturers are looking to invest in the construction of new production plants throughout Russia. It is essential that the whole development process should be well planned and professionally executed. The following points are especially important to consider. Sufficient land plots for industrial construction may be difficult to find in the vicinity of city centers and available transport routes. According to zoning regulations, developers can either build production plants on land that is designated for industrial purposes or obtain a permit to use agricultural land. However, the transfer from the agricultural to industrial category may take up to one year. It is forbidden to start construction on agricultural land regardless of any rights to ownership or unofficial permits.

The developer must familiarize himself with the development plan of the area where the land plot is located in order to confirm that no urban development is planned.

Legal due diligence of the site is absolutely necessary to verify the land title, especially in light of privatization issues. During construction, the investor typically has the right to only a short-term lease (1-3-5 years); however, after the title to the property is officially registered, then the investor may sign a long-term lease (for a maximum of 49 years).



Ответьте на вопросы

1. What do recent trends in the real estate market show?

2. What should be well planned and professionally executed?

3. Is it difficult to find sufficient land plots for industrial construction?

4. How much time may the transfer from the agricultural to industrial category

take?

5. Why must the developer familiarize himself with the development plan?

6. What is absolutely necessary to verify the land title?

7. Does the investor have the right to any term lease?











TEXT 12


Allocation of Land for Construction Project


Land plots owned by the state or municipalities can be allocated for construction projects under title or lease. Authorities may not refuse to issue land titles to individuals or companies for construction purposes, unless: the land plots are withdrawn from the market; a federal law prohibits land privatization; or the land plots are reserved for state or municipal needs.

Land can be allocated for construction purposes with or without prior consent for the location of the facilities to be constructed. Prior consent for the location of the facilities to be constructed is required for land plots to be leased out to commercial organizations. Prior consent is normally required for investment in industrial projects in or outside populated areas in cases where no town-planning documentation has been drawn up in relation to such territories and no rules are in effect for land use and development. In such cases, determination of the location of the industrial facilities to be constructed requires thorough analysis of the environmental, architectural, sanitary and other implications of the planned construction.

Municipalities in urban and rural areas are required to notify their inhabitants of possible or forthcoming construction projects. In cases where the location of buildings, structures or facilities affects the common interests of local residents, decisions to proceed with the projects are to be made taking the opinion of the local population into account. Under the Land Code of the Russian Federation, land may be sold or leased out for construction projects by competitive bidding only, with no requirement for prior consent for the location of the facilities to be constructed. This procedure is used primarily in cities where the executive authorities or municipalities allocate land plots by tender or auction. Each land plot must be properly prepared for sale or lease. Prior consent is not required either in cases where a construction project is to be located in a city or a rural populated area in accordance with town-planning documents and rules regarding land use and development.




Ответьте на вопросы

1. How can land plots be allocated?

2. May authorities refuse to issue land titles?

3. When is prior consent for the location of the facilities required?

4. What does determination of the location of the industrial facilities require?

5. Is the opinion of the local population taken into account?

6. In what cases isn't prior consent required?




TEXT 13


Systems of Heating


The number of different heating systems is almost unlimited. Various systems of heating are being used at the present day. They are: direct, indirect, water heating systems, steam heating systems and so on. A direct system is that in which the fuel is consumed in the room. It is being used for intermittent heating, or for heating isolated rooms. An indirect system is that in which the fuel is consumed outside the room. In this system the heat is being conveyed to the room by a medium such as steam or hot water. Indirect system is being used for the continuous heating of a number of rooms or large buildings. It begins from one central source and that’s why it is named Central Heating. Steam heating systems are classified according to the following features: piping arrangement, pressure or vacuum conditions, obtained in operation and method of returning condensate to the boiler.

A steam heating system is known as a one-piping and two-pipe system. In one-piping system a single main supplies steam to the heating unit and conveys condensate from it. In two-pipe system each heating unit is being provided with two piping connections. Steam and condensate flow in separate branches. Steam heating systems are classified as high pressure, low pressure (vapour) and vacuum systems. This classification depends on the pressure

conditions under which the system is designed to operate. The system is known as a gravity return system. Condensate is returned to the boiler by gravity. All heating units are being elevated above the water line of the boiler.


Ответьте на вопросы

1. What systems of heating are used at the present day?

2. What heating is the direct system used for?

3. What heating is the indirect system used for?

4. How are steam heating systems classified?














TEXT 14


Some Building Professions


Builders construct and reconstruct residential and industrial buildings, bridges, schools, museums, theatres, hospitals. They build tunnels, power stations, dams. A lot of people work together to make the house. Civil engineers and architects have a common aim – to create something which will serve the purpose for which it is built. A man who designs buildings and makes the plans for them is called an architect. He has to think not only of what he wants the building to look like when it is finished, but also what it is to be used for. He must not forget the sort of material to be used in the building. This may be stone, brick, wood or steel and concrete. An architect must know many facts concerning materials, for example what loads different materials may safely carry - so that there will be no danger of his building falling down. He must need some knowledge of sculpture, painting, design, geography, city planning, etc. The structure an architect creates should give us pleasure, a sense of beauty.

Civil engineer specializes in the building of industrial or dwelling construction. He is engaged to prepare the plans and specifications and to supervise the construction of the project. Civil engineer must provide people with all modern conveniences, such as running water, gas, electricity, central heating, while a sanitary engineer protects the quality of water by purifying it. Builders assemble a house from prefabricated units which are delivered to the construction site. A welder then welds the units to hold them in place. The men of many other building professions take part in building construction. The stonemason builds the foundation. The bricklayer builds the walls and other parts made of bricks. The carpenter erects door and window frames. The plaster makes walls and ceilings smooth. The slater is employed for putting slates or tiles on the roof. The plumber lays pipes to carry clean water into the house and waste water away to the sewers. The electrician runs electric wires and the glazier puts glass in the window frames.


Ответьте на вопросы

1. What do builders construct and reconstruct?

2. What aim do civil engineers and architects have?

3. Who is called an architect?

4. An architect must know many facts concerning materials, mustn't he?

5. What are the functions of civil engineer?








TEXT 15


Fire Research Work and Training of Fire Safety Engineers


The first fire testing station was built in 1935 at Boreham Wood to test elements of structure. This has grown into the present Fire Research Station as the result of cooperation between the government and the insurance industry. Now the station is one of the largest and best equipped in the world.

Aim of the Station is to improve methods of preventing and fighting fire. Work is divided into five sections. In the operational research and intelligence section, details of fires are coded and analyzed. The “ignition and growth of fire” section studies the physical aspects of ignition, combustion and heat transfer.

Another section studies building materials under fire conditions to obtain basic data for the design and protection of buildings. Tests are carried out on structural elements. Results are used in advice given to architects, builders, structural engineers and local authorities on appropriate types of structure and materials.

Two more sections deal with industrial fires and explosions involving gases, vapors, dusts and unstable materials not classified as explosives and the properties and methods of application of extinguishing agents – water, foam and dry powder.

Tests are also conducted on such equipment as automatic sprinkler systems, fire extinguishers and automatic fire alarms.

In our country we can say we have the oldest Higher Educational centre in the world training safety engineers.

The Moscow Institute of Fire Safety has accumulated a great deal of experience in training specialists for fire protection at different levels.

There are the following faculties at the institute: the faculty of fire safety engineers on the base of the general secondary education with five years period of training; the faculty of fire safety engineers on the base of the secondary specialized education with three years period of education; the faculty of training of leading staff officers with year and a half period of training; a refresher course for fire safety engineers with one month period of education; a post graduate and doctorate courses.

About 130 professors and teachers well-known in Russia and in other countries have been working at the institute. Annually about 550 specialists in Fire

Protection of the highest qualification graduate from the institute, the total number of such specialists is more than 18000.

About 2000 fire safety engineers and researchers for fire service of Bulgaria,

Hungary, Viet-Nam, Germany, Guinea, Cuba, Moldavia, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and other countries used to study at the institute. The Moscow Institute of Fire Safety keeps in touch with many Fire Safety Educational Establishments.


Ответьте на вопросы

1. What was the aim of the first fire testing station and what is its purpose

nowadays?

2. How is work organized in the operational research and intelligence section?

3. What section studies the physical aspects of ignition and combustion?

4. Who are the results important for?

5. Who does the Institute of Fire Safety train?







































СЛОВАРЬ



abrasive – adj. – абразивный, шлифующий

absorb – v. – впитывать, поглощать

access – n. – доступ, проход, подход

access road – подъездная дорога

actual structure – полноразмерное сооружение

add – v. – прибавлять, присоединять

adhesive – n. – клеящий материал, склеивающее вещество, клей

adjacent – adj. – смежный, примыкающий, соседний

advanced – adj. – передовой

aggregate – n. – заполнитель

anchor – n. – анкер, опора

ground and rock anchors – анкерные крепления

appear – v. – появляться, казаться, производить впечатление

application – n. – заявление, применение, применимость

appreciation – n. – оценка, определение

artificial – adj. – искусственный

assemble – v. –собирать, монтировать

assessment – n. – оценка

assist – v. – помогать, содействовать

associate – n. – партнер, компаньон

associated company – дочерняя компания

attachment – n. – насадка, дополнительное приспособление

attempt – v. – пытаться, пробовать

to award a contract – заключить подрядный договор

basement – n. – подвальный этаж, цоколь

beam – n. – балка, брус, перекладина

bid – n. – контрактное предложение, заявка, тендер

bidder – n. – претендент, подрядчик

lowest responsible bidder – наиболее выгодный подрядчик

bill – n. – счет

a bill of quantity – сметный расчет

bit – n. – бур, сверло

brace – n. – коловорот

brick – n. – кирпич

build – v. – строить, сооружать

building construction – жилищное строительство

building engineering – строительство гражданских зданий


cabinetmakern. – краснодеревщик

ceramics – pl. – керамические изделия

civil engineer – гражданский инженер-строитель

clothe – v. – покрывать

coat – n. – зд. – слой

collapse – n. – обвал, разрушение, осадка

structural collapse – обрушение сооружения

collect – v. – собирать

complete –1. аdj. – полный, законченный

2. v. – заканчивать, завершать

complexity – n. – сложность, запутанность

compression – n. – сжатие

concrete – n. бетон

construction – n. – строительство, строение, здание, сборка, монтаж

construction engineering – строительная промышленность, гражданское

строительство

construction management – управление строительством (руководство)

construction manager – руководитель строительства, заказчик-застройщик

constructor – n. – конструктор, строитель

consume – v. – потреблять

contaminate – v. – загрязнять

contemporary – adj. – современный

general contractor – главный подрядчик

corporationn. – корпорация

costn. – стоимость

cost control – контроль за расходами

cost engineer – инженер-сметчик

cost estimating – калькуляция (оценка) стоимости

costs – pl. – затраты, расходы

course – n. – курс, направление, ход, зд. – поле

cover – v. – покрывать, накрывать

crack – n. – трещина

craft – n. – ручная работа, профессия, ремесло

сraftworker – n. – ремесленник

create – v. – создавать, творить, разрабатывать

critical – n. – критический, критичный, решающий, крайне важный

customer – n. – клиент

cut – v. – резать, обрезать

dam – n. – дамба

data – n. – данные, сведения

deal (with) – v. – иметь дело (с)

decision – n. решение

degree – n. – степень

advanced degree – ученая степень

graduate degree – ученая степень

department – n. – отдел, управление

description – n. – описание

design – 1. n. – проект, план, расчет, замысел

design team – коллектив дизайнеров, проектная группа

2. v. – рассчитывать, составлять план, проектировать, предназначать

design-build – проектирование-строительство

designer – n. – специалист по дизайну

develop – v. – развивать, совершенствовать

developer – n. – застройщик

dig – v. – рыть, копать

disposal – n. – размещение, расположение

draft – v. – составлять план

drawing – n. – чертеж

drill – n. – сверлить

drill press – сверлильный станок

drive in – v. – загонять, вбивать

due – adv. – точно, прямо, по причине

durability – n. – прочность, стойкость, долговечность, длительность

dwelling – n. – жилище, жилой дом

dye – n. – красящее вещество

earthwork – n. – сооружение

earthwork project – земляной объект

effect – n. – последствие

either – pron. indef. – один из двух, тот или другой, и тот и другой, оба

element – n. зд. – элемент конструкции

embankment – n. – береговой вал, набережная

emerge – v. – появляться, выходить

emerging discipline – развивающаяся отрасль (область знаний)

emphasis – n. – акцент, особое значение

to place more emphasis – придавать большее значение

empirical – adj. – эмпирический

employee – n. – служащий, работающий по найму

enable – v. – позволить, давать возможность

enamel – n. – эмаль

enclose – v. – замыкать, ограждать

encounter – v. – зд. – сталкиваться

encourage – v. – поощрять, поддерживать

end up – v. зд. – приступать

enforce – v. – придавать силу, обеспечивать соблюдение

engineering – n. – инженерное искусство, строительство, технологии

civil engineering – проектирование и строительство гражданских

объектов, гражданское строительство, строительство зданий и сооружений,

строительное искусство

green engineering – озеленение

sanitary engineering – проектирование санитарно-технических

сооружений

public health engineering – технология обустройства здоровья общества

environmental health engineering – технология санитарного состояния

окружающей среды

ensure – v. – обеспечивать, гарантировать, позаботиться о чем-либо

entail – v. – увлекать за собой, вызывать

entry-level – n. – начальный уровень, класс должности при зачислении на работу

entry-level job – работа в течение испытательного срока, ученичество

environment – n. – окружение, окружающая обстановка

environmental engineer – специалист по охране окружающей среды,

гидротехник

environmental engineering – технические средства и методы охраны

окружающей среды

equation – n. – уравнение, соотношение

erect – v. – возводить

essence – n. – сущность

in essence – по существу

establish – v. – учреждать, создавать, устанавливать

estimate – v. – рассчитывать, составлять смету

evaluate – v. – оценивать, определять количество

eventually – adv. – в конечном счете, в конце концов, со временем

excavation – n. – выемка грунта, котлован

execution – n. – выполнение, осуществление

expansion – n. – расширение

expertise – n. – специальные знания

exposure – n. – подвергание, воздействие

fasten – n. – закрепить, скреплять

fastener – n. – крепежное средство

feature – n. – деталь, элемент

follow – v. – следовать, идти за, придерживаться

forensic – adj. – судебный

forensic engineering – криминалистика

framework n. – каркас

freeway – n. – скоростная автострада, автомагистраль

frequently – adv. часто

frost – n. – мороз

furniture – n. – мебель

garnet – n. – гранат

gather – v. – собирать

general – adj. главный, общий

in general – вообще

generally – adv. – обычно, как правило, в целом

generic – adj. – общий

generic sense – общий смысл

geotechnical engineer – инженер-геотехнолог

girder – n. главная балка, балочная ферма

glossy – adj. глянцевый

glue – v. – приклеивать, склеивать

goal – n. – цель, задача

government – n. – правительство

grade – n. – марка, сорт, качество

grade requirement – маркировка

graduate – n. – выпускник

graduate study – аспирантура

grain – n. – зерно, структура, строение, текстура

gravel – n. – гравий

guard – v. – охранять, защищать

hand – n. – рука

at hand – находящийся под рукой, близкий

harbor – n. – порт, гавань

harden – v. – застывать, твердеть

hardware store – строительный магазин

hazardous – adj. – опасный

heavy – adj. – тяжелый, крупный

heavy construction – строительство крупных инженерных сооружений

highway – n. – автомагистраль, основная дорога

hinge – n. – петля, шарнир

hobby shop – магазин товаров для хобби

hollow – adj. – пустой, полый, пустотелый

hot – adj. – горячий

hot mix asphalt concrete – горячий асфальтобетон

human – n. – человек

hydration – n. – гидратация

hydraulic – adj. – гидравлический

hydraulic engineer – инженер водного хозяйства, гидротехник

impediment – n. – препятствие, помеха

impose – v. – налагать

include – n. – включать, содержать в себе

individual – n. зд. собственник

industry – n. – промышленность, индустрия, отрасль промышленности

infrastructure – n. – инфраструктура, инженерные коммуникации

infrastructure management – управление объектами капитального

строительства

insert – v. – вставлять, вкладывать, – зд. – вкручивать

inside – adj. – внутренний

inspection – n. – осмотр

insurance – adj. – страховой

integrate – v. – интегрировать, объединять, присоединять

integrity – n. – целостность

intend – v. – предназначить, намереваться

interaction – n. – взаимодействие

interior – n. – интерьер

involve – v. – подразумевать, предполагать, вовлекать, включать

irrigation – n. – мелиорация

issue – v. – выпускать, издавать, выходить

item – n. – предмет, изделие

job – n. – работа

joint – n. – стык, шов

jurisdiction – n. – сфера полномочий, компетенция

laborer – n. – разнорабочий, подсобный рабочий

lacquer – n. – лак

legal – adj. – правовой

life-cycle – n. – срок действия, продолжительность

likely – adv. – вероятно

more likely – вероятнее всего

liquid – n. – жидкость

list – n. – список

local – adj. – местный

logistical – adj. – относящийся к материально-техническому обеспечению

производства

logistical operations – ход поставок

lumber – n. – пиломатериалы, строевой лес

lumber retail store – магазин для розничной продажи пиломатериалов

maintenance – n. – обслуживание, поддержка

maker – n. – деятель

management – n. управление

construction management company – заказчик-застройщик

management principles – управленческие принципы

man-made – adj. – искусственный

manner – n. метод, способ

in a manner – в некотором смысле

manufacture – v. – производить

mass transit – общественный транспорт

Master of Engineering – магистр технических наук

materials procurement – материальное снабжение, закупка материалов

matter – v. – иметь значение

mechanical – adj. – механический

mechanical engineer – инженер-проектировщик

meet – v. – удовлетворять, соответствовать, отвечать

mix – v. – смешивать

modern – adj. – современный

monitor – v. – контролировать, проверять

mortgage – n. – заклад, ипотека

municipal – adj. – городской

need – v. – нуждаться

novice – n. – новичок, неопытный специалист

observation – n. – наблюдение

obtain – v. – получать, доставать, приобретать

occupancy – n. – зд. – ввод в эксплуатацию

occur – v. – случаться, происходить

offering – n. – предложение

once – adv. – когда-то, однажды

operate – v. – действовать

order – v. – заказывать

outcome – n. – результат, последствие

overall – adj. – полный, всеобщий, генеральный

overlap – v. – совпадать

overpass – n. – переход, эстакада

overrun – n. – перерасход, превышение стоимости

cost overrun – перерасход финансовых средств

oversee – v. – надзирать, наблюдать

oversight – n. – контроль, наблюдение

own – v. – владеть

oxide – n. – оксид

partly – adv. – частично

partner – v. – устанавливать партнерские отношения

pass – v. – идти, проходить, передавать

pattern – n. – образец, зд. – структура

pavement – n. – тротуар

paymaster – n. заказчик

permit – n. – разрешение

person – n. – человек, личность

in person – лично

petroleum – n. – нефть, нефтепродукт

phase – n. – стадия, период, этап

placement – n. – укладка

plan – v. – планировать

plant – n. – завод

plate – n. – пластина, лист

pole – n. – столб

polish – v. – полировать, шлифовать

pollutant – n. – загрязняющее вещество

polymer – n. – полимер

polymethylmethacrylate – n. – полиметилметакрилат

power – 1. n. – сила, мощность, власть

2. v. – поддерживать, приводить в действие

power plant – электростанция

power company – энергетическая компания

prevention – n. – предотвращение, предохранение, предупреждение

prior – adj. – предшествующий, прежний

prioritize – v. – устанавливать очередность

project – n. – проект, объект

building project – объект строительства

entire project – весь объект (строительства)

project structure – схема проекта, структура проекта

proper – adj. – соответствующий, правильный, подходящий

property – n. – недвижимость, собственность, свойство

property owner – владелец (собственник) объекта недвижимости

real property – объект недвижимости

propose – v. – предлагать

protect – v. – защищать, охранять

protection – n. – защита, охрана

prove – v. – доказывать

prove competence – доказывать профессиональное соответствие

rank – v. – классифицировать

range – v. – помещать, ставить в ряд, в строй, классифицировать

react – v. – реагировать, противодействовать

reduce – v. – сокращать, снижать

refer to – v. – иметь отношение, касаться

regard – v. – принимать во внимание, считаться

relate – v. – связывать

be related – быть связанным, состоять в родстве

related – adj. – родственный

relationship – n. – взаимоотношение, связь

remediation – n. – восстановление

remove – v. – удалять, устранять

renovation – n. – реконструкция, переделка

repairs – ремонтные работы

require – v. – нуждаться, требовать

residential – adj. – жилой, жилищный

resin – n. – смола

response – n. – ответ, реакция

retaining wall – подпорная стенка

review – n. – пересмотр

reviewer – n. – эксперт

rough – adj. – грубый, твердый

routine – n. – рутина, установленный порядок

routine task – стандартная задача

safe – adj. – безопасный

safety – n. – безопасность

salary – n. – заработная плата

sanding – n. – шлифование, зачистка шлифовальной шкуркой

portable belt sander – ленточно-шлифовальная ручная машина

vibrating sander – вибрационный шлифовальный станок

sanitary – adj. – санитарный, гигиенический

schedule – v. – составлять график

screw – n. – винт, болт, шуруп

screwdriver – n. – отвертка

section – n. – секция, деталь, часть

seek – v. – добиваться, стремиться, просить, обращаться, требовать

seepage – n. – инфильтрация

service – n. – обслуживание, услуга

set – v. – устанавливать, размещать

settle – v. – садиться, осаждаться

sewage – n. – нечистоты

sewer – n . – канализация

shape – v. – придавать форму

shellac – n. – шеллак

shiny – adj. – блестящий

shopping – n. – посещение магазина с целью покупки

one-stop shopping – зд. – универсальный

sink – v. – тонуть, затонуть

site – n. – местоположение, участок

job site – строительная площадка, рабочее место

site development – застройка

site grading – организация рельефа

size – n. – размер

skill – n. – навык, знание, мастерство

slope – n. – откос

smooth – adj. – гладкий, ровный

soil – n. – почва, грунт

soil dynamics – динамика грунта

soil mechanics – механика грунта

solid – adj. – твердотельный, цельный

solidify – v. – затвердевать, густеть, застывать

solve – v. – решать

specialty – n. – особенность, специальность, отличительная черта

speciality – n. – специальность

specify – v. – точно определять, подробно описывать

stability – n. – стабильность

stain – n. – морилка

standpoint – n. – точка зрения

stay – v. – оставаться

stone – n. – камень

strength – n. – устойчивость

stress – n. – усилие, натяжение

structure – n. – конструкция, структура, здание, сооружение, строение

structural engineer – инженер-строитель

substitute – v. – заменять

supervisor – n. – наблюдатель

supply – v. – снабжать

water supply – водоснабжение

surface – n. – поверхность

survey – n. – обследование, инспектирование

surveyor – n. эксперт

Professional Land Surveyor – землеустроитель, геодезист

quantity surveyor – нормировщик

sustainability – n. – жизнеспособность, устойчивость, устойчивое развитие

swell – v. – набухать

take on – v. – брать, принимать

team – n. – команда, коллектив, группа

temporary – adj. – временный

tend – v. – иметь тенденцию, склонность; вести в определенном направлении

tensile – adj. – растяжимый, эластичный

term – n. – термин

tertiary – adj. – вузовское, высшее

thermal – adj. – термический

throughout – prep. – на всем протяжении

thus – conj. – таким образом, так, поэтому

timber – adj. – древесина, строительный пиломатериал

tool – n. – инструмент, орудие труда

tool mark – след от режущего инструмента

translation – n. перевод

translation into reality – претворение в жизнь

treatment – n. – обработка


trend – n. – направление, тенденция

trim – n. – отделка, обкладка, обрамление

typically – adv. – как правило, обычно

umbrella – adj. – зд. – обобщающий

undertake – v. – предпринимать, брать на себя

undesirable – adj. – нежелательный

uneven – adj. – неровный, бугристый

usage – n. – употребление

use – n. – употребление, применение

variety – n. – разнообразие

varnish – n. – олифа, глазурь

vary – v. – менять, разнообразить

vibrant – adj. – живой, полный жизни

warranty – n. – поручительство, гарантия

waste – n. – отходы

wastewater – n. – сточные воды

wax – n. – воск

way – n. – путь, способ

in an orderly way – организованно, организованным порядком

withstand – v. – выдерживать

wooden – adj. – деревянный

woodworker(s) – n. – плотник, столяр, (деревообработчики)

woodworking – n. – деревообработка

workability – n. – применимость, годность

workshop – n. – мастерская

xylolite – n. – ксилолит, дерево-камень

yardage – n. – длина, площадь, объем

zeroize – v. – обнулять, сбрасывать



















СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ


1. Английский язык для строительных вузов: учеб. пособие / под ред. З.Е.

Фоминой / Воронеж. гос. арх.- строит. ун-т. – Воронеж, 2006. – Ч.1. –

147 с.

2. Английский язык для строительных вузов: учеб. пособие / под ред. З.Е.

Фоминой / Воронеж. гос. арх.- строит. ун-т. - Воронеж, 2006. – Ч.2. –

165 с.

3. Андрианова, Л.Н. Учебник английского языка для заочных технических

вузов и факультетов / Л.Н. Андрианова, Н.Ю. Багрова, Э.В. Ершова. -

М.: Высшая школа, 2000.- 350 с.

4. Людвигова, Е.В. Учебник английского языка для вузов заочного

обучения / Е.В. Людвигова [и др.]. - М.: Высшая школа, 1985. – 320 с.

5. Новицкая, Т.М. Практическая грамматика английского языка / Т.М.

Новицкая, Н.Д. Кучин. - М.: Высшая школа, 1993 г.-190 с.

6. Полякова, Т.Ю. Английский язык для инженеров / Т.Ю. Полякова [и

др.]. - М.: Высшая школа, 2000.- 250 с.

7. Пронина, Р.Ф. Учебник английского языка для заочных технических

вузов / Р.Ф. Пронина, Л.Н. Сорокина. - М.: Высшая школа, 1998. –

240 с.

8. Англо-русский политехнический словарь / под ред. А.Е. Чернухина. –

М: Русский язык, 1998. – 1098 с.
















Краткое описание документа:

Пособие представляет собой практикум по английскому языку, целью которого является развитие у студентов 2-3 курсов навыков чтения и перевода, извлечения необходимой информации и передачи ее на английском языке, овладение всеми четырьмя видами речевой деятельности: говорением, аудированием, письмом, чтением. Задачами данного практикума является овладение английским языком на базовом уровне студентами техникума, как средством формирования и формулирования мыслей студентов, для общения в области строительной отрасли.

Практикум состоит из 15 адаптированных текстов на строительные темы. У каждого текста есть соответствующий лексический минимум и задание на понимание общего смысла текста, методические указания, словарь строительных терминов.

Практикум предназначен для самостоятельного домашнего чтения и способствует совершенствованию навыков чтения, расширению лексического запаса, опосредованному повторению  и закреплению грамматического материала и способствует развитию у студентов аналитической, коммуникативной, метапредметной ком­петенций.

Автор
Дата добавления 18.11.2014
Раздел Иностранные языки
Подраздел Другие методич. материалы
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